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Cloud computing refers to the use and access of multiple server-based computational resources via a digital network (WAN, Internet connection using the World Wide Web, etc.). Cloud users may access the server resources using a computer, netbook, pad computer, smart phone, or other device. In cloud computing, applications are provided and managed by the cloud server and data is also stored remotely in the cloud configuration. Users do not download and install applications on their own device or computer; all processing and storage is maintained by the cloud server. The on-line services may be offered from a cloud provider or by a private organization.

Cloud Computing visual diagram

Contents
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1 Introduction 2 How it works 3 Technical description 4 Risks

3 Legal o 13. With the development of local area networks (LAN) and more networking capabilities.              5 Overview o 5. the client- .9 Sustainability and siting o 13.5 Open standards o 13.5 Infrastructure o 8.7 Availability and performance o 13.3 Application o 8.4 Combined cloud o 9.8 Data usage o 13.1 Comparisons o 5.4 Open source o 13.6 Security o 13.1 Provider o 8.3 Hybrid cloud and hybrid IT delivery o 9.1 Public cloud o 9.2 Compliance o 13.6 Server 9 Deployment models o 9.2 Characteristics o 5.2 Client o 8.5 Private cloud 10 Cloud engineering 11 Cloud storage 12 The Intercloud 13 Issues o 13.1 Privacy o 13.2 Community cloud o 9. A user bought a license for each application from a software vendor and obtained the right to install the application on one computer system.4 Platform o 8.3 Architecture 6 History 7 Key characteristics (from a business perspective) 8 Layers o 8.10 Use by crackers 14 Research 15 Criticism of the term 16 See also 17 References 18 External links [edit] Introduction In the past computing tasks such as word processing were not possible without the installation of application software on a user's computer.

employees and company departments are bringing a flood of consumer technology into the workplace. Private companies may also make use of their own customized cloud email servers for their employees. smart phone. Typically. A common shorthand for a provided cloud computing service (or even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is "The Cloud". and bookmarks.[citation needed] In many companies. or other computing resource with a web browser (or other approved access route) to access a cloud system via the World Wide Web. Centralization gives cloud service providers complete control over the versions of the browser-based applications provided to clients. using web browser protocols. Data is centrally stored. Hotmail. in client-server computing.server model of computing was born. The cloud provides server-based applications and all data services to the user. even though resultant application data files (such as word processing documents) were stored centrally on the data servers. Cloud computing differs from the classic client-server model by providing applications from a server that are executed and managed by a client's web browser. Cloud computing technologies are regarded by some analysts as a technological evolution. The term "software as a service" (SaaS) is sometimes used to describe application programs offered through cloud computing. which removes the need for version upgrades or license management on individual client computing devices. a network-friendly client version of the application was required on client computers which utilized the client system's memory and CPU for processing. Desktop applications that connect to internethost email providers may be considered cloud applications. with output displayed on the client device. which raises legal compliance and security concerns for the corporation which may be relieved by cloud computing. pictures. Multiple user licenses of an application were purchased for use by many users on a network. and files in a cloud-computing environment. such as their employer. Typically the user will log into the cloud at a service provider or private company. Memory allocated to the client system's web browser is used to make the application data appear on the . Cloud computing works on a clientserver basis. videos. for example. so the user does not need to carry a storage medium such as a DVD or thumb drive. applications.[2][3] Consumers now routinely use data-intensive applications driven by cloud technology that may have been previously unavailable due to cost and deployment complexity. pad computer. If the user wishes to create a document using a word processor. including web-based Gmail. Users may remotely store and access personal files such as music. Any computer or web-friendly device connected to the Internet may access the same pool of computing power. the cloud provides a suitable application running on the server which displays work done by the user on the client web browser display. or Yahoo! email services. with no installed client version of an application required.[1] or may be seen as a marketing trap by others such as Richard Stallman.[citation needed] [edit] How it works A cloud user needs a client device such as a laptop or desktop computer. play games. or do word processing on a remote server. where server computers with enhanced capabilities and large storage devices could be used to host application services and data for a large workgroup.

These tasks might normally be difficult. but all computations and changes are recorded by the server. dependent on the speed of the Internet connection. speed and reliability as well as the processing speed of the client device. software. thus the client need not purchase expensive hardware or software to handle the task. Computation and storage is divided among the remote computers in order to handle large volumes of both. and Windows computers. and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols. data access. Cloud computing describes a new supplement. and final results including files created or altered are permanently stored on the cloud servers. or expensive for an individual user or a small company to accomplish. on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e. Performance of the cloud application is dependent upon the network access. applications. they work on multiple platforms.[4] Cloud computing provides computation. consumption.g. in order to make requests to and receive data from the cloud. such as netbooks. Smart phones. and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.. Since cloud services are web-based. A service provider may pool the processing power of multiple remote computers in a cloud to achieve routine tasks such as backing up of large amounts of data. storage. [edit] Technical description The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a concise and specific definition: Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient. servers. or computationally intensive work.[8] . or even a smartphone. networks. especially with limited computing resources and funds.[7] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if they were programs installed locally on their own computers. time consuming. The outcome of the processing task is returned to the client over the network. word processing. pads and tablet devices with Internet and World Wide Web access also provide cloud services to telecommuting and mobile users. Macintosh. Parallels to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid. designed with cloud computing in mind. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources[5][6] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet.client system display. With cloud computing. or a company network. with a connection to the Internet. hence the term "software as a service" (SaaS). including Linux. clients require only a simple computer.

which are accessed from a Web browser. The Cloud may appear as a single point of access for consumers' computing needs. in other cases.Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet. entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through shared data-centers. legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology such as Citrix XenApp. while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location.[9] . notable examples include the iTunes Store and the iOS App Store. while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service level agreements (SLAs). In some cases.

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