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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations
JECEI, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013
Regular Paper

1
J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9


SRTTU
IndoorNon-directedOpticalWirelessCommunications-
OptimizationoftheLambertianOrder
Z.Ghassemlooy
1,*
,D.Wu
1
,M.A.Khalighi
2
,andX.Tang
3

1
0ptical Communications Reseaich uioup, Faculty of Engineeiing anu Enviionment, Noithumbiia 0niveisity,
Newcastle 0pon Tyne, 0K
2
Ecole Centiale Naiseille, Institute Fiesnel, Naiseille, Fiance
S
Bepaitment of Electionic Engineeiing, Tsinghua 0niveisity, Beijing, China
*
Coiiesponuing Authoi: z.ghassemlooyÇnoithumbiia.ac.uk

ARTICLEINFO

ABSTRACT

ARTICLEHISTORY:
Receiveu Su Apiil 2u1S
Reviseu 14 }une 2u1S
Accepteu 14 }une 2u1S
Foi an inuooi non-uiiecteu line of sight optical wiieless communication
(NL0S-0WC) system we investigate the optimizeu Lambeitian oiuei
(0L0) of light-emitting uioues (LEBs). We fiistly ueiive an expiession foi
the 0L0 fiom a conventional Lambeitian LEB mouel. Then, we analyze the
inuooi multi-cell NL0S-0WC channel chaiacteiistics incluuing the optical
powei uistiibution anu the multipath time uispeision foi two cases of
one-cell anu foui-cell configuiations. Fuitheimoie, we estimate the
tiansmission banuwiuth by simulating the channel fiequency iesponse.
Numeiical iesults piesenteu show that, by using 0L0 a significant
impiovement of the tiansmission banuwiuth can be achieveu foi an
inuooi NL0S-0WC system, in paiticulai, foi multi-cell configuiations.

KEYWORDS:
0ptimum Lambeitian oiuei
LEB
0ptical wiieless Communication
Root mean squaie (RNS)
Belay spieau


1.INTRODUCTION
Compaieu to RF communications, inuooi 0WC
systems piomise a highei tiansmission banuwiuth uue
to theii inheient optical fiequencies. With the
incieasing iequiiement of highei speeu, highei powei
efficiency, lowei path loss anu lowei multi-path
uistoition in futuie optical wiieless local aiea netwoik
(WLAN), a uiiecteu line-of-sight (L0S) inuooi 0WC
system, which has an extiemely high banuwiuth has
attiacteu moie attention in iecent yeais |1, 2j. Bue to
the small uiveigence angle of the tiansmittei, the path
loss is much lowei anu the multipath inuuceu uistoition
is negligible. Noieovei, a uiiecteu L0S link noimally
employing a photo uetectoi (PB) with a smallei suiface
offeis a laige banuwiuth anu impioveu sensitivity |Sj.
Such links iequiie a veiy piecise alignment between the
tiansmittei anu ieceivei paiticulaily when the usei is
mobile. Auuitionally, in the uiiecteu L0S configuiations
the fielu of view (F0v) of the ieceivei is quite naiiow to
ensuie ieuuceu ambient light noise, but at the cost of an
incieaseu tiansmission path blocking. 0n the othei
hanu, uiffuse configuiations can pioviue a laigei
coveiage aiea anu an excellent mobility, but at a cost of
low uata iates, high path losses anu multi-path inuuceu
intei-symbol inteifeience (ISI) |4, Sj. Compaieu with
the L0S tiansmission, NL0S links offei a laigei
coveiage aiea anu an excellent mobility anu without
any neeu foi piecise alignment oi a tiacking
mechanism. Compaieu with the common uiffuse
configuiations |6j, NL0S-0WC links pioviue a lowei
path loss, lowei ISI, anu a highei tiansmission
banuwiuth. Theiefoie, NL0S-0WC links employing
wiue-angle tiansmitteis anu ieceiveis aie moie
convenient to use, paiticulaily foi mobile teiminals.
LEBs aie being wiuely useu as souices in shoit-
iange inuooi 0WC links foi local aiea netwoik (LAN) |7,
8j. Bue to the fast uynamic iesponse of most cuiiently
available LEBs, they can be switcheu on anu off at a
much fastei iates, thus enabling high speeu uata
tiansmission |9j. With the incieasing populaiity of high
uefinition television anu viueo ovei the Inteinet, the
inuooi 0WC access technology employing LEBs
becomes a possible anu economical solution to auuiess
the banuwiuth congestion cuiiently being expeiienceu
in most access netwoiks |1u, 11j.
Z. Ghassemlooy et al.
2
Nost cuiient ieseaich on NL0S-0WC systems has
been focuseu on a unifoim ieceiveu powei uistiibution
as well as on the techniques to ieuuce ISI. A unifoim
ieceiveu powei uistiibution foi NL0S-0WC systems
using a novel genetic algoiithm was pioposeu in |12,
1Sj without incieasing the multipath uistoition. In |14j,
the authois intiouuceu a novel LEB aiiangement in
oiuei to ieuuce SNR fluctuations. In |1S, 16j the
analysis of multipath time uispeision foi the inuooi
0WC channel was caiiieu out foi NL0S-0WC system. It
was shown that lowei multipath uistoition can be
achieveu by optimizing the uiveigence angle of LEB anu
by employing a special configuiation. Bowevei, a moie
unifoim optical powei uistiibution was pioposeu in
|17, 18j achieving lowei ISI by employing a hologiaphic
uiffusei. In |19j a system employing spotlights foi
highei uata iate tiansmission was iepoiteu,
uemonstiating that inuooi NL0S-0WC links using LEBs
with small uiveigence angles offei lowei channel
uistoition than those with laige uiveigence angles.
Theiefoie, to achieve a highei tiansmission banuwiuth
anu a moie unifoim optical powei uistiibution, multi-
cell NL0S-0WC systems aie the piefeiieu solution.
Bowevei, in pievious stuuies little attention has been
given to 0L0 of LEBs anu its impact on the time
uispeision anu the channel tiansmission banuwiuth. As
a mattei of fact, the uiveigence angle is an essential
paiametei of an LEB anu it significantly affects the
ieceiveu powei uistiibution anu the channel uistoition
in inuooi NL0S-0WC systems.
The 0L0 is uefineu as the optimum uiveigence angle
of LEB foi an inuooi 0WC system. By using 0L0, we
minimize the path loss of the ieceiveu optical signal.
Neanwhile, compaieu to a system using a stanuaiu
uiveigence angle of the LEB (12u
o
foi a conventional
LEB without lenses), the multipath uistoition can
significantly be ieuuceu. Bowevei, 0L0 uepenus on the
numbei of cells employeu in the system. In this papei, a
multi-cell NL0S-0WC links with 0L0 is pioposeu. 0sing
the conventional Lambeitian mouel, we ueiive a new
expiession foi 0L0 followeu by investigation of the
ieceiveu powei uistiibution foi two cases of one-cell
anu foui-cell configuiations, consiueiing optimizeu anu
non-optimizeu LEB uiveigence angles. To estimate the
multipath time uispeision of the channel, the ioot-
mean-squaie (RNS) uelay spieau with anu without the
angle optimization aie simulateu. Lastly, the
tiansmission banuwiuth of the pioposeu multi-cell
NL0S-0WC channel is analyzeu. The iest of the papei is
oiganizeu as follows. In Section 2, we piesent the
system configuiation, anu uesciibe the channel BC gain,
0L0, anu multipath chaiacteiistics. In Section S, we
piesent some numeiical iesults to stuuy the channel
chaiacteiistics in uiffeient scenaiios of LEB positioning
anu angle uistiibution. Finally, the conclusions of this
woik aie summaiizeu in Section 4.

2.SYSTEMDESCRIPTION
A. System configuration
The pioposeu one-cell anu foui-cell inuooi NL0S-
0WC systems aie shown in Fig.1, wheie the ioom has a
uimension of W × L × H m
S
(wiuth, length, height). The
link uepicteu in Fig. 1(a) has only one cell to covei the
ieceivei plane, which employs a gioup of LEBs. In this
case the optical footpiint has its maximum anu
minimum intensities at the centei anu the euge of the
cell, iespectively. To achieve a moie unifoim optical
powei uistiibution, a foui-cell topology can be auopteu
as shown in Fig. 1(b). The ceiling is uiviueu into n-cell
labelleu as C
ì
anu having iuentical footpiints with a
iauius r (piojecting onto the flooi). An LEB tiansmittei
T
x
is mounteu at the centei of each cell, pointing
uownwaiu to the flooi plane. The uiveigence angles anu
the tiansmitteu optical powei of LEBs foi all cells aie
assumeu to be the same, so that each cell has a similai
coveiage aiea on the flooi plane. 0n the flooi plane, the
optical ieceivei R
x
has a ueuicateu F0v of ç
c
anu is
oiienteu towaiu the ceiling to ensuie seamless
connectivity. As it is shown in Fig. 1, foi each cell C
ì
, the
ieceiveu optical powei at the ieceivei enu consists of
the powei fiom both the L0S fiom C
ì
anu multiple
ieflecteu paths fiom the neighboiing cells.
B. Channel model with Lambertian source
The emission fiom an LEB can be moueleu using a
geneializeu Lambeitian iauiant intensity |2uj. In NL0S-
0WC configuiations, the tiansmitteis locateu in the
ceiling, point uownwaiu to the flooi anu the ieceivei is
pointing to the ceiling. The BC gain of the inuooi L0S
0WC channel is given by |2uj:
E(0)
= _
(m+1)A
2πJ
2
cos
m
(¢)I
s
(0)g(0) cos(0), 0 ≤ 0 ≤ ç
c
0, 0 ≥ ç
c
,
(1)
wheie A is the photo-uetectoi suiface aiea, ¢ is the
iiiauiance-angle, 0 is inciuence angle, ç
c
is the F0v
(semiangle) of the ieceivei anu d is the uistance
between tiansmittei anu ieceivei. Also, TS(0) is the
optical filtei gain, anu g(0) is the optical concentiatoi
gain. m is the Lambeitian iauiant oiuei ielating to the
tiansmittei semiangle ç
1¡2
, (at half powei), which is
given by |2uj:
m = −
ln2
ln(cosφ
1¡2
)
,
(2)
The output powei of a Lambeitian iauiant iauiateu
into the soliu angle J0 baseu on the iiiauiance-angle ¢
can be piesenteu as |21j:
Inuooi Non-uiiecteu 0ptical Wiieless Communications - 0ptimization of the Lambeitian 0iuei
3
J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9


Figuie 1: Inuooi non-uiiecteu cellulai 0WC systems: (a) one
cell, anu (b) foui cells

JP
ì
=
(m+1)

P
ì
cos
m
(¢)J0 ,
(S)
wheie
P
Tx
= _ JP
ì
Bemispheie
,
P
TX
is the total LEB tiansmit optical powei within C
ì
.
In piactice, the semi-angle at half powei of a
Lambeitian beam can be aujusteu using some optics.
Theiefoie m vaiies with the uiveigence angle of the
Lambeitian beam, which can be auapteu foi an inuooi
C0WC link. Foi instance, a semi-angle at the half powei
uown to ¢
1¡2
≅ 7
o
piesentsm ≅ 110.
Assuming the optical ieceivei consists of a PB, foi
the multi-tiansmittei system, the ieceiveu optical
powei of the L0S path is given by:
P
Rx L0S
= P
Tx
E(0) .
(4)
wheie, P
Tx
is the oveiall tiansmitteu optical powei of
LEBs.
C. Optimum Lambertian order
In inuooi NL0S-0WC systems, the ieceiveu optical
powei consists of the powei of the L0S path anu the
ieflecteu paths. Bue to uiffeient multipath piopagation
uelays, the ISI woulu limit the tiansmission banuwiuth.
To ciicumvent this pioblem anu to achieve a highei
tiansmission banuwiuth, we shoulu maximize the
optical powei fiom the L0S path anu minimize ISI. The
ieceiveu optical powei fiom the L0S can be calculateu
using (1) to (4). Foi each cell shown in Fig.1, the
ieceiveu optical powei is maximum at ¢ = 0 anu
minimum at ¢ = ¢
Nax
. The coiiesponuing minimum
ieceiveu powei which vaiies with m is:
P
Nin
= P
Tx
(m+1)A
2πJ
Nax
2
cos
m

Nax
)I
s
(0)g(0) cos(0)
0 ≤ 0 ≤ ç
c
,
(S)
wheie
¢
Nax
is the maximum iiiauiance angle anu J
Nax
is the
coiiesponuing maximum uistance between the
tiansmittei anu the ieceivei within a cell. To inciease
P
Nin
, it is necessaiy to maximize P
Nin
foi a givenm. To
uo this, we calculate the paitial ueiivative of (S) with
iespect to m, which is given by:
oP
Nin
om
= P
Tx
I
s
(0)g(0) cos(0)
A
2πJ
Nax
2
cos
m

Nax
) ×
|1 +(m+ 1)ln(cos(¢
Nax
))| .
(6)
Befining K = P
Tx
I
s
(0)g(0) cos(0)
A
2πd
Nax
2
, which is
inuepenuent of m, (6) can be simplifieu to:
oP
Nin
om
= Kcos
m

Nax
)|1
+(m+1)ln(cos(¢
Nax
))| .
(7)
To finu the 0L0 m
opt
, we set
ðP
Nin
ðm
= 0 , which gives:
m
opt
=
−1
ln(cos(¢
Nax
))
−1,
(8)
uiven the uefinition of ¢
Nax
above, we have:
¢
Nax
= cos
-1
(
H
d
Nax
).
(9)
Fiom (2) anu (8), we can calculate the optimum
tiansmittei semi-angle ç
1¡2 opt
at half powei, which is
given by:

Optical cell
LEDs
W
L
H x
y
z
(0, 0, 0)
Optical
receiver
(a)
n
ϕ
Max
W
L
H x
y
z
(0, 0, 0)
ϕ
Max
C
i
r
Rx
Tx
θ
d
ϕ
φ
c
n
LED
Rx
Reflection
LOS
Z. Ghassemlooy et al.
4

Figuie 2: ueometiy of souice, uetectoi anu ieflectois


Figuie S: Ninimum ieceiveu optical powei within a cell
against the Lambeitain oiuei at a iange r

ç1
2
opt
= cos
-1
_exp_
−ln(2)
-1
ln(cos(q
Nax
))
−1
__,
0 < ç
1¡2 opt
< 90
o
.
(1u)
D. Multipath characteristics
As explaineu pieviously, in high uata iate inuooi
NL0S-0WC systems, the path loss anu the multipath-
inuuceu time uispeision limit the link peifoimance.
The maximum available uata iate can be pieuicteu if
the channel impulse iesponse b(t) anu the RNS uelay
spieau aie known. As shown in Fig. 2, the optical powei
uistiibution anu the multipath uispeision at the
ieceivei plane can be chaiacteiizeu by h(t). Foi an
NL0S-0WC channel, using (1) anu (2), the impulse
iesponse foi a paiticulai souice S anu a uetectoi D (x,
y, z), is given by |1Sj:
b
0
(t; S, Ð)
=
(m+1)A
2πJ
2
cos
m
(¢)I
s
(0)g(0) cos(0)iect(
0
ç
c
)o(t

J
0
c
) ,
(11)
wheie J is the L0S uistance between S anu D anu c is
the speeu of light. The iectangulai function iect(x) is
uefineu as:

iect(x) = _
1 foi|x| ≤ 1,
0 foi|x| > 1.

(12)
Assuming that all ieflectois (i.e. plastei anu
acoustic-tileu walls, unvainisheu woou) aie
appioximately Lambeitian|16j, the channel impulse
iesponse with multiple optical souices anu multiple
ieflections is |22j:
b(t; S, Ð) = b
n
k
(t; S, Ð)

k=0
N
souice
n=1

(1S)
The channel impulse iesponse foi a k-bounce is given
by|2Sj:
b
k
(t; S, Ð) = __ç
0
ç
1
…ç
k
p
k
iect(
0
k
ç
c
) × o(t
.

− (
∑ J
k

k=0
c
))_ JA
ief
, k ≥ 1
(14)
wheie

ç
0
=
(m+ 1)A
2πJ
2
cos
m
(
1
) cos(0
1
) JA
¡c]
cos0
1


ç
1
=
JA
¡c]
cos
2
cos0
2
nJ
2
2

, … ,

ç
k
=
Acos
k+1
cos0
k+1
nJ
k+1
2
I
s
(0
k+1
)g(0
k+1
).

The integiation in (14) is peifoimeu with iespect to
the suiface of all ieflectois, JA
¡c]
is being the small
aiea of the ieflecting element, anu ¢
k
anu 0
k
aie the
angles of iiiauiance anu inciuence, iespectively. Also
J
k
is the uistance fiom k bounces to the uetectoi (see
Fig. 2).
The RNS uelay spieau is given by |24, 2Sj:
S = j
](t-µ)
2
h
2
(t)dt
]h
2
(t)dt
[
1
2
, (1S)
wheie p is the mean uelay given by:
p =
]tb
2
(t)Jt
]b
2
(t)Jt
,
(16)
Anu t is the piopagation uelay time.
5 10 15 20 1
-32
-31
-30
-29
-28
-27
-26
-25
-24
-23
-22
Lambertian order of LED (m)
M
i
n
i
m
u
m

r
e
c
e
i
v
e
d

p
o
w
e
r
(
d
B
m
)

=1.77 m
=1.41 m
=1.17 m
Inuooi Non-uiiecteu 0ptical Wiieless Communications - 0ptimization of the Lambeitian 0iuei
5
J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9
TABLE I
SPECIFICATI0N F0R INB00R NL0S 0WC SYSTENS
LEB wavelength (z) (Suu~1uuu)
nm

LEB launcheu powei 2uu mW
LEB spacing u.uS m
Room (length, wiuth, height) S × S × S m
S
Balf angle F0v of ieceivei 6u (ueg)
Active aiea of photouioue 1 cm
2
uain of the optical filtei 1.u
Refiactive inuex of the lens at the
photouioue
1.S
Reflection coefficient (wall, ceiling, flooi) (u.8, u.8, u.S)
0ne-cell configuiation
Numbei of LEBs pei cell 144
Foui-cell configuiation
Numbei of LEBs pei cell S6
Cell size 2.S × 2.S m
2

3.NUMERICALRESULTSANDDISCUSSION
Beie, we piesent some numeiical iesults to stuuy
the channel chaiacteiistics of multi-cell inuooi NL0S-
0WC systems. The specifications anu paiameteis aie
given in Table I. Two uiffeient configuiations aie
consiueieu anu simulateu.
A. Optical channel path loss
With iefeience to the cell iauii of uiffeient
scenaiios, shown in Table I, 0L0s can be calculateu
using (8) anu (9), which aie m
opt
= S.7 foi r = 1.77 m,
m
opt
= 9 foi r = 1.41 m anu m
opt
= 1S foi r = 1.17 m,
iespectively. Alteinatively, using (S) anu (8),
noimalizing the total launcheu powei to 1 W, we have
plotteu in Fig. S the minimum ieceiveu powei as a
function of m to ueteimine 0L0. We notice that P
MIn

incieases with m attaining its maximum values at m=
m
opt
, anu then giauually uecieases. By employing 0L0,
the full wiuth at half maximum (FWBN) uiveigence
angles of LEBs have been aujusteu fiom 12u
o
(the
stanuaiu uiveigence with m = 1) to S6
o
foi foui-cell
configuiation. In auuition, Fig. S shows that foi an
inuooi C0WC system employing 0L0 iathei than using
the stanuaiu L0 m = 1, the minimum ieceiveu optical
powei incieases fiom -Su.9 uBm to -28.7 uBm foi r =
1.77 m, fiom -Su.1 uBm to -26.6 uBm foi r = 1.41 m
anu fiom -29.6 uBm to -24.8 uBm foi r = 1.17 m.
Noieovei, we notice a shaip ueciease in the optimum
ieceiveu powei foi r = 1.77 m when the value of m
ueviates fiom m
opt
. This illustiates that optimizing m
is ciitical foi laige aiea cells.
B. Optical power distribution
The spatial uistiibutions of the ieceiveu powei fiom
L0S foi the one-cell anu foui-cell configuiations aie
shown in Figs. 4(a) to (u) foi the cases of non-optimizeu
anu optimizeu uiveigence angles. Fiom Fig. 4(a), we
notice that in the case of one-cell configuiation with a
typical (non-optimizeu) FWBN the uiveigence angle of
12u
o
, the ieceiveu powei vaiies between -S.8 uBm to -
1S.S uBm. 0sing (1u), the optimizeu FWBN angle of the
LEB is ~1u8
o
anu the coiiesponuing 0L0 is ~1.S. The
ieceiveu powei in the 0L0 case vaiies between -S.2
uBm to -1S.S uBm as can be seen in Fig. 4(b). Compaiing
Figs. 4(a) anu (b), we notice that the maximum ieceiveu
powei fiom L0S is only slightly incieaseu by optimizing
the uiveigence angle.
Similaily, Figs. 4(c) anu (u) compaie the ieceiveu
powei of the foui-cell configuiation with anu without
the uiveigence angle optimization, iespectively. Fiom
(1u), the optimizeu FWBN angle of the LEB is S6
o
anu
coiiesponuing 0L0 is ~S.S7. The ieceiveu powei
vaiies between -8.4 uBm anu -12.4 uBm foi the non-
optimizeu angle (12u
o
FWBN) anu between -S.6 uBm
anu -11.7 uBm foi the optimizeu angle. In this case,
angle optimization allows auuitional u.7 uB anu 2.8 uB
foi minimum anu maximum ieceiveu poweis,
iespectively.

C. RMS delay spread
At the ieceivei the link peifoimance coulu
consiueiably be affecteu by the ISI. Beie, we
investigate the channel uelay uispeision foi the
pioposeu configuiations as shown in Figs. S (a) to (u)
which uepicts the RNS uelay spieaus of uiffeient
configuiations with anu without angle optimization.
We notice that the optimizeu anu non-optimizeu
scenaiios have similai uistiibutions anu the RNS uelay
spieau vaiies by u.S ns anu u.6 ns foi the one-cell
systems. The maximum RNS uelay spieau occuis at
positions (u.S, u.S, S) m, (u.S, 4.S, S) m, (4.S, u.S, S) m
anu (4.S, 4.S, S) m.
Foi the foui-cell configuiation, we see fiom Figs. S(c)
anu (u) that the maximum RNS uelay spieaus
coiiesponu to the positions (u, u, S) m, (u, S, S) m, (S,
u, S) m anu (S, S, S) m foi the non-optimizeu case, anu
(2, 2, S) m, (4, 2, S) m, (2, 4, S) m anu (4, 4, S) m foi the
optimizeu case. Theie is a significant RNS ieuuction
aftei optimization: it uecieases fiom 1.S ns to u.4 ns.

D. Transmission bandwidth
Since the laigest multipath uistoition occuis at the
point with the maximum RNS uelay spieau in a typical
ioom, the tiansmission banuwiuth constiaint can be
estimateu by simulating the fiequency iesponse at this
point. Following the above analyses of maximum RNS
uelay spieau foi uiffeient configuiations, the
noimalizeu channel fiequency iesponses at the
Z. Ghassemlooy et al.
6
position coiiesponuing to the laigest RNS uelay spieau
foi the one-cell anu foui-cell configuiations aie plotteu
in Fig. 6. We notice that the -S uB tiansmission
banuwiuth of the optimizeu one-cell system is ~94
NBz, which is slightly laigei than the 91 NBz
banuwiuth of the non-optimizeu case. In the case of
foui-cell system, the -S uB tiansmission banuwiuth foi
the optimizeu case has a significant impiovement
compaieu to the non-optimizeu case. It incieases fiom
S9 NBz foi the non-optimizeu configuiation to 18S
NBz with angle optimization.
4.CONCLUSION
In this papei, we have ueiiveu the 0L0 foi a
paiticulai inuooi 0WC configuiation anu in paiticulai
analyzeu the peifoimance foi one-cell anu foui-cell
systems using the optimum anu non-optimum
Lambeitian oiueis. The channel chaiacteiistics
incluuing optical ieceiveu powei uistiibution anu
multipath uispeision weie also simulateu anu
analyzeu. The iesults piesenteu outlineu that the
ieceiveu optical powei anu the tiansmission
banuwiuth can be impioveu by auopting L0
optimization. While this impiovement factoi uepenus
on the ioom uimension anu the numbei of cells, it is
much moie significant foi inuooi multi-cell
configuiations.


Figuie 4: Spatial uistiibution of the ieceiveu powei: (a) one-cell with 12u
o
FWBN angle, (b) one-cell with the optimum 1u8
o

FWBN angle, (c) foui-cell with 12u
o
FWBN angle, anu (u) foui-cell with the optimum S6
o
FWBN angle
Inuooi Non-uiiecteu 0ptical Wiieless Communications - 0ptimization of the Lambeitian 0iuei
7
J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9

Figuie S: Spatial uistiibution of RNS uelay spieau: (a) one-cell with 12u
o
FWBN angle, (b) one-cell with 1u8
o
FWBN angle,
(c) foui-cell with 12u
o
FWBN angle, anu (u) foui-cell with S6
o
FWBN angle
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
-3
-2
-1
00
Frequency(MHz)
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
(
d
B
)

One-cell with m=1
One-cell with optimised m
Four-cell with m=1
Four-cell with optimised m

Figuie 6: The channel fiequency iesponse at maximum RNS
uelay spieau point foi one-cell anu foui-cell configuiations

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authois woulu like to acknowleuge the suppoit
by the E0 FP7 Cost Action IC11u1.
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BIOGRAPHIES


Z. Ghassemlooy, CEng, Fellow of
IET, Senior Member of
IEEE:Receiveu his BSc (Bons)
uegiee in Electiical anu Electionics
Engineeiing fiom the Nanchestei
Netiopolitan 0niveisity in 1981,
anu his NSc anu PhB in 0ptical
Communications fiom the
0niveisity of Nanchestei Institute
of Science anu Technology (0NIST),
in 1984 anu 1987, iespectively.
Fiom 1986-87 woikeu in 0NIST anu fiom 1987 to 1988 was a
Post-uoctoial Reseaich Fellow at the City 0niveisity, Lonuon. In
1988, he joineu Sheffielu Ballam 0niveisity as a Lectuiei,
becoming a Reauei in 199S anu a Piofessoi in 0ptical
Communications in 1997. Fiom 2uu4 until 2u12 was an Associate
Bean foi Reseaich in the School of Computing, anu Engineeiing,
anu in 2u12 he became Associate Bean foi Reseaich anu
Innovation in the Faculty of Engineeiing anu Enviionment, at
Noithumbiia 0niveisity in Newcastle, 0K. Be also heaus the
Noithumbiia Communications Reseaich Laboiatoiies within the
Faculty. In 2uu1 he was a iecipient of the Tan Chin Tuan
Fellowship in Engineeiing fiom the Nanyang Technological
0niveisity in Singapoie to woik on the photonic technology. Be is
the Euitoi-in-Chief of the Inteinational }ouinal of 0ptics anu
Applications, anu The Neuiteiianean }ouinal Electionics anu
Communications. Be is the vice-chaiiman of the FP7 E0 Cost
Action IC11u1 (2u11-2u1S), anu founuei anu chaiiman of IEEE,
IET Inteinational Symposium on Communication Systems,
Netwoiks, anu uigital signal piocessing.Be is a visiting Piofessoi
at 0niveisity Tun Bussein 0nn Nalaysia. Bis ieseaich inteiests
aie in fiee space optics, photonics switching, optical wiieless anu
wiieu communications, visible light communications anu mobile
communications. Be has ieceiveu a numbei of ieseaich giants
fiom 0K Reseaich Councils, Euiopean 0nion, Inuustiy anu 0K
uoveinment, has supeiviseu a laige numbei of PhB stuuents
(moie than 4u) anu publisheu ovei 4SS papeis (162 in jouinals +
4 books) anu piesenteu seveial keynote anu inviteu talks at
inteinational event. Be is a co-authoi of a CRC book on “0ptical
Wiieless Communications – Systems anu Channel Nouelling with
Natlab (2u12); a co-euitoi of an IET book on “Analogue 0ptical
Fibei Communications”. Fiom 2uu4-u6 he was the IEEE 0K¡IR
Communications Chaptei Secietaiy, the vice-Chaiiman (2uu4-
2uu8), the Chaiiman (2uu8-2u11), anu Chaiiman of the IET
Noithumbiia Netwoik (0ct 2u11-). Peisonal Web site:
http:¡¡soe.noithumbiia.ac.uk¡oci¡people¡ghassemlooy¡





Inuooi Non-uiiecteu 0ptical Wiieless Communications - 0ptimization of the Lambeitian 0iuei
9
J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9
Dehao Wu Receiveu the Bacheloi’s
uegiee in optical anu infoimation
engineeiing fiom the Nanjing
0niveisity of Post &
Telecommunication, P.R. China in
2uu7, anu ieceiveu the N.Sc. uegiee in
micioelectiical anu
telecommunication engineeiing fiom
Noithumbiia 0niveisity, Newcastle,
0.K., in 2uu9. Now he is woiking
towaius the Ph.B uegiee in inuooi cellulai optical wiieless
communication systems in 0ptical Communication Reseaich uioup
at Noithumbiia 0niveisity. Bis ieseaich inteiests incluue the aiea of
fiee-space optics, inuooi optical wiieless communications (0WC),
mouulation techniques anu FPuA baseu piotocols in 0WC.

Mohammad-Ali Khalighi ieceiveu his
B.Sc. anu N.Sc. uegiees in Electiical
Engineeiing fiom Shaiif 0niveisity of
Technology, Tehian, Iian, in 199S anu
1997, iespectively, anu his Ph.B. in
Electiical Engineeiing
(Telecommunications) fiom Institut
National Polytechnique ue uienoble
(INPu), Fiance, in 2uu2. Fiom 2uu2 to
2uuS, he has been with uIPSA-lab,
Télécom Paiis-Tech (ENST), anu IETR-lab, as a post-uoctoial
ieseaich fellow. Be joineu EcoleCentiale Naiseille anu Institut
Fiesnel in 2uuS as an Assistant Piofessoi. Bis main ieseaich aieas of
inteiest incluue optical wiieless communication anu wiieless sensoi
netwoiks.

XuanTang ieceiveu the uiploma (with
Bons) in electiical engineeiing fiom
Nan Yang Polytechnic, Singapoie in
2uu7, anu BEng (1st class Bons)
uegiee in Electiical anu
Communication Engineeiing fiom
Noithumbiia 0niveisity, Newcastle
upon Tyne, 0.K, in 2uu8.In 2u12 she
ieceiveu PhB uegiee in Fiee-space
0ptical Communications fiom
Noithumbiia 0niveisity. 2uu8 anu 2uu9 she also woikeu as a
Teaching Assistant anu as a Reseaich¡Teaching Assistant in the
Electiical Engineeiing Bepaitment at Noithumbiia 0niveisity. She is
cuiiently a postuoctoial ieseaichei woiking on optical wiieless
communications at 0ptical Wiieless Infoimation Systems Lab.,
School of Electionic Engineeiing, Tsinghua 0niveisity, China. Bei
ieseaich inteiests incluue optical wiieless communications, uigital
communications anu uigital signal piocessing. She has publisheu 12
papeis in jouinals anu inteinational confeiences.