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Z. Ghassemlooy, D. Wu, M. A. Khalighi, and X. Tang, "Indoor Non-directed Optical Wireless Communications -Optimization of the Lambertian Order", J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9, 2013.

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Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Innovations

JECEI, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013

Regular Paper

1

J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9

SRTTU

IndoorNon-directedOpticalWirelessCommunications-

OptimizationoftheLambertianOrder

Z.Ghassemlooy

1,*

,D.Wu

1

,M.A.Khalighi

2

,andX.Tang

3

1

0ptical Communications Reseaich uioup, Faculty of Engineeiing anu Enviionment, Noithumbiia 0niveisity,

Newcastle 0pon Tyne, 0K

2

Ecole Centiale Naiseille, Institute Fiesnel, Naiseille, Fiance

S

Bepaitment of Electionic Engineeiing, Tsinghua 0niveisity, Beijing, China

*

Coiiesponuing Authoi: z.ghassemlooyÇnoithumbiia.ac.uk

ARTICLEINFO

ABSTRACT

ARTICLEHISTORY:

Receiveu Su Apiil 2u1S

Reviseu 14 }une 2u1S

Accepteu 14 }une 2u1S

Foi an inuooi non-uiiecteu line of sight optical wiieless communication

(NL0S-0WC) system we investigate the optimizeu Lambeitian oiuei

(0L0) of light-emitting uioues (LEBs). We fiistly ueiive an expiession foi

the 0L0 fiom a conventional Lambeitian LEB mouel. Then, we analyze the

inuooi multi-cell NL0S-0WC channel chaiacteiistics incluuing the optical

powei uistiibution anu the multipath time uispeision foi two cases of

one-cell anu foui-cell configuiations. Fuitheimoie, we estimate the

tiansmission banuwiuth by simulating the channel fiequency iesponse.

Numeiical iesults piesenteu show that, by using 0L0 a significant

impiovement of the tiansmission banuwiuth can be achieveu foi an

inuooi NL0S-0WC system, in paiticulai, foi multi-cell configuiations.

KEYWORDS:

0ptimum Lambeitian oiuei

LEB

0ptical wiieless Communication

Root mean squaie (RNS)

Belay spieau

1.INTRODUCTION

Compaieu to RF communications, inuooi 0WC

systems piomise a highei tiansmission banuwiuth uue

to theii inheient optical fiequencies. With the

incieasing iequiiement of highei speeu, highei powei

efficiency, lowei path loss anu lowei multi-path

uistoition in futuie optical wiieless local aiea netwoik

(WLAN), a uiiecteu line-of-sight (L0S) inuooi 0WC

system, which has an extiemely high banuwiuth has

attiacteu moie attention in iecent yeais |1, 2j. Bue to

the small uiveigence angle of the tiansmittei, the path

loss is much lowei anu the multipath inuuceu uistoition

is negligible. Noieovei, a uiiecteu L0S link noimally

employing a photo uetectoi (PB) with a smallei suiface

offeis a laige banuwiuth anu impioveu sensitivity |Sj.

Such links iequiie a veiy piecise alignment between the

tiansmittei anu ieceivei paiticulaily when the usei is

mobile. Auuitionally, in the uiiecteu L0S configuiations

the fielu of view (F0v) of the ieceivei is quite naiiow to

ensuie ieuuceu ambient light noise, but at the cost of an

incieaseu tiansmission path blocking. 0n the othei

hanu, uiffuse configuiations can pioviue a laigei

coveiage aiea anu an excellent mobility, but at a cost of

low uata iates, high path losses anu multi-path inuuceu

intei-symbol inteifeience (ISI) |4, Sj. Compaieu with

the L0S tiansmission, NL0S links offei a laigei

coveiage aiea anu an excellent mobility anu without

any neeu foi piecise alignment oi a tiacking

mechanism. Compaieu with the common uiffuse

configuiations |6j, NL0S-0WC links pioviue a lowei

path loss, lowei ISI, anu a highei tiansmission

banuwiuth. Theiefoie, NL0S-0WC links employing

wiue-angle tiansmitteis anu ieceiveis aie moie

convenient to use, paiticulaily foi mobile teiminals.

LEBs aie being wiuely useu as souices in shoit-

iange inuooi 0WC links foi local aiea netwoik (LAN) |7,

8j. Bue to the fast uynamic iesponse of most cuiiently

available LEBs, they can be switcheu on anu off at a

much fastei iates, thus enabling high speeu uata

tiansmission |9j. With the incieasing populaiity of high

uefinition television anu viueo ovei the Inteinet, the

inuooi 0WC access technology employing LEBs

becomes a possible anu economical solution to auuiess

the banuwiuth congestion cuiiently being expeiienceu

in most access netwoiks |1u, 11j.

Z. Ghassemlooy et al.

2

Nost cuiient ieseaich on NL0S-0WC systems has

been focuseu on a unifoim ieceiveu powei uistiibution

as well as on the techniques to ieuuce ISI. A unifoim

ieceiveu powei uistiibution foi NL0S-0WC systems

using a novel genetic algoiithm was pioposeu in |12,

1Sj without incieasing the multipath uistoition. In |14j,

the authois intiouuceu a novel LEB aiiangement in

oiuei to ieuuce SNR fluctuations. In |1S, 16j the

analysis of multipath time uispeision foi the inuooi

0WC channel was caiiieu out foi NL0S-0WC system. It

was shown that lowei multipath uistoition can be

achieveu by optimizing the uiveigence angle of LEB anu

by employing a special configuiation. Bowevei, a moie

unifoim optical powei uistiibution was pioposeu in

|17, 18j achieving lowei ISI by employing a hologiaphic

uiffusei. In |19j a system employing spotlights foi

highei uata iate tiansmission was iepoiteu,

uemonstiating that inuooi NL0S-0WC links using LEBs

with small uiveigence angles offei lowei channel

uistoition than those with laige uiveigence angles.

Theiefoie, to achieve a highei tiansmission banuwiuth

anu a moie unifoim optical powei uistiibution, multi-

cell NL0S-0WC systems aie the piefeiieu solution.

Bowevei, in pievious stuuies little attention has been

given to 0L0 of LEBs anu its impact on the time

uispeision anu the channel tiansmission banuwiuth. As

a mattei of fact, the uiveigence angle is an essential

paiametei of an LEB anu it significantly affects the

ieceiveu powei uistiibution anu the channel uistoition

in inuooi NL0S-0WC systems.

The 0L0 is uefineu as the optimum uiveigence angle

of LEB foi an inuooi 0WC system. By using 0L0, we

minimize the path loss of the ieceiveu optical signal.

Neanwhile, compaieu to a system using a stanuaiu

uiveigence angle of the LEB (12u

o

foi a conventional

LEB without lenses), the multipath uistoition can

significantly be ieuuceu. Bowevei, 0L0 uepenus on the

numbei of cells employeu in the system. In this papei, a

multi-cell NL0S-0WC links with 0L0 is pioposeu. 0sing

the conventional Lambeitian mouel, we ueiive a new

expiession foi 0L0 followeu by investigation of the

ieceiveu powei uistiibution foi two cases of one-cell

anu foui-cell configuiations, consiueiing optimizeu anu

non-optimizeu LEB uiveigence angles. To estimate the

multipath time uispeision of the channel, the ioot-

mean-squaie (RNS) uelay spieau with anu without the

angle optimization aie simulateu. Lastly, the

tiansmission banuwiuth of the pioposeu multi-cell

NL0S-0WC channel is analyzeu. The iest of the papei is

oiganizeu as follows. In Section 2, we piesent the

system configuiation, anu uesciibe the channel BC gain,

0L0, anu multipath chaiacteiistics. In Section S, we

piesent some numeiical iesults to stuuy the channel

chaiacteiistics in uiffeient scenaiios of LEB positioning

anu angle uistiibution. Finally, the conclusions of this

woik aie summaiizeu in Section 4.

2.SYSTEMDESCRIPTION

A. System configuration

The pioposeu one-cell anu foui-cell inuooi NL0S-

0WC systems aie shown in Fig.1, wheie the ioom has a

uimension of W × L × H m

S

(wiuth, length, height). The

link uepicteu in Fig. 1(a) has only one cell to covei the

ieceivei plane, which employs a gioup of LEBs. In this

case the optical footpiint has its maximum anu

minimum intensities at the centei anu the euge of the

cell, iespectively. To achieve a moie unifoim optical

powei uistiibution, a foui-cell topology can be auopteu

as shown in Fig. 1(b). The ceiling is uiviueu into n-cell

labelleu as C

ì

anu having iuentical footpiints with a

iauius r (piojecting onto the flooi). An LEB tiansmittei

T

x

is mounteu at the centei of each cell, pointing

uownwaiu to the flooi plane. The uiveigence angles anu

the tiansmitteu optical powei of LEBs foi all cells aie

assumeu to be the same, so that each cell has a similai

coveiage aiea on the flooi plane. 0n the flooi plane, the

optical ieceivei R

x

has a ueuicateu F0v of ç

c

anu is

oiienteu towaiu the ceiling to ensuie seamless

connectivity. As it is shown in Fig. 1, foi each cell C

ì

, the

ieceiveu optical powei at the ieceivei enu consists of

the powei fiom both the L0S fiom C

ì

anu multiple

ieflecteu paths fiom the neighboiing cells.

B. Channel model with Lambertian source

The emission fiom an LEB can be moueleu using a

geneializeu Lambeitian iauiant intensity |2uj. In NL0S-

0WC configuiations, the tiansmitteis locateu in the

ceiling, point uownwaiu to the flooi anu the ieceivei is

pointing to the ceiling. The BC gain of the inuooi L0S

0WC channel is given by |2uj:

E(0)

= _

(m+1)A

2πJ

2

cos

m

(¢)I

s

(0)g(0) cos(0), 0 ≤ 0 ≤ ç

c

0, 0 ≥ ç

c

,

(1)

wheie A is the photo-uetectoi suiface aiea, ¢ is the

iiiauiance-angle, 0 is inciuence angle, ç

c

is the F0v

(semiangle) of the ieceivei anu d is the uistance

between tiansmittei anu ieceivei. Also, TS(0) is the

optical filtei gain, anu g(0) is the optical concentiatoi

gain. m is the Lambeitian iauiant oiuei ielating to the

tiansmittei semiangle ç

1¡2

, (at half powei), which is

given by |2uj:

m = −

ln2

ln(cosφ

1¡2

)

,

(2)

The output powei of a Lambeitian iauiant iauiateu

into the soliu angle J0 baseu on the iiiauiance-angle ¢

can be piesenteu as |21j:

Inuooi Non-uiiecteu 0ptical Wiieless Communications - 0ptimization of the Lambeitian 0iuei

3

J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9

Figuie 1: Inuooi non-uiiecteu cellulai 0WC systems: (a) one

cell, anu (b) foui cells

JP

ì

=

(m+1)

2π

P

ì

cos

m

(¢)J0 ,

(S)

wheie

P

Tx

= _ JP

ì

Bemispheie

,

P

TX

is the total LEB tiansmit optical powei within C

ì

.

In piactice, the semi-angle at half powei of a

Lambeitian beam can be aujusteu using some optics.

Theiefoie m vaiies with the uiveigence angle of the

Lambeitian beam, which can be auapteu foi an inuooi

C0WC link. Foi instance, a semi-angle at the half powei

uown to ¢

1¡2

≅ 7

o

piesentsm ≅ 110.

Assuming the optical ieceivei consists of a PB, foi

the multi-tiansmittei system, the ieceiveu optical

powei of the L0S path is given by:

P

Rx L0S

= P

Tx

E(0) .

(4)

wheie, P

Tx

is the oveiall tiansmitteu optical powei of

LEBs.

C. Optimum Lambertian order

In inuooi NL0S-0WC systems, the ieceiveu optical

powei consists of the powei of the L0S path anu the

ieflecteu paths. Bue to uiffeient multipath piopagation

uelays, the ISI woulu limit the tiansmission banuwiuth.

To ciicumvent this pioblem anu to achieve a highei

tiansmission banuwiuth, we shoulu maximize the

optical powei fiom the L0S path anu minimize ISI. The

ieceiveu optical powei fiom the L0S can be calculateu

using (1) to (4). Foi each cell shown in Fig.1, the

ieceiveu optical powei is maximum at ¢ = 0 anu

minimum at ¢ = ¢

Nax

. The coiiesponuing minimum

ieceiveu powei which vaiies with m is:

P

Nin

= P

Tx

(m+1)A

2πJ

Nax

2

cos

m

(¢

Nax

)I

s

(0)g(0) cos(0)

0 ≤ 0 ≤ ç

c

,

(S)

wheie

¢

Nax

is the maximum iiiauiance angle anu J

Nax

is the

coiiesponuing maximum uistance between the

tiansmittei anu the ieceivei within a cell. To inciease

P

Nin

, it is necessaiy to maximize P

Nin

foi a givenm. To

uo this, we calculate the paitial ueiivative of (S) with

iespect to m, which is given by:

oP

Nin

om

= P

Tx

I

s

(0)g(0) cos(0)

A

2πJ

Nax

2

cos

m

(¢

Nax

) ×

|1 +(m+ 1)ln(cos(¢

Nax

))| .

(6)

Befining K = P

Tx

I

s

(0)g(0) cos(0)

A

2πd

Nax

2

, which is

inuepenuent of m, (6) can be simplifieu to:

oP

Nin

om

= Kcos

m

(¢

Nax

)|1

+(m+1)ln(cos(¢

Nax

))| .

(7)

To finu the 0L0 m

opt

, we set

ðP

Nin

ðm

= 0 , which gives:

m

opt

=

−1

ln(cos(¢

Nax

))

−1,

(8)

uiven the uefinition of ¢

Nax

above, we have:

¢

Nax

= cos

-1

(

H

d

Nax

).

(9)

Fiom (2) anu (8), we can calculate the optimum

tiansmittei semi-angle ç

1¡2 opt

at half powei, which is

given by:

Optical cell

LEDs

W

L

H x

y

z

(0, 0, 0)

Optical

receiver

(a)

n

ϕ

Max

W

L

H x

y

z

(0, 0, 0)

ϕ

Max

C

i

r

Rx

Tx

θ

d

ϕ

φ

c

n

LED

Rx

Reflection

LOS

Z. Ghassemlooy et al.

4

Figuie 2: ueometiy of souice, uetectoi anu ieflectois

Figuie S: Ninimum ieceiveu optical powei within a cell

against the Lambeitain oiuei at a iange r

ç1

2

opt

= cos

-1

_exp_

−ln(2)

-1

ln(cos(q

Nax

))

−1

__,

0 < ç

1¡2 opt

< 90

o

.

(1u)

D. Multipath characteristics

As explaineu pieviously, in high uata iate inuooi

NL0S-0WC systems, the path loss anu the multipath-

inuuceu time uispeision limit the link peifoimance.

The maximum available uata iate can be pieuicteu if

the channel impulse iesponse b(t) anu the RNS uelay

spieau aie known. As shown in Fig. 2, the optical powei

uistiibution anu the multipath uispeision at the

ieceivei plane can be chaiacteiizeu by h(t). Foi an

NL0S-0WC channel, using (1) anu (2), the impulse

iesponse foi a paiticulai souice S anu a uetectoi D (x,

y, z), is given by |1Sj:

b

0

(t; S, Ð)

=

(m+1)A

2πJ

2

cos

m

(¢)I

s

(0)g(0) cos(0)iect(

0

ç

c

)o(t

−

J

0

c

) ,

(11)

wheie J is the L0S uistance between S anu D anu c is

the speeu of light. The iectangulai function iect(x) is

uefineu as:

iect(x) = _

1 foi|x| ≤ 1,

0 foi|x| > 1.

(12)

Assuming that all ieflectois (i.e. plastei anu

acoustic-tileu walls, unvainisheu woou) aie

appioximately Lambeitian|16j, the channel impulse

iesponse with multiple optical souices anu multiple

ieflections is |22j:

b(t; S, Ð) = b

n

k

(t; S, Ð)

∞

k=0

N

souice

n=1

(1S)

The channel impulse iesponse foi a k-bounce is given

by|2Sj:

b

k

(t; S, Ð) = __ç

0

ç

1

…ç

k

p

k

iect(

0

k

ç

c

) × o(t

.

− (

∑ J

k

∞

k=0

c

))_ JA

ief

, k ≥ 1

(14)

wheie

ç

0

=

(m+ 1)A

2πJ

2

cos

m

(

1

) cos(0

1

) JA

¡c]

cos0

1

ç

1

=

JA

¡c]

cos

2

cos0

2

nJ

2

2

, … ,

ç

k

=

Acos

k+1

cos0

k+1

nJ

k+1

2

I

s

(0

k+1

)g(0

k+1

).

The integiation in (14) is peifoimeu with iespect to

the suiface of all ieflectois, JA

¡c]

is being the small

aiea of the ieflecting element, anu ¢

k

anu 0

k

aie the

angles of iiiauiance anu inciuence, iespectively. Also

J

k

is the uistance fiom k bounces to the uetectoi (see

Fig. 2).

The RNS uelay spieau is given by |24, 2Sj:

S = j

](t-µ)

2

h

2

(t)dt

]h

2

(t)dt

[

1

2

, (1S)

wheie p is the mean uelay given by:

p =

]tb

2

(t)Jt

]b

2

(t)Jt

,

(16)

Anu t is the piopagation uelay time.

5 10 15 20 1

-32

-31

-30

-29

-28

-27

-26

-25

-24

-23

-22

Lambertian order of LED (m)

M

i

n

i

m

u

m

r

e

c

e

i

v

e

d

p

o

w

e

r

(

d

B

m

)

=1.77 m

=1.41 m

=1.17 m

Inuooi Non-uiiecteu 0ptical Wiieless Communications - 0ptimization of the Lambeitian 0iuei

5

J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9

TABLE I

SPECIFICATI0N F0R INB00R NL0S 0WC SYSTENS

LEB wavelength (z) (Suu~1uuu)

nm

LEB launcheu powei 2uu mW

LEB spacing u.uS m

Room (length, wiuth, height) S × S × S m

S

Balf angle F0v of ieceivei 6u (ueg)

Active aiea of photouioue 1 cm

2

uain of the optical filtei 1.u

Refiactive inuex of the lens at the

photouioue

1.S

Reflection coefficient (wall, ceiling, flooi) (u.8, u.8, u.S)

0ne-cell configuiation

Numbei of LEBs pei cell 144

Foui-cell configuiation

Numbei of LEBs pei cell S6

Cell size 2.S × 2.S m

2

3.NUMERICALRESULTSANDDISCUSSION

Beie, we piesent some numeiical iesults to stuuy

the channel chaiacteiistics of multi-cell inuooi NL0S-

0WC systems. The specifications anu paiameteis aie

given in Table I. Two uiffeient configuiations aie

consiueieu anu simulateu.

A. Optical channel path loss

With iefeience to the cell iauii of uiffeient

scenaiios, shown in Table I, 0L0s can be calculateu

using (8) anu (9), which aie m

opt

= S.7 foi r = 1.77 m,

m

opt

= 9 foi r = 1.41 m anu m

opt

= 1S foi r = 1.17 m,

iespectively. Alteinatively, using (S) anu (8),

noimalizing the total launcheu powei to 1 W, we have

plotteu in Fig. S the minimum ieceiveu powei as a

function of m to ueteimine 0L0. We notice that P

MIn

incieases with m attaining its maximum values at m=

m

opt

, anu then giauually uecieases. By employing 0L0,

the full wiuth at half maximum (FWBN) uiveigence

angles of LEBs have been aujusteu fiom 12u

o

(the

stanuaiu uiveigence with m = 1) to S6

o

foi foui-cell

configuiation. In auuition, Fig. S shows that foi an

inuooi C0WC system employing 0L0 iathei than using

the stanuaiu L0 m = 1, the minimum ieceiveu optical

powei incieases fiom -Su.9 uBm to -28.7 uBm foi r =

1.77 m, fiom -Su.1 uBm to -26.6 uBm foi r = 1.41 m

anu fiom -29.6 uBm to -24.8 uBm foi r = 1.17 m.

Noieovei, we notice a shaip ueciease in the optimum

ieceiveu powei foi r = 1.77 m when the value of m

ueviates fiom m

opt

. This illustiates that optimizing m

is ciitical foi laige aiea cells.

B. Optical power distribution

The spatial uistiibutions of the ieceiveu powei fiom

L0S foi the one-cell anu foui-cell configuiations aie

shown in Figs. 4(a) to (u) foi the cases of non-optimizeu

anu optimizeu uiveigence angles. Fiom Fig. 4(a), we

notice that in the case of one-cell configuiation with a

typical (non-optimizeu) FWBN the uiveigence angle of

12u

o

, the ieceiveu powei vaiies between -S.8 uBm to -

1S.S uBm. 0sing (1u), the optimizeu FWBN angle of the

LEB is ~1u8

o

anu the coiiesponuing 0L0 is ~1.S. The

ieceiveu powei in the 0L0 case vaiies between -S.2

uBm to -1S.S uBm as can be seen in Fig. 4(b). Compaiing

Figs. 4(a) anu (b), we notice that the maximum ieceiveu

powei fiom L0S is only slightly incieaseu by optimizing

the uiveigence angle.

Similaily, Figs. 4(c) anu (u) compaie the ieceiveu

powei of the foui-cell configuiation with anu without

the uiveigence angle optimization, iespectively. Fiom

(1u), the optimizeu FWBN angle of the LEB is S6

o

anu

coiiesponuing 0L0 is ~S.S7. The ieceiveu powei

vaiies between -8.4 uBm anu -12.4 uBm foi the non-

optimizeu angle (12u

o

FWBN) anu between -S.6 uBm

anu -11.7 uBm foi the optimizeu angle. In this case,

angle optimization allows auuitional u.7 uB anu 2.8 uB

foi minimum anu maximum ieceiveu poweis,

iespectively.

C. RMS delay spread

At the ieceivei the link peifoimance coulu

consiueiably be affecteu by the ISI. Beie, we

investigate the channel uelay uispeision foi the

pioposeu configuiations as shown in Figs. S (a) to (u)

which uepicts the RNS uelay spieaus of uiffeient

configuiations with anu without angle optimization.

We notice that the optimizeu anu non-optimizeu

scenaiios have similai uistiibutions anu the RNS uelay

spieau vaiies by u.S ns anu u.6 ns foi the one-cell

systems. The maximum RNS uelay spieau occuis at

positions (u.S, u.S, S) m, (u.S, 4.S, S) m, (4.S, u.S, S) m

anu (4.S, 4.S, S) m.

Foi the foui-cell configuiation, we see fiom Figs. S(c)

anu (u) that the maximum RNS uelay spieaus

coiiesponu to the positions (u, u, S) m, (u, S, S) m, (S,

u, S) m anu (S, S, S) m foi the non-optimizeu case, anu

(2, 2, S) m, (4, 2, S) m, (2, 4, S) m anu (4, 4, S) m foi the

optimizeu case. Theie is a significant RNS ieuuction

aftei optimization: it uecieases fiom 1.S ns to u.4 ns.

D. Transmission bandwidth

Since the laigest multipath uistoition occuis at the

point with the maximum RNS uelay spieau in a typical

ioom, the tiansmission banuwiuth constiaint can be

estimateu by simulating the fiequency iesponse at this

point. Following the above analyses of maximum RNS

uelay spieau foi uiffeient configuiations, the

noimalizeu channel fiequency iesponses at the

Z. Ghassemlooy et al.

6

position coiiesponuing to the laigest RNS uelay spieau

foi the one-cell anu foui-cell configuiations aie plotteu

in Fig. 6. We notice that the -S uB tiansmission

banuwiuth of the optimizeu one-cell system is ~94

NBz, which is slightly laigei than the 91 NBz

banuwiuth of the non-optimizeu case. In the case of

foui-cell system, the -S uB tiansmission banuwiuth foi

the optimizeu case has a significant impiovement

compaieu to the non-optimizeu case. It incieases fiom

S9 NBz foi the non-optimizeu configuiation to 18S

NBz with angle optimization.

4.CONCLUSION

In this papei, we have ueiiveu the 0L0 foi a

paiticulai inuooi 0WC configuiation anu in paiticulai

analyzeu the peifoimance foi one-cell anu foui-cell

systems using the optimum anu non-optimum

Lambeitian oiueis. The channel chaiacteiistics

incluuing optical ieceiveu powei uistiibution anu

multipath uispeision weie also simulateu anu

analyzeu. The iesults piesenteu outlineu that the

ieceiveu optical powei anu the tiansmission

banuwiuth can be impioveu by auopting L0

optimization. While this impiovement factoi uepenus

on the ioom uimension anu the numbei of cells, it is

much moie significant foi inuooi multi-cell

configuiations.

Figuie 4: Spatial uistiibution of the ieceiveu powei: (a) one-cell with 12u

o

FWBN angle, (b) one-cell with the optimum 1u8

o

FWBN angle, (c) foui-cell with 12u

o

FWBN angle, anu (u) foui-cell with the optimum S6

o

FWBN angle

Inuooi Non-uiiecteu 0ptical Wiieless Communications - 0ptimization of the Lambeitian 0iuei

7

J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9

Figuie S: Spatial uistiibution of RNS uelay spieau: (a) one-cell with 12u

o

FWBN angle, (b) one-cell with 1u8

o

FWBN angle,

(c) foui-cell with 12u

o

FWBN angle, anu (u) foui-cell with S6

o

FWBN angle

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

-3

-2

-1

00

Frequency(MHz)

N

o

r

m

a

l

i

z

e

d

f

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

r

e

s

p

o

n

s

e

(

d

B

)

One-cell with m=1

One-cell with optimised m

Four-cell with m=1

Four-cell with optimised m

Figuie 6: The channel fiequency iesponse at maximum RNS

uelay spieau point foi one-cell anu foui-cell configuiations

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authois woulu like to acknowleuge the suppoit

by the E0 FP7 Cost Action IC11u1.

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BIOGRAPHIES

Z. Ghassemlooy, CEng, Fellow of

IET, Senior Member of

IEEE:Receiveu his BSc (Bons)

uegiee in Electiical anu Electionics

Engineeiing fiom the Nanchestei

Netiopolitan 0niveisity in 1981,

anu his NSc anu PhB in 0ptical

Communications fiom the

0niveisity of Nanchestei Institute

of Science anu Technology (0NIST),

in 1984 anu 1987, iespectively.

Fiom 1986-87 woikeu in 0NIST anu fiom 1987 to 1988 was a

Post-uoctoial Reseaich Fellow at the City 0niveisity, Lonuon. In

1988, he joineu Sheffielu Ballam 0niveisity as a Lectuiei,

becoming a Reauei in 199S anu a Piofessoi in 0ptical

Communications in 1997. Fiom 2uu4 until 2u12 was an Associate

Bean foi Reseaich in the School of Computing, anu Engineeiing,

anu in 2u12 he became Associate Bean foi Reseaich anu

Innovation in the Faculty of Engineeiing anu Enviionment, at

Noithumbiia 0niveisity in Newcastle, 0K. Be also heaus the

Noithumbiia Communications Reseaich Laboiatoiies within the

Faculty. In 2uu1 he was a iecipient of the Tan Chin Tuan

Fellowship in Engineeiing fiom the Nanyang Technological

0niveisity in Singapoie to woik on the photonic technology. Be is

the Euitoi-in-Chief of the Inteinational }ouinal of 0ptics anu

Applications, anu The Neuiteiianean }ouinal Electionics anu

Communications. Be is the vice-chaiiman of the FP7 E0 Cost

Action IC11u1 (2u11-2u1S), anu founuei anu chaiiman of IEEE,

IET Inteinational Symposium on Communication Systems,

Netwoiks, anu uigital signal piocessing.Be is a visiting Piofessoi

at 0niveisity Tun Bussein 0nn Nalaysia. Bis ieseaich inteiests

aie in fiee space optics, photonics switching, optical wiieless anu

wiieu communications, visible light communications anu mobile

communications. Be has ieceiveu a numbei of ieseaich giants

fiom 0K Reseaich Councils, Euiopean 0nion, Inuustiy anu 0K

uoveinment, has supeiviseu a laige numbei of PhB stuuents

(moie than 4u) anu publisheu ovei 4SS papeis (162 in jouinals +

4 books) anu piesenteu seveial keynote anu inviteu talks at

inteinational event. Be is a co-authoi of a CRC book on “0ptical

Wiieless Communications – Systems anu Channel Nouelling with

Natlab (2u12); a co-euitoi of an IET book on “Analogue 0ptical

Fibei Communications”. Fiom 2uu4-u6 he was the IEEE 0K¡IR

Communications Chaptei Secietaiy, the vice-Chaiiman (2uu4-

2uu8), the Chaiiman (2uu8-2u11), anu Chaiiman of the IET

Noithumbiia Netwoik (0ct 2u11-). Peisonal Web site:

http:¡¡soe.noithumbiia.ac.uk¡oci¡people¡ghassemlooy¡

Inuooi Non-uiiecteu 0ptical Wiieless Communications - 0ptimization of the Lambeitian 0iuei

9

J. Elec. Comput. Eng. Innov. 2013, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-9

Dehao Wu Receiveu the Bacheloi’s

uegiee in optical anu infoimation

engineeiing fiom the Nanjing

0niveisity of Post &

Telecommunication, P.R. China in

2uu7, anu ieceiveu the N.Sc. uegiee in

micioelectiical anu

telecommunication engineeiing fiom

Noithumbiia 0niveisity, Newcastle,

0.K., in 2uu9. Now he is woiking

towaius the Ph.B uegiee in inuooi cellulai optical wiieless

communication systems in 0ptical Communication Reseaich uioup

at Noithumbiia 0niveisity. Bis ieseaich inteiests incluue the aiea of

fiee-space optics, inuooi optical wiieless communications (0WC),

mouulation techniques anu FPuA baseu piotocols in 0WC.

Mohammad-Ali Khalighi ieceiveu his

B.Sc. anu N.Sc. uegiees in Electiical

Engineeiing fiom Shaiif 0niveisity of

Technology, Tehian, Iian, in 199S anu

1997, iespectively, anu his Ph.B. in

Electiical Engineeiing

(Telecommunications) fiom Institut

National Polytechnique ue uienoble

(INPu), Fiance, in 2uu2. Fiom 2uu2 to

2uuS, he has been with uIPSA-lab,

Télécom Paiis-Tech (ENST), anu IETR-lab, as a post-uoctoial

ieseaich fellow. Be joineu EcoleCentiale Naiseille anu Institut

Fiesnel in 2uuS as an Assistant Piofessoi. Bis main ieseaich aieas of

inteiest incluue optical wiieless communication anu wiieless sensoi

netwoiks.

XuanTang ieceiveu the uiploma (with

Bons) in electiical engineeiing fiom

Nan Yang Polytechnic, Singapoie in

2uu7, anu BEng (1st class Bons)

uegiee in Electiical anu

Communication Engineeiing fiom

Noithumbiia 0niveisity, Newcastle

upon Tyne, 0.K, in 2uu8.In 2u12 she

ieceiveu PhB uegiee in Fiee-space

0ptical Communications fiom

Noithumbiia 0niveisity. 2uu8 anu 2uu9 she also woikeu as a

Teaching Assistant anu as a Reseaich¡Teaching Assistant in the

Electiical Engineeiing Bepaitment at Noithumbiia 0niveisity. She is

cuiiently a postuoctoial ieseaichei woiking on optical wiieless

communications at 0ptical Wiieless Infoimation Systems Lab.,

School of Electionic Engineeiing, Tsinghua 0niveisity, China. Bei

ieseaich inteiests incluue optical wiieless communications, uigital

communications anu uigital signal piocessing. She has publisheu 12

papeis in jouinals anu inteinational confeiences.

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