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Notes on Age of Sacred Terror (Chapters 1-5, 11)

Preface: transcripts of major terrorism trials are treasure trove, u.s. v. Salameh, U.S. v. Rahman,
U.S. v. Yousef, U.S. v. Ismoil, U.S. v. bin Laden.

Chapter 1:


- "The first killing of the Terror" was Nov. 1990 murder of Kahane. "Years would pass before
anyone realized that the event was more than the solitary act of a deranged man." (3)

- Nosair studied weaponry and tactics using official US Army manuals obtained from Ali
Mohamed, a sergeant in US Special Ops. Training for jihad in 1989 with others from Farouq
Mosque in Brooklyn, incl. Mohammed Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Clement Hampton-El, Mahmud
Abouhalima. To Nosair and friends, jihad meant more than Afghanistan, it meant "attacking all
those who waged war against Allah" (5)

- killing Kahane was act of jihad, as was reported attempt to kill Gorbachev. And Nosair wrote
in 1990 or earlier of need to destroy "civilized pillars such as touristic infrastructure and high
world buildings" of enemies of Allah (6)

- Nosair telephoned Sheik Rahman in Egypt to tell of the group's jihad training, and helped him
settle in US in 1990. The words in Nosair's notebook were likely Rahman's.

- Rahman had provided religious authority to kill Sadat. Came to US in July 1990 and "became
the central figure of the burgeoning jihadist set" in NY and northern NJ. (6-7)


- In August 1992, when Rahman decided it was time to topple the "civilized pillars," he called a
number in Pakistan. On Sept. 1, 1992, Ramzi Yousef and Ahmad Ajaj flew to US from Pakistan.
Ajaj detained with false passport and bomb manuals. Yousef, on Iraqi passport, asked for asylum
and was released, pending court date. (7)

- Yousef wanted to kill 250,000 people. (7)

- Within 2 days, he moved in with Salameh (Palestinian on expired visa) in Jersey City and
contacted Abouhalima, who was Rahman's chaffeur. Nidal Ayyad, Eyad Ismoil (part of
Rahman's circle), and Iraqi Abdul Yasin joined them.

- "The phone in Yousef s apartment and the one in the home in the home of the Blind Sheikh
were frequently connected. And both of them regularly called the same number in Pakistan." (8)

- Yousef met Ajaj in terrorist training camp in Afghanistan. (8)

- It took several months to assemble the crew, survey the target, plan, and build the bomb. (9-

- they left van parked on access road to WTC, and escaped on Feb. 26, 1993. Six dead, 1000
injured, and 1A billion $ of damage. (And bomb did not work fully as intended.)

- Yousef flew to Pakistan that night, and Ismoil fled to Amman. Abouhalima flew to Egypt.
Salameh planned to go to Germany, but first tried to get back his deposit on the "stolen" van.
Because FBI had gotten VIN number, he was arrested. Yasin was interviewed by FBI, released,
and fled to Iraq. Ayad stayed in US and claimed responsibility in name of "5th Battalion of
Liberation Army" in response for US support to Israeland other dictator countries in region.
Further attacks threatened. (12-13)

- plotters thought the attack was a failure; Yousef had wanted to destroy the WTC (14)

Landmarks Plot

- Rahman's circle eager to attack again, and key issue was what Rahman would approve.
Plotters included Siddiq Ali (Sudanese), Nosair (putting forth ideas from jail), and Ibrahim el-
Gabrowny (cousin of Nosair's), and Clement Hampton-El.

- Rahman spoke cryptically, his role was not to get into details but only to say "lawful" or
"forbidden." "It seems almost certain" he had done this for WTC I. Approved of FBI HQ as
target (but not precipitously). (16)

- Only plotter with experience with arms was Emad Salem, former Egyptian officer, who was
also FBI informant from 1991 (except for period from late 1992-early 1993, corresponding with
WTC plot).

- Because of Salem, FBI in on plot the whole time. Heart of plan was destroying Lincoln and
Holland tunnels, although other targets also on list, such as FBI building.

- Siddiq Alia made arrangements with official from Sudanese mission to get access to UN garage
(UN another target).

- 11 coconspirators, including Rahman. Arrested on June 23, 1993.


- fire in Manila on Jan. 7, 1995: Bibles, crucifixes, pictures of Pope in bedroom. "The kitchen
was a bomb factory." Laptop seized with flight scehdules. Laptop belonged to Ramzi Yousef.
"Bojinka" plot called for blowing up 12 US 747s over the Pacific (UA, Delta, and Northwest
flights out of Manila, Tokyo, Singapore, Bangkok, Taipei, and Seoul). "The overall assembly
was an unrivaled piece of terrorist tradecraft... all but impossible to detect using any existing
security system." (20-23)
- Yousef had already tested this in Dec. 1994 on Phillipines Air 747 flying from Manila to
Tokyo, killing a Japanese businessman; aircraft made safe emergency landing. Yousef had been
on the flight and had smuggled the explosive aboard in his hand luggage; assembled it in airplane
bathroom; taped it under seat; got off during stopover. Yousef used a small charge to avoid
destroying the plane; he only wanted to verify that it would work.

- Feb. 1995 - Yousef arrested in Pakistan andflownto US. (25)

- Yousef s apartment in Manila paid for by Mohammed Khalifa, bin Laden's brother-in-law. His
business card was found in the apartment. (25-26)


- 2/23/98 - Arabic language newspaper in London printed fatwa to "kill the Americans and their
allies - civilians and military - is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any
country in which it is possible." "Declaration of Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders"

- this was final stage of operation against embassies. Surveilllance photos and diagrams went
years back. Presence in Narobi since 1992 to move money and id documents from phony

- sleeper cell in Mobassa waited to be awakened.

- Hub was in Afganistan, where bin Laden's group "worked out the plans and chose the teams."
Cells in Baku and London handled communications and publicity. Nairobi was key point of
production and delivery; other locations helped; and traveling group of experts would descend
upon Nairobi and dar es Salaam to oversee critical parts of process.

- Ahmad Salim Swedan bought bomb vehicles in both places. Abdel Rahman (obviously not the
blind sheikh) was the master bombmaker in both places. (27-28)

- intended to be suicide attacks in both places. Suicide attacks deemed cost-effective.

- attackers chosen from Afghan training camps, hi August 1998, Mohammed al-Owhali and
FNU Azzam were given details of operation; made farewell videoptapes; and flew to Kenya in
August. Tanzanian attacker was Hamdan Khalif Alal.

- attacks occurred on August 7, 1998, 8th anniversary of arrival of US troops in Saudi Arabia.
Double truck bombing separated by hundreds of miles. 213 dead in Kenya, 11 in Tanzania, and
roughly 5000 wounded. (29-30)

Millenium and US Cole:

- Millenium attacks designed to be coordinated attacks over thousands of miles

- centerpiece would be Jordan, including Radisson hotel in Amman with US and Israeli guests.
Nearly 30 Jordanians (mostly Palestinians) plotted the bombing. Also intended to attack Mt.
Nebo, a Christian site on Jordan River, and possibly 2 border crossings with Israel.

- Meanwhile, plan to bomb US warship in Yemen (Sullivans); and Ahmad Ressam, Algerian
graudate of Afghan training camps, was getting ready in Canada to bomb LAX.

- Ressam experimented with chemical agents in Afghan training camps

- Ressam received funding from Afghanistan, and more $ and fake passport from network of
Algerians in Canada

- Abu Zabayda (Palestinian living in Peshawar) coordinated all these plots. One of few in al-
Qaeda from whom info, not compartmented. (32)

- Jordanians foiled Jordanian plots (finding 71 large containers of acid, enough to flatten the
Radisson); then customs official searched Ressam's car, finding more than 100 pounds of
bombmaking materials; and Yememi plot didn't work because boat was overloaded with

- Oct. 2000, Yemen plot did work with bombing of Cole, killing 17 US seamen and nearly
sinking the warship

Sept. 11 :

- 4 planes took off from East Coast airports between 7:55 and 8:42 AM. 19 hijackers, including
15 Saudis, two Emiratis, one Lebanese, and the leader, Egyptian Mohammed Atta.

- AA flight 11, from Boston, hit WTC at 8:46 AM. 92 people on board.

- UA flight 175, also from Boston, hit WTC at 9:02 AM. 65 people on board.

-jet fuel was equivalent of hundreds of tons of dynamite, though the airplanes did not explode.
Fireballs erupted. Heat of the fires doomed the buildings (33-35)

- At 9:40, AA flight 77 from Dulles hit the Pentagon, killling 189 people (65 on board). (34)

- At 10:10, UA flight 93, from Newark, crashed in Pennsylvania, carrying 45 people. Passengers
had learned of the WTC attacks thru cell phone converesations, and struggle ensued with
hijackers. Target was "reportedly" the White House.

Ch. 2 (abbreviated)

- Sept. 11 was act of consummate religious devotion. (39)

- In Feb. 2001, Jamal al-Fadl, former member of al-Qaeda and FBI informant, testified in
bombing trial. He was native of Sudan, became member of al-Qaeda in 1989-1990 in Afghan
training camp. Moved at end of 1990 with UBL's org. to Sudan, where he was courier, financial
front man, and liaison to Sudanese intelligence. Fled Sudan in 1996 after discovery of his
embezzlement, and walked into a US embassy.

- Abu Hajer was senior bin Laden lieutenant and responsible for procuring WMD. (41-42)

- 13th century theologian ibn Taymiyya was held in highest esteem by al-Qaeda

- Ibn T. said Muslims were obligated to rebel against a leader who did not enforce sharia. Also
emphasized jihad in sense of actual warfare. (48)

-inl8 l century, spiritual descendant of ibn T. emerged in Arabian. Al-Wahhab. Followers

known as Wahhabis. Alliance born between Wahhabis and political leader ibn Saud. Saudi
Wahhanbism is Islam's most rigid and puritannical branch. (52-53)

- as Islamic power declined in modern period, concept of Jihad came to mean a struggle against
evil impulses in the soul of a believer. However, contemporary militants reject this. (54-55)

- In late 19th and 20th centuries, currents began to call for a return to the golden Muslim age of
the beginning, the "salaf." This started in Egypt and India.

- Muslim Brotherhood begins in 1928. Only return to authentic Islam would bring Mulsims eco.
And pol. Power. "God is our objective; the Quran is our Constitution; the Prophet is our leader;
Struggle is our way; and death for the sake of God is the highest of our aspirations." (57)

- Muslim brothers outlawed in Egypt in 1948-9, went underground, numbered hundreds of

thousands a decade after ban. (58-59)

- Deobandi Islam in India starts in 19th century, similar to Wahhabism and Brotherhood. Leads
to Pakistani political party, Jamaat i-Islami. Foremost religious party in Pakistan, commands
loyalty of millions. (59-60)

- Nasser imprisoned many Brotherse, including Sayyid Qutb. "Islamic world's answer to
Solzhenitsyn, Sartre, and Havel, and he easily ranks with all of them in influence." His works
are staples of bookships through the Middle East and his manifesto is one of the most influential
works in Arabic of the last half century. Vanguard of true believers would taken on jihad, kill
"jahili" (i.e. apostate) rulers, and lead Muslims to golden age. (63 & ff.)

- Qutb hated US and was convinced that Islam and Western values were fundamentally
antagonistic. Crusades are not historical, they are perpetual. Hates Jews, who are incarnation of
all that is anti-Islamic. Hanged in a Cairo prison

- al-Jihad group emerged in mid-70's, to prepare for Islamic revolution. Omar Abdel Rahman
provided religious inspiration. Muslim Brothers too gradual in approach. In Oct. 1981, they kill
Sadat, although larger coup plans fail.

- Rahman had provided fatwa legitimating killing of Sadat, but most charges against him were
dismissed in 1982 trial. He was subsequently implicated in additional murders and plots in

- In UBL, various streams converge: Qutb's uncomprising opposition to jahiliyya; Wahabbi

fervor; and more than a generation of vilification of secular rulers in Islamic and Western worlds.
All this comes together in al-Qaeda and Sept. 11. (94)

Ch. 3: UBL

- UBL scion of one of Saudi's wealthiest families, but bio. is very vague.

- father was Yemeni immigrant who set up construction firm (95)

- family held company has revenues of $5 billion

- UBL was born 1957 in Riyadh, 17th son of Muhammad bin Laden, and only son of 4th wife, a
Syrian whom Muhammad later divorced. Father died in 1967 in plane crash, and eldest so, who
took over, also died in plane crash in 1988. Another brother, Bakr, runs the business.

- studied economics and engineering in Saudi university, and worked for the family business

- Soviet invasion of Afghanistan came during his early 20's. Brought heavy construction
vehicles to help in Afghan jihad. Peshawar was jihad base, and UBL visited often and came to
know Abdullah Azzam "the leading Islamic ideologist of the campaign against the Soviets." (99)

- Azzam visited US to raise $ and holy warriors. At 1989 convention, Wadih el-Hage met
Abouhalima (WTC I conspirator). Nosair had many Azzam videotapes.

- Azzam became bin Laden's mentor (100). In 1984, they established "Maktab al-Khidmat," the
Services Bureau, which recruited fighters, brought them to Peshawar guesthouses, and then onto
training camps. Azzam ran it, and UBL funded it. Atlantic Avenue office in Brooklyn headed
by Azzam protege Mustapha Shalabi.

- in latter half of 1980s, UBL shuttled between Saudi and Pakistan. In Saudi, he recruited to join
the fight and raised money. Per Peter Bergen, UBL was effectively Saudi govt's recruiter-in-
chief for the jihad.

-UBL also fought (101)

- Soviets left Afghanistan in Feb. 1989. Islamists saw this as great victory for them.
- UBL then begins to think about carrying the struggle forward, hi 1989, "he began organizaing
the group that would become al-Qaeda." Including Ayman al-Zawahiri, leader of a faction of
Egyptian Islamic Jihad. Al-Qaeda also known as Islamic Army. Goals were to topple existing
Muslim govts. by jihad. (103)

- Azzam wanted to focus on fighting Israel. UBL wanted to focus on jahili Muslim regimes, hi
Nov. 1989, Azzam killed by car bomb in Peshawar (103)

- In March 1991, Mustapha Shalabi dead (killed?), and Wadih el-Hage came to NY to take over
the Services Bureau. (Azzam killed by UBL? Shalabi killed by UBL emissary and/or Sheikh

- al-Qaeda required a special oath of loyalty (baya) to "emir" UBL and jihad.

- al-Zawahiri was #2 and chief ideologist; al-Banshiri was military chief; Muhammad Atef was
deputy chief of operations; Abu Hajer al-Iraqi involved in weapons procurement and finances.
Beneath UBL was a shura council, a "UN of radical Islam." Committees reported to the council.
Specialists in weapons, computers, media, and weapons. (104-105)

- UBL returned to Saudi in 1989 while al-Qaeda remained in Afghan camps and Pakistani
guesthouses, hi 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait and US forces invited into Saudi. "For bin Laden,
the arrival of the U.S. forces had the effect of a revelation. No sooner had the Soviet superpower
been laid low than the American one reared up" to destroy Islam. (106)

- Saudi Arabian govt. became infidel in his eyes. (107) founded the "Advice and Reform
Committee" with offices in London and Sudan that devoted itselef to anti-Saudi propaganda.

- UBL's determination to overthrow secular regimes was strengthening, as was his anger at U.S.
inroads into Islamic world. This led him to want to move his forces from Afghanistan into Arab
world and be more active, i.e., Sudan (109)

- returning jihadists harassed and imprisoned throuout Arab world except Sudan. 1989 coup
brought military-Islamist regime to power. Background: Hassan al-Turabi had led Brotherhood
in Sudan, which became National Islamic Front, and Turabi served in govt. from late 70s thru
mid 80s. al-Turabi and Gen. Bashir led coup in 1989. "Al-Turabi envisioned turning Sudan into
the champion of the Islamist movement... providing a base for groups that would bring sharia
govts. to power. After the coup, Sudan flung its doors open to extremist organizations from all
over Al-Qaeda began to ponder relocation." (110)

- al-Qaeda leaders began to relocate to Sudan in 1990. UBL expelled from Saudi in 1991, went
to Afghanistan, then joined al-Qaeda leadership in Sudan.

- came with substantial cash (inheritance of some $30 million), set up Wadi al-Aqiq holding
company, set up various companies. Farms used as terrorist training camps. (112-113).
- Close relationship with Sudanese intelligence service, and UBL given couple hundred
Sudanese passports.

- al-Qaeda in Sudan was "mix of business and terror." UBL subsidized jihadist groups around
the world, operated terror training camps. Connections with Eritrean Islamic Jihad, Abu Sayyaf,
Moro Liberation Front, range of groups in Pakistan, radicals in Egyp and Jordan, radical Tajiks,
Yemeni jihadists fighting communists, Chechen rebels. "There was hardly a battle anywhere
involving Islamic radicals in which al-Qaeda was not involved ... international clearinghouse
and bankroller of jihad" (this in addition to direct operations by al-Qaeda)

- cash flow problems in Sudan, some anger at Egyptian ascendancy in the org.

- Two al-Qaeda defectors who testified at bombings trial: al-Fadl, and L'Houssaine Kherchtou

- larger context inflaming Islamists: US troops in Saudi; Madrid and Oslo; slaughter of Bosnian
Muslims; civil war in Algeria after denial of election victory to Islamist party; Chechen war

- UBL and al-Qaeda started issuing fatwas, including against Americans. End of 1992, fatwa on
need to drive Americans out of Islamic lands.

- Dec. 1992, US troops arrived in Somalia. "A catalytic event for al Qaeda," seen as another step
against Islam. Al-Qaeda issues a fatwa against US in Khartoum, determines to get Somalis to
drive the US out.

- US was becoming al-Qaeda's principal target, over the "near enemy" (illegitimate Muslim
rulers). "This resetting of priorities would dramatically distinguish al-Qaeda from all other
terrorist groups of the period .. .Blind Sheikh was thinking of a similar strategy" (118-119)
Strategy developed in part because of failure of national jihadist movements.

- base set up in Nariobi for operatives on way to Somalia. Atef and others (incl. Embassy
bombers Odeh and Fazil) sent to Somalia to train attackers and plot. Connections with Ittihad al-
Islamiyya in Somalia. UBL boasted about defeating US in Somalia. (121)

- al-Qaeda became full-fledged terror organization in Sudan with expertise in terror. Former
military personnel and police contributed, such as AH Mohamed (who had helped train Nosair
and others in late 1980s), and who taught surveillance, information security, etc.

- In early 1990s, althogh HQ in Sudan, training camps operated in Afghanistan for new
members, along with guest houses in Pakistan. (Communist Afghan regime fell in 1992, civil
war continued). (124-125). Training could be quite extensive, incl. both military and terrorist
training (125-127)

- cooperation with Shiites - Mamduh Salim argued for cooperation, as did Sudanese clerics. Al-
Qaeda visited Hezbollah camps in Lebanon, and UBL met Hezbollah terrorist Imad Mughniya.
Per Ali Mohamed, Hezbollah provided explosives and training to al-Qaeda. But little evidence
of long-term cooperation. (127-128)

- By early 1994, al-Qaeda had begun WMD work. UBL became involved in Sudanese operation
to produce nerve gas; and was eager to acquire nuclear weapons. Al-Fadl involved in attempt to
buy uranium. (128-129)

- al-Qaeda (Ali Mohamed) cased US Embassy in Nairobi in 1993, five years before bombings,
and UBL pointed to where a truck could go as a suicide bomber. Nairobi cell included Banshiri
(started business), Wadih el-Hage (worked in charity). Mombassa cell created in 1994 - Atef set
Mohammed Odeh up in business. Attacks weighed in Djibiout and Senegal.

- UBL backed Committee for the Defense of Legit. Rights in London, established Advice and
Reform Committee in London, and set up Constultative Organization to Defend Islamic Legal
Rights in Khartoum. All anti-Saudi. Saudi revoked his citizenship.

- 1995 had several major attacks: al-Gamaat al-Islamiyya tried to kill Mubarak in Ethiopia; ELF
blew up Egyptian Embassy in Pakistan; in Saudi, a bomb at office connected to Saudi National
Guard killed 5 Americans. UBL cited in latter two attacks

- under increasing pressure, Sudan evicts UBL in 1996 (132)

Ch. 4 Raiders on the Path of God

- core al-Qaeda strategy is to gain control of nation. Hoped it would be Sudan. When he moved
to Afghanistan in May 1996, the Taliban were taking over.

- good relationship quickly established (138)

- UBL supplied Taliban with weapons and fighters to attack Northern Alliance, as well as $ and
vehicles (139). UBL saw move to Afghanistan as echo of Hijra, Mohammed's move to Medina
when he had to flee Mecca

- UBL had operated in shadows in Sudan; now he came out publicly. First published fatwa soon
after arrival in Afghanistan, "Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of
the Two Holy Places. Published in al-Quds al-Arabi, London paper often used by al-Qaeda.
Zionist-Crusader Alliance is waging war against Islam. Heavy focus also on Saudi rulers

- Some UBL companies in Sudan may have continued operating, providing $, but money more
likely came from donations — wealthy donors in Gulf; some $ came from (diverted from?)
Islamic charities propagating Wahabi Islam (143-144). Al-Qaeda operatives also took jobs in
these charities.
- Also, Pakistan's ISI may have partly underwritten al-Qaeda in return for training Kashmiri
terrorists. In 1994, Pakistan decided to subsidize training of militants in al-Qaeda affiliated
training camps in Afghanistan. Lashkar e-Tayba and HUM helped. (146)

- "The training camps flourished" for other groups as well, e.g., Chechnya, Islamic Movement of
Uzbekistan, others. "Groups redoubled its efforts to bring aboard Muslims who had US or
European passports and could be infiltrated into Western countries."

- special camp in Derunta for poisons and chemical weapons; "desire to procure wmd remained a
central ambition of the leaders"

- 3/97: first UBL interview with Western journalist: "The concentration at this point of jihad is
against the American occupiers." 2 months later, to ABC news, he said that removal of US
troops from Saudi would not halt his jihad, until US desisted from all aggression against
Muslims. (147)

- per UBL, war with Jews is inevitable. (148)

- second (published) fatwa, 2/98: US occupying holy places in Saudi; massacring Iraqis; serving
Israel. "A clear declaration of war on God . . . and Muslims. To kill the Americans and their
allies - civilians and military - is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any
country in which it is possible to do it." Signed by UBL, al-Zawahiri, and leaders of other groups
from Egypt, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. (148-150)

- about this time, Embassy bombers given training, asked to do jihad job

- simultaneous bombings similar in concept to NY landmarks conspiracy.

— Together with fatwa, embassy bombings intended to assert UBL's primary. US and other
countries began to take serious measures against al-Qaeda; but UBL became household name,
adorned T-shirts in Pakistan. Group adapted to restrictions on moving $, and increased
communications security (encrypted Internet messages; disposable cell phones; face to face

- maintained strategy os seeking massive blows, i.e., millenium conspiracies.

- Then succeeded with Cole attack, which was used in recruitment video. (154)

- As international sanctions tightened on Taliban, they refused to cut UBL loose. Only Pakistani
intelligence, radical Islamists elsewhere, and UBL were supporting Taliban.

- Sept. 11: what was objective? In 12/27 video, UBL said that if US economy destroyed, will
not enslave Islamic world. Per Benjamin, UBL also trying to boost his standing and claim to
leadership of the world's Muslims; and hoping to trigger US retaliation that will "prove" US
hatred of Muslims. UBL saw Sept. 11 as leading to a Muslim religious revival and conversions
to Islam. Parallels to Muslim apocalyptic literature.

- Al-Qaeda has tried to get WMD for a decade, and UBL has repeatedly asserted that Muslims
have a right to possess nuclear weapons. If he got them, he'd probably use them. He said in
12/27 video, "God willing, the end of America is imminent." (160-161)

- per UBL, all 19 hijackers knew it was a "martyrdom operation," although the 10 Saudi
"musclemen" may have been in the dark until very late. They joined the opearation in the final
months. Al-Shehi was together with Atta from Hamburg on, and subordinate to him. But Atta
knew what he was doing. 5 page document found in his luggage (2 other copies found, one in
Dulles rental car, another in wreckage of UA 93 in Pennsylvania), and he is most likely author.

- document meant to spiritually and practically prepare those who read it. Killing as ritual

Ch. 5. Fields of Jihad

- Although al-Qaeda badly damaged after 9/11, 1) even if it does not survive, some similar group
will take up the cudgel; 2) US will continue to be primary target.

- UBL's popularity is remarkable. "The Arab street exulted in the September 11 attacks."

- many important operatives and leaders still loose. "Of the group's U.S. network, nothing is
known so far. The FBI believes that the September 11 ring acted without help from cells already
in the country, but it cannot prove a negative."

- Al-Qaeda able to relocate in part to Pakistan and Iran, some still in Afghanistan. Could
reappear in Yemen, Somalia, or Lebanon.

- dispersal had advantages, e.g., less concentrated target. Can continue to use hawalas, encrypted
communications, false passports, and frtont business and charities. (169)

- "As a network of networks, al-Qaeda is structured to survive multiple amputations, and even
decapiration." WTC success powerful incentive to continue, and so is support from some
religious authorities and media. So US will continue to be attacked as long as al Qaeda can do
so. (170-171)

- may also continue to fight the "near enemy," i.e., the illegit. Muslim regimes. And they may
succeed, since fundamentalist Islam is growing force, and regimes are fundamentally illegitimate.

- Also, radical Islamist appeal growing in Europe (174-175); unexpected events could give them
an opening in Moslem countries; population explosion in Islamic world; economies and societies
are stagnating; bad living conditions; water problems. "In country after country, the scourges of
population growth, economic dysfunction, urbanization, and resource scarcity nourish radical
Islam." (179)
- claims Saudi Arabia failed to cut off $ from wealthy Saudis to radical groups (186)

- Wahabi Islam an intolerant menace in Saudi schools and in other Muslim countries that Saudi
sends clerics to. (187)

- In Jordan, homegrown jihadi movement; huge difference between millenium plot and earlier
plots is involvement of al-Qaeda in millenium. (190)

- "Al-Qaeda has been working hard to gain a foothold in the Israeli field of jihad." Links with
Usbat al-Ansar, Sunni group in Lebanon that is menace even by Lebanese standards. There is
evidence Hamas is beginning to coordinate with al-Qaeda. Shoe bomber Richard Reid cased
tallest building in Israel. Thus far, Hamas has not targeted Americans. [But note Hamas calls for
jihad against US in Iraq]

- bin-Laden fiannced splinter group from GIA active in Algeria (198)

- Kashmir: as native Kashmiri opposition to India waned in 90s, Pakistani ISI funnelled religious
fighters into Kashmir. "By the end of 1998, conflict over sovereignty had been transformed into
a jihad fought against Hindus by Muslims. The jihadists were determined to spark an Indo-
Pakistani war." Pakistan thought it was using the jihadists; but the jihadists thought they were
using the govt. Growth of the madrassas. (198-202)

- 12/13/01 attack by Jaish e-Mohammed on Indian Parliament forced Pakistan to take serious
steps against jihadists. 12/14/02 attempt to destroy US consulate in Karachi

- "The security of Pakistan's nuclear weapons components and nuclear design skills is also open
to question." Former nuke scientist for Pakistan named Mahmoud and colleague Abdul Majid
admitted talking to UBL, al-Zawahiri, and others in Aug. 2001 and discussing WMD. Mahmoud
had been disciplined for saying Pakistan should share weapons-grade plutonium with other
Moslem nations. UBL "was interested in nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and sought
advice on how to build a dirty bomb . . . that would disperse radioactive material al-Qaeda had
either received, or expected to get from IMU." Mahmoud's NGO in Kabul had documents on
the history of anthrax, gas masks, and diagrams for the dispersal of bio. or chem. weapons.

- Central Asia: growth in Wahabism in 1990s. Civil war in Tajikstan. IMU, led by Namangani,
rebelled in 1998 in Uzbekistan. IMU allied with al-Qaeda and Taliban for arms and bases; IMU
fought against Northern Alliance. But Namangani and many of his fighters killed in US war on
Taliban. Other groups have arisen, however, Hizbat Tahrir and a Sunni Hezbollah

- Southeast Asia (southern Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore): jihad veteran
Hambali and group he leads, Jemaah Islamiah, is part of al-Qaeda network and has been
connected to Bojinka and to Sept. 11. "His work bears the hallmarks of al-Qaeda operations:
simultaneous attacks, split-second timing, and pursuit of mass casualties." Church bombings in
Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur in Dec. 2000 that killed 35. Singapore cell coordinated directly with
al-Qaeda leaders in Afghanistan (plans for attack and surveillance video found in Atef s house).
Plan to attack US naval vessels in Singapore's port, and for simulataneous attacks against US and
other embassies. Hambali met with 2 9/11 hijackers (al-Midhar and al-Hazmi) in 1/2000.
Indonesians have not fully cooperated, [note: this is pre-Bali]

- Europe: Western Europe has been al-Qaeda's logistics base and recruiting center; by 2001, it
was also a target of operations. Millenium and Sept. 11 conspiracies staged in part from UK and
Germany. Al-Qaeda conspired to attack Strasbourg Cathedral; US embassies in Rome and Paris;
commit massacre in Bosnia; kill Pres. Clinton in Genoa; attack British navy in Gibraltar. Has
had a presence in at least 12 European cities and recruited many operatives. Alienated Muslims,
plus radical preachers (in UK, Omar Bakri; Abu Qatada (now in custody); Abu Hamza al-Masri).
Moslems in prison also susceptible, such as Richard Reid, and Muslim chaplains have done the
recruiting. Recuitment tape by GSPC, bin-Laden affiliated group in Algeria. Converts to Islam
especially prized.

- "An Islamic Army has slowly formed in Europe, the product of exclusion, subversive
preaching, and a stready influx of radicals from the Middle East, North Africa,and South Asia.
The jihadists fill out its ranks with ethnic Europeans. It has been mobilized by al-Qaeda for the
assault against the Crusaders on their own territory." (215)

Ch. 11