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1- PETROBRAS DISTRIBUIDORA S.A. 2010 Long thought to be inexhaustible, fossil fuels have been used extensively since the Industrial Revolution. 25 However, many believe that the world is using fossil fuels at an unsustainable rate. Some experts believe that the world has already reached its peak for oil extraction and production, and that it is only a matter of time before natural gas and coal follow suit. These near-term 30 concerns about oil supply have led to increasing focus on, and exploration of, alternative sources of petroleum, such as in tar sands and oil shale.
Paragraph 3 (lines 23-32) introduces the idea that (A) oil reached the maximum volume of sales last century. (B) alternative sources of fuel are being employed at their peak capacity. (C) the world consumption of fossil fuels has been growing uncontrollably. (D) natural gas and coal are not suitable as replacements of oil in industrial settings. (E) fossil fuels emerged as the major energy source long before the Industrial Revolution.
” 70 “What is required is to operate without fear and to take energy transitions on as a developmental opportunity. They can combine with water vapor in the air to form acidic compounds that create acid rain.2. EXCEPT (A) acid rain (B) water vapor (C) ash emissions (D) greenhouse gas (E) sulfur.” Black said. are released into the atmosphere. including ash. Thus. fossil fuels must be burned. According to paragraph 4 (lines 33-42). Primary releases are sulfur.A. a greenhouse gas that scientists believe is key factor in global climate change. an energy historian at Pennsylvania State University. nitrogen. It is during this combustion process that a 35 variety of emissions and particulates. “Energy transitions happen and I argue that we’re in one right now. 2010 “I would see this as less of an anniversary to note for celebration and more of an anniversary to note how far we’ve come and the serious moment that we’re at 15 right now. which can be harmful to the environment. .” said Brian Black. all the elements below result from the burning of fossil fuels.A. nitrogen and carbon releases 3. we need to aggressively look to the future to what’s going to happen after petroleum. and carbon.PETROBRAS DISTRIBUIDORA S. 2010 To release their stored energy. and 40 burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide.PETROBRAS DISTRIBUIDORA S.
A.PETROBRAS DISTRIBUIDORA S. 4. Alexis Madrigal shows concern for the (A) convenient implications of oil addiction to the ecological balance. (D) taken as fearful periods in which people feel hopeless about the unstable supply and distribution of energy. energy transitions should be (A) understood as phases of uncertainty when historians become more serious and aggressive. The big question now is whether the cure for our oil addiction will come with a heavy carbon side effect. . 2010 50 Yet humans with an economic incentive to be optimistic become optimists.According to Brian Black in paragraphs 3 (lines 12-19) and 13 (lines 70-72). (E) considered serious moments in history since they always bring unexpected and dangerous consequences. (B) choice of heavy carbon as an easy alternative fuel to substitute oil. the more possible alternatives we find. (B) celebrated as a special event that represents the end of nonlucrative periods in oil production. (D) environmental impact of the sources of energy that might replace oil. In paragraph 9 (lines 50-54). (C) seen as opportunities to reflect on past achievements and evaluate the right investments for the future. and the harder we look. (C) few alternative sources of energy that would effectively replace oil. (E) optimistic human beings who pay incentives to choose alternatives to oil.
along with Guara. With oil production averaging 1. among the very favorable oil reserves in the Santos Basin. The oil lies under more than 2. Other big discoveries in the area include Tupi. who both produce 2.000 meters under sand. the extra capacity might lift Brazil’s output to levels similar 45 to Latin America’s two main oil producers.000 barrels/day under a pilot project scheduled to start next year. In paragraph 2 (lines 9-17).000 meters of water and a further 5. and with BG and Spanish Repsol in the second.1 billion and 2 billion barrels of oil equivalent. the author suggests that Tupi is (A) a region in the Western Hemisphere that will produce up to 1. (B) as poor in oil prospects as Guara has been found to be.PETROBRAS DISTRIBUIDORA S. 2010 35 Two successful wells—Caramba and Guara— have already been drilled in the Sugar Loaf field by Petrobras in association with Portuguese Galp Energy in the first case.1 billion barrels of oil.9m b/d in 2008. . (D) solely responsible for all the good news about oil finds in Brazil.5-3m b/d. production from Tupi alone is expected to reach around 1m b/d by 2012.A.5. (E) included. 6. rock and a shifting layer of salt. which was the Western Hemisphere’s largest discovery in more 15 than 30 years. Projected initial production at Tupi is estimated 40 at 100. In the medium term. Venezuela and Mexico. (C) the most promising oil source in the world discovered in the 30s.PETROBRAS BRASILEIRO 2010 Good news flowing from drilling campaigns in 10 Brazil’s deep water continued Tuesday when Petrobras said its Guara prospect in the Santos Basin holds between 1.
nowadays. we have to make better use of the remaining resources by improving 25 energy efficiency.PETROBRAS 2008 Sugar cane and canebased ethanol became a more important energy source than hydroelectric power plants in Brazil’s overall energy complex last year. (E) struggle to be Latin America’s two most productive nations in energy capacity. (C) ethanol derived from sugar-cane has surpassed all other forms of power generation in Brazil.’ . Head of the Low Carbon Mobility centre at the Smith School. the most productive sources of energy in Brazil. (B) petroleum and oil products must be the top priority of the Brazilian government. 7. (E) hydroelectric plants and cane-based ethanol are.PETROBRAS BIOCOMBUSTÍVEL 2010 Dr Oliver Inderwildi. (B) will associate with Petrobras in exploring the Santos Basin. There is not sufficient land to cater for both food and fuel demand. followed by sugar-cane ethanol and hydroelectric power. 8. (C) are currently known as the main oil producers in Latin America. said: ‘The common belief that alternative fuels such as biofuels could 20 mitigate oil supply shortages and eventually replace fossil fuels is pie in the sky.Venezuela and Mexico are mentioned in paragraph 5 (lines 35-46) because they (A) announced output levels similar to those of Brazil for 2012. (D) rival with Brazil in terms of projected initial production for their new oil reserves. Instead of relying on those silver bullet solutions. it is correct to say that (A) petroleum and oil products are the most significant energy sources in Brazil. topped only by petroleum and oil products. Based on Paragraph 1. (D) hydroelectric plants have always been the most efficient source of energy in Brazil. Alternatives such as a hydrogen economy and electric transportation are not mature and will only play a major role in the medium to long term.
(B) more demand for oil will certainly not interfere with the current support for ecological programs to reduce carbon emissions. (C) further investments in newly found oil reserves will be the only alternative to help maintain future energy stability in the world. Mitigating the oil effect without using lower grade resources such as tar sands is the key to maintaining energy stability and a low carbon future. (C) There is enough soil available in the world for the production of agricultural products to meet the needs of both food and energy. 9. political and financial objectives have led to misreporting of oil reserves. (E) the exploration of lower grade resources seems to be the best solution to conform to the environmental policies in favor of low carbon emissions.’ 35 The Smith School paper also highlights that in the past.PETROBRAS BIOCOMBUSTÍVEL 2010 Nick Owen. from the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment. like hydrogen. (D) It is more advisable to start using energy more efficiently than to depend on alternative solutions that are not yet entirely developed. since tar sands are more abundant and less expensive to drill.Dr. added: ‘Significant oil supply 30 challenges will be compounded in the near future by rising demand and strengthening environmental policy. are still not foreseen as productive in the immediate future. Nick Owen believes that: (A) stricter environmental regulations will impose even more restrictions on the already heavy challenges in oil supply. Oliver Inderwildi supports all of the following statements EXCEPT (A) Alternative energy sources. (D) shifting to fuel production from tar sands can reduce the oil problems. (E) Using electricity for transportation and reducing the dependence on oil are unripe strategies that still have a minor impact in the current scenario. which has led to contradictory estimates of oil reserve data available in the public domain. . (B) It is illusory to believe that the production of alternative fuels will make up for the decline in oil supply.
This challenge will have a longer term effect on our economies unless 45 swift action is taken by governments and business. (B) the tipping point in oil production will not affect the underdeveloped economies of the world. commented: ‘We have to face up to a future of oil uncertainty much like the global economic uncertainty we have faced during the past two years. development and deployment of low carbon alternatives are the sole responsibility of university researchers. We all recognise that oil is a finite resource. We need to look at other low carbon alternatives and make the necessary funding available for research.’ In paragraph 7 (lines 40-50).10. Director of the Smith School. (D) more money has to be spent on financing new fuel technologies that produce low carbon emissions. (E) research. development 50 and deployment today if we are to mitigate the tipping point. Sir David King’s main comment is that: (A) other low carbon alternatives are not available to replace the finite oil resources. Achivements Acid raid Addiction Advisable Already Around Ash Balance Become Bring Burn Carbon Concern Currently Deploymental development Harmless Highlight Hopeless Inexhaustible Instead of Land Lead-led-led Less Lift Low Main Maintain Major Matter of time mitigate Drill Emerge Employ Entirely Environment Eventually Experts Face up Fearful Find-found-found Foresee Fossil fuel Funding Further Greenhounse gases Harmful .PETROBRAS BIOCOMBUSTÍVEL 2010 40 Sir David King. (C) business and governments are not expected to take quick measures to face the world economic problems.
More Near-term Nitrogen Output Pepper Peak Pie in the sky Play a role Rate Reach Release Rely on Remain Replacement Require Research Right now Sale Schedule Setting Shale Shifting Shortage Side effect Silver bullet solution Since Soil Sole Source Store Strengthen Strict Struggle Sugar cane Suit Sulfur Supply Swift Tar sand Tipping point Top Underdeveloped Understand Unstable Unsustainable Well Whether With without .