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The greatest polluting element in the earths environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields.

I consider that to be a far greater threat on a global scale than warming, or the increase of chemical elements in the environment. Dr. Robert Becker, two-time Nobel nominee, author and EMRadiation research founder on ABC (Australia) Radio The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. During recent years, the use of mobile phones has increased substantially and has been paralleled by a growing concern about the effects on health attributed to exposure to the electromagnetic fields produced by them and their base stations. Demonstrating that radiation causes adverse effects on health would signal a widespread public health problem. Mobile

phones are playing a key part in improving medical services in third world countries and even advancing medical options in first world nations. However, not all is good when it comes to mobile phones and health. There are a lot of people who think that mobile phones cause a great number of diverse health problems. Whether this is true or not is mostly undetermined but fears about health problems caused by cell phones still have some people worried. The effect public concerns about the possible health effects of mobile phones receive a lot of coverage in the media. Because so many people use mobile phones, medical researchers are concerned that any associated health risks, even small ones, could cause significant public health problems. However all these concerns mainly stay as the way it is. Most of the research simply put into a halt when it comes to resolving the matter. Nevertheless according to Rachel Gallo (2011), one of the authors in the Bizmology stated that cell phone manufacturers could put their engineers to work to find inexpensive modifications or additions to the design of their phones. She further explained that many mobile company produces a lot new design almost every day complete with great features which makes the possibility of having designing a phones with new and improve safety precaution for mobile phones. Basically, mobile phone manufacturers should lead the way on changing phone design to address the issue. Until now there have been concerns that mobile phones were causing increases in brain tumours. Interphone is both large and rigorous enough to address this claim, and it has not provided any convincing scientific evidence of an association between mobile phone use and the development of glioma or meningioma. While the study demonstrates some weak evidence of an association with the highest tenth of cumulative call time, the authors conclude

that biases and errors limit the strength of any conclusions in this group. It now seems clear that if there was an effect of mobile phone use on brain tumour risks in adults, this is likely to be too small to be detectable by even a large multinational study of the size of Interphone. According to the Oxford Journal of the National Cancer Institute states that, in 2006 a large Danish group studied about the connection between mobile phone use and cancer incidence was published. It followed over 420,000 Danish citizens for 20 years and showed no increased risk of cancer. However, according to www.mobilewise.org founded by Professor Dennis Henshaw, the research shows that there are now more than 200 peer-reviewed published studies pointing to a link between prolonged mobile phone use and serious health damage. The evidence is both wide-ranging and compelling. The possible health risks identified include not only brain tumours but also damage to fertility, genes, the blood brain barrier and melatonin production as well as other biological effects thought to have a role in cancer development. The largest body of evidence concerns brain tumours. Almost every study of prolonged mobile phone use roughly half-an-hour a day for 10 years causes finding such as, an increased risk of brain tumours. Several large-scale studies have found a doubling of the risk after only 10 years use. This evidence contributed to the recent classification of mobile phone radiation as possibly carcinogenic by the World Health Organizations scientific panel. And given the average latency period for brain tumours of about 30 years, these findings may well be the tip of the iceberg: the full effects may not show up in statistics for at least a generation. This further explained by Emilia Snchez (2006) which stated that, Epidemiological studies in general populations, such as communities, concentrate on a possible causal relationship between mobile phone use and the occurrence of brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, tumours of the salivary glands, and leukaemia and lymphomas. Although weak and inconclusive, most of the evidence available does not suggest that there are adverse effects on health attributable to long term exposure to radio-frequency and microwave radiation from mobile phones. However, recent studies have reported an increased risk of acoustic neuroma and some brain tumours in people who use an analogue mobile phone for more than 10 years. For the majority of tumours studied so far, a long latency period might exist, and the finding of any link to the use of mobile phones is complex. Consequently, most of the published research cannot elucidate the risk of long-term effects. If there is a risk, the current evidence suggests it is small which basically suggesting that the risk of having health problem might not be in the recent years but probably takes a toll towards longer years which somehow makes it even more dangerous.

The effects of mobile phones does not only concern the risk of a health problem but also the risk of physical injuries that is caused by accident especially on the road. Distracted driving is a serious and growing threat to road safety. With more and more people owning mobile phones, and the rapid introduction of new in- vehicle communication systems, this problem is likely to escalate globally in the coming years. However, to date there is insufficient evidence on the risks associated with different sources of distraction, and what interventions can be put into place to reduce their impact upon road traffic crashes. There are different types of driver distraction, but the use of mobile phones while driving is of primary concern to policy-makers. Evidence suggests that this behaviour is increasing rapidly as a result of the exponential growth in the use of mobile phones more generally in society. Nonetheless, mobile phone use may be considered as one example of the broader problem of driver distraction. According to World Health Organization(WHO) newsletter, studies from a number of countries suggest that the proportion of drivers using mobile phones while driving has increased over the past 510 years, ranging from 1% to up to 11% at any one moment, with the use of hands-free mobile phones likely to be higher. In many countries the extent of this problem remains unknown, as data on mobile phone use is not routinely collected when a crash occurs. It is also showed some studies suggest that drivers using a mobile phone are approximately four times more likely to be involved in a crash than when a driver does not use a phone. At the time of writing, there is no conclusive evidence to show that hands-free phoning is any safer than hand-held phoning, because of the cognitive distraction involved with both types of phones. Using mobile phones can cause drivers to take their eyes off the road, their hands off the steering wheel, and their minds off the road and the surrounding situation. It is this last type of distraction which is known as cognitive distraction, which appears to have the biggest impact on driving behaviour. According to Centre for Disease and Control, in 2006, Liberty Mutual Insurance Group conducted a survey of more than 90 teens from more than 26 high schools nationwide. The results showed that 37% of students consider texting to be extremely distracting. A study by the American Automobile Association discovered that 47% of teens admitted to being distracted behind the wheel because of texting. This distraction is alarming, because 40% of all American teens say they have been in a car when the driver used a cell phone in a way that put people in danger. The risk of crashing while texting increases by 23 times, because reading or sending a text diverts the driver's eyes from the road for an average of 4.6 secondsthe same as driving the length of a football field, blind, at 55 mph. it is also stated a number of countries have taken steps to legislate on mobile phone use, and a wide range of laws are being adopted like for some countries focus

laws on particular high-risk groups, such as young drivers, while others have applied a blanket ban on use of all mobile phones such as hand- held and hands-free, still others have taken the decision not to legislate at all on this issue. Whether or not laws prohibiting the use of mobile phones should be introduced, and who they should apply to, are decisions to be taken by national, state or provincial policy- makers, and will depend in part on the ability for enforcement to be continuous. Policy decisions on legislation should be based on the best scientific evidence available which to date, there is a lack of research that examines the effectiveness of legislation in sustaining reduced levels of use of mobile phones and even less evidence on the effects of these laws in reducing road traffic injuries or fatalities. Mobile phones have immense public utility, improving communication in social and commercial interactions. Nonetheless, their role in driver distraction and consequently in road traffic crashes means that some measure of controlling their use while driving is required. This will require legislative measures, creative ways of enforcement, some degree of regulation of industry, and a shift in societal perceptions about what behaviour is acceptable while behind the wheel. Although work to generate evidence in this area is in its infancy relative to other aspects of road safety, it is important for governments to be proactive now. Considerable gains have been made in the area of road safety in many countries in the past few decades. If we are to maintain and improve on these gains, then managing the risks and benefits of technologies that are used while driving will be critical. Failure to act now could not only make it more difficult to address the issue at a later date, but would also lead to many more preventable traffic injuries and deaths on roads around the world. In almost every country studied, mobile phones have created new problems for social order. Although cell phones are a valued and powerful tool for communication

and for the maintenance of social relationships, there are aspects of cell phones which are problematic, and many societies are discussing problems power and ubiquity of cell phones. The that ability has have to arisen not created due to the

only transmit new

voice, but also to collect and record visual images

challenges for societies in terms of new conflicts between personal freedom of expression and rights to privacy. The and ability to communicate despite exciting possibilities separation in time and This

space provides new

for communication with others.

new availability is considered to be very positive, but at the same time creates conflicts. New conflicts and challenges are not only relevant positive to mobile phones but to other new forms of new communication technology. According to Elizabeth Keating from University of

Texas, there are eight important dimensions to this problem. First dimension is disruptions of established patterns of communication and behaviour. Second dimension is

stress on social relationships due to these disruptions. Third dimension is new challenges managing antisocial behaviours. Fourth dimension is conflict between liberation in mobility and control in terms of expectations to be available. Fifth dimension is new dependence on technological connections via cell phone. Sixth dimension is managing simultaneous contexts and spaces with different expectations and behaviours. Seventh dimension is new private versus public boundary issues. And lastly the eighth dimension is

problems with the camera phone and the unauthorized transmission of visual information which in 2005, 2 million cell phones were sold in Norway and 800,000 were phones with cameras and the number is increasing as years goes by. According to Kenichi ISHII (2011), mobility is the new paradigm that outlines the vision of communications media today. Much of the Japanese population own cellular phones, most of which are equipped with enhancements such as video and camera capabilities. As of May 2008, 31.3% of elementary school students, and 57.6% of middle school students own a cell phone, with many of them accessing the internet through them. This pervasiveness and the particularities of their usage lead to the development of a mobile phone culture, or "keitai culture." The word Keitai comes from the word keitai denwa which simply means mobile phones in Japanese. These devices enable people to connect with others and to ameliorate the loneliness and sense of separation many people feel in modern societies. This is particularly the case with adolescents, who have powerful needs for affiliation, who suffer from anxiety about what they are to become, and who often feel alienated and estranged from their parents, other members of their families, and perhaps society itself. Cell phones and the social media represent a major transformation in the way societies function. The ubiquity of cell phones and the popularity of the social media are signifiers of a new social order in which anyone and almost everyone can make their presence known, by sending messages, photos, and videos that potentially can be accessed by a huge number of people. This has had the effect of breaking the monopoly on sending messages in the mass media that was held by traditional media such as radio, television, magazines, and newspapers. The popularity of cell phones and social media can also be seen as a signifier of the loneliness, alienation, and sense of separation that modern societies generate. In conclusion, No other device has been diffused as rapidly as the mobile phone, but its social impact is unknown. This project aims to provide a sound empirical research base for assessing

the impact of the mobile phone on work or life balance. In particular, it examines the ways in which the mobile phone affords perpetual social contact. The invention and diffusion of information and communication technologies are said to be revolutionising work and family life. Thus, whenever the knowledge of both the technical and the human factors are incorporated into current design, the devices can meet the demands of users, designers, and manufacturers at the same time. A final surplus refers to the expansive nature of the utility of the outcomes. As complex mobile devices continue to proliferate, being used by a broad user group and in a wide range of business and social fields, the applicability of the outcomes of this research is considerably large. Which is why, any individual need to take some precaution measures in term of health and social interaction.