Notes on Booth, Wayne C. Et al.

(2008); The Craft of research; Chicago Press, 317 p

Part I Topic>thesis>note cards>draft>revision Problem>argument>anticipate reservations>Introduction, conclusion>reader/writer At a glance How to find a topic - Create research problem, Find sources, Engage sources, Research argument, Evaluate claim, Judge evidence, Respond to objections, Logic of arguments Report draft - Draft, Test draft Evidence Introduction and conclusion Edit style Wy research?: To better understand what you read, No solitary work but conversation Ethics of research Remember, understanding, testing your thinking when you write for others, you demand more of yourself than when you write for yourself alone, Writing is thinking Connecting with your readers Reader’s roles Seeking entertainment, solve a practical problem, better understanding Predict how the readers will react Part II Asking questions, finding answers Steps to find a research problem 1. Specific topic Create a list of topics Look up each topic Focus topic 2. Questions W5 = what, who, when, where and why Focus on HOW and why Ask what if? - Ask questions that reflect disagreement, Evaluate the questions, Speculative, dead ends, byzantine Find the significance of the question - What happens when you know the answer?, Name the toipc Add indirect question Answer so, what? Questions 3. Determine evidence needed 4. Determine whether you can find 3 History Structure and composition Categorize - group into kinds Turn positive questions into negative questions Chapter 4 From questions to a problem Practical problems - what to do? Academic research prob - conceptual Common structure of problems - Situation, Undesirable consequences of not solving it, Cost, Consequence Distinguish “pure” vs “applied” research - Look for practical consequences - The question is not “can I solve the problem”. It is “will readers think it should be solved? From problems to sources Sources - Primary-raw data, Secondary-Reports, Tertiary synthesis on secondary Consult - General reference, Specialized Reference

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Notes on Booth, Wayne C. Et al. (2008); The Craft of research; Chicago Press, 317 p

Evaluate reliability Author sponsors current? - Includes bibliography?, Well reviewed?, Cited Follow bibliographical trails Chapter 6 ENGAGE SOURCES Know the kind of data, Read important sources twice Part III Making a claim and supporting it: Organize topics to support an argument Chapter 7 Making good arguments Claims <-Assertion, Reasons Support claims Build a complex argument, Thicken (create ethos) Chapter 8 CLAIMS Conceptual, Practical Evaluate - Specific = "this because Hat", Make significant Ch 9 -> Assembling reasons + Evidence Evidence is a known, shared fact Report of evidence = when you describe the evidence, such as MRI tests or brain cells Be Accurate, Precise, sufficient, representative - Reader's question, What is the problem?, Is it conceptual or pragmatic?, Current, representative, The reader always ask for more evidence. Acknowledging objection Despite / Regardless / Nowithstanding /although / While / even though / seem / appear / may / could, May have / plausibly has Attribute alternatives to unnamed sources Attribute to a more specific source Acknowledge an alternative in your own voice. Three predictable disagreements: There are causes, in addition to the one you claim. What about these counterexamples. I don't define × as you do. To me, X means... Chapter 11 -> Warrants Academic warrants = commonplace, we all share True + limited + appropriate + specific; Stale warrants when readers are outside of your field Challenge other's warrants->Arguments Part IV: Drafting and revising You plan a draft when Know the readers, Know the ethos, Sketch Q&A in 2 or 3 sentences Hypothesis -> answer -> solution -> claim -> point Chanter 12 -> Planning Introduction -> Methods and material Result-Discussion-Conclusion Do not tell the story Do not patch everything together Introduction -> sketch brief Summary -> only key points Sketch answer to "what if we don't Find out?" State point at the end of the introduction and at the beginning of the conclusion Sketch background and define terms Create a page for each major section Find the order Part by part Chronological Short to long Simplest to complex

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Notes on Booth, Wayne C. Et al. (2008); The Craft of research; Chicago Press, 317 p

Chapter 13 Drafting Key Words Quote, Paraphrase, summarize Cite sources for every quotation, paraphrase and summ. Chapter 14 Reusing organization and argument Think like a reader Readers must recognize -> Where the Intro stops Where the conclusion begins What sentence in both states the main point Revise argument Identify substance Evaluate quality - Evidence - Qualification - Warrants are complete or not? Revise organization Key Terms Abstract Research problem + key themes + Main point + Summary. Chapter 15 Communicating evidence - Different graphics Chapter 16 Introduction and conclusions 1. Establish a common ground Contextualize background State the problem Response to the problem 2. State the problem Condition + consequences 3. State the response Solution Promise to a solution 4. Writing the conclusion 1. Start with the main point 2. Add new significance. 3. Call for more research Openings Striking fact - Striking quotation - Relevant anecdote Chapter 17 Revise style Two principles of clear writing Distinguish impressions from causes - Subjects, characters, verbs, nouns, actions Use active voice Old before new - Make the first 6 for 7 words familiar to the reader. Add complexity last Finally, spit and polish Part V Last considerations Ethics of research Research is a profoundfy Social activity Final note for teachers: Be good.

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