CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

ARTICLE 1. THIS ACT SHALL BE KNOWN AS THE CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES.  IT WAS PREPARED BY THE ROXAS CODE COMMISSION HEADED BY DR. JORGE C. BOCOBO THRU EO NO. 48 OF PRESIDENT MANUEL ROXAS ON MARCH 20, 1947.  MEMBERS  JUDGE GUILLERMO GUEVARA  DEAN PEDRO YLAGAN  FRANCIS CAPISTRANO  ARTURO TOLENTINO – HE RESIGNED IN THE
COMMISSION DUE TO HIS ELECTION AS A CONGRESSMAN IN MANILA.

FOLLOWING THE COMPLETION OF ITS PUBLICATION EITHER IN

 

DR. CARMELINO ALVENDIA – WAS APPOINTED AS A REPLACEMENT OF ARTURO TOLENTINO. THEY STARTED DRAFTING FROM MAY 8, 2012 AND ENDED ON DECEMBER 15, 1947. ON JANUARY 26, 1949, THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES PASSED REPUBLIC ACT NO. 386. JULY 19, 1949 – PUBLICATION AUGUST 30, 1949 – CIRCULATION AUGUST 30, 1950 - EFFECTIVITY SOURCES OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE 1. SPANISH CIVIL CODE OF 1889. 2. FOREIGN LAWS SUCH AS THE CIVIL CODES OF ARGENTINA, ENGLAND, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, MEXICO, SWITZERLAND, UNITED STATES (PARTICULARLY CALIFORNIA AND LOUISIANA). 3. FOREIGN JUDICIAL DECISIONS, COMMENTS AND TREATIES OF FOREIGN JURISTS. 4. DOCTRINAL DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT. 5. PHILIPPINE LAWS SUCH AS MARRIAGE LAW (ACT NO. 3613), DIVORCE LAW (ACT NO. 2710) AND RULES OF COURT. 6. 1935 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES. 7. REPORT OF THE CODE COMMISSION. 8. FILIPINO CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS. CIVIL CODE HAS BEEN DEFINED AS “A COLLECTION OF 
LAWS WHICH REGULATE THE PRIVATE RELATIONS OF THE MEMBERS OF CIVIL SOCIETY, DETERMINING THEIR RESPECTIVE RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS, WITH REFERENCE TO PERSONS, THINGS AND CIVIL ACTS.” – 2 SHERMAN 9

OFFICIAL GAZETTE OR IN A NEWSPAPER OF GENERAL PHILIPPINES. PUBLICATION AND THE FIFTEEN-DAY PERIOD REQUIREMENTS ARE INTENDED TO ENABLE THE PEOPLE TO BECOME FAMILIAR WITH THE STATUTE. THE CLAUSE ‘UNLESS IT IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED” THIS CLAUSE SOLELY REFERS TO THE FIFTEEN-DAY PERIOD AND NOT TO THE REQUIREMENT OF PUBLICATION. PUBLICATION IS AN INDISPENSABLE REQUISITE, AND ABSENCE OF WHICH WILL RENDER THE LAW INEFFECTIVE. 1. IF THE LAW PROVIDES FOR A DIFFERENT PERIOD SHORTER O LONGER THAN THE FIFTEEN-DAY PERIOD, THEN SUCH SHORTER O LONGER PERIOD SHALL PREVAIL. 2. IF THE LAW PROVIDES THAT IT SHALL TAKE EFFECT IMMEDIATELY, IT MEANS THAT IT SHALL TAKE EFFECT IMMEDIATELY AFTER PUBLICATION WITH FIFTEENDAY PERIOD BEING DISPENSED WITH. HOW A NEWSPAPER IS CONSIDERED OF GENERAL CIRCULATION? 1. IF IT IS PUBLISHED AT REGULAR INTERVALS FOR THE
THE CIRCULATION IN THE DISSEMINATION OF LOCAL NEWS AND GENERAL INFORMATION. 2. IT HAS A BONA FIDE SUBSCRIPTION LIST OF PAYING SUBSCRIBERS. 3. IF IT IS NOT DEVOTED TO THE INTEREST OR PUBLISHED FOR THE ENTERTAINMENT OF A PARTICULAR CLASS, PROFESSION, TRADE, CALLING, RACE, OR RELIGIOUS DENOMINATION. PUBLICATION IS REQUIRED FOR THE FOLLOWING: 1. PRESIDENTIAL DECREES AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS 2. ADMINISTRATIVE RULES AND ORDERS 3. BSP CIRCULARS PUBLICATION IS NO LONGER REQUIRED FOR THE FOLLOWING: 1. INTERPRETATIVE REGULATIONS AND THOSE INTERNAL IN NATURE, THAT IS, REGULATING ONLY THE PERSONNEL OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCY AND NOT THE PUBLIC. 2. MUNICIPAL ORDINANCES.

ARTICLE 2. LAWS SHALL TAKE EFFECT AFTER FIFTEEN DAYS FOLLOWING THE COMPLETION OF THEIR PUBLICATION IN THE OFFICIAL GAZETTE, UNLESS IT IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED. THIS CODE SHALL TAKE EFFECT ONE YEAR AFTER SUCH PUBLICATION.  THE 1950 CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES TOOK EFFECT ON AUGUST 30, 1950.  EO NO. 200 HAS BEEN EXPRESSLY AMENDED THE ARTICLE 2 OF THE CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES ON JUNE 18, 1987 BY THE LEGISLATIVE POWER OF PRESIDENT CORAZON AQUINO.  SECTION 1 OF EO NO. 200, LAWS SHALL TAKE EFFECT
AFTER FIFTEEN DAYS FOLLOWING THE COMPLETION OF THEIR

ARTICLE 3. IGNORANCE OF THE LAW EXCUSES NO ONE FROM COMPLIANCE THEREWITH.  SINCE LAWS ARE REQUIRED TO BE PUBLISHED TO INFORM THE PUBLIC, EVERYONE IS CONCLUSIVELY PRESUMED TO KNOW THE LAW.  MISTAKE OF FACT. IGNORANCE OF FACT (IGNORANTIA FACTI) MAY EXCUSE A PARTY FROM THE LEGAL CONSEQUENCES OF HIS CONDUCT. 1. IGNORANCE OF FOREIGN LAW IS A MISTAKE OF FACT. 2. IF AN HEIR IS IGNORANT OF THE DEATH OF HIS FATHER, HE IS AN IGNORANT OF A FACT. 3. MISTAKE AS TO DIFFICULT LEGAL QUESTIONS HAS BEEN GIVEN THE SAME EFFECT AS MISTAKE OF FACT. READ ARTICLES 526, 1334, 2154 AND 2155 OF THE CIVIL CODE. ARTICLE 4. LAWS SHALL HAVE NO RETROACTIVE EFFECT, UNLESS THE CONTRARY IS PROVIDED.  RETROACTIVE LAW IMPAIRS VESTED RIGHTS ACQUIRED UNDER EXISTING LAWS, IT CREATES NEW OBLIGATIONS,

OFFICIAL GAZETTE OR IN A NEWSPAPER OF GENERAL CIRCULATION IN THE PHILIPPINES, UNLESS IT IS OTHERWISE PROVIDED. EFFECTIVITY OF LAWS - WHEN A STATUTE DOES NOT EXPLICITLY PROVIDE FOR ITS EFFECTIVITY, IT SHALL HAVE EFFECT ONLY AFTER THE EXPIRATION OF THE FIFTEEN-DAY
PUBLICATION EITHER IN THE

. OR CLAIMED AS RESULT OF LONG USAGE.  RIGHT IS A POWER. PARAGRAPH 1 OF THE FMILY CODE AUTHORIZES INCUMBENT JUDGES TO OFFICIATE MARRIAGES JURISDICTION. SUCH AS VOIDABLE OR ANNULABLE CONTRACTS. IF A WIDOW REMARRIES WITHIN THE PERIOD OF 301 DAYS.IMPOSES A NEW DUTY. UNDER ARTICLE 349 OF THE REVISED PENAL CODE PUNISHES BIGAMY. OR PREJUDICIAL TO A THIRD PERSON WITH A RIGHT RECOGNIZED BY LAW. AUTHORIZED BY THE POLICE POWER OF THE GOVERNMENT. BY INVALIDATING THE ACT BUT RECOGNIZING THE LEGAL EFFECTS AS FLOWING FROM THE INVALID ACT. PRIVACY AND GOOD REPUTATION. UNLESS THE WAIVER IS CONTRARY TO LAW. FAMILY CODE] ARTICLE 6. FOUR WAYS OF VALIDATING AN ACT OR CONTRACT CONTRARY TO A MANDATORY LAW: 1. 2. SUBJECTS ARE THE PERSONS.6TH ED. MORALS OR GOOD CUSTOMS. BUT ARE CHILDREN BORN BEFORE THE FINAL DECLARATION MARRIAGE CONSIDERED LEGITIMATE [ARTICLE 54. 2. 3. BY PUNISHING IT CRIMINALLY BUT VALIDATING THE ACT. WHEN LAWS CREATE NEW RIGHTS PROVIDED THAT NO VESTED RIGHTS IMPAIRED ARTICLE 7. DIRECTORY LAW – OBSERVANCE OF WHICH IS NOT NECESSARY TO THE VALIDITY OF THE PROCEEDINGS.  MANDATORY AND DIRECTORY LAW. OR ATTACHES NEW DISABILITY THAT AFFECTS A TRANSACTION ALREADY PAST. ARTICLE 351 OF THE REVISED PENAL CODE PUNISHES WIDOWS FOR PREMATURE MARRIAGES. THE MARRIAGE IS VOIDABLE AND ANNULLABLE. CONCEPTS AND DISTINCTIONS 1. THE MARRIAGE REMAINS VALID BUT WITHOUT THE PREJUDICE TO THE PROSECUTION OF THE JUDGE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE OR CRIMINAL LIABILITY. 2.  THE REASON BEHIND THE ARTICLE IS TO PROTECT THE VESTED RIGHTS. THE VICTIM MAY OR MAY NOT HOWEVER OPT TO ANNUL THE MARRIAGE (ARTICLE 45 OF THE FAMILY CODE). NEVERTHELESS. ELEMENTS OF RIGHT 1. NEVERTHELESS. BY MAKING THE INVALIDITY TO DEPEND ON THE WILL OF THE INJURED PARTY. 2. UNDER ARTICLE 36 OF THE FAMILY CODE. 3. HOWEVER. WITHIN THEIR TERRITORIAL HOWEVER.  GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF RIGHTS AS TO CLARITY 1. THE DISCRETION TO ANNUL BELONGS SOLELY TO THE VICTIM OR SIDE OF THE VICTIM. THAT THE OTHER SHALL DO OR NOT DO A GIVEN ACT. RENDERS THE PROCEEDINGS TO WHICH IT RELATES VOID. REM – ONE WHICH IMPOSSES AN OBLIGATION ON A DEFINITE PERSON OR PERSONS GENERALLY. WHEN THE LAW IS CURATIVE IN NATURE THESE ARE LAWS INTENDED TO CORRECT ERRORS OR IRREGULARITIES INCURRED IN JUDICIAL OR ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS AS LONG AS IT DOES NOT IMPAIR OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS.  RIGHT IS A LEGALLY ENFORCEABLE CLAIM OF ONE PERSON AGAINST ANOTHER. NATURAL RIGHTS – ARE THOSE THAT GROW OUT OF NATURE OF MAN AND DEPEND UPON THE CONSIDERED VAILD. FROM PSYCHOLOGICAL OF THE NULLITY INCAPACITY OF THE ARTICLE 2253. 4. PERSONAM – ONE WHICH IMPOSES AN OBLIGATION ON A DEFINITE PERSON. 3. AND SUFFRAGE. ONE IS ACTIVE AND THE SECOND ONE IS PASSIVE. ACTS EXECUTED AGAINST THE PROVISIONS OF MANDATORY OR PROHIBITORY LAWS SHALL BE VOID. WHEN THE LAW IS REMEDIAL IN NATURE THERE ARE NO VESTED RIGHTS IN RULES OF PROCEDURE. IF BIGAMY IS COMMITED PROVIDED IN THE UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCES   ARTICLE 41 OF THE FAMILY CODE. IMPERFECT – WHEN THE SCOPE IS VAGUE AND UNFIXED ARTICLE 5. ARTICLE 22 OF THE REVISED PENAL CODE 5. WHEN CONSENT IN MARRIAGE IS VITIATED IN VIOLENCE OR INTIMIDATION. EQUAL PROTECTION OF LAW.  SUCH ARE THE RIGHTS OF LIFE. EMERGENCY LAWS. CIVIL RIGHTS – THEY INCLUDE THE RIGHTS OF PROPERTY. WHEN RETROACTIVITY. 2. EXCEPT WHEN THE LAW ITSELF AUTHORIZES THEIR VALIDITY.  THE FOLLOWING ARE INSTANCES WHEN A LAW MAY BE GIVEN RETROACTIVE EFFECT AS LONG AS IT DOES NOT VIOLATE CONSTITUTIONAL THE LAW PROVISIONS. 4. PERFECT – WHEN THE SCOPE IS CLEAR. AND FREEDOM OF CONTRACT. STATUES OR DECISIONAL LAWS. PUBLIC POLICY. MARRIAGE. PRIVELLAGE OR IMMUNITY GUARANTEED UNDER A CONSTITUTION. WHEN THE LAW IS PENAL IN CHARACTER AND FAVORABLE TO THE ACCUSED. SETTLED AND DERMINATE. MANDATORY LAW – OMISSION TO FOLLOW WHICH. . PROHIBITORY LAW – ACTS COMMITTED THAT ARE PROHIBITED BY THE LAW ARE LIKEWISE VOID. THE MARRIAGE REMAINS VALID BUT WITHOUD PREJUDICE TO HER CRIMINAL LIABILITY. THE VIOLATION OF MANDATORY LAW RENDERS THE ACT VOID. BY EXPRESSLY VALIDATING THE CONTRACT. POLITICAL RIGHTS – THEY INCLUDE RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP. NOR DESTROYS EXPRESSLY PROVIDES FOR VESTED RIGHTS OF A THIRD PERSON: 3. RIGHTS MAY BE WAIVED. 2. PARAGRAPH 2 (QUIZANA VS REDUGERIO) 6. 1324 OF BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY. PERSONALITY. MANDATORY LAW IS ONE WHICH MUST BE OBSERVED. BIGAMOUS MARRIAGE IS  SUBSEQUENT GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF RIGHTS AS TO THE PASSIVE SUBJECT OF THE RIGHT 1. RIGHTS CLASSIFIED UNDER THE CONSTITUTION 1. ARE OF TWO KINDS. LIBERTY. . IF A JUDGE OFFICIATED A MARRIAGE OUTSIDE HIS JURISDICTION. P. THE MARRIAGE OF A PARTY SUFFERING IS VOID. 1.

ALTHOUGH A LAW HAS FALLEN TO DISUSE. IF THE FIRST LAW WAS REPEALED BY IMPLICATION OF THE SECOND LAW. PUBLIC POLICY. AS WAIVER IS DEPRIVATION OF RIGHT. JURISPRUDENCE – THESE ARE DOCTRINES FORMULATED BY THE DECISIONS OF THE THIS IS AN EXPLICIT CONDITION IMPOSED BY ARTICLE 2 WHICH MUST BE COMPLIED WITH. THE SELF-LAPSING LAWS AUTOMATICALLY BECOME INEFFECTIVE WITHOUT ANY NEED OF FURTHER LEGISLATIVE ACTION. 3. THESE DOCTRINES AMPLIFY AND SUPPLEMENT THE WRITTEN LAW. 2. ONE CANNOT WAIVE WHAT HE DOES NOT HAVE. IT IS OBSCURE OR VAGUE AND INSUFFICIENT IN ITS GUIDANCE. 5.   DISUSE. JUETENG IS ILLEGAL IS – THE VIOLATION OR NOT EXCUSED BY ARTICLE 8. IF INCAPACITATED. AND THE SECOND LAW WAS REPEALED BY THIRD LAW. MORALS OR GOOD CUSTOMS. NEVERTHELESS. AND THE EXECUTIVE EXECUTES THE LAWS AS INTERPRETED BY THE JUDICIARY. AND THE SECOND LAW IS ITSELF REPEALED BY THE THIRD LAW. – SECTION 14 OF THE REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE. WHEN THESE DO HAPPEN. LAWS ARE REPEALED ONLY BY SUBSEQUENT ONES. OBJECT CONSTITUTES THINGS AND SERVICES WHICH ARE INTENDED FOR THE SATISFACTION OF HUMAN WANTS EITHER PHYSICAL OR SPIRITUAL. NO JUDGE OR COURT SHALL DECLINE TO RENDER JUDGMENT BY REASON OF THE SILENCE. WHEN THE COURTS DECLARE A LAW TO BE INCONSISTENT WITH THE CONSTITUTION. UDER THE SEPARATION OF POWERS. REVIVAL OF A REPEALED LAW 1. NULLITY DUE TO UNCONSTITUTIONALITY. 4. ACTIVE SUBJECT IS THE ONE WHO IS ENTITLED TO DEMAND THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE RIGHT. REPEAL – TO REVOKE. THE FIRST LAW IS NOT REVIVED. IS THE INTENTIONAL OR VOLUNTARY RELINQUISHMENT OF KNOWN RIGHT OR SUCH CONDUCT AS WARRANTS AND INFERENCE OF RELINQUISHMENT OF SUCH   THE WAIVER IS INVALID IF: 1. SOMETIMES ALSO. EFFICIENT CAUSE IS THE FACT THAT GIVES RISE TO LEGAL RELATION BETWEEN SUBJECT AND OBJECT.   3. AND THE JUDICIARY MERELY APPLIES OR INTERPRETS THEM IN GIVEN CASES. THE JUDGE IS. JUDICIAL DECISIONS ARE NOT LAWS. UNDER ARTICLE 9. 3. THE WAIVER IS DEFECTIVE FOR LACK OF FREE CONSENT. ONCE THE PERIOD FOR THEIR EFFECTIVITY LAPSES. THE FIRST LAW IS REVIVED UNLESS OTHERWISE PROVIDED IN THE THIRD LAW. 2.  HOW LAWS LOSE THEIR EFFECTIVITY 1. IF THE WAIVER IS PREJUDICIAL TO A THIRD PERSON WITH A RIGHT RECOGNIZED BY LAW. PUBLIC POLICY. OR OWNED AT THE TIME OF THE WAIVER. REPEAL MAY BE EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. HE SHALL NOT ABSTAIN OR DECLINE IN ADJUDGING THE CASE. AND THEIR VIOLATION OR NON-OBSERVANCE SHALL NOT BE EXCUSED BY DISUSES. SELF-CANCELLATION DUE TO THE LAPSE OF THEIR PERIOD OF EFFECTIVITY b. IF THE FIRST LAW WAS REPEALED EXPRESSLY BY THE SECOND LAW. 2. THE RIGHT MUST BE IN EXISTENCE AT THE TIME OF THE WAIVER. UNLESS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED. THE WAIVING PARTY MUST HAVE ACTUALLY HAVE THE RIGHT HE IS RENOUNCING. ALTHOUGH NOT LAWS. JUDICIAL DECISIONS APPLYING OR INTERPRETING THE LAWS OR THE CONSTITUTION SHALL FORM A PART OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF THE PHILIPPINES. PASSIVE SUBJECT IS THE ONE WHO IS DUTY-BOUND TO SUFFER ITS ENFORCEMENTS. WHEN FORMALITIES ARE REQUIRED AS IN THE CASE OF AN EXPRESS CONDONATION OF A DEBT (MANDATING THE FORMALITIES OF DONATION).  JUDICIAL DECISIONS ARE NOT LAWS BUT HAVE THE FORCE AND EFFECT OF LAWS. THE DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT APPLYING OR INTERPRETING THE LAWS OR THE CONSTITUTION BECOMES PART OF THE LEGAL SYSTEM OF THE COUNTRY. THE WAIVER MUST BE CLEAR AND UNEQUIVOCAL. OR CUSTOM OR PRACTICE TO THE CONTRARY. WHILE THERE IS A LAW. SUMMON BACK OR RECALL . ARTICLE 9. 3. CUSTOM OR PRACTICE TO THE CONTRARY 1. THE FORMALITIES ARE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE VALIDITY OF THE ACT. EG. SELF-LAPSING LAWS ARE LAWS WHICH PROVIDE FOR THEIR LIMITED APPLICATION. ADMINISTRATIVE OR EXECUTIVE ACTS. THE JUDGE IS SOMEHOW FORCED TO LEGISLATE IN A LOOSE SENSE OR TO FILL THE EXISTING VACCUUM IN OBSCURE OR INSUFFICIENT LAWS. SUPREME COURT.  WAIVER RIGHT. PUBLIC ORDER. THE WAIVER MUST NOT BE CONTRARY TO LAW. 2. THE FORMER SHALL BE VOID AND LATTER SHALL GOVERN. IT MUST NOT BE FAVORED IN CASE OF DOUBT. THE CONGRESS MAKES THE LAWS. OBSCURITY OR INSUFICIENCY OF THE LAWS. ARTICLE 7. THE FORMALITIES MUST BE COMPLIED WITH. POSSESSED. OR THE CUSTOMS OR PRACTICES OF THE CITIZENRY RUN AGAINST A LAW NON-OBSERVANCE REASON THEREOF. MORALS OR GOOD CUSTOMS OR PREJUDICIAL TO A THIRD PERSON WITH A RIGHT RECOGNIZED BY LAW. IF THE WAIVER IS CONTRARY TO PUBLIC ORDER. HOWEVER. ORDERS AND REGULATIONS SHALL BE VALID ONLY WHEN THEY ARE NOT CONTRARY TO THE LAWS OR THE CONSTITUTION.a.  IF CASES ARE BROUGHT TO COURT AND THERE IS NO LAW EXACTLY APPLICABLE TO THEM. 2. 1. 2. REQUISITES OF VALID WAIVER 1. ENJOINED TO RENDER A DECISION. HE MUST HAVE A FULL CAPACITY TO MAKE THE WAIVER.

HOWEVER. PUBLIC POLICY AND GOOD CUSTOMS SHALL NOT BE RENDERED INEFFECTIVE BY LAWS OR JUDGMENTS PROMULGATED. IN MATTERS WHICH ARE GOVERNED BY THE CODE OF COMMERCE AND SPECIAL LAWS. IN CASE OF DOUBT IN THE INTERPRETATION OR APPLICATION OF LAWS. ARTICLE 14. AND OTHER PUBLIC INSTRUMENTS SHALL BE GOVERNED BY LAWS OF THE COUNTRY IN WHICH THEY ARE EXECUTED. DAYS AND NIGHTS. ARTICLE 15. ARTICLE 18. OF TWENTY FOUR HOURS. BOTH WITH RESPECT TO THE ORDER OF SUCCESSION AND TO THE AMOUNT OF SUCCESSIONAL RIGHTS AND TO THE INTRINSIC VALIDITY OF TESTAMENTARY PROVISIONS. A CUSTOM MUST BE PROVED AS A FACT. OR BY DETERMINATIONS OR CONVENTIONS AGREED UPON IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY. DUTY OF THE JUDGE WHEN THE LAW IS CLEAR – THE JUDGE SHOULD APPLY THE LAW WITHOUT FEAR OR FAVOR. PROHIBITIVE LAWS CONCERNING PERSONS. SHALL BE REGULATED BY THE NATIONAL LAW OF THE PERSON WHOSE SUCCESSION IS UNDER CONSIDERATION. ARTICLE 17. CUSTOMS WHICH ARE CONTRARY TO LAW. ARTICLE 13. PUBLIC ORDER. OF THIRTY DAYS. THEIR ACTS OR PROPERTY. IN COMPUTING A PERIOD. THEIR DEFFICIENCY SHALL BE SUPPLIED BY THE PROVISIONS OF THIS CODE. . AND THOSE WHICH HAVE FOR THEIR OBJECT PUBLIC ORDER. THE SOLEMNITIES ESTABLISHED BY PHILIPPINE LAWS SHALL BE OBSERVED IN THEIR EXECUTION. PUBLIC POLICY SHALL NOT BE COUNTENANCED. LAST DAY INCLUDED. ARTICLE 16. INTESTATE AND TESTAMENTARY SUCCESSIONS. CONDITION AND LEGAL CAPACITY OF PERSONS ARE BINDING UPON CITIZENS OF THE PHILIPPINES. DAYS. WHATEVER MAY BE THE NATURE OF THE PROPERTY AND REGARDLESS OF THE COUNTRY WHEREIN SAID PROPERTY MAY BE FOUND. LAWS RELATING TO FAMILY RIGHTS AND DUTIES. OR TO THE STATUS. WHEN THE ACTS REFERRED TO ARE EXECUTED BEFORE THE DIPLOMATIC OR CONSULAR OFFICIALS OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY. ARTICLE 10. SUBJECT TO THE PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW AND TO TREATY STIPULATIONS. HE SHOULD FOLLOW THE MANDATE AND NOT TAMPER WITH IT.  ARTICLE 9 IS APPLICABLE ONLY IN CIVIL CASES. MONTHS. IF MONTHS ARE DESIGNATED BY THEIR NAME. REAL PROPERTY AS WELL AS PERSONAL PROPERTY IS SUBJECT TO THE LAW OF THE COUNTRY WHERE IT IS SITUATED. IT SHALL BE UNDERSTOOD THAT YEARS ARE OF THREE HUNDRED SIXTY-FIVE DAYS EACH. THE FIRST DAY SHALL BE EXCLUDED. ACCORDING TO THE RULES OF EVIDENCE. WILLS. THEY SHALL BE COMPUTED BY THE NUMBER OF DAYSWHICH THEY RESPECTIVELY HAVE. ARTICLE 11. THE FORMS AND SOLEMNITIES OF CONTRACTS. AND NIGHTS FROM SUNSET TO SUNRISE. MONTHS. PENAL LAWS AND THOSE OF PUBLIC SECURITY AND SAFETY SHALL BE OBLIGATORY UPON ALL WHO LIVE OR SOJOURN IN THE PHILIPPINE TERRITORY. ARTICLE 12. IT IS PRESUMED THAT THE LAWMAKING BODY INTENDED RIGHT AND JUSTICE TO PREVAIL. WHEN THE LAWS SPEAK OF YEARS.

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