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Distillation

Distillation may be defined as the separation of the

components of a liquid mixture by a process involving

partial vaporization. The vapor evolved is usually

recovered by condensation.

Volatility

The volatility of any substance in a liquid solution may

be defined as the equilibrium partial pressure of the

substance in the vapor phase devided by the mole

fraction of the substance in the liquid solution:

v volatility

a

= of component a in a liquid solution =

p

x

a

a

The volatility of a material in the pure state is equal to

the vapor pressure of the material in the pure state.

Similarly, the volatility of a component in a liquid

mixture which follows Raoults law must be equal to the

vapor pressure of that component in the pure state.

50

Relative volatility

In order to determine the possible extent of separation

between the components of a mixture by the use of

distillation, it is neccessary to know the relative ease of

vaporization of the individual components. Hence we

introduce a Relative volatility (o), which is defined as

the volatility of one component of a liquid mixture

divided by the volatility of another component of the

liquid mixture. Usually Relative volatilities are

expressed with the higher of the two volatilities in the

numerator.

o

ab

a

b

a

a

b

b

v

v

p

x

x

p

= = (1)

If the vapors follow Daltons law,

p y P & y P

a a b b

= = p

where P is the total pressure of the vapors, then

o

ab

a

b

b

a

y

y

x

x

= (2)

This is often given as the definition of relative volatility,

it can be calculated directly from vapor-liquid

equilibrium data.

For binary mixtures, y y x

b a a

= = 1 1 & x

b

, hence

( )

y

x

x

a

a

a

=

+

o

o 1 1

(3)

( )

x

y

y

a

a

a

=

+ o o 1

(4)

51

Simple Batch (differential) Distillation

1. Liquid is charged to a

heated kettle

2. The liquid charge is

boiled slowly

3. The vapors are

withdrawn as quickly as

they form to a

condenser

4. The condensed vapor

(distillate) is collected

The first portion of vapor condensed will be richest in

the more volatile component A. As vaporization

proceeds, the vaporized product becomes leaner in A.

i.e., the composition changes with time.

The total mole amount in the liquid is L with the molol

fraction of A being x. Assume a small amount of dL is

vaporized so that the composition of the liquid changes

from x to (x-dx) and the amount of liquid from L to (L-

dL). Let y be the composition of A in the vapor.

The material balance of A gives

xL = (x-dx)(L-dL) + ydL (5)

Expanding the right side, we have

xL = xL xdL Ldx +dxdL +ydL (6)

52

Ignoring the double derivative term dxdL and

rearranging,

JI

I

=

Jx

y -x

(7)

Integrating,

_

JI

I

L

1

L

2

= ln

I

1

I

2

=_

Jx

y - x

x

1

x

2

(8)

where L

1

is the original moles charged, L

2

the moles left

in the still, x

1

the original composition, and x

2

the final

composition of liquid. Equation (8) is known as the

Rayleigh equation.

The equilibrium curve gives the relationship between y

and x. Then the integration of Rayleigh equation can be

done numerically or graphically between x

1

and x

2

.

The average composition of total material distilled, y

av

,

can be obtained using the material balance:

L

1

x

1

= L

2

x

2

+ V y

av

(9)

V = L

1

L

2

= moles distilled (10)

Example D1: A mixture of 100 mol containing 50

mol % n-pentane and 50 mol % n-heptane is distilled

under differential conditions at 101.2 kPa until 40 mol is

distilled. What is the average composition of the total

vapor distilled and the composition of the liquid left?

The equilibrium data are as follows, where x and y are

mole fractions of n-pentane:

x 1 0.867 0.594 0.398 0.254 0.145 0.059 0

y 1 0.984 0.925 0.836 0.701 0.521 0.271 0

53

Solution: The given values for the Rayleigh equation are

L

1

= 100 mol, x

1

= 0.50, L

2

= 60 mole, V = 40 mol.

ln

1uu

6u

=u.S1u = _

Jx

y - x

x

1

=0.5

x

2

The unknown is x

2

. To solve this by numerical

integration, the equilibrium relationship is converted to

the function of 1/(y-x) vs x as the following figure.

x 1 0.867 0.594 0.398 0.254 0.145 0.059 0

y 1 0.984 0.925 0.836 0.701 0.521 0.271 0

1/(y-x) 8.547 3.021 2.283 2.237 2.660 4.717

The integration is done graphically from x

1

= 0.5 to x

2

such that the integral (shaded area) = 0.510. Hence x

2

=

0.277. Substituting into Eq. (5) to solve for the average

composition of the 40 mol distilled,

100(0.50) = 60(0.277) + 40 y

av

y

av

= 0.835

54

Flash (single stage, continuous) Distillation

Flash distillation vaporizes a definite fraction of the

liquid, the evolved vapor is in equilibrium with the

residual liquid, the vapor is separated from the liquid and

condensed.

Plant for flash distillation.

Consider 1 mole of a binary mixture fed to the above

equipment. By a material balance for the more volatile

component, we have

x fy f x

F D B

= + ( ) 1 (11)

where

x

F

= concentration (mole fraction) of A in the feed

y

D

and x

B

= concentrations of A in the vapor and

liquid

55

f = V/F = the molal fraction of the feed to be

vaporized

V = moles per hour of vapor

F = moles per hour of feed

L = F V = moles per hour of liquid

Both y

D

and x

B

are unknown, but they are on the

equilibrium curve.

In general we have the following operating equation for

flash distillation by rearranging eq. (11):

y

f

f

x

x

f

F

=

+

1

(12)

which passes the point (x

F

, x

F

).

56

Example D2: A mixture of 50 mole percent benzene

and 50 mole percent toluene is subjest to flash

distillation at a separator pressure of 1 atm. The vapor-

liquid equilibrium curve and boiling-point diagram are

given below.

Boiling-point diagram (system of benzene-toluene at 1

atm).

Plot the following quantities, all as functions of f, the

fractional vaporization:

(a) the temperature in the separator

(b) the composition of the liquid leaving the separator

(c) the composition of the vapor leaving the separator

57

Solution:

For each value of f, the corresponding quantity of [(f-

1)/f] is calculated, which is the slope of the operating

line. By using this slope and the point (x

F

, x

F

), one

straight operating line can be drawn on the x-y diagram.

Equilibrium curve, system of benzene-toluene.

The coordinate of the intersection of the equilibrium and

operating lines gives the compositions of the leaving

liquid and vapor as (x, y). From the value of x or y the

temperature in the separator can be obtained from the

boiling-point diagram. By doing this procedure for

58

different values of f, the solutions can be found. The

results are given in the following figure and table.

59

Continuous Distillation with Reflux (Rectification)

Flash distillation is not effective in separating

components of comparable volatility, or in obtaining

nearly pure components.

Rectification on an ideal

plate.

Vapor leaving plate n = y

n

Liquid leaving plate n = x

n

Vapor enterrng plate n = y

n+1

Liquid entering plate n = x

n-1

y

n+1

is in contact (same

position) with x

n

For an ideal plate, y

n

is in

equilibrium with x

n

Distillation Trays

Allows efficient

mixing of vapor and

liquid enabling

rapid equilibration

Combination of rectification and stripping.

If we want to obtain both near pure top and bottom

products, the feed plate has to be in the central portion of

the column. The bottom is called the reboiler.

Rectification in the section below the feed plate is called

stripping, the bottom product can be nearly pure B.

60

Rectifying (enriching) section: all plates above the feed.

Stripping section: all plates below the feed, including the

feed plate itself.

Liquid flows down by gravity to reboiler. The bottom

product is withdrawn from the pool of liquid on the

downstream side of the weir and flows through the

cooler G.

61

The vapors rising through the rectifying section are

completely condensed in condenser C, and the

condensate is collected in accumulator D.

A portion of liquid from the accumulator is returned to

the top plate, which is called reflux. It provides the

downflowing liquid. Without the reflux, no rectification

would happen in the rectifying section and the

concentration of the overhead product would be the

same as that of the vapor rising from the feed plate.

Condensate not returned to the top plate is cooled in heat

exchange E, called the product cooler, and withdrawn as

the overhead product.

Overal material balance for binary systems

Total material balance: F = D + B (13)

Component A balance: Fx

F

= Dx

D

+ Bx

B

(14)

Eliminating B gives

F

=

x

P

- x

B

x

-x

B

Eliminating D gives

B

F

=

x

-x

P

x

-x

B

Net flow rate in the rectifying section

This is the overhead product, D = V

a

- L

a

= difference

between the flow rates of vapor and liquid anywhere in

the upper section above n+1.

62

Distillation in the Enriching Section of Tower

Material balances

D L V

n n

+ =

+1

(15)

V y L x Dx

n n n n D + +

= +

1 1

(16)

By rearranging Eq. (16) we obtain the operating line

D L

Dx

x

D L

L

V

Dx

x

V

L

y

n

D

n

n

n

n

D

n

n

n

n

+

+

+

= + =

+ +

+

1 1

1

(17)

This is the operating line in the rectifying section.

The reflux ratio, R = L

n

/D. If R is constant, the operating

line will be straight on the y-x plot.

1 1

1

+

+

+

=

+

R

x

x

R

R

y

D

n n

(18)

63

The slope is L

n

/V

n+1

or R/(R+1). It intersects the y = x

line (45

o

diagonal line) at x = x

D

. The intercept of the

operating line at x = 0 is y = x

D

/(R+1).

The theoretical stages are determined by starting at the

operating line at x

D

and moving horizontally to intersect

the equilibrium line at x

1

. Then y

2

is the composition of

the vapor passing the liquid x

1

. Similarly, other

theoretical trays are stepped off down the tower in the

enriching section to the feed tray.

64

Distillation in the Stripping Section of Tower

Material balances

L V B

m m

= +

+1

(19)

L x V y Bx

m m m m B

= +

+ + 1 1

(20)

so that the operating line is

B L

Bx

x

B L

L

V

Bx

x

V

L

y

m

B

m

m

m

m

B

m

m

m

m

= =

+ +

+

1 1

1

(21)

This is the operating line in the stripping section.

If equimolal flow is assumed, L

m

= L

N

= constant and

V

m+1

= V

N

= constant, Eq. (21) is a straight line when

plotted as y vs x, with a slope of L

m

/ V

m+1

. It intersects

the y = x line at x = x

B

.

The intercept at x =0 is y=-B x

B

/ V

m+1

.

Again the theoretical stages for the stripping section are

determined by starting at x

B

, going up to intersect the

equilibrium line at y

B

, and then across to the operating

line at x

N

, and so on.

65

Condenser and top plate

The material balance diagram for the top plate and

condenser is shown in the figure.

At the top plate, the composition is (x

C

, y

1

). The simplest

case is a total condenser, which condense all the vapor

so that the liquid has the same composition as the vapor.

Hence, x

C

= x

D

= y

1

. The enriching line starts with (x

D

,

x

D

), which is in the diagonal line. Triangle abc in the

figure represents the top plate.

66

Bottom plate and reboiler

The material balance diagram for the top plate and

condenser is shown in the figure.

The lowest point on the operating line for the column is

the bottom plate (x

b

, y

r

), which are the liquid

concentration leaving the bottom plate and the vapor

concentration leaving the reboiler. However, as shown in

the stripping section, the operating line can be extended

to cross the diagonal at point (x

B

, x

B

).

In a common

reboiler, the vapor

leaving the reboiler is in

equilibrium with the

liquid leaving as bottom

product.Then x

B

and y

r

are in equilibrium curve,

and the reboiler acts as

an ideal plate. Triangles

cde and abc are the

reboiler and bottom

plates.

67

Effect of feed conditions

The condition of the feed stream F entering the tower

determines the relation between the vapor V

m

in the

stripping section and V

n

in the enriching section as well

as between L

m

and L

n

. If the feed is part liquid and part

vapor, the vapor will add to V

m

to give V

n

, and the liqud

will add to L

n

to give L

m

.

We define

q =

bcot nccJcJ to c:oporotc 1 mol o ccJ

ot cntcring conJitions

molor lotcnt bcot o :oporizotion o ccJ

=

H

v

-H

F

H

v

-H

L

=

(H

v

-H

L

)+(H

L

-H

F

)

H

v

-H

L

= 1 +

H

L

-H

F

H

v

-H

L

(22)

Where H

V

is the enthalpy of the feed at the dew point,

H

L

the enthalpy of the feed at the boiling point (bubble

point), and H

F

the enthalpy of the feed at its entrance

conditions.

Feed conditions:

(a) cold liquid, q>1

(b) at bubble point

(saturated liquid),

q=1

(c) partial vapor,

0<q<1

(d) at dew point, q=0

(saturated vapor)

(e) superheated

vapor, q<0

68

q can also be considered as

the number of moles of

saturated liquid produced on

the feed plate by each mole

of feed added to the tower.

L

m

= L

n

+ qF (23)

V

n

= V

m

+ (1 - q)F (24)

The point of intersection of the enriching and stripping

operating line equations on the y-x plot can be derived as

follows. Eqs. (16) and (20) can be rewritten as follows

without the tray subscripts:

D n n

Dx x L y V + =

(25)

B m m

Bx x L y V =

(26)

Where the y and x values are the point of intersection of

the two operating lines. (25) - (26) gives

( ) ( ) ( )

B D n m n m

Bx Dx x L L y V V + = (27)

Replacing by Eqs. (14), (23, (24), we have

(q-1)Fy = qFx Fx

F

y =

q

q-1

x -

x

F

q-1

(28)

This is the q-line equation

and it passes the intersection

of the two operating lines.

The q-line has a slope of

q/(q-1) and passes through the

45

o

line at y = x = x

F

. The

right figure is an example of a

feed of part liquid and part vapor (0<q<1). First draw the

q-line, then the enriching line, the intercept of these two

lines can be used to draw the stripping line.

69

Lacation of the feed tray in a tower and number of

ideal plates; McCabe-Thiele method

To determine the number of theoretical trays needed in a

tower, the stripping and enriching lines are drawn to

intersect on the q line as follows.

1. Starting from the top at x

D

, the trays are stepped off

along the enriching line.

2. It is important to switch to the stripping line when the

triangle first passes the q line (intersection of the 2

operating lines), which is tray 2 in this case.

3. The trays are continued to step off along the stripping

line.

4. The number of theoretical trays required is 3.7 with

the feed on tray 2.

70

In the above figure, the feed is part liquid and part vapor,

since 0<q<1. Hence, in adding the feed to tray 2, the

vapor portion of the feed is separated and added to

below plate 2 and the liquid added to the liquid from

above entering tray 2.

If the feed is all liquid, it should be added to the liquid

flowing to tray 2 from the tray above.

If the feed is all vapor, it should be added below tray 2

and join in the vapor rising from the plate below.

Since a reboiler is considered as a theoretical step, when

the vapor yB is in equilibrium with xB, the number of

theoretical trays in a tower is equal to the number of

theoretical steps minus one.

The value of q for cold liquid feed is

q = 1 +

c

pL

(T

B

T

F

)

E

v

-E

L

The value of q for superheated vapor feed is

q = u +

c

pV

(T

D

T

F

)

E

v

-E

L

where

c

pL

= specific heat capacity of feed liquid

c

pV

= specific heat capacity of feed vapor

T

F

= temperature of feed

T

B

= bubble point of feed

T

D

= dew point of feed

71

Example D3. Rectification of a benzene-toluene

mixture

A liquid mixture of benzene-toluene is to be distilled in a

fractionating tower at 101.3 kPa pressure. The feed of

100 kmol/h is liquid, containing 45 mol % benzene and

55 mol % toluene, and enters at 327.6 K. A distillate

containing 95 mol % benzene and 5 mol % toluene and a

bottoms containing 10 mol % benzene and 90 mol %

toluene are to be obtained. The reflux ratio is 4:1. The

average heat capacity of the feed is 159 kJ/(kmol K) and

the average latent heat is 32099 kJ/kmol. Equilibrium

data for this system are given in the table below.

Calculate the distillate and bottoms in kmol/h, and the

number of theoretical trays needed.

Vapor-Pressure and Equilibrium-Mole-Fraction Data for

Benzene-Toluene System

T (K)

Vapor pressure (kPa) Mole fraction of

benzene at 101.325 kPa

Benzene Toluene x

A

y

A

353.3 101.32 - 1.000 1.000

358.2 116.9 46.0 0.780 0.900

363.2 135.5 54.0 0.581 0.777

368.2 155.7 63.3 0.411 0.632

373.2 179.2 74.3 0.258 0.456

378.2 204.2 86.0 0.130 0.261

383.8 240.0 101.32 0 0

72

F = 100 kmol/h, x

F

= 0.45, x

D

= 0.95, x

B

= 0.1,

R = L

n

/D = 4.

Overall material balance

F = D + B

100 = D + B

Benzene balance

Fx

F

= Dx

D

+ Bx

B

100(0.45) = D(0.95) + (100-D)(0.10)

D = 41.2 kmol/h B = 58.8 kmol/h

The enriching operating line is

19 . 0 80 . 0

1 4

95 . 0

1 4

4

1 1

1

+ =

+

+

+

=

+

+

+

=

+ n n

D

n n

x x

R

x

x

R

R

y

The q line is

y =

q

q - 1

x -

x

P

q - 1

q = 1 +

E

L

-E

P

E

v

-E

L

The value of H

V

H

L

= latent heat = 32099 kJ/kmol.

H

L

H

F

= c

pL

(T

B

T

F

)

where the heat capacity of the liquid feed c

pL

= 159

kJ/(kmol K), T

B

= 366.7 K (boiling point of feed), and

T

F

= 327.6 K (inlet feed temperature).

q = 1 +

c

pL

(T

B

T

F

)

E

v

- E

L

= 1 +

1S9(S66.7 -S27.6)

S2u99

= 1.19S

So the q line is

73

y =

1.19S

u.19S

x -

x

P

u.19S

= 6.128x - S.128x

P

The enriching and q lines are plotted in the figure below.

Their intersection identifys one point in the stripping

line. Linking this point to the bottom point y = x = x

B

=

0.1, we obtain the stripping line. The number of

theoretical steps is 7.6, or 7.6 steps minus a reboiler,

which gives 6.6 theoretical trays. The feed is introduced

on tray 5 from the top.

74

Total reflux ratio

In distillation of a binary mixture A and B, the feed

conditions, distillate and bottoms compositions are

usually specified and the number of theoretical trays are

to be calculated. The number of theoretical trays depends

on the operating lines. To fix the operating lines, the

reflux ratio R = L

n

/D at the top must be set.

One limiting case is total reflux, R = , or D = 0. The

material balance becomes

V

n+1

= L

n

V

n+1

y

n+1

= L

n

x

n

Hence, the operating lines of both sections are on the 45

o

line, y

n+1

= x

n

.

Total reflux

is an extreme

case, the

number of

theoretical

trays

required is at

its minimum

to obtain the

given

separation of

x

D

and x

B

.

However, in

reality we

have no product at all, and the twoer diameter is infinite.

75

Minimum reflux ratio

Another limiting case is the minimum reflux ratio, R

m

,

that will require infinite number of trays for the given

separation of x

D

and x

B

. This corresponds to the

minimum vapor flow in the tower, and hence the

minimum reboiler and condenser sizes.

If the reflux ratio R decreases, the slope of the enriching

line R/(R+1) decreases, the intersection of this line and

the stripping line with the q line moves farther from the

45

o

line and closer to the equilibrium line. The number

of steps required to give a fixed x

D

and x

B

increases. At

the extreme case, the two operating lines touch the

equilibrium line, a pinch point at y and x occurs,

where the number of steps required is infinite. The slope

of enriching line in this case is

R

m

R

m

+1

=

x

-y

x

-x

76

In some cases, where the equilibrium line has an

inflection in it as shown below, the operating line at

minimum reflux will be tangent to the equilibrium line.

The minimum reflux ratio refers to the situation that we

can have the maximum products (D and B) but the

number of trays required is infinite. Both total reflux and

minimum reflux are impossible in actual operation.

77

Operating and optimum reflux ratio

The actual operating reflux ratio lies between the two

limits. To select the proper value of R requires a

complete economic balance on the fixed costs of the

tower and operating costs. By experience, the optimum

reflux ratio has been shown to be between 1.2R

m

and

1.5R

m

.

Example D4: Minimum reflux ratio and total reflux

ratio

For the rectification in Exanple D3, where a benzene-

toluene feed is being distilled to give a distillate

composition of x

D

= 0.95 and a bottom product of x

B

=

0.10, calculate the following:

(a) Minimum reflux ratio R

m

(b) Minimum number of theoretical plates at a total

reflux

78

Solution:

(a) First draw the equilibrium line and the q line as we

did in Example D3. The operating line for minimum

reflux ratio is plotted as a dashed line and intersects the

equilibrium line at the same point the q line intersects.

Reading the values of x = 0.49 and y = 0.702, we have

R

m

R

m

+1

=

x

- y

x

-x

=

u.9S -u.7u2

u.9S -u.49

= u.SS9

Hence, the minimum reflux ratio is R

m

= 1.17.

(b) The theoretical steps are drawn as shown between the

equilibrium line and the 45

o

line. The minimum number

of theoretical steps is 5.8, which gives 4.8 theoretical

trays plus a reboiler.

79

Special case for rectification

1. Stripping-column distillation.

In some cases the feed is added at the top of the stripping

column because we would like to have bottoms product

only. The feed is usually a saturated liquid at the boiling

point, and the overhead product V

D

is the vapor rising

from the top plate, which goes to a condenser with no

relux returned to the tower.

The bottoms product W usually has a high concentration

of the less volatile component B. Hence, the column

operates as a stripping tower, with the vapor removing

the more volatile A from the liquid as it flows

downward. Assuming constant molar flow rates, a

material balance of the more volatile component A

around the dashed line gives,

1 1

1

+ +

+

=

m

W

m

m

m

m

V

Wx

x

V

L

y

80

This stripping line is the same as that for a complete

tower. It intersects the y = x line at x = x

W

, and the slope

is constant at L

m

/V

m+1

.

If the feed is saturated liquid, then L

m

= F. This is shown

in the figure. Starting at x

F

, the steps are drawn down the

tower.

If the feed is cold liquid below the boiling point, the q

line should should be used and q > 1: L

m

= qF.

Example D5: Number of trays in stripping tower

A liquid feed at the boiling point of 400 kmol/h

containing 70 mol % benzene (A) and 30 mol % toluene

(B) is fed to a stripping tower at 101.2 kPa pressure. The

bottoms product flow is 60 kmol/h containing only 10

mol % A and the rest B. Calculate the kmol/h overhead

vapor, its composition, and the number of theoretical

steps required.

Solution

F = 400 kmol/h

x

F

= 0.70

W = 60 kmol/h

x

W

= 0.10

Plot the equilibrium

and diagonal lines.

Overall material

balance gives

F = W + V

D

81

400 = 60 + V

D

V

D

= 340 kmol/h

Component A balance gives

Fx

F

= Wx

W

+ V

D

y

D

400(0.70) = 60(0.10) + 340y

D

y

D

= 0.806

For a saturated liquid, q=1, the q line is vertical. The

operating line is plotted through the point y = y

W

= 0.10

and the intersection of y

D

= 0.806 with the q line.

Alternatively, the slope of L

m

/V

m+1

= 400/340 = 1.176

can be used. Stepping off the trays from the top, 5.3

theoretical steps or 4.3 theoretical trays plus a reboiler

are needed.

2. Enriching-column distillation

Enriching towers are also used at times, where the feed

enters the bottom of the tower as a vapor. The overhead

distillate is produced in the same way as in a complete

fractionating tower and is usually quite rich in the more

volatile component A. The liquid bottoms is usually

comparable to the feed in composition, slightly leaner in

A. If the feed is saturated vapor, the vapor in the tower

V

n

= F.

82

Plate Efficiency

To translate ideal plates into actual plates

Applicable to both distillation & absorption

1 Types of plate efficiency

1.1 overall efficiency

plates actual of number

plates ideal of number

0

= q

for the entire column

simple but the least fundamental

1.2 Murphree efficiency

q

M

n

n n

y y

y y

=

+

+

n 1

1

*

where

y

n

= actural concentration of vapor leaving plate n

y

n+1

= actural concentration of vapor entering plate n

y

n

*

= concentration of vapor in equilibrium with liquid

concentration x

n

leaving downpipe from plate n

for a single plate

in reality samples are taken of the liquid

on the plates, and the vapor compositions are

determined from a McCabe-Thiele diagram.

83

1.3 Local or point efficiency

q'

' '

' '

=

+

+

y y

y y

n n

en n

1

1

where

y'

n

= concentration of vapor leaving a specific point in

plate n

y'

n+1

= concentration of vapor entering plate n at the

same location

y'

en

= concentration of vapor in equilibrium with

liquid

at the same point (x'

n

)

for a specific location in a plate

2. Relationship between efficiencies

2.1 Murphree & local efficiencies

In small columns, good mixing can be achieved so that

the concentration is uniform in the tray.

y'

n

= y

n

, y'

n+1

=y

n+1

, and y'

en

= y

n

*

. Therefore, q q ' =

M

.

84

In large columns, incomplete mixing of the liquid occurs

in the tray. q

M

is the integration of q' over the entire

tray.

2.2 Murphree & overall efficiencies

| |

( )

q

q

0

1 1

=

+ ln ( / )

ln /

M

mV L

mV L

where m is the slope of equilibrium line. When

mV/L=1.0 or q

M

~1.0, q

M

= q

0

.

This relationship depends on the relative slopes of

equilibrium and operating lines.

q

M

< q

0

(stripping section)

q

M

> q

0

(enriching section)

q

M

~ q

0

for the whole column if the feed plate is near

the middle

3. Use of Murphree efficiency

- Draw an effective equilibrium line.

- Use McCable and Thiele method between the

effective equilibrium line and the operating line.

4. Factors influencing plate efficiency

- Adequate and intimate contact between liquid and

vapor can enhance the efficiency; any excessive

foaming or entrainment, poor distribution, or short-

circuiting, weeping, or dumping of liquid, lowers

the plate efficiency.

- Rate of mass transfer between liquid and vapor.

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