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Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan DEFECTS IN CRYSTALS MAGNETIC & ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES adichemadi@gmail.com The incorrect statement related to schottky defect is 1) It is a stiochiometric point defect 2) Equal number of cations and anions are missing from their lattice points. 3) Shown by strongly ionic crystals with high co-ordination number. 4) Density & covalent nature are increased.
Note: In Schottky defect, pair of holes are formed as both the cations and anions (with equal but opposite charge) leave the lattice points and move out of the crystal. This is a stoichiometric point defect. The defected crystal is electrically neutral. But density and covalent nature are decreased. Dielectric constant and hence ionic nature are increased. Defected crystals show little electrical conductivity. Schottky defects are shown by ionic compounds with high co-ordination numbers. The difference in the sizes of oppositely charged ions is small. Usually these defects are shown by compounds of big sized alkali and alkaline earth metals. Eg., NaCl, CsCl etc., It is a thermodynamic defect. The number of defects increase with increase in temperature.

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Creation of holes due to transfer of a cation from its lattice point to the interstitial space is called 1) Schottky defect 2) Metal excess defect 3) Frenkel defect 4) F-centre formation
Note: In Frenkel defect, the cations, being small can move from the lattice points to interstitial spaces and thus by creating holes. This is a stoichiometric point defect. The defected crystal is electrically neutral. But density and covalent nature are decreased. Dielectric constant and hence ionic nature are increased. Defected crystals show little electrical conductivity. This defect is shown by ionic compounds with low co-ordination numbers. The difference in the sizes of oppositely charged ions must be large. Usually these defects are shown by compounds of small sized transition metals. Eg., AgCl, AgBr, ZnS etc., It is also a thermodynamic defect. The number of defects increase with increase in temperature.

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Frenkel defect is not possible in 1) AgCl 2) ZnS 3) CsCl 4) AgBr Which of the following is not common for Schottky and Frenkel defects? 1) Stoichiometric 2) Increase in the number of defects with temperature 3) Decrease in density 4) Low lattice energy and stability of defected crystal Consider the following statements. a) Both Schottky and Frenkel defects are non stiochiometric defects b) Crystals with Schottky and Frenkel defects show little electrical conductivity c) Frenkel defect is shown by ionic compounds with high co-ordination numbers and with big sized cations.

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d) Crystals with Schottky and Frenkel defects are electrically neutral Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan adichemadi@gmail.com The correct statements are 1) a & b 2) b & d 3) c & d 4) b, c & d Which of the following point defect causes decrease in density of crystal without disturbing the stoichiometric ratio ? 1) Frenkel defect 2) Schottky defect 3) Metal excess defect 4) All The stoichiometric point defect possible in AgBr is 1) Schottky defect 2) Frenkel defect 3) Both 1 & 2 4) Metal excess defect Consider the following statements related to metal excess defect. a) Metal excess arises due to extra cation and electrons present at interstitial voids in a crystal b) Metal excess defect arises when anions leave the crystal from their lattice points . c) Crystal with metal excess defect is not neutral. d) Metal excess defect is a non-stiochiometric defect. The correct statement(s) is/are 1) a & c 2) b, c, & d 3) a, b & d 4) All

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In which of the following non-stoichiometric defect, the cation occupies the interstitial site 1) Schottky defect 2) Frenkel defect 3) Metal excess defect 4) Metal deficiency defect 10) LiCl shows pink color when heated in Li vapour due to 1) Metal deficiency defect 2) Schottky defect 3) F-Centre formation 4) Frenkel defect
Note : F-Centres are formed when an electron occupies anion vacancty in the crystal. They import color and paramagnetic nature to the crystals Eg : KCl in K vapours is blue lilac in color NaCl in Na vapour is yellow is color.

11) ZnO turns yellow upon heating because of 1) Metal excess defect 2) Metal deficiency defect

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3) Frenkel defect

4) All

Note : When heated ZnO loses oxide ions reversibly. Excess Zn2+ ion and electrons are accomodated interstitially. Due to presence of odd electrons, ZnO turns yellow. The electrical conductivity is also improved. This type of defect due to pressence of extra cation and electtrons is also shown by CdO, Cr2O3 and Fe2O3.

12) The formula of wustite ranges from Fe0.93O to Fe0.96O instead of FeO. It is due to presence of 1) Frenkel defect 2) Schottky defect 3) Metal deficiency defect 4) Metal excess defect
Note : Some compounds cannot be prepared in ideal stiochimetric proportions due to metal dificiency defect. This defect arises when a metal cation is missing from its lattice points and the cahrge is balanced by an adjacent metal ion with extra exhibited by compounds of transition metals which can exhibit variable valency. As a result, there compounds show non stoichiometric formulae. Eg : VOX (x can be 0.6 - 1.3), Fe0.95O

Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan

Note : When NaCl is doped with SrCl2, Sr2+ ions displace Na+ ions from their lattice points. Also at the same time, equal number of Na+ ions from other lattice sites move out of the crystal and thus by creating cation vacancies. Thus formed solids are called substitutional solids other examples:- AgCl doped by CdCl2.

17) If NaCl is doped with 10-4 mole% of SrCl2, the concentration of cation vacancies would be 1) 10-4 mole-1 2) 6.022 x 1017 mole-1 3) 6.002 x 10-4mole-1 4) 6.022 x 10-8 mole-1 18) Which one of the following is the correct statement ? 1) Brass is an interstitial alloy, while steel is a substitutional alloy. 2) Brass is a substitutional alloy, while steel is an interstitial alloy. 3) Brass & steel are both substitutional alloys. 4) Brass & steel are both interstitial alloys. 19) AgCl is crystallised from molten AgCl containing little CdCl2. The solid obtained will have 1) Cationic vacancies equal to number of Cd2+ ions incorporated 2) Cationic vacannies equal to double the number of Cd2+ ions incorporated. 3) Anionic vacancies 4) Neither cationic nor anionic vacancies. 20) The type of electrical conductivity shown by crystals with F - Centres is 1) n-type semiconductivity 2) p-type semiconductivity 3) Super conductivity 4) None 21) The conductivity of semiconductors is in the range of 1) 10-20 ohm-1 cm-1 2) 107 ohm-1 cm-1 3) 10-6 to 104 ohm-1 cm-1 4) None 22) Choose the correct statement 1) The energy gap between conduction band and valence band in metallic conductors is very large. 2) The energy gap between conduction band and valence band in semiconductors is very large. 3) Electrical conductivity of semiconductors increases with increasing temperature. 4) Electrical conductivity of conductors increases with increasing temperature.

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13) Following are the statements relating to defects in crystals adichemadi@gmail.com a) Frenkel defect is shown by ionic compounds where there is large difference in size between positive and negative ions. b) Zinc oxide turns yellow upon heating due to formation of metal deficiency defect c) The vacant anion sites occupied by electrons are called F-Centres d) The number of schottky and Frenkel defects decreases with increase in temperature The correct statements are 1) a only 2) a & c 3) a, b & c 4) a, c & d 14) Select the incorrect statement. 1) Schottky defect is shown by CsCl 2) Frenkel defect is shown by ZnS 3) F-Centres are formed due to leaving of metal ion from the lattice point. 4) Metal deficiencies defect is formed when the metal can exhibit variable oxidation number. 15) The composition of a sample of wustite is Fe0.93O. What percentage of iron is present as Fe(III)? 1) 7% 2) 15.05% 3) 30% 4) 26.3% 16) Addition of little SrCl2 to NaCl produces 1) Cation vacancies 2) Anion vacancies 3) Both cation & anion vacancies 4) None

Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan adichemadi@gmail.com 23) Which of the following is an intrinsic semiconductor 1) Si 2) Si doped with As 3) Fe 4) Both 1 & 2 24) Silicon doped with III A group elements exhibit 1) n-type semi conductivity 2) p-type semi conductivity 3) Both 1 & 2 4) None 25) Germanium doped with phosphorus acts as 1) n-type semiconductors 2) p-type semiconductor 3) super conductor 4) Intrinsic conductor. 26) Solar photovoltaic cell used to convert radiant energy into electrical energy consists of 1) a pnp triode 2) a pn diode 3) an npn triode 4) None 27) Which of the following is incorrect statement about super conductivity. 1) Super conductors show zero resistance to electrical conductivity. 2) The electrical resistance becomes zero at absolute zero temperature for all the substance 3) Super conductors are good insulators 4) None 28) Match the following A) Ferro magnetic 1) MnO, MnO2, FeO, NiO etc., B) Dia magnetic 2) Fe3O4, MgFeO4 etc., C) Anti ferri magnetic 3) ZnO, TiO2, NaCl etc., D) Ferri magnetic 4) Fe, Co, Ni etc., The correct matching is A B C D 1) 4 3 2 1 2) 4 3 1 2 3) 3 4 1 2 4) 4 2 3 1 29) The temperature above which the ferromagnetism is lost is called 1) Transition temperature 2) Bohr temperature 3) Curie temperature 4) none 30) The phenomenon of production of electricity by a polar crystal when mechanical stress is applied to it is called. 1) Antiferro electricity 2) Piezoelectricity 3) Magnetic electricity 4) None 31) A ferro electric substance is 1) KH2PO4 2) BaTiO3 3) Rochelle salt 4) All
Note : Ferroelectric substances are piezoelectric crystals with permanent dipoles.

32) Piezo-electric crystals with zero net dipole moment are called 1) Ferro electric 2) Pyro electric 3) Antiferro electric 33) The substance which exhibits anti-ferroelectricity is 1) BaTiO3 2) PbZrO3 3) KH2PO4 34) The crystals which produce electricity upon heating are referred to as 1) Ferro electric 2) Pyro electric 3) Antiferro electric 35) The Ferro magnetic substance used in audio and video tapes is 1) FeO 2) CrO2 3) MnO 1) 4 12) 3 23) 1 34) 2

KEY 2) 3 3) 3 4) 3 5) 2 6) 2 7) 3 8) 3 9) 3 10) 3 11) 1 13) 2 14) 3 15) 2 16) 1 17) 2 18) 2 19) 1 20) 1 21) 3 22) 3 24) 2 25) 1 26) 2 27) 3 28) 2 29) 3 30) 2 31) 4 32) 3 33) 2 35) 2

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4) All

4) None

4) None 4) BaTiO3.