Quantum Mechanics  Lecture
Notes
August 10, 2011
Technion
Preface
The dynamics of a quantum system is governed by the celebrated Schrödinger
equation
i
d
dt
[ψ¸ = H[ψ¸ , (0.1)
where i =
√
−1 and = 1.05457266 10
−34
J s is Planck’s hbar constant.
However, what is the meaning of the symbols [ψ¸ and H? The answers will
be given in the ﬁrst part of the course (chapters 14), which reviews several
physical and mathematical concepts that are needed to formulate the theory
of quantum mechanics. We will learn that [ψ¸ in Eq. (0.1) represents the
ketvector state of the system and H represents the Hamiltonian operator.
The operator H is directly related to the Hamiltonian function in classical
physics, which will be deﬁned in the ﬁrst chapter. The ketvector state and
its physical meaning will be introduced in the second chapter. Chapter 3
reviews the position and momentum operators, whereas chapter 4 discusses
dynamics of quantum systems. The second part of the course (chapters 57)
is devoted to some relatively simple quantum systems including a harmonic
oscillator, spin, hydrogen atom and more. In chapter 8 we will study quantum
systems in thermal equilibrium. The third part of the course (chapters 913)
is devoted to approximation methods such as perturbation theory, semiclas
sical and adiabatic approximations. Light and its interaction with matter are
the subjects of chapter 1415. Finally, systems of identical particles will be
discussed in chapter 16 and open quantum systems in chapter 17. Most of
the material in these lecture notes is based on the textbooks [1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7].
Contents
1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Action and Lagrangian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Principle of Least Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 Poisson’s Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.6 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. State Vectors and Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1 Linear Vector Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3 Dirac’s notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4 Dual Correspondence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.5 Matrix Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.6 Observables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.6.1 Hermitian Adjoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.6.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.7 Quantum Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.8 Example  Spin 1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.9 Unitary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.10 Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.11 Commutation Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.12 Simultaneous Diagonalization of Commuting Operators . . . . . 35
2.13 Uncertainty Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.14 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.15 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3. The Position and Momentum Observables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.1 The One Dimensional Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.1.1 Position Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.1.2 Momentum Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2 Transformation Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.3 Generalization for 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Contents
3.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4. Quantum Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.1 Time Evolution Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.2 Time Independent Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.3 Example  Spin 1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.4 Connection to Classical Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.5 Symmetric Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.7 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5. The Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
5.1 Eigenstates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.2 Coherent States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.4 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6. Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
6.1 Angular Momentum and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
6.2 General Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
6.3 Simultaneous Diagonalization of J
2
and J
z
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
6.4 Example  Spin 1/2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.5 Orbital Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
6.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
6.7 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
7. Central Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
7.1 Simultaneous Diagonalization of the Operators H, L
2
and L
z
174
7.2 The Radial Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
7.3 Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
7.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
7.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
8. Density Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
8.1 Time Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8.2 Quantum Statistical Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
8.4 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
9.1 The Level E
n
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
9.1.1 Nondegenerate Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
9.1.2 Degenerate Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
9.2 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
9.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 6
Contents
9.4 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
10. TimeDependent Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
10.1 Time Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
10.2 Perturbation Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
10.3 The Operator O(t) = u
†
0
(t, t
0
) u(t, t
0
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
10.4 Transition Probability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
10.4.1 The Stationary Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
10.4.2 The NearResonance Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
10.4.3 H
1
is Separable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
10.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
10.6 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
11. WKB Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
11.1 WKB Wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
11.2 Turning Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
11.3 BohrSommerfeld Quantization Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
11.4 Tunneling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
11.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
11.6 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
12. Path Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
12.1 Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
12.2 Classical Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
12.3 AharonovBohm Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
12.3.1 Twoslit Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
12.3.2 Gauge Invariance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
12.4 One Dimensional Path Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
12.4.1 One Dimensional Free Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
12.4.2 Expansion Around the Classical Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
12.4.3 One Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
12.5 Semiclassical Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
12.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
12.7 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
13. Adiabatic Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
13.1 Momentary Diagonalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
13.2 Gauge Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
13.3 Adiabatic Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
13.4 The Case of Two Dimensional Hilbert Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
13.5 Transition Probability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
13.5.1 The Case of Two Dimensional Hilbert Space . . . . . . . . . 337
13.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
13.7 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 7
Contents
14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
14.1 Classical Electromagnetic Cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
14.2 Quantum Electromagnetic Cavity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
14.3 Periodic Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
14.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
14.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
15. Light Matter Interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
15.1 Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
15.2 Transition Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
15.2.1 Spontaneous Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
15.2.2 Stimulated Emission and Absorption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
15.2.3 Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
15.3 Semiclassical Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
15.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
15.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
16. Identical Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
16.1 Basis for the Hilbert Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
16.2 Bosons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
16.3 Fermions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
16.4 Changing the Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
16.5 Many Particle Observables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
16.5.1 OneParticle Observables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
16.5.2 TwoParticle Observables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
16.6 Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
16.7 Momentum Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
16.8 Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
16.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
16.10Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
17. Open Quantum Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
17.1 Classical Resonator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
17.2 Quantum Resonator Coupled to Thermal Bath . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
17.2.1 The closed System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
17.2.2 Coupling to Thermal Bath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
17.2.3 Thermal Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
17.3 Two Level System Coupled to Thermal Bath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
17.3.1 The Closed System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
17.3.2 Coupling to Thermal Baths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
17.3.3 Thermal Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
17.3.4 Correlation Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
17.3.5 The Bloch Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
17.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
17.5 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 8
Contents
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 9
1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics
In this chapter the Hamilton’s formalism of classical physics is introduced,
with a special emphasis on the concepts that are needed for quantum me
chanics.
1.1 Action and Lagrangian
Consider a classical physical system having N degrees of freedom. The clas
sical state of the system can be described by N independent coordinates q
n
,
where n = 1, 2, , N. The vector of coordinates is denoted by
Q = (q
1
, q
2
, , q
N
) . (1.1)
Consider the case where the vector of coordinates takes the value Q
1
at time
t
1
and the value Q
2
at a later time t
2
> t
1
, namely
Q(t
1
) = Q
1
, (1.2)
Q(t
2
) = Q
2
. (1.3)
The action S associated with the evolution of the system from time t
1
to
time t
2
is deﬁned by
S =
t2
_
t
1
dt / , (1.4)
where / is the Lagrangian function of the system. In general, the Lagrangian
is a function of the coordinates Q, the velocities
˙
Q and time t, namely
/ = /
_
Q,
˙
Q; t
_
, (1.5)
where
˙
Q = ( ˙ q
1
, ˙ q
2
, , ˙ q
N
) , (1.6)
and where overdot denotes time derivative. The time evolution of Q, in turn,
depends of the trajectory taken by the system from point Q
1
at time t
1
Chapter 1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics
t
Q
t
1
t
2
Q
2
Q
1
t
Q
t
1
t
2
Q
2
Q
1
Fig. 1.1. A trajectory taken by the system from point Q1 at time t1 to point Q2
at time t2.
to point Q
2
at time t
2
(see Fig. 1.1). For a given trajectory Γ the time
dependency is denoted as
Q(t) = Q
Γ
(t) . (1.7)
1.2 Principle of Least Action
For any given trajectory Q(t) the action can be evaluated using Eq. (1.4).
Consider a classical system evolving in time from point Q
1
at time t
1
to point
Q
2
at time t
2
along the trajectory Q
Γ
(t). The trajectory Q
Γ
(t), which is
obtained from the laws of classical physics, has the following unique property
known as the principle of least action:
Proposition 1.2.1 (principle of least action). Among all possible trajec
tories from point Q
1
at time t
1
to point Q
2
at time t
2
the action obtains its
minimal value by the classical trajectory Q
Γ
(t).
In a weaker version of this principle, the action obtains a local minimum
for the trajectory Q
Γ
(t). As the following theorem shows, the principle of
least action leads to a set of equations of motion, known as EulerLagrange
equations.
Theorem 1.2.1. The classical trajectory Q
Γ
(t), for which the action obtains
its minimum value, obeys the EulerLagrange equations of motion, which are
given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 2
1.2. Principle of Least Action
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
=
∂/
∂q
n
, (1.8)
where n = 1, 2, , N.
Proof. Consider another trajectory Q
Γ
′ (t) from point Q
1
at time t
1
to point
Q
2
at time t
2
(see Fig. 1.2). The diﬀerence
δQ = Q
Γ
′ (t) −Q
Γ
(t) = (δq
1
, δq
2
, , δq
N
) (1.9)
is assumed to be inﬁnitesimally small. To lowest order in δQ the change in
the action δS is given by
δS =
t2
_
t1
dt δ/
=
t2
_
t1
dt
_
N
n=1
∂/
∂q
n
δq
n
+
N
n=1
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
δ ˙ q
n
_
=
t2
_
t
1
dt
_
N
n=1
∂/
∂q
n
δq
n
+
N
n=1
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
d
dt
δq
n
_
.
(1.10)
Integrating the second term by parts leads to
δS =
t2
_
t1
dt
N
n=1
_
∂/
∂q
n
−
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
_
δq
n
+
N
n=1
_
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
δq
n
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
2
t
1
.
(1.11)
The last term vanishes since
δQ(t
1
) = δQ(t
2
) = 0 . (1.12)
The principle of least action implies that
δS = 0 . (1.13)
This has to be satisﬁed for any δQ, therefore the following must hold
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
=
∂/
∂q
n
. (1.14)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 3
Chapter 1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics
t
Q
t
1
t
2
Q
2
Q
1
Γ
Γ’
t
Q
t
1
t
2
Q
2
Q
1
Γ
Γ’
Fig. 1.2. The classical trajectory QΓ (t) and the trajectory Q
Γ
′ (t).
In what follows we will assume for simplicity that the kinetic energy T of
the system can be expressed as a function of the velocities
˙
Q only (namely,
it does not explicitly depend on the coordinates Q). The components of the
generalized force F
n
, where n = 1, 2, , N, are derived from the potential
energy U of the system as follows
F
n
= −
∂U
∂q
n
+
d
dt
∂U
∂ ˙ q
n
. (1.15)
When the potential energy can be expressed as a function of the coordinates
Q only (namely, when it is independent on the velocities
˙
Q), the system is
said to be conservative. For that case, the Lagrangian can be expressed in
terms of T and U as
/ = T −U . (1.16)
Example 1.2.1. Consider a point particle having mass m moving in a one
dimensional potential U (x). The Lagrangian is given by
/ = T −U =
m˙ x
2
2
−U (x) . (1.17)
From the EulerLagrange equation
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ x
=
∂/
∂x
, (1.18)
one ﬁnds that
m¨ x = −
∂U
∂x
. (1.19)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 4
1.3. Hamiltonian
1.3 Hamiltonian
The set of EulerLagrange equations contains N second order diﬀerential
equations. In this section we derive an alternative and equivalent set of equa
tions of motion, known as HamiltonJacobi equations, that contains twice the
number of equations, namely 2N, however, of ﬁrst, instead of second, order.
Deﬁnition 1.3.1. The variable canonically conjugate to q
n
is deﬁned by
p
n
=
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
. (1.20)
Deﬁnition 1.3.2. The Hamiltonian of a physical system is a function of
the vector of coordinates Q, the vector of canonical conjugate variables P =
(p
1
, p
2
, , p
N
) and time, namely
H = H(Q, P; t) , (1.21)
is deﬁned by
H =
N
n=1
p
n
˙ q
n
−/ , (1.22)
where / is the Lagrangian.
Theorem 1.3.1. The classical trajectory satisﬁes the HamiltonJacobi equa
tions of motion, which are given by
˙ q
n
=
∂H
∂p
n
, (1.23)
˙ p
n
= −
∂H
∂q
n
, (1.24)
where n = 1, 2, , N.
Proof. The diﬀerential of H is given by
dH = d
N
n=1
p
n
˙ q
n
−d/
=
N
n=1
_
_
_
_
_
_
˙ q
n
dp
n
+p
n
d ˙ q
n
−
∂/
∂q
n
.¸¸.
d
dt
∂L
∂ ˙ q
n
dq
n
−
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
.¸¸.
p
n
d ˙ q
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
−
∂/
∂t
dt
=
N
n=1
( ˙ q
n
dp
n
− ˙ p
n
dq
n
) −
∂/
∂t
dt .
(1.25)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 5
Chapter 1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics
Thus the following holds
˙ q
n
=
∂H
∂p
n
, (1.26)
˙ p
n
= −
∂H
∂q
n
, (1.27)
−
∂/
∂t
=
∂H
∂t
. (1.28)
Corollary 1.3.1. The following holds
dH
dt
=
∂H
∂t
. (1.29)
Proof. Using Eqs. (1.23) and (1.24) one ﬁnds that
dH
dt
=
N
n=1
_
∂H
∂q
n
˙ q
n
+
∂H
∂p
n
˙ p
n
_
. ¸¸ .
=0
+
∂H
∂t
=
∂H
∂t
. (1.30)
The last corollary implies that H is time independent provided that H
does not depend on time explicitly, namely, provided that ∂H/∂t = 0. This
property is referred to as the law of energy conservation. The theorem below
further emphasizes the relation between the Hamiltonian and the total energy
of the system.
Theorem 1.3.2. Assume that the kinetic energy of a conservative system is
given by
T =
n,m
α
nm
˙ q
n
˙ q
m
, (1.31)
where α
nm
are constants. Then,the Hamiltonian of the system is given by
H = T +U , (1.32)
where T is the kinetic energy of the system and where U is the potential
energy.
Proof. For a conservative system the potential energy is independent on ve
locities, thus
p
l
=
∂/
∂ ˙ q
l
=
∂T
∂ ˙ q
l
, (1.33)
where / = T −U is the Lagrangian. The Hamiltonian is thus given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 6
1.4. Poisson’s Brackets
H =
N
l=1
p
l
˙ q
l
−/
=
l
∂T
∂ ˙ q
l
˙ q
l
−(T −U)
=
l,n,m
α
nm
_
_
_
_
_
˙ q
m
∂ ˙ q
n
∂ ˙ q
l
.¸¸.
δnl
+ ˙ q
n
∂ ˙ q
m
∂ ˙ q
l
.¸¸.
δml
_
_
_
_
_
˙ q
l
−T +U
= 2
n,m
α
nm
˙ q
n
˙ q
m
. ¸¸ .
T
−T +U
= T +U .
(1.34)
1.4 Poisson’s Brackets
Consider two physical quantities F and G that can be expressed as a function
of the vector of coordinates Q, the vector of canonical conjugate variables P
and time t, namely
F = F (Q, P; t) , (1.35)
G = G(Q, P; t) , (1.36)
The Poisson’s brackets are deﬁned by
¦F, G¦ =
N
n=1
_
∂F
∂q
n
∂G
∂p
n
−
∂F
∂p
n
∂G
∂q
n
_
, (1.37)
The Poisson’s brackets are employed for writing an equation of motion for a
general physical quantity of interest, as the following theorem shows.
Theorem 1.4.1. Let F be a physical quantity that can be expressed as a
function of the vector of coordinates Q, the vector of canonical conjugate
variables P and time t, and let H be the Hamiltonian. Then, the following
holds
dF
dt
= ¦F, H¦ +
∂F
∂t
. (1.38)
Proof. Using Eqs. (1.23) and (1.24) one ﬁnds that the time derivative of F
is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 7
Chapter 1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics
dF
dt
=
N
n=1
_
∂F
∂q
n
˙ q
n
+
∂F
∂p
n
˙ p
n
_
+
∂F
∂t
=
N
n=1
_
∂F
∂q
n
∂H
∂p
n
−
∂F
∂p
n
∂H
∂q
n
_
+
∂F
∂t
= ¦F, H¦ +
∂F
∂t
.
(1.39)
Corollary 1.4.1. If F does not explicitly depend on time, namely if ∂F/∂t =
0, and if ¦F, H¦ = 0, then F is a constant of the motion, namely
dF
dt
= 0 . (1.40)
1.5 Problems
1. Consider a particle having charge q and mass m in electromagnetic ﬁeld
characterized by the scalar potential ϕ and the vector potential A. The
electric ﬁeld E and the magnetic ﬁeld B are given by
E = −∇ϕ −
1
c
∂A
∂t
, (1.41)
and
B = ∇A . (1.42)
Let r = (x, y, z) be the Cartesian coordinates of the particle.
a) Verify that the Lagrangian of the system can be chosen to be given
by
/ =
1
2
m˙ r
2
−qϕ +
q
c
A ˙ r , (1.43)
by showing that the corresponding EulerLagrange equations are
equivalent to Newton’s 2nd law (i.e., F = m¨r).
b) Show that the HamiltonJacobi equations are equivalent to Newton’s
2nd law.
c) Gauge transformation — The electromagnetic ﬁeld is invariant un
der the gauge transformation of the scalar and vector potentials
A →A+∇λ , (1.44)
ϕ →ϕ −
1
c
∂λ
∂t
(1.45)
where λ = λ(r, t) is an arbitrary smooth and continuous function
of r and t. What eﬀect does this gauge transformation have on the
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian? Is the motion aﬀected?
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 8
1.6. Solutions
L C L C
Fig. 1.3. LC resonator.
2. Consider an LC resonator made of a capacitor having capacitance C in
parallel with an inductor having inductance L (see Fig. 1.3). The state
of the system is characterized by the coordinate q , which is the charge
stored by the capacitor.
a) Find the EulerLagrange equation of the system.
b) Find the HamiltonJacobi equations of the system.
c) Show that ¦q, p¦ = 1 .
3. Show that Poisson brackets satisfy the following relations
¦q
j
, q
k
¦ = 0 , (1.46)
¦p
j
, p
k
¦ = 0 , (1.47)
¦q
j
, p
k
¦ = δ
jk
, (1.48)
¦F, G¦ = −¦G, F¦ , (1.49)
¦F, F¦ = 0 , (1.50)
¦F, K¦ = 0 if K constant or F depends only on t , (1.51)
¦E +F, G¦ = ¦E, G¦ +¦F, G¦ , (1.52)
¦E, FG¦ = ¦E, F¦ G+F ¦E, G¦ . (1.53)
4. Show that the Lagrange equations are coordinate invariant.
5. Consider a point particle having mass m moving in a 3D central po
tential, namely a potential V (r) that depends only on the distance
r =
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
from the origin. Show that the angular momentum
L = r p is a constant of the motion.
1.6 Solutions
1. The Lagrangian of the system (in Gaussian units) is taken to be given
by
/ =
1
2
m˙ r
2
−qϕ +
q
c
A ˙ r . (1.54)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 9
Chapter 1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics
a) The EulerLagrange equation for the coordinate x is given by
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ x
=
∂/
∂x
, (1.55)
where
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ x
= m¨ x +
q
c
_
∂A
x
∂t
+ ˙ x
∂A
x
∂x
+ ˙ y
∂A
x
∂y
+ ˙ z
∂A
x
∂z
_
, (1.56)
and
∂/
∂x
= −q
∂ϕ
∂x
+
q
c
_
˙ x
∂A
x
∂x
+ ˙ y
∂A
y
∂x
+ ˙ z
∂A
z
∂x
_
, (1.57)
thus
m¨ x = −q
∂ϕ
∂x
−
q
c
∂A
x
∂t
. ¸¸ .
qEx
+
q
c
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
˙ y
_
∂A
y
∂x
−
∂A
x
∂y
_
. ¸¸ .
−
(∇×A)
z
˙ z
_
∂A
x
∂z
−
∂A
z
∂x
_
. ¸¸ .
(∇×A)
y
. ¸¸ .
(˙ r×(∇×A))
x
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
,
(1.58)
or
m¨ x = qE
x
+
q
c
(˙ r B)
x
. (1.59)
Similar equations are obtained for ¨ y and ¨ z in the same way. These 3
equations can be written in a vector form as
m¨r = q
_
E+
1
c
˙ r B
_
. (1.60)
b) The variable vector canonically conjugate to the coordinates vector
r is given by
p =
∂/
∂˙ r
= m˙ r+
q
c
A . (1.61)
The Hamiltonian is thus given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 10
1.6. Solutions
H = p ˙ r −/
= ˙ r
_
p −
1
2
m˙ r −
q
c
A
_
+qϕ
=
1
2
m˙ r
2
+qϕ
=
_
p−
q
c
A
_
2
2m
+qϕ .
(1.62)
The HamiltonJacobi equation for the coordinate x is given by
˙ x =
∂H
∂p
x
, (1.63)
thus
˙ x =
p
x
−
q
c
A
x
m
, (1.64)
or
p
x
= m˙ x+
q
c
A
x
. (1.65)
The HamiltonJacobi equation for the canonically conjugate variable
p
x
is given by
˙ p
x
= −
∂H
∂x
, (1.66)
where
˙ p
x
= m¨ x+
q
c
_
˙ x
∂A
x
∂x
+ ˙ y
∂A
x
∂y
+ ˙ z
∂A
x
∂z
_
+
q
c
∂A
x
∂t
, (1.67)
and
−
∂H
∂x
=
q
c
_
p
x
−
q
c
A
x
m
∂A
x
∂x
+
p
y
−
q
c
A
y
m
∂A
y
∂x
+
p
z
−
q
c
A
z
m
∂A
z
∂x
_
−q
∂ϕ
∂x
=
q
c
_
˙ x
∂A
x
∂x
+ ˙ y
∂A
y
∂x
+ ˙ z
∂A
z
∂x
_
−q
∂ϕ
∂x
,
(1.68)
thus
m¨ x = −q
∂ϕ
∂x
−
q
c
∂A
x
∂t
+
q
c
_
˙ y
_
∂A
y
∂x
−
∂A
x
∂y
_
− ˙ z
_
∂A
x
∂z
−
∂A
z
∂x
__
.
(1.69)
The last result is identical to Eq. (1.59).
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 11
Chapter 1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics
c) Clearly, the ﬁelds E and B, which are given by Eqs. (1.41) and (1.42)
respectively, are unchanged since
∇
_
∂λ
∂t
_
−
∂ (∇λ)
∂t
= 0 , (1.70)
and
∇(∇λ) = 0 . (1.71)
Thus, even though both / and H are modiﬁed, the motion, which
depends on E and B only, is unaﬀected.
2. The kinetic energy in this case T = L˙ q
2
/2 is the energy stored in the
inductor, and the potential energy U = q
2
/2C is the energy stored in the
capacitor.
a) The Lagrangian is given by
/ = T −U =
L˙ q
2
2
−
q
2
2C
. (1.72)
The EulerLagrange equation for the coordinate q is given by
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ q
=
∂/
∂q
, (1.73)
thus
L¨ q +
q
C
= 0 . (1.74)
This equation expresses the requirement that the voltage across the
capacitor is the same as the one across the inductor.
b) The canonical conjugate momentum is given by
p =
∂/
∂ ˙ q
= L˙ q , (1.75)
and the Hamiltonian is given by
H = p ˙ q −/ =
p
2
2L
+
q
2
2C
. (1.76)
HamiltonJacobi equations read
˙ q =
p
L
(1.77)
˙ p = −
q
C
, (1.78)
thus
L¨ q +
q
C
= 0 . (1.79)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 12
1.6. Solutions
c) Using the deﬁnition (1.37) one has
¦q, p¦ =
∂q
∂q
∂p
∂p
−
∂q
∂p
∂p
∂q
= 1 . (1.80)
3. All these relations are easily proven using the deﬁnition (1.37).
4. Let / = /
_
Q,
˙
Q; t
_
be a Lagrangian of a system, where Q = (q
1
, q
2
, )
is the vector of coordinates,
˙
Q = ( ˙ q
1
, ˙ q
2
, ) is the vector of veloci
ties, and where overdot denotes time derivative. Consider the coordinates
transformation
x
a
= x
a
(q
1
, q
2
, ..., t) , (1.81)
where a = 1, 2, . The following holds
˙ x
a
=
∂x
a
∂q
b
˙ q
b
+
∂x
a
∂t
, (1.82)
where the summation convention is being used, namely, repeated indices
are summed over. Moreover
∂/
∂q
a
=
∂/
∂x
b
∂x
b
∂q
a
+
∂/
∂ ˙ x
b
∂ ˙ x
b
∂q
a
, (1.83)
and
d
dt
_
∂/
∂ ˙ q
a
_
=
d
dt
_
∂/
∂ ˙ x
b
∂ ˙ x
b
∂ ˙ q
a
_
. (1.84)
As can be seen from Eq. (1.82), one has
∂ ˙ x
b
∂ ˙ q
a
=
∂x
b
∂q
a
. (1.85)
Thus, using Eqs. (1.83) and (1.84) one ﬁnds
d
dt
_
∂/
∂ ˙ q
a
_
−
∂/
∂q
a
=
d
dt
_
∂/
∂ ˙ x
b
∂x
b
∂q
a
_
−
∂/
∂x
b
∂x
b
∂q
a
−
∂/
∂ ˙ x
b
∂ ˙ x
b
∂q
a
=
_
d
dt
_
∂/
∂ ˙ x
b
_
−
∂/
∂x
b
_
∂x
b
∂q
a
+
_
d
dt
_
∂x
b
∂q
a
_
−
∂ ˙ x
b
∂q
a
_
∂/
∂ ˙ x
b
.
(1.86)
As can be seen from Eq. (1.82), the second term vanishes since
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 13
Chapter 1. Hamilton’s Formalism of Classical Physics
∂ ˙ x
b
∂q
a
=
∂
2
x
b
∂q
a
∂q
c
˙ q
c
+
∂
2
x
b
∂t∂q
a
=
d
dt
_
∂x
b
∂q
a
_
,
thus
d
dt
_
∂/
∂ ˙ q
a
_
−
∂/
∂q
a
=
_
d
dt
_
∂/
∂ ˙ x
b
_
−
∂/
∂x
b
_
∂x
b
∂q
a
. (1.87)
The last result shows that if the coordinate transformation is reversible,
namely if det (∂x
b
/∂q
a
) ,= 0 then Lagrange equations are coordinate
invariant.
5. The angular momentum L is given by
L = r p = det
_
_
ˆ x ˆ y ˆz
x y z
p
x
p
y
p
z
_
_
, (1.88)
where r = (x, y, z) is the position vector and where p = (p
x
, p
y
, p
z
) is the
momentum vector. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+V (r) . (1.89)
Using
¦x
i
, p
j
¦ = δ
ij
, (1.90)
L
z
= xp
y
−yp
x
, (1.91)
one ﬁnds that
_
p
2
, L
z
_
=
_
p
2
x
, L
z
_
+
_
p
2
y
, L
z
_
+
_
p
2
z
, L
z
_
=
_
p
2
x
, xp
y
_
−
_
p
2
y
, yp
x
_
= −2p
x
p
y
+ 2p
y
p
x
= 0 ,
(1.92)
and
_
r
2
, L
z
_
=
_
x
2
, L
z
_
+
_
y
2
, L
z
_
+
_
z
2
, L
z
_
= −y
_
x
2
, p
x
_
+
_
y
2
, p
y
_
x
= 0 .
(1.93)
Thus
_
f
_
r
2
_
, L
z
_
= 0 for arbitrary smooth function f
_
r
2
_
, and con
sequently ¦H, L
z
¦ = 0. In a similar way one can show that ¦H, L
x
¦ =
¦H, L
y
¦ = 0, and therefore
_
H, L
2
_
= 0.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 14
2. State Vectors and Operators
In quantum mechanics the state of a physical system is described by a state
vector [α¸, which is a vector in a vector space T, namely
[α¸ ∈ T . (2.1)
Here, we have employed the Dirac’s ketvector notation [α¸ for the state vec
tor, which contains all information about the state of the physical system
under study. The dimensionality of T is ﬁnite in some speciﬁc cases (no
tably, spin systems), however, it can also be inﬁnite in many other cases
of interest. The basic mathematical theory dealing with vector spaces hav
ing inﬁnite dimensionality was mainly developed by David Hilbert. Under
some conditions, vector spaces having inﬁnite dimensionality have properties
similar to those of their ﬁnite dimensionality counterparts. A mathematically
rigorous treatment of such vector spaces having inﬁnite dimensionality, which
are commonly called Hilbert spaces, can be found in textbooks that are de
voted to this subject. In this chapter, however, we will only review the main
properties that are useful for quantum mechanics. In some cases, when the
generalization from the case of ﬁnite dimensionality to the case of arbitrary
dimensionality is nontrivial, results will be presented without providing a
rigorous proof and even without accurately specifying what are the validity
conditions for these results.
2.1 Linear Vector Space
A linear vector space T is a set ¦[α¸¦ of mathematical objects called vectors.
The space is assumed to be closed under vector addition and scalar multipli
cation. Both, operations (i.e., vector addition and scalar multiplication) are
commutative. That is:
1. [α¸ +[β¸ = [β¸ +[α¸ ∈ T for every [α¸ ∈ T and [β¸ ∈ T
2. c [α¸ = [α¸ c ∈ T for every [α¸ ∈ T and c ∈ (
where ( is the set of complex numbers. A vector space with an inner
product is called an inner product space. An inner product of the ordered
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
pair [α¸ , [β¸ ∈ T is denoted as ¸β [α¸. The inner product is a function T
2
→(
that satisﬁes the following properties:
¸β [α¸ ∈ ( , (2.2)
¸β [α¸ = ¸α [β¸
∗
, (2.3)
¸α (c
1
[β
1
¸ +c
2
[β
2
¸) = c
1
¸α [β
1
¸ +c
2
¸α [β
2
¸ , where c
1
, c
2
∈ ( , (2.4)
¸α [α¸ ∈ ¹ and ¸α [α¸ ≥ 0. Equality holds iﬀ [α¸ = 0 .
(2.5)
Note that the asterisk in Eq. (2.3) denotes complex conjugate. Below we list
some important deﬁnitions and comments regarding inner product:
• The real number
_
¸α [α¸ is called the norm of the vector [α¸ ∈ T.
• A normalized vector has a unity norm, namely ¸α [α¸ = 1.
• Every nonzero vector 0 ,= [α¸ ∈ T can be normalized using the transfor
mation
[α¸ →
[α¸
_
¸α [α¸
. (2.6)
• The vectors [α¸ ∈ T and [β¸ ∈ T are said to be orthogonal if ¸β [α¸ = 0.
• A set of vectors ¦[φ
n
¸¦
n
, where [φ
n
¸ ∈ T is called a complete orthonormal
basis if
— The vectors are all normalized and orthogonal to each other, namely
¸φ
m
[φ
n
¸ = δ
nm
. (2.7)
— Every [α¸ ∈ T can be written as a superposition of the basis vectors,
namely
[α¸ =
n
c
n
[φ
n
¸ , (2.8)
where c
n
∈ (.
• By evaluating the inner product ¸φ
m
[α¸, where [α¸ is given by Eq. (2.8)
one ﬁnds with the help of Eq. (2.7) and property (2.4) of inner products
that
¸φ
m
[α¸ = ¸φ
m
_
n
c
n
[φ
n
¸
_
=
n
c
n
¸φ
m
[φ
n
¸
. ¸¸ .
=δnm
= c
m
. (2.9)
• The last result allows rewriting Eq. (2.8) as
[α¸ =
n
c
n
[φ
n
¸ =
n
[φ
n
¸ c
n
=
n
[φ
n
¸ ¸φ
n
[α¸ . (2.10)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 16
2.3. Dirac’s notation
2.2 Operators
Operators, as the deﬁnition below states, are function from T to T:
Deﬁnition 2.2.1. An operator A : T →T on a vector space maps vectors
onto vectors, namely A[α¸ ∈ T for every [α¸ ∈ T.
Some important deﬁnitions and comments are listed below:
• The operators X : T → T and Y : T → T are said to be equal, namely
X = Y , if for every [α¸ ∈ T the following holds
X[α¸ = Y [α¸ . (2.11)
• Operators can be added, and the addition is both, commutative and asso
ciative, namely
X +Y = Y +X , (2.12)
X + (Y +Z) = (X +Y ) +Z . (2.13)
• An operator A : T →T is said to be linear if
A(c
1
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
[γ
2
¸) = c
1
A[γ
1
¸ +c
2
A[γ
2
¸ (2.14)
for every [γ
1
¸ , [γ
2
¸ ∈ T and c
1
, c
2
∈ (.
• The operators X : T →T and Y : T →T can be multiplied, where
XY [α¸ = X (Y [α¸) (2.15)
for any [α¸ ∈ T.
• Operator multiplication is associative
X (Y Z) = (XY ) Z = XY Z . (2.16)
• However, in general operator multiplication needs not be commutative
XY ,= Y X . (2.17)
2.3 Dirac’s notation
In Dirac’s notation the inner product is considered as a multiplication of two
mathematical objects called ’bra’ and ’ket’
¸β [α¸ = ¸β[
.¸¸.
bra
[α¸
.¸¸.
ket
. (2.18)
While the ketvector [α¸ is a vector in T, the bravector ¸β[ represents a
functional that maps any ketvector [α¸ ∈ T to the complex number ¸β [α¸.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 17
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
While the multiplication of a bravector on the left and a ketvector on the
right represents inner product, the outer product is obtained by reversing the
order
A
αβ
= [α¸ ¸β[ . (2.19)
The outer product A
αβ
is clearly an operator since for any [γ¸ ∈ T the object
A
αβ
[γ¸ is a ketvector
A
αβ
[γ¸ = ([β¸ ¸α[) [γ¸ = [β¸ ¸α [γ¸
. ¸¸ .
∈C
∈ T . (2.20)
Moreover, according to property (2.4), A
αβ
is linear since for every [γ
1
¸ , [γ
2
¸ ∈
T and c
1
, c
2
∈ ( the following holds
A
αβ
(c
1
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
[γ
2
¸) = [α¸ ¸β[ (c
1
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
[γ
2
¸)
= [α¸ (c
1
¸β [γ
1
¸ +c
2
¸β [γ
2
¸)
= c
1
A
αβ
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
A
αβ
[γ
2
¸ .
(2.21)
With Dirac’s notation Eq. (2.10) can be rewritten as
[α¸ =
_
n
[φ
n
¸ ¸φ
n
[
_
[α¸ . (2.22)
Since the above identity holds for any [α¸ ∈ T one concludes that the quantity
in brackets is the identity operator, which is denoted as 1, namely
1 =
n
[φ
n
¸ ¸φ
n
[ . (2.23)
This result, which is called the closure relation, implies that any complete
orthonormal basis can be used to express the identity operator.
2.4 Dual Correspondence
As we have mentioned above, the bravector ¸β[ represents a functional map
ping any ketvector [α¸ ∈ T to the complex number ¸β [α¸. Moreover, since
the inner product is linear [see property (2.4) above], such a mapping is linear,
namely for every [γ
1
¸ , [γ
2
¸ ∈ T and c
1
, c
2
∈ ( the following holds
¸β[ (c
1
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
[γ
2
¸) = c
1
¸β [γ
1
¸ +c
2
¸β [γ
2
¸ . (2.24)
The set of linear functionals from T to (, namely, the set of functionals F : T
→( that satisfy
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 18
2.4. Dual Correspondence
F (c
1
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
[γ
2
¸) = c
1
F ([γ
1
¸) +c
2
F ([γ
2
¸) (2.25)
for every [γ
1
¸ , [γ
2
¸ ∈ T and c
1
, c
2
∈ (, is called the dual space T
∗
. As
the name suggests, there is a dual correspondence (DC) between T and T
∗
,
namely a one to one mapping between these two sets, which are both linear
vector spaces. The duality relation is presented using the notation
¸α[ ⇔[α¸ , (2.26)
where [α¸ ∈ T and ¸α[ ∈ T
∗
. What is the dual of the ketvector [γ¸ =
c
1
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
[γ
2
¸, where [γ
1
¸ , [γ
2
¸ ∈ T and c
1
, c
2
∈ (? To answer this question
we employ the above mentioned general properties (2.3) and (2.4) of inner
products and consider the quantity ¸γ [α¸ for an arbitrary ketvector [α¸ ∈ T
¸γ [α¸ = ¸α [γ¸
∗
= (c
1
¸α [γ
1
¸ +c
2
¸α [γ
2
¸)
∗
= c
∗
1
¸γ
1
[α¸ +c
2
¸γ
2
[α¸
= (c
∗
1
¸γ
1
[ +c
∗
2
¸γ
2
[) [α¸ .
(2.27)
From this result we conclude that the duality relation takes the form
c
∗
1
¸γ
1
[ +c
∗
2
¸γ
2
[ ⇔c
1
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
[γ
2
¸ . (2.28)
The last relation describes how to map any given ketvector [β¸ ∈ T
to its dual F = ¸β[ : T → (, where F ∈ T
∗
is a linear functional that
maps any ketvector [α¸ ∈ T to the complex number ¸β [α¸. What is the
inverse mapping? The answer can take a relatively simple form provided that
a complete orthonormal basis exists, and consequently the identity operator
can be expressed as in Eq. (2.23). In that case the dual of a given linear
functional F : T →( is the ketvector [F
D
¸ ∈ T, which is given by
[F
D
¸ =
n
(F ([φ
n
¸))
∗
[φ
n
¸ . (2.29)
The duality is demonstrated by proving the two claims below:
Claim. [β
DD
¸ = [β¸ for any [β¸ ∈ T, where [β
DD
¸ is the dual of the dual of
[β¸.
Proof. The dual of [β¸ is the bravector ¸β[, whereas the dual of ¸β[ is found
using Eqs. (2.29) and (2.23), thus
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 19
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
[β
DD
¸ =
n
¸β [φ
n
¸
∗
. ¸¸ .
=φ
n
β
[φ
n
¸
=
n
[φ
n
¸ ¸φ
n
[β¸
=
n
[φ
n
¸ ¸φ
n
[
. ¸¸ .
=1
[β¸
= [β¸ .
(2.30)
Claim. F
DD
= F for any F ∈ T
∗
, where F
DD
is the dual of the dual of F.
Proof. The dual [F
D
¸ ∈ T of the functional F ∈ T
∗
is given by Eq. (2.29).
Thus with the help of the duality relation (2.28) one ﬁnds that dual F
DD
∈ T
∗
of [F
D
¸ is given by
F
DD
=
n
F ([φ
n
¸) ¸φ
n
[ . (2.31)
Consider an arbitrary ketvector [α¸ ∈ T that is written as a superposition
of the complete orthonormal basis vectors, namely
[α¸ =
m
c
m
[φ
m
¸ . (2.32)
Using the above expression for F
DD
and the linearity property one ﬁnds that
F
DD
[α¸ =
n,m
c
m
F ([φ
n
¸) ¸φ
n
[φ
m
¸
. ¸¸ .
δmn
=
n
c
n
F ([φ
n
¸)
= F
_
n
c
n
[φ
n
¸
_
= F [α¸ ,
(2.33)
therefore, F
DD
= F.
2.5 Matrix Representation
Given a complete orthonormal basis, ketvectors, bravectors and linear op
erators can be represented using matrices. Such representations are easily
obtained using the closure relation (2.23).
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 20
2.5. Matrix Representation
• The inner product between the bravector ¸β[ and the ketvector [α¸ can
be written as
¸β [α¸ = ¸β[ 1 [α¸
=
n
¸β [φ
n
¸ ¸φ
n
[ α¸
=
_
¸β [φ
1
¸ ¸β [φ
2
¸
_
_
_
_
¸φ
1
[α¸
¸φ
2
[α¸
.
.
.
_
_
_ .
(2.34)
Thus, the inner product can be viewed as a product between the row vector
¸β[ ˙ =
_
¸β [φ
1
¸ ¸β [φ
2
¸
_
, (2.35)
which is the matrix representation of the bravector ¸β[, and the column
vector
[α¸ ˙ =
_
_
_
¸φ
1
[α¸
¸φ
2
[α¸
.
.
.
_
_
_ , (2.36)
which is the matrix representation of the ketvector [α¸. Obviously, both
representations are basis dependent.
• Multiplying the relation [γ¸ = X[α¸ from the right by the basis bravector
¸φ
m
[ and employing again the closure relation (2.23) yields
¸φ
m
[γ¸ = ¸φ
m
[ X[α¸ = ¸φ
m
[ X1 [α¸ =
n
¸φ
m
[ X[φ
n
¸ ¸φ
n
[α¸ , (2.37)
or in matrix form
_
_
_
¸φ
1
[γ¸
¸φ
2
[γ¸
.
.
.
_
_
_ =
_
_
_
¸φ
1
[ X[φ
1
¸ ¸φ
1
[ X[φ
2
¸
¸φ
2
[ X[φ
1
¸ ¸φ
2
[ X[φ
2
¸
.
.
.
.
.
.
_
_
_
_
_
_
¸φ
1
[α¸
¸φ
2
[α¸
.
.
.
_
_
_ . (2.38)
In view of this expression, the matrix representation of the linear operator
X is given by
X ˙ =
_
_
_
¸φ
1
[ X[φ
1
¸ ¸φ
1
[ X[φ
2
¸
¸φ
2
[ X[φ
1
¸ ¸φ
2
[ X[φ
2
¸
.
.
.
.
.
.
_
_
_ . (2.39)
Alternatively, the last result can be written as
X
nm
= ¸φ
n
[ X[φ
m
¸ , (2.40)
where X
nm
is the element in row n and column m of the matrix represen
tation of the operator X.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 21
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
• Such matrix representation of linear operators can be useful also for mul
tiplying linear operators. The matrix elements of the product Z = XY are
given by
¸φ
m
[ Z [φ
n
¸ = ¸φ
m
[ XY [φ
n
¸ = ¸φ
m
[ X1Y [φ
n
¸ =
l
¸φ
m
[ X[φ
l
¸ ¸φ
l
[ Y [φ
n
¸ .
(2.41)
• Similarly, the matrix representation of the outer product [β¸ ¸α[ is given
by
[β¸ ¸α[ ˙ =
_
_
_
¸φ
1
[β¸
¸φ
2
[β¸
.
.
.
_
_
_
_
¸α [φ
1
¸ ¸α [φ
2
¸
_
=
_
_
_
¸φ
1
[β¸ ¸α [φ
1
¸ ¸φ
1
[β¸ ¸α [φ
2
¸
¸φ
2
[β¸ ¸α [φ
1
¸ ¸φ
2
[β¸ ¸α [φ
2
¸
.
.
.
.
.
.
_
_
_ .
(2.42)
2.6 Observables
Measurable physical variables are represented in quantum mechanics by Her
mitian operators.
2.6.1 Hermitian Adjoint
Deﬁnition 2.6.1. The Hermitian adjoint of an operator X is denoted as X
†
and is deﬁned by the following duality relation
¸α[ X
†
⇔X[α¸ . (2.43)
Namely, for any ketvector [α¸ ∈ T, the dual to the ketvector X[α¸ is the
bravector ¸α[ X
†
.
Deﬁnition 2.6.2. An operator is said to be Hermitian if X = X
†
.
Below we prove some simple relations:
Claim. ¸β[ X[α¸ = ¸α[ X
†
[β¸
∗
Proof. Using the general property (2.3) of inner products one has
¸β[ X[α¸ = ¸β[ (X[α¸) =
__
¸α[ X
†
_
[β¸
_
∗
= ¸α[ X
†
[β¸
∗
. (2.44)
Note that this result implies that if X = X
†
then ¸β[ X[α¸ = ¸α[ X[β¸
∗
.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 22
2.6. Observables
Claim.
_
X
†
_
†
= X
Proof. For any [α¸ , [β¸ ∈ T the following holds
¸β[ X[α¸ =
_
¸β[ X[α¸
∗
_
∗
= ¸α[ X
†
[β¸
∗
= ¸β[
_
X
†
_
†
[α¸ , (2.45)
thus
_
X
†
_
†
= X.
Claim. (XY )
†
= Y
†
X
†
Proof. Applying XY on an arbitrary ketvector [α¸ ∈ T and employing the
duality correspondence yield
XY [α¸ = X (Y [α¸) ⇔
_
¸α[ Y
†
_
X
†
= ¸α[ Y
†
X
†
, (2.46)
thus
(XY )
†
= Y
†
X
†
. (2.47)
Claim. If X = [β¸ ¸α[ then X
†
= [α¸ ¸β[
Proof. By applying X on an arbitrary ketvector [γ¸ ∈ T and employing the
duality correspondence one ﬁnds that
X[γ¸ = ([β¸ ¸α[) [γ¸ = [β¸ (¸α [γ¸) ⇔(¸α [γ¸)
∗
¸β[ = ¸γ [α¸ ¸β[ = ¸γ[ X
†
,
(2.48)
where X
†
= [α¸ ¸β[.
2.6.2 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Each operator is characterized by its set of eigenvalues, which is deﬁned
below:
Deﬁnition 2.6.3. A number a
n
∈ ( is said to be an eigenvalue of an op
erator A : T →T if for some nonzero ketvector [a
n
¸ ∈ T the following
holds
A[a
n
¸ = a
n
[a
n
¸ . (2.49)
The ketvector [a
n
¸ is then said to be an eigenvector of the operator A with
an eigenvalue a
n
.
The set of eigenvectors associated with a given eigenvalue of an operator
A is called eigensubspace and is denoted as
T
n
= ¦[a
n
¸ ∈ T such that A[a
n
¸ = a
n
[a
n
¸¦ . (2.50)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 23
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
Clearly, T
n
is closed under vector addition and scalar multiplication, namely
c
1
[γ
1
¸ +c
2
[γ
2
¸ ∈ T
n
for every [γ
1
¸, [γ
2
¸ ∈ T
n
and for every c
1
, c
2
∈ (. Thus,
the set T
n
is a subspace of T. The dimensionality of T
n
(i.e., the minimum
number of vectors that are needed to span T
n
) is called the level of degeneracy
g
n
of the eigenvalue a
n
, namely
g
n
= dimT
n
. (2.51)
As the theorem below shows, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Her
mitian operator have some unique properties.
Theorem 2.6.1. The eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator A are real. The
eigenvectors of A corresponding to diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal.
Proof. Let a
1
and a
2
be two eigenvalues of A with corresponding eigen vectors
[a
1
¸ and [a
2
¸
A[a
1
¸ = a
1
[a
1
¸ , (2.52)
A[a
2
¸ = a
2
[a
2
¸ . (2.53)
Multiplying Eq. (2.52) from the left by the bravector ¸a
2
[, and multiplying
the dual of Eq. (2.53), which since A = A
†
is given by
¸a
2
[ A = a
∗
2
¸a
2
[ , (2.54)
from the right by the ketvector [a
1
¸ yield
¸a
2
[ A[a
1
¸ = a
1
¸a
2
[a
1
¸ , (2.55)
¸a
2
[ A[a
1
¸ = a
∗
2
¸a
2
[a
1
¸ . (2.56)
Thus, we have found that
(a
1
−a
∗
2
) ¸a
2
[a
1
¸ = 0 . (2.57)
The ﬁrst part of the theorem is proven by employing the last result (2.57)
for the case where [a
1
¸ = [a
2
¸. Since [a
1
¸ is assumed to be a nonzero ket
vector one concludes that a
1
= a
∗
1
, namely a
1
is real. Since this is true for
any eigenvalue of A, one can rewrite Eq. (2.57) as
(a
1
−a
2
) ¸a
2
[a
1
¸ = 0 . (2.58)
The second part of the theorem is proven by considering the case where
a
1
,= a
2
, for which the above result (2.58) can hold only if ¸a
2
[a
1
¸ = 0.
Namely eigenvectors corresponding to diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal.
Consider a Hermitian operator A having a set of eigenvalues ¦a
n
¦
n
. Let
g
n
be the degree of degeneracy of eigenvalue a
n
, namely g
n
is the dimension
of the corresponding eigensubspace, which is denoted by T
n
. For simplic
ity, assume that g
n
is ﬁnite for every n. Let ¦[a
n,1
¸ , [a
n,2
¸ , , [a
n,g
n
¸¦ be
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 24
2.6. Observables
an orthonormal basis of the eigensubspace T
n
, namely ¸a
n,i
′ [a
n,i
¸ = δ
ii
′ .
Constructing such an orthonormal basis for T
n
can be done by the socalled
GramSchmidt process. Moreover, since eigenvectors of A corresponding to
diﬀerent eigenvalues are orthogonal, the following holds
¸a
n
′
,i
′ [a
n,i
¸ = δ
nn
′ δ
ii
′ , (2.59)
In addition, all the ketvectors [a
n,i
¸ are eigenvectors of A
A[a
n,i
¸ = a
n
[a
n,i
¸ . (2.60)
Projectors. Projector operators are useful for expressing the properties of
an observable.
Deﬁnition 2.6.4. An Hermitian operator P is called a projector if P
2
= P.
Claim. The only possible eigenvalues of a projector are 0 and 1.
Proof. Assume that [p¸ is an eigenvector of P with an eigenvalue p, namely
P [p¸ = p [p¸. Applying the operator P on both sides and using the fact that
P
2
= P yield P [p¸ = p
2
[p¸, thus p (1 −p) [p¸ = 0, therefore since [p¸ is
assumed to be nonzero, either p = 0 or p = 1.
A projector is said to project any given vector onto the eigensubspace
corresponding to the eigenvalue p = 1.
Let ¦[a
n,1
¸ , [a
n,2
¸ , , [a
n,gn
¸¦ be an orthonormal basis of an eigensub
space T
n
corresponding to an eigenvalue of an observable A. Such an ortho
normal basis can be used to construct a projection P
n
onto T
n
, which is given
by
P
n
=
gn
i=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ . (2.61)
Clearly, P
n
is a projector since P
†
n
= P
n
and since
P
2
n
=
gn
i,i
′
=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[a
n,i
′ ¸
. ¸¸ .
δ
ii
′
¸a
n,i
′ [ =
gn
i=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ = P
n
. (2.62)
Moreover, it is easy to show using the orthonormality relation (2.59) that the
following holds
P
n
P
m
= P
m
P
n
= P
n
δ
nm
. (2.63)
For linear vector spaces of ﬁnite dimensionality, it can be shown that the
set ¦[a
n,i
¸¦
n,i
forms a complete orthonormal basis of eigenvectors of a given
Hermitian operator A. The generalization of this result for the case of ar
bitrary dimensionality is nontrivial, since generally such a set needs not be
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 25
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
complete. On the other hand, it can be shown that if a given Hermitian oper
ator A satisﬁes some conditions (e.g., A needs to be completely continuous)
then completeness is guarantied. For all Hermitian operators of interest for
this course we will assume that all such conditions are satisﬁed. That is, for
any such Hermitian operator A there exists a set of ket vectors ¦[a
n,i
¸¦, such
that:
1. The set is orthonormal, namely
¸a
n
′
,i
′ [a
n,i
¸ = δ
nn
′ δ
ii
′ , (2.64)
2. The ketvectors [a
n,i
¸ are eigenvectors, namely
A[a
n,i
¸ = a
n
[a
n,i
¸ , (2.65)
where a
n
∈ ¹.
3. The set is complete, namely closure relation [see also Eq. (2.23)] is satis
ﬁed
1 =
n
gn
i=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ =
n
P
n
, (2.66)
where
P
n
=
gn
i=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ (2.67)
is the projector onto eigen subspace T
n
with the corresponding eigenvalue
a
n
.
The closure relation (2.66) can be used to express the operator A in terms
of the projectors P
n
A = A1 =
n
gn
i=1
A[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ =
n
a
n
gn
i=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ , (2.68)
that is
A =
n
a
n
P
n
. (2.69)
The last result is very useful when dealing with a function f (A) of the
operator A. The meaning of a function of an operator can be understood in
terms of the Taylor expansion of the function
f (x) =
m
f
m
x
m
, (2.70)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 26
2.6. Observables
where
f
m
=
1
m!
d
m
f
dx
m
. (2.71)
With the help of Eqs. (2.63) and (2.69) one ﬁnds that
f (A) =
m
f
m
A
m
=
m
f
m
_
n
a
n
P
n
_
m
=
m
f
m
n
a
m
n
P
n
=
n
m
f
m
a
m
n
. ¸¸ .
f(an)
P
n
,
(2.72)
thus
f (A) =
n
f (a
n
) P
n
. (2.73)
Exercise 2.6.1. Express the projector P
n
in terms of the operator A and
its set of eigenvalues.
Solution 2.6.1. We seek a function f such that f (A) = P
n
. Multiplying
from the right by a basis ketvector [a
m,i
¸ yields
f (A) [a
m,i
¸ = δ
mn
[a
m,i
¸ . (2.74)
On the other hand
f (A) [a
m,i
¸ = f (a
m
) [a
m,i
¸ . (2.75)
Thus we seek a function that satisfy
f (a
m
) = δ
mn
. (2.76)
The polynomial function
f (a) = K
m=n
(a −a
m
) , (2.77)
where K is a constant, satisﬁes the requirement that f (a
m
) = 0 for every
m ,= n. The constant K is chosen such that f (a
n
) = 1, that is
f (a) =
m=n
a −a
m
a
n
−a
m
, (2.78)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 27
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
Thus, the desired expression is given by
P
n
=
m=n
A−a
m
a
n
−a
m
. (2.79)
2.7 Quantum Measurement
Consider a measurement of a physical variable denoted as A
(c)
performed on
a quantum system. The standard textbook description of such a process is
described below. The physical variable A
(c)
is represented in quantum me
chanics by an observable, namely by a Hermitian operator, which is denoted
as A. The correspondence between the variable A
(c)
and the operator A will
be discussed below in chapter 4. As we have seen above, it is possible to con
struct a complete orthonormal basis made of eigenvectors of the Hermitian
operator A having the properties given by Eqs. (2.64), (2.65) and (2.66). In
that basis, the vector state [α¸ of the system can be expressed as
[α¸ = 1 [α¸ =
n
gn
i=1
¸a
n,i
[α¸ [a
n,i
¸ . (2.80)
Even when the state vector [α¸ is given, quantum mechanics does not gener
ally provide a deterministic answer to the question: what will be the outcome
of the measurement. Instead it predicts that:
1. The possible results of the measurement are the eigenvalues ¦a
n
¦ of the
operator A.
2. The probability p
n
to measure the eigen value a
n
is given by
p
n
= ¸α[ P
n
[α¸ =
g
n
i=1
[¸a
n,i
[α¸[
2
. (2.81)
Note that the state vector [α¸ is assumed to be normalized.
3. After a measurement of A with an outcome a
n
the state vector collapses
onto the corresponding eigensubspace and becomes
[α¸ →
P
n
[α¸
_
¸α[ P
n
[α¸
. (2.82)
It is easy to show that the probability to measure something is unity
provided that [α¸ is normalized:
n
p
n
=
n
¸α[ P
n
[α¸ = ¸α[
_
n
P
n
_
[α¸ = 1 . (2.83)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 28
2.8. Example  Spin 1/2
We also note that a direct consequence of the collapse postulate is that two
subsequent measurements of the same observable performed one immediately
after the other will yield the same result. It is also important to note that the
above ’standard textbook description’ of the measurement process is highly
controversial, especially, the collapse postulate. However, a thorough discus
sion of this issue is beyond the scope of this course.
Quantum mechanics cannot generally predict the outcome of a speciﬁc
measurement of an observable A, however it can predict the average, namely
the expectation value, which is denoted as ¸A¸. The expectation value is easily
calculated with the help of Eq. (2.69)
¸A¸ =
n
a
n
p
n
=
n
a
n
¸α[ P
n
[α¸ = ¸α[ A[α¸ . (2.84)
2.8 Example  Spin 1/2
Spin is an internal degree of freedom of elementary particles. Electrons, for
example, have spin 1/2. This means, as we will see in chapter 6, that the
state of a spin 1/2 can be described by a state vector [α¸ in a vector space
of dimensionality 2. In other words, spin 1/2 is said to be a twolevel system.
The spin was ﬁrst discovered in 1921 by Stern and Gerlach in an experiment
in which the magnetic moment of neutral silver atoms was measured. Silver
atoms have 47 electrons, 46 out of which ﬁll closed shells. It can be shown
that only the electron in the outer shell contributes to the total magnetic
moment of the atom. The force F acting on a magnetic moment µ moving in
a magnetic ﬁeld B is given by F = ∇(µ B). Thus by applying a nonuniform
magnetic ﬁeld B and by monitoring the atoms’ trajectories one can measure
the magnetic moment.
It is important to keep in mind that generally in addition to the spin
contribution to the magnetic moment of an electron, also the orbital motion
of the electron can contribute. For both cases, the magnetic moment is related
to angular momentum by the gyromagnetic ratio. However this ratio takes
diﬀerent values for these two cases. The orbital gyromagnetic ratio can be
evaluated by considering a simple example of an electron of charge e moving
in a circular orbit or radius r with velocity v. The magnetic moment is given
by
µ
orbital
=
AI
c
, (2.85)
where A = πr
2
is the area enclosed by the circular orbit and I = ev/ (2πr)
is the electrical current carried by the electron, thus
µ
orbital
=
erv
2c
. (2.86)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 29
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
This result can be also written as
µ
orbital
=
µ
B
L , (2.87)
where L = m
e
vr is the orbital angular momentum, and where
µ
B
=
e
2m
e
c
(2.88)
is the Bohr’s magneton constant. The proportionality factor µ
B
/ is the
orbital gyromagnetic ratio. In vector form and for a more general case of
orbital motion (not necessarily circular) the orbital gyromagnetic relation is
given by
µ
orbital
=
µ
B
L . (2.89)
On the other hand, as was ﬁrst shown by Dirac, the gyromagnetic ratio
for the case of spin angular momentum takes twice this value
µ
spin
=
2µ
B
S . (2.90)
Note that we follow here the convention of using the letter L for orbital
angular momentum and the letter S for spin angular momentum.
The SternGerlach apparatus allows measuring any component of the
magnetic moment vector. Alternatively, in view of relation (2.90), it can be
said that any component of the spin angular momentum S can be measured.
The experiment shows that the only two possible results of such a measure
ment are +/2 and −/2. As we have seen above, one can construct a com
plete orthonormal basis to the vector space made of eigenvectors of any given
observable. Choosing the observable S
z
= S ˆz for this purpose we construct
a basis made of two vectors ¦[+; ˆz¸ , [−; ˆz¸¦. Both vectors are eigenvectors of
S
z
S
z
[+; ˆz¸ =
2
[+; ˆz¸ , (2.91)
S
z
[−; ˆz¸ = −
2
[−; ˆz¸ . (2.92)
In what follow we will use the more compact notation
[+¸ = [+; ˆz¸ , (2.93)
[−¸ = [−; ˆz¸ . (2.94)
The orthonormality property implied that
¸+ [+¸ = ¸− [−¸ = 1 , (2.95)
¸− [+¸ = 0 . (2.96)
The closure relation in the present case is expressed as
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 30
2.8. Example  Spin 1/2
[+¸ ¸+[ +[−¸ ¸−[ = 1 . (2.97)
In this basis any ketvector [α¸ can be written as
[α¸ = [+¸ ¸+ [α¸ +[−¸ ¸− [α¸ . (2.98)
The closure relation (2.97) and Eqs. (2.91) and (2.92) yield
S
z
=
2
([+¸ ¸+[ −[−¸ ¸−[) (2.99)
It is useful to deﬁne also the operators S
+
and S
−
S
+
= [+¸ ¸−[ , (2.100)
S
−
= [−¸ ¸+[ . (2.101)
In chapter 6 we will see that the x and y components of S are given by
S
x
=
2
([+¸ ¸−[ +[−¸ ¸+[) , (2.102)
S
y
=
2
(−i [+¸ ¸−[ +i [−¸ ¸+[) . (2.103)
All these ketvectors and operators have matrix representation, which for the
basis ¦[+; ˆz¸ , [−; ˆz¸¦ is given by
[+¸ ˙ =
_
1
0
_
, (2.104)
[−¸ ˙ =
_
0
1
_
, (2.105)
S
x
˙ =
2
_
0 1
1 0
_
, (2.106)
S
y
˙ =
2
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, (2.107)
S
z
˙ =
2
_
1 0
0 −1
_
, (2.108)
S
+
˙ =
_
0 1
0 0
_
, (2.109)
S
−
˙ =
_
0 0
1 0
_
. (2.110)
Exercise 2.8.1. Given that the state vector of a spin 1/2 is [+; ˆz¸ calculate
(a) the expectation values ¸S
x
¸ and ¸S
z
¸ (b) the probability to obtain a value
of +/2 in a measurement of S
x
.
Solution 2.8.1. (a) Using the matrix representation one has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 31
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
¸S
x
¸ = ¸+[ S
x
[+¸ =
2
_
1 0
_
_
0 1
1 0
__
1
0
_
= 0 , (2.111)
¸S
z
¸ = ¸+[ S
z
[+¸ =
2
_
1 0
_
_
1 0
0 −1
__
1
0
_
=
2
. (2.112)
(b) First, the eigenvectors of the operator S
x
are found by solving the equa
tion S
x
[α¸ = λ[α¸, which is done by diagonalization of the matrix represen
tation of S
x
. The relation S
x
[α¸ = λ[α¸ for the two eigenvectors is written
in a matrix form as
2
_
0 1
1 0
_
_
1
√
2
1
√
2
_
=
2
_
1
√
2
1
√
2
_
, (2.113)
2
_
0 1
1 0
_
_
1
√
2
−
1
√
2
_
= −
2
_
1
√
2
−
1
√
2
_
. (2.114)
That is, in ket notation
S
x
[±; ˆ x¸ = ±
2
[±; ˆ x¸ , (2.115)
where the eigenvectors of S
x
are given by
[±; ˆ x¸ =
1
√
2
([+¸ ±[−¸) . (2.116)
Using this result the probability p
+
is easily calculated
p
+
= [¸+ [+; ˆ x¸[
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸+[
1
√
2
([+¸ +[−¸)
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
1
2
. (2.117)
2.9 Unitary Operators
Unitary operators are useful for transforming from one orthonormal basis to
another.
Deﬁnition 2.9.1. An operator U is said to be unitary if U
†
= U
−1
, namely
if UU
†
= U
†
U = 1.
Consider two observables A and B, and two corresponding complete and
orthonormal bases of eigenvectors
A[a
n
¸ = a
n
[a
n
¸ , ¸a
m
[a
n
¸ = δ
nm
,
n
[a
n
¸ ¸a
n
[ = 1 , (2.118)
B[b
n
¸ = b
n
[b
n
¸ , ¸b
m
[b
n
¸ = δ
nm
,
n
[b
n
¸ ¸b
n
[ = 1 . (2.119)
The operator U, which is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 32
2.10. Trace
U =
n
[b
n
¸ ¸a
n
[ , (2.120)
transforms each of the basis vector [a
n
¸ to the corresponding basis vector [b
n
¸
U [a
n
¸ = [b
n
¸ . (2.121)
It is easy to show that the operator U is unitary
U
†
U =
n,m
[a
n
¸ ¸b
n
[b
m
¸
. ¸¸ .
δ
nm
¸a
m
[ =
n
[a
n
¸ ¸a
n
[ = 1 . (2.122)
The matrix elements of U in the basis ¦[a
n
¸¦ are given by
¸a
n
[ U [a
m
¸ = ¸a
n
[b
m
¸ , (2.123)
and those of U
†
by
¸a
n
[ U
†
[a
m
¸ = ¸b
n
[a
m
¸ .
Consider a ket vector
[α¸ =
n
[a
n
¸ ¸a
n
[α¸ , (2.124)
which can be represented as a column vector in the basis ¦[a
n
¸¦. The nth
element of such a column vector is ¸a
n
[α¸. The operator U can be employed
for ﬁnding the corresponding column vector representation of the same ket
vector [α¸ in the other basis ¦[b
n
¸¦
¸b
n
[α¸ =
m
¸b
n
[a
m
¸ ¸a
m
[α¸ =
m
¸a
n
[ U
†
[a
m
¸ ¸a
m
[α¸ . (2.125)
Similarly, Given an operator X the relation between the matrix elements
¸a
n
[ X[a
m
¸ in the basis ¦[a
n
¸¦ to the matrix elements ¸b
n
[ X[b
m
¸ in the
basis ¦[b
n
¸¦ is given by
¸b
n
[ X[b
m
¸ =
k,l
¸b
n
[a
k
¸ ¸a
k
[ X[a
l
¸ ¸a
l
[b
m
¸
=
k,l
¸a
n
[ U
†
[a
k
¸ ¸a
k
[ X[a
l
¸ ¸a
l
[ U [a
m
¸ .
(2.126)
2.10 Trace
Given an operator X and an orthonormal and complete basis ¦[a
n
¸¦, the
trace of X is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 33
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
Tr (X) =
n
¸a
n
[ X[a
n
¸ . (2.127)
It is easy to show that Tr (X) is independent on basis, as is shown below:
Tr (X) =
n
¸a
n
[ X[a
n
¸
=
n,k,l
¸a
n
[b
k
¸ ¸b
k
[ X[b
l
¸ ¸b
l
[a
n
¸
=
n,k,l
¸b
l
[a
n
¸ ¸a
n
[b
k
¸ ¸b
k
[ X[b
l
¸
=
k,l
¸b
l
[b
k
¸
. ¸¸ .
δ
kl
¸b
k
[ X[b
l
¸
=
k
¸b
k
[ X[b
k
¸ .
(2.128)
The proof of the following two relations
Tr (XY ) = Tr (Y X) , (2.129)
Tr
_
U
†
XU
_
= Tr (X) , (2.130)
is left as an exercise.
2.11 Commutation Relation
The commutation relation of the operators A and B is deﬁned as
[A, B] = AB −BA . (2.131)
As an example, the components S
x
, S
y
and S
z
of the spin angular momentum
operator, satisfy the following commutation relations
[S
i
, S
j
] = iε
ijk
S
k
, (2.132)
where
ε
ijk
=
_
_
_
0 i, j, k are not all diﬀerent
1 i, j, k is an even permutation of x, y, z
−1 i, j, k is an odd permutation of x, y, z
(2.133)
is the LeviCivita symbol. Equation (2.132) employs the Einstein’s conven
tion, according to which if an index symbol appears twice in an expression,
it is to be summed over all its allowed values. Namely, the repeated index k
should be summed over the values x, y and z:
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 34
2.12. Simultaneous Diagonalization of Commuting Operators
ε
ijk
S
k
= ε
ijx
S
x
+ε
ijy
S
y
+ε
ijz
S
z
. (2.134)
Moreover, the following relations hold
S
2
x
= S
2
y
= S
2
z
=
1
4
2
, (2.135)
S
2
= S
2
x
+S
2
y
+S
2
z
=
3
4
2
. (2.136)
The relations below, which are easy to prove using the above deﬁnition,
are very useful for evaluating commutation relations
[F, G] = −[G, F] , (2.137)
[F, F] = 0 , (2.138)
[E +F, G] = [E, G] + [F, G] , (2.139)
[E, FG] = [E, F] G+F [E, G] . (2.140)
2.12 Simultaneous Diagonalization of Commuting
Operators
Consider an observable A having a set of eigenvalues ¦a
n
¦. Let g
n
be the
degree of degeneracy of eigenvalue a
n
, namely g
n
is the dimension of the
corresponding eigensubspace, which is denoted by T
n
. Thus the following
holds
A[a
n,i
¸ = a
n
[a
n,i
¸ , (2.141)
where i = 1, 2, , g
n
, and
¸a
n
′
,i
′ [a
n,i
¸ = δ
nn
′ δ
ii
′ . (2.142)
The set of vectors ¦[a
n,1
¸ , [a
n,2
¸ , , [a
n,gn
¸¦ forms an orthonormal basis for
the eigensubspace T
n
. The closure relation can be written as
1 =
n
g
n
i=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ =
n
P
n
, (2.143)
where
P
n
=
gn
i=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ . (2.144)
Now consider another observable B, which is assumed to commute with
A, namely [A, B] = 0.
Claim. The operator B has a block diagonal matrix in the basis ¦[a
n,i
¸¦,
namely ¸a
m,j
[ B[a
n,i
¸ = 0 for n ,= m.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 35
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
Proof. Multiplying Eq. (2.141) from the left by ¸a
m,j
[ B yields
¸a
m,j
[ BA[a
n,i
¸ = a
n
¸a
m,j
[ B[a
n,i
¸ . (2.145)
On the other hand, since [A, B] = 0 one has
¸a
m,j
[ BA[a
n,i
¸ = ¸a
m,j
[ AB[a
n,i
¸ = a
m
¸a
m,j
[ B[a
n,i
¸ , (2.146)
thus
(a
n
−a
m
) ¸a
m,j
[ B[a
n,i
¸ = 0 . (2.147)
For a given n, the g
n
g
n
matrix ¸a
n,i
′ [ B[a
n,i
¸ is Hermitian, namely
¸a
n,i
′ [ B[a
n,i
¸ = ¸a
n,i
[ B[a
n,i
′ ¸
∗
. Thus, there exists a unitary transformation
U
n
, which maps T
n
onto T
n
, and which diagonalizes the block of B in the
subspace T
n
. Since T
n
is an eigensubspace of A, the block matrix of A in the
new basis remains diagonal (with the eigenvalue a
n
). Thus, we conclude that
a complete and orthonormal basis of common eigenvectors of both operators
A and B exists. For such a basis, which is denoted as ¦[n, m¸¦, the following
holds
A[n, m¸ = a
n
[n, m¸ , (2.148)
B[n, m¸ = b
m
[n, m¸ . (2.149)
2.13 Uncertainty Principle
Consider a quantum system in a state [n, m¸, which is a common eigenvector
of the commuting observables A and B. The outcome of a measurement of
the observable A is expected to be a
n
with unity probability, and similarly,
the outcome of a measurement of the observable B is expected to be b
m
with unity probability. In this case it is said that there is no uncertainty
corresponding to both of these measurements.
Deﬁnition 2.13.1. The variance in a measurement of a given observable A
of a quantum system in a state [α¸ is given by
_
(∆A)
2
_
, where ∆A = A−¸A¸,
namely
_
(∆A)
2
_
=
_
A
2
−2A¸A¸ +¸A¸
2
_
=
¸
A
2
_
−¸A¸
2
, (2.150)
where
¸A¸ = ¸α[ A[α¸ , (2.151)
¸
A
2
_
= ¸α[ A
2
[α¸ . (2.152)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 36
2.13. Uncertainty Principle
Example 2.13.1. Consider a spin 1/2 system in a state [α¸ = [+; ˆz¸. Using
Eqs. (2.99), (2.102) and (2.135) one ﬁnds that
_
(∆S
z
)
2
_
=
¸
S
2
z
_
−¸S
z
¸
2
= 0 , (2.153)
_
(∆S
x
)
2
_
=
¸
S
2
x
_
−¸S
x
¸
2
=
1
4
2
. (2.154)
The last example raises the question: can one ﬁnd a state [α¸ for which
the variance in the measurements of both S
z
and S
x
vanishes? According to
the uncertainty principle the answer is no.
Theorem 2.13.1. The uncertainty principle  Let A and B be two observ
ables. For any ketvector [α¸ the following holds
_
(∆A)
2
__
(∆B)
2
_
≥
1
4
[¸[A, B]¸[
2
. (2.155)
Proof. Applying the Schwartz inequality [see Eq. (2.167)], which is given by
[¸u [v¸[ ≤
_
¸u [u¸
_
¸v [v¸ , (2.156)
for the ketvectors
[u¸ = ∆A[α¸ , (2.157)
[v¸ = ∆B[α¸ , (2.158)
and exploiting the fact that (∆A)
†
= ∆A and (∆B)
†
= ∆B yield
_
(∆A)
2
__
(∆B)
2
_
≥ [¸∆A∆B¸[
2
. (2.159)
The term ∆A∆B can be written as
∆A∆B =
1
2
[∆A, ∆B] +
1
2
[∆A, ∆B]
+
, (2.160)
where
[∆A, ∆B] = ∆A∆B −∆B∆A , (2.161)
[∆A, ∆B]
+
= ∆A∆B +∆B∆A . (2.162)
While the term [∆A, ∆B] is antiHermitian, whereas the term [∆A, ∆B]
+
is
Hermitian, namely
([∆A, ∆B])
†
= (∆A∆B −∆B∆A)
†
= ∆B∆A−∆A∆B = −[∆A, ∆B] ,
_
[∆A, ∆B]
+
_
†
= (∆A∆B +∆B∆A)
†
= ∆B∆A+∆A∆B = [∆A, ∆B]
+
.
In general, the following holds
¸α[ X[α¸ = ¸α[ X
†
[α¸
∗
=
_
¸α[ X[α¸
∗
if X is Hermitian
−¸α[ X[α¸
∗
if X is antiHermitian
, (2.163)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 37
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
thus
¸∆A∆B¸ =
1
2
¸[∆A, ∆B]¸
. ¸¸ .
∈I
+
1
2
¸
[∆A, ∆B]
+
_
. ¸¸ .
∈R
, (2.164)
and consequently
[¸∆A∆B¸[
2
=
1
4
[¸[∆A, ∆B]¸[
2
+
1
4
¸
¸
¸
[∆A, ∆B]
+
_¸
¸
2
. (2.165)
Finally, with the help of the identity [∆A, ∆B] = [A, B] one ﬁnds that
_
(∆A)
2
__
(∆B)
2
_
≥
1
4
[¸[A, B]¸[
2
. (2.166)
2.14 Problems
1. Derive the Schwartz inequality
[¸u [v¸[ ≤
_
¸u [u¸
_
¸v [v¸ , (2.167)
where [u¸ and [v¸ are any two vectors of a vector space T.
2. Derive the triangle inequality:
_
(¸u[ +¸v[) ([u¸ +[v¸) ≤
_
¸u [u¸ +
_
¸v [v¸ . (2.168)
3. Show that if a unitary operator U can be written in the form U = 1+iǫF,
where ǫ is a real inﬁnitesimally small number, then the operator F is
Hermitian.
4. A Hermitian operator A is said to be positivedeﬁnite if, for any vector
[u¸, ¸u[ A[u¸ ≥ 0. Show that the operator A = [a¸ ¸a[ is Hermitian and
positivedeﬁnite.
5. Show that if A is a Hermitian positivedeﬁnite operator then the following
hold
[¸u[ A[v¸[ ≤
_
¸u[ A[u¸
_
¸v[ A[v¸ . (2.169)
6. Find the expansion of the operator (A−λB)
−1
in a power series in λ ,
assuming that the inverse A
−1
of A exists.
7. The derivative of an operator A(λ) which depends explicitly on a para
meter λ is deﬁned to be
dA(λ)
dλ
= lim
ǫ→0
A(λ +ǫ) −A(λ)
ǫ
. (2.170)
Show that
d
dλ
(AB) =
dA
dλ
B +A
dB
dλ
. (2.171)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 38
2.14. Problems
8. Show that
d
dλ
_
A
−1
_
= −A
−1
dA
dλ
A
−1
. (2.172)
9. Let [u¸ and [v¸ be two vectors of ﬁnite norm. Show that
Tr ([u¸ ¸v[) = ¸v [u¸ . (2.173)
10. If A is any linear operator, show that A
†
A is a positivedeﬁnite Her
mitian operator whose trace is equal to the sum of the square moduli of
the matrix elements of A in any arbitrary representation. Deduce that
Tr
_
A
†
A
_
= 0 is true if and only if A = 0.
11. Show that if Aand B are two positivedeﬁnite observables, then Tr (AB) ≥
0.
12. Show that for any two operators A and L
e
L
Ae
−L
= A+[L, A] +
1
2!
[L, [L, A]] +
1
3!
[L, [L, [L, A]]] + . (2.174)
13. Show that if Aand B are two operators satisfying the relation [[A, B] , A] =
0 , then the relation
[A
m
, B] = mA
m−1
[A, B] (2.175)
holds for all positive integers m .
14. Show that
e
A
e
B
= e
A+B
e
(1/2)[A,B]
, (2.176)
provided that [[A, B] , A] = 0 and [[A, B] , B] = 0.
15. Proof Kondo’s identity
_
A, e
−βH
¸
= e
−βH
β
_
0
e
λH
[H, A] e
−λH
dλ , (2.177)
where A and H are any two operators and β is real.
16. Show that Tr (XY ) = Tr (Y X).
17. Consider the two normalized spin 1/2 states [α¸ and [β¸. The operator
A is deﬁned as
A = [α¸ ¸α[ −[β¸ ¸β[ . (2.178)
Find the eigenvalues of the operator A.
18. A molecule is composed of six identical atoms A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
6
which
form a regular hexagon. Consider an electron, which can be localized on
each of the atoms. Let [ϕ
n
¸ be the state in which it is localized on the
nth atom (n = 1, 2, , 6). The electron states will be conﬁned to the
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 39
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
space spanned by the states [ϕ
n
¸, which is assumed to be orthonormal.
The Hamiltonian of the system is given by
H = H
0
+¼ . (2.179)
The eigenstates of H
0
are the six states [ϕ
n
¸, with the same eigenvalue
E
0
. The operator ¼ is described by
¼[ϕ
1
¸ = −a [ϕ
2
¸ −a [ϕ
6
¸ ,
¼[ϕ
2
¸ = −a [ϕ
3
¸ −a [ϕ
1
¸ ,
.
.
.
¼[ϕ
6
¸ = −a [ϕ
1
¸ −a [ϕ
5
¸ .
(2.180)
Find the eigenvalues and eigen vectors of H. Clue: Consider a solution of
the form
[k¸ =
6
n=1
e
ikn
[ϕ
n
¸ . (2.181)
2.15 Solutions
1. Let
[γ¸ = [u¸ +λ[v¸ , (2.182)
where λ ∈ (. The requirement ¸γ [γ¸ ≥ 0 leads to
¸u [u¸ +λ¸u [v¸ +λ
∗
¸v [u¸ +[λ[
2
¸v [v¸ ≥ 0 . (2.183)
By choosing
λ = −
¸v [u¸
¸v [v¸
, (2.184)
one has
¸u [u¸ −
¸v [u¸
¸v [v¸
¸u [v¸ −
¸u [v¸
¸v [v¸
¸v [u¸ +
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸v [u¸
¸v [v¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
¸v [v¸ ≥ 0 , (2.185)
thus
[¸u [v¸[ ≤
_
¸u [u¸
_
¸v [v¸ . (2.186)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 40
2.15. Solutions
2. The following holds
(¸u[ +¸v[) ([u¸ +[v¸) = ¸u [u¸ +¸v [v¸ + 2 Re (¸u [v¸)
≤ ¸u [u¸ +¸v [v¸ + 2 [¸u [v¸[ .
(2.187)
Thus, using Schwartz inequality one has
(¸u[ +¸v[) ([u¸ +[v¸) ≤ ¸u [u¸ +¸v [v¸ + 2
_
¸u [u¸
_
¸v [v¸
=
_
_
¸u [u¸ +
_
¸v [v¸
_
2
.
(2.188)
3. Since
1 = U
†
U =
_
1 −iǫF
†
_
(1 +iǫF) = 1 +iǫ
_
F −F
†
_
+O
_
ǫ
2
_
, (2.189)
one has F = F
†
.
4. In general, ([β¸ ¸α[)
†
= [α¸ ¸β[, thus clearly the operator A is Hermitian.
Moreover it is positivedeﬁnite since for every [u¸ the following holds
¸u[ A[u¸ = ¸u [a¸ ¸a [u¸ = [¸a [u¸[
2
≥ 0 . (2.190)
5. Let
[γ¸ = [u¸ −
¸v[ A[u¸
¸v[ A[v¸
[v¸ .
Since A is Hermitian and positivedeﬁnite the following holds
0 ≤ ¸γ[ A[γ¸
=
_
¸u[ −
¸u[ A[v¸
¸v[ A[v¸
¸v[
_
A
_
[u¸ −
¸v[ A[u¸
¸v[ A[v¸
[v¸
_
= ¸u[ A[u¸ −
[¸u[ A[v¸[
2
¸v[ A[v¸
−
[¸u[ A[v¸[
2
¸v[ A[v¸
+
[¸u[ A[v¸[
2
¸v[ A[v¸
,
(2.191)
thus
[¸u[ A[v¸[ ≤
_
¸u[ A[u¸
_
¸v[ A[v¸ . (2.192)
Note that this result allows easy proof of the following: Under the same
conditions (namely, A is a Hermitian positivedeﬁnite operator) Tr (A) =
0 if and only if A = 0.
6. The expansion is given by
(A−λB)
−1
=
_
A
_
1 −λA
−1
B
__
−1
=
_
1 −λA
−1
B
_
−1
A
−1
=
_
1 +λA
−1
B +
_
λA
−1
B
_
2
+
_
λA
−1
B
_
3
+
_
A
−1
.
(2.193)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 41
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
7. By deﬁnition:
d
dλ
(AB) = lim
ǫ→0
A(λ +ǫ) B(λ +ǫ) −A(λ) B(λ)
ǫ
= lim
ǫ→0
(A(λ +ǫ) −A(λ)) B(λ)
ǫ
+ lim
ǫ→0
A(λ +ǫ) (B(λ +ǫ) −B(λ))
ǫ
=
dA
dλ
B +A
dB
dλ
.
(2.194)
8. Taking the derivative of both sides of the identity 1 = AA
−1
on has
0 =
dA
dλ
A
−1
+A
dA
−1
dλ
, (2.195)
thus
d
dλ
_
A
−1
_
= −A
−1
dA
dλ
A
−1
. (2.196)
9. Let ¦[n¸¦ be a complete orthonormal basis, namely
n
[n¸ ¸n[ = 1 . (2.197)
In this basis
Tr ([u¸ ¸v[) =
n
¸n [u¸ ¸v [n¸ = ¸v[
_
n
[n¸ ¸n[
_
[u¸ = ¸v [u¸ . (2.198)
10. The operator A
†
A is Hermitian since
_
A
†
A
_
†
= A
†
A, and positive
deﬁnite since the norm of A[u¸ is nonnegative for every [u¸, thus one
has ¸u[ A
†
A[u¸ ≥ 0. Moreover, using a complete orthonormal basis ¦[n¸¦
one has
Tr
_
A
†
A
_
=
n
¸n[ A
†
A[n¸
=
n,m
¸n[ A
†
[m¸ ¸m[ A[n¸
=
n,m
[¸m[ A[n¸[
2
.
(2.199)
11. Let ¦[b
′
¸¦ be a complete orthonormal basis made of eigenvectors of B
(i.e., B[b
′
¸ = b
′
[b
′
¸). Using this basis for evaluating the trace one has
Tr (AB) =
b
′
¸b
′
[ AB[b
′
¸ =
b
′
b
′
.¸¸.
≥0
¸b
′
[ A[b
′
¸
. ¸¸ .
≥0
≥ 0 . (2.200)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 42
2.15. Solutions
12. Let f (s) = e
sL
Ae
−sL
, where s is real. Using Taylor expansion one has
f (1) = f (0) +
1
1!
df
ds
¸
¸
¸
¸
s=0
+
1
2!
d
2
f
ds
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
s=0
+ , (2.201)
thus
e
L
Ae
−L
= A+
1
1!
df
ds
¸
¸
¸
¸
s=0
+
1
2!
d
2
f
ds
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
s=0
+ , (2.202)
where
df
ds
= Le
sL
Ae
−sL
−e
sL
Ae
−sL
L = [L, f (s)] , (2.203)
d
2
f
ds
2
=
_
L,
df
ds
_
= [L, [L, f (s)]] , (2.204)
therefore
e
L
Ae
−L
= A+[L, A] +
1
2!
[L, [L, A]] +
1
3!
[L, [L, [L, A]]] + . (2.205)
13. The identity clearly holds for the case m = 1. Moreover, assuming it
holds for m, namely assuming that
[A
m
, B] = mA
m−1
[A, B] , (2.206)
one has
_
A
m+1
, B
¸
= A[A
m
, B] + [A, B] A
m
= mA
m
[A, B] + [A, B] A
m
.
(2.207)
It is easy to show that if [[A, B] , A] = 0 then [[A, B] , A
m
] = 0, thus one
concludes that
_
A
m+1
, B
¸
= (m+ 1) A
m
[A, B] . (2.208)
14. Deﬁne the function f (s) = e
sA
e
sB
, where s is real. The following holds
df
ds
= Ae
sA
e
sB
+e
sA
Be
sB
=
_
A+e
sA
Be
−sA
_
e
sA
e
sB
Using Eq. (2.175) one has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 43
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
e
sA
B =
∞
m=0
(sA)
m
m!
B
=
∞
m=0
s
m
(BA
m
+ [A
m
, B])
m!
=
∞
m=0
s
m
_
BA
m
+mA
m−1
[A, B]
_
m!
= Be
sA
+s
∞
m=1
(sA)
m−1
(m−1)!
[A, B]
= Be
sA
+se
sA
[A, B] ,
(2.209)
thus
df
ds
= Ae
sA
e
sB
+Be
sA
e
sB
+se
sA
[A, B] e
sB
= (A+B + [A, B] s) f (s) .
(2.210)
The above diﬀerential equation can be easily integrated since [[A, B] , A] =
0 and [[A, B] , B] = 0. Thus
f (s) = e
(A+B)s
e
[A,B]
s
2
2
. (2.211)
For s = 1 one gets
e
A
e
B
= e
A+B
e
(1/2)[A,B]
. (2.212)
15. Deﬁne
f (β) ≡
_
A, e
−βH
¸
, (2.213)
g (β) ≡ e
−βH
β
_
0
e
λH
[H, A] e
−λH
dλ . (2.214)
Clearly, f (0) = g (0) = 0 . Moreover, the following holds
df
dβ
= −AHe
−βH
+He
−βH
A = −Hf + [H, A] e
−βH
, (2.215)
dg
dβ
= −Hg + [H, A] e
−βH
, (2.216)
namely, both functions satisfy the same diﬀerential equation. Therefore
f = g.
16. Using a complete orthonormal basis ¦[n¸¦ one has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 44
2.15. Solutions
Tr (XY ) =
n
¸n[ XY [n¸
=
n,m
¸n[ X[m¸ ¸m[ Y [n¸
=
n,m
¸m[ Y [n¸ ¸n[ X[m¸
=
m
¸m[ Y X[m¸
= Tr (Y X) .
(2.217)
Note that using this result it is easy to show that Tr (U
+
XU) = Tr (X)
, where U is a unitary operator.
17. Clearly A is Hermitian, namely A
†
= A, thus the two eigenvalues λ
1
and λ
2
are expected to be real. Since the trace of an operator is basis
independent, the following must hold
Tr (A) = λ
1
+λ
2
, (2.218)
and
Tr
_
A
2
_
= λ
2
1
+λ
2
2
. (2.219)
One the other hand, with the help of Eq. (2.173) one ﬁnds that
Tr (A) = Tr ([α¸ ¸α[) −Tr ([β¸ ¸β[) = 0 , (2.220)
and
Tr
_
A
2
_
= Tr ([α¸ ¸α [α¸ ¸α[) + Tr ([β¸ ¸β [β¸ ¸β[) −Tr ([α¸ ¸α [β¸ ¸β[) −Tr ([β¸ ¸β [α¸ ¸α[)
= 2 −¸α [β¸ Tr ([α¸ ¸β[) −¸β [α¸ Tr ([β¸ ¸α[)
= 2
_
1 −[¸α [β¸[
2
_
,
(2.221)
thus
λ
±
= ±
_
1 −[¸α [β¸[
2
. (2.222)
Alternatively, this problem can also be solved as follows. In general, the
state [β¸ can be decomposed into a parallel to and a perpendicular to [α¸
terms, namely
[β¸ = a [α¸ +c [γ¸ , (2.223)
where a, c ∈ (, the vector [γ¸ is orthogonal to [α¸, namely ¸γ [α¸ = 0, and
in addition [γ¸ is assumed to be normalized, namely ¸γ [γ¸ = 1. Since [β¸
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 45
Chapter 2. State Vectors and Operators
is normalized one has [a[
2
+[c[
2
= 1. The matrix representation of A in
the orthonormal basis ¦[α¸ , [γ¸¦ is given by
A ˙ =
_
¸α[ A[α¸ ¸α[ A[γ¸
¸γ[ A[α¸ ¸γ[ A[γ¸
_
=
_
[c[
2
−ac
∗
−a
∗
c −[c[
2
_
≡
ˆ
A . (2.224)
Thus,
Tr
_
ˆ
A
_
= 0 , (2.225)
and
Det
_
ˆ
A
_
= −[c[
2
_
[c[
2
+[a[
2
_
= −
_
1 −[¸α [β¸[
2
_
, (2.226)
therefore the eigenvalues are
λ
±
= ±
_
1 −[¸α [β¸[
2
. (2.227)
18. Following the clue, we seek a solution to the eigenvalue equation
H[k¸ = E
m
[k¸ , (2.228)
where
[k¸ =
6
n=1
e
ikn
[ϕ
n
¸ . (2.229)
thus
H[k¸ = E
0
[k¸ −a
6
n=1
e
ikn
_¸
¸
¸ϕ
(n−1)
′
_
+
¸
¸
¸ϕ
(n+1)
′
__
= E[k¸ , (2.230)
where n
′
is the modulus of n divided by 6 (e.g., 1
′
= 1, 0
′
= 6, 7
′
= 1).
A solution is obtained if
e
6ik
= 1 , (2.231)
or
k
m
=
mπ
3
, (2.232)
where m = 1, 2, , 6. The corresponding eigen vectors are denoted as
[k
m
¸ =
6
n=1
e
ik
m
n
[ϕ
n
¸ , (2.233)
and the following holds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 46
2.15. Solutions
H[k
m
¸ = E
0
[k
m
¸ −ae
ikm
6
n=1
e
ikm(n−1)
¸
¸
¸ϕ
(n−1)
′
_
−ae
−ikm
6
n=1
e
ikm(n+1)
¸
¸
¸ϕ
(n+1)
′
_
= (E
0
−2acos k
m
) [k
m
¸ ,
(2.234)
thus
H[k
m
¸ = E
m
[k¸ , (2.235)
where
E
m
= E
0
−2a cos k
m
. (2.236)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 47
3. The Position and Momentum Observables
Consider a point particle moving in a 3 dimensional space. We ﬁrst treat
the system classically. The position of the particle is described using the
Cartesian coordinates q
x
, q
y
and q
z
. Let
p
j
=
∂/
∂ ˙ q
j
(3.1)
be the canonically conjugate variable to the coordinate q
j
, where j ∈ ¦x, y, z¦
and where / is the Lagrangian. As we have seen in exercise 4 of set 1, the
following Poisson’s brackets relations hold
¦q
j
, q
k
¦ = 0 , (3.2)
¦p
j
, p
k
¦ = 0 , (3.3)
¦q
j
, p
k
¦ = δ
jk
. (3.4)
In quantum mechanics, each of the 6 variables q
x
, q
y
, q
z
, p
x
, p
y
and p
z
is
represented by an Hermitian operator, namely by an observable. It is postu
lated that the commutation relations between each pair of these observables
is related to the corresponding Poisson’s brackets according to the rule
¦, ¦ →
1
i
[, ] . (3.5)
Namely the following is postulated to hold
[q
j
, q
k
] = 0 , (3.6)
[p
j
, p
k
] = 0 , (3.7)
[q
j
, p
k
] = iδ
jk
. (3.8)
Note that here we use the same notation for a classical variable and its
quantum observable counterpart. In this chapter we will derive some results
that are solely based on Eqs. (3.6), (3.7) and (3.8).
3.1 The One Dimensional Case
In this section, which deals with the relatively simple case of a one dimen
sional motion of a point particle, we employ the less cumbersome notation
Chapter 3. The Position and Momentum Observables
x and p for the observables q
x
and p
x
. The commutation relation between
these operators is given by [see Eq. (3.8)]
[x, p] = i . (3.9)
The uncertainty principle (2.155) employed for x and p yields
_
(∆x)
2
__
(∆p
x
)
2
_
≥
2
4
. (3.10)
3.1.1 Position Representation
Let x
′
be an eigenvalue of the observable x, and let [x
′
¸ be the corresponding
eigenvector, namely
x[x
′
¸ = x
′
[x
′
¸ . (3.11)
Note that x
′
∈ ¹ since x is Hermitian. As we will see below transformation
between diﬀerent eigenvectors [x
′
¸ can be performed using the translation
operator J (∆
x
).
Deﬁnition 3.1.1. The translation operator is given by
J (∆
x
) = exp
_
−
i∆
x
p
_
, (3.12)
where ∆
x
∈ ¹.
Recall that in general the meaning of a function of an operator can be
understood in terms of the Taylor expansion of the function, that is, for the
present case
J (∆
x
) =
∞
n=0
1
n!
_
−
i∆
x
p
_
n
. (3.13)
It is easy to show that J (∆
x
) is unitary
J
†
(∆
x
) = J (−∆
x
) = J
−1
(∆
x
) . (3.14)
Moreover, the following composition property holds
J (∆
x1
) J (∆
x2
) = J (∆
x1
+∆
x2
) . (3.15)
Theorem 3.1.1. Let x
′
be an eigenvalue of the observable x, and let [x
′
¸ be
the corresponding eigenvector. Then the ketvector J (∆
x
) [x
′
¸ is a normalized
eigenvector of x with an eigenvalue x
′
+∆
x
.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 50
3.1. The One Dimensional Case
Proof. With the help of Eq. (3.76), which is given by
[x, B(p)] = i
dB
dp
, (3.16)
and which is proven in exercise 1 of set 3, one ﬁnds that
[x, J (∆
x
)] = i
∆
x
i
J (∆
x
) . (3.17)
Using this result one has
xJ (∆
x
) [x
′
¸ = ([x, J (∆
x
)] +J (∆
x
) x) [x
′
¸ = (x
′
+∆
x
) J (∆
x
) [x
′
¸ , (3.18)
thus the ketvector J (∆
x
) [x
′
¸ is an eigenvector of x with an eigenvalue x
′
+
∆
x
. Moreover, J (∆
x
) [x
′
¸ is normalized since J is unitary.
In view of the above theorem we will in what follows employ the notation
J (∆
x
) [x
′
¸ = [x
′
+∆
x
¸ . (3.19)
An important consequence of the last result is that the spectrum of eigenval
ues of the operator x is continuous and contains all real numbers. This point
will be further discussed below.
The position wavefunction ψ
α
(x
′
) of a state vector [α¸ is deﬁned as:
ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸ . (3.20)
Given the wavefunction ψ
α
(x
′
) of state vector [α¸, what is the wavefunction
of the state O[α¸, where O is an operator? We will answer this question below
for some cases:
1. The operator O = x. In this case
¸x
′
[ x[α¸ = x
′
¸x
′
[α¸ = x
′
ψ
α
(x
′
) , (3.21)
namely, the desired wavefunction is obtained by multiplying ψ
α
(x
′
) by
x
′
.
2. The operator O is a function A(x) of the operator x. Let
A(x) =
n
a
n
x
n
. (3.22)
be the Taylor expansion of A(x). Exploiting the fact that x is Hermitian
one ﬁnds that
¸x
′
[ A(x) [α¸ =
n
a
n
¸x
′
[ x
n
. ¸¸ .
x
′n
x
′

[α¸ =
n
a
n
x
′n
¸x
′
[α¸ = A(x
′
) ψ
α
(x
′
) .
(3.23)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 51
Chapter 3. The Position and Momentum Observables
3. The operator O = J (∆
x
). In this case
¸x
′
[ J (∆
x
) [α¸ = ¸x
′
[ J
†
(−∆
x
) [α¸ = ¸x
′
−∆
x
[α¸ = ψ
α
(x
′
−∆
x
) .
(3.24)
4. The operator O = p. In view of Eq. (3.12), the following holds
J (−∆
x
) = exp
_
ip∆
x
_
= 1 +
i∆
x
p +O
_
(∆
x
)
2
_
, (3.25)
thus
¸x
′
[ J (−∆
x
) [α¸ = ψ
α
(x
′
) +
i∆
x
¸x
′
[ p [α¸ +O
_
(∆
x
)
2
_
. (3.26)
On the other hand, according to Eq. (3.24) also the following holds
¸x
′
[ J (−∆
x
) [α¸ = ψ
α
(x
′
+∆
x
) . (3.27)
Equating the above two expressions for ¸x
′
[ J (−∆
x
) [α¸ yields
¸x
′
[ p [α¸ = −i
ψ
α
(x
′
+∆
x
) −ψ
α
(x
′
)
∆
x
+O(∆
x
) . (3.28)
Thus, in the limit ∆
x
→0 one has
¸x
′
[ p [α¸ = −i
dψ
α
dx
′
. (3.29)
To mathematically understand the last result, consider the diﬀerential
operator
˜
J (−∆
x
) = exp
_
∆
x
d
dx
_
= 1 +∆
x
d
dx
+
1
2!
_
∆
x
d
dx
_
2
+ .
(3.30)
In view of the Taylor expansion of an arbitrary function f (x)
f (x
0
+∆
x
) = f (x
0
) +∆
x
df
dx
+
(∆
x
)
2
2!
d
2
f
dx
2
+
= exp
_
∆
x
d
dx
_
f
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=x0
=
˜
J (−∆
x
) f
¸
¸
¸
x=x0
,
(3.31)
one can argue that the operator
˜
J (−∆
x
) generates translation.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 52
3.1. The One Dimensional Case
As we have pointed out above, the spectrum (i.e., the set of all eigen
values) of x is continuous. On the other hand, in the discussion in chapter
2 only the case of an observable having discrete spectrum has been consid
ered. Rigorous mathematical treatment of the case of continuous spectrum
is nontrivial mainly because typically the eigenvectors in such a case cannot
be normalized. However, under some conditions one can generalize some of
the results given in chapter 2 for the case of an observable having a continu
ous spectrum. These generalization is demonstrated below for the case of the
position operator x:
1. The closure relation (2.23) is written in terms of the eigen vectors [x
′
¸ as
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[ = 1 , (3.32)
namely, the discrete sum is replaced by an integral.
2. With the help of Eq. (3.32) an arbitrary ketvector can be written as
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
ψ
α
(x
′
) [x
′
¸ , (3.33)
and the inner product between a ketvector [α¸ and a bravector ¸β[ as
¸β [α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
¸β [x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
ψ
∗
β
(x
′
) ψ
α
(x
′
) . (3.34)
3. The normalization condition reads
1 = ¸α [α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
[ψ
α
(x
′
)[
2
. (3.35)
4. The orthonormality relation (2.64) is written in the present case as
¸x
′′
[x
′
¸ = δ (x
′
−x
′′
) . (3.36)
5. In a measurement of the observable x, the quantity
f (x
′
) = [¸x
′
[α¸[
2
= [ψ
α
(x
′
)[
2
(3.37)
represents the probability density to ﬁnd the particle at the point x = x
′
.
6. That is, the probability to ﬁnd the particle in the interval (x
1
, x
2
) is given
by
p
(x
1
,x
2
)
=
_
x2
x1
dx
′
f (x
′
) . (3.38)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 53
Chapter 3. The Position and Momentum Observables
This can be rewritten as
p
(x1,x2)
= ¸α[ P
(x1,x2)
[α¸ , (3.39)
where the projection operator P
(x1,x2)
is given by
P
(x1,x2)
=
_
x
2
x1
dx
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[ . (3.40)
The operator P
(x1,x2)
is considered to be a projection operator since for
every x
0
∈ (x
1
, x
2
) the following holds
P
(x1,x2)
[x
0
¸ =
_
x2
x1
dx
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[x
0
¸
. ¸¸ .
δ(x
′
−x0)
= [x
0
¸ . (3.41)
7. Any realistic measurement of a continuous variable such as position is
subjected to ﬁnite resolution. Assuming that a particle has been mea
sured to be located in the interval (x
′
−δ
x
/2, x
′
+δ
x
/2), where δ
x
is the
resolution of the measuring device, the collapse postulate implies that
the state of the system undergoes the following transformation
[α¸ →
P
(x
′
−δx/2,x
′
+δx/2)
[α¸
_
¸α[ P
(x
′
−δx/2,x
′
+δx/2)
[α¸
. (3.42)
8. Some observables have a mixed spectrum containing both a discrete and
continuous subsets. An example of such a mixed spectrum is the set of
eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian operator of a potential well of ﬁnite depth.
3.1.2 Momentum Representation
Let p
′
be an eigenvalue of the observable p, and let [p
′
¸ be the corresponding
eigenvector, namely
p [p
′
¸ = p
′
[p¸ . (3.43)
Note that p
′
∈ ¹ since p is Hermitian. Similarly to the case of the position
observable, the closure relation is written as
_
dp
′
[p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[ = 1 , (3.44)
and the orthonormality relation as
¸p
′′
[p
′
¸ = δ (p
′
−p
′′
) . (3.45)
The momentum wavefunction φ
α
(p
′
) of a given state [α¸ is deﬁned as
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 54
3.2. Transformation Function
φ
α
(p
′
) = ¸p
′
[α¸ . (3.46)
The probability density to measure a momentum value of p = p
′
is
[φ
α
(p
′
)[
2
= [¸p
′
[α¸[
2
. (3.47)
Any ketvector can be decomposed into momentum eigenstates as
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
[p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
φ
α
(p
′
) [p
′
¸ . (3.48)
The inner product between a ketvector [α¸ and a bravector ¸β[ can be
expressed as
¸β [α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
¸β [p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
φ
∗
β
(p
′
) φ
α
(p
′
) . (3.49)
The normalization condition reads
1 = ¸α [α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
[φ
α
(p
′
)[
2
. (3.50)
3.2 Transformation Function
What is the relation between the position wavefunction ψ
α
(x
′
) and its mo
mentum counterpart φ
α
(p
′
)?
Claim. The transformation function ¸x
′
[p
′
¸ is given by
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ =
1
√
2π
exp
_
ip
′
x
′
_
. (3.51)
Proof. On one hand, according to Eq. (3.43)
¸x
′
[ p [p
′
¸ = p
′
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ , (3.52)
and on the other hand, according to Eq. (3.29)
¸x
′
[ p [p
′
¸ = −i
∂
∂x
′
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ , (3.53)
thus
p
′
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ = −i
∂
∂x
′
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ . (3.54)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 55
Chapter 3. The Position and Momentum Observables
The general solution of this diﬀerential equation is
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ = N exp
_
ip
′
x
′
_
, (3.55)
where N is a normalization constant. To determine the constant N we employ
Eqs. (3.36) and (3.44):
δ (x
′
−x
′′
)
= ¸x
′
[x
′′
¸
=
_
dp
′
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[x
′′
¸
=
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
[N[
2
exp
_
ip
′
(x
′
−x
′′
)
_
= [N[
2
∞
_
−∞
dke
ik(x
′
−x
′′
)
. ¸¸ .
2πδ(x
′
−x
′′
)
.
(3.56)
Thus, by choosing N to be real one ﬁnds that
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ =
1
√
2π
exp
_
ip
′
x
′
_
. (3.57)
The last result together with Eqs. (3.32) and (3.44) yield
ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
e
ip
′
x
′
φ
α
(p
′
)
√
2π
, (3.58)
φ
α
(p
′
) = ¸p
′
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
¸p
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
e
−
ip
′
x
′
ψ
α
(x
′
)
√
2π
. (3.59)
That is, transformations relating ψ
α
(x
′
) and φ
α
(p
′
) are the direct and inverse
Fourier transformations.
3.3 Generalization for 3D
According to Eq. (3.6) the observables q
x
, q
y
and q
z
commute with each
other, hence, a simultaneous diagonalization is possible. Denoting the com
mon eigenvectors as
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 56
3.3. Generalization for 3D
[r
′
¸ =
¸
¸
q
′
x
, q
′
y
, q
′
z
_
, (3.60)
one has
q
x
[r
′
¸ = q
′
x
¸
¸
q
′
x
, q
′
y
, q
′
z
_
, (3.61)
q
y
[r
′
¸ = q
′
y
¸
¸
q
′
x
, q
′
y
, q
′
z
_
, (3.62)
q
z
[r
′
¸ = q
′
z
¸
¸
q
′
x
, q
′
y
, q
′
z
_
. (3.63)
The closure relation is written as
1 =
∞
_
−∞
∞
_
−∞
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
dy
′
dz
′
[r
′
¸ ¸r
′
[ , (3.64)
and the orthonormality relation as
¸r
′
[r
′′
¸ = δ (r
′
−r
′′
) . (3.65)
Similarly, according to Eq. (3.7) the observables p
x
, p
y
and p
z
commute
with each other, hence, a simultaneous diagonalization is possible. Denoting
the common eigenvectors as
[p
′
¸ =
¸
¸
p
′
x
, p
′
y
, p
′
z
_
, (3.66)
one has
p
x
[p
′
¸ = p
′
x
¸
¸
p
′
x
, p
′
y
, p
′
z
_
, (3.67)
p
y
[p
′
¸ = p
′
y
¸
¸
p
′
x
, p
′
y
, p
′
z
_
, (3.68)
p
z
[p
′
¸ = p
′
z
¸
¸
p
′
x
, p
′
y
, p
′
z
_
. (3.69)
The closure relation is written as
1 =
∞
_
−∞
∞
_
−∞
∞
_
−∞
dp
′
x
dp
′
y
dp
′
z
[p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[ , (3.70)
and the orthonormality relation as
¸p
′
[p
′′
¸ = δ (p
′
−p
′′
) . (3.71)
The translation operator in three dimensions can be expressed as
J (∆) = exp
_
−
i∆ p
_
, (3.72)
where ∆ =(∆
x
, ∆
y
, ∆
z
) ∈ ¹
3
, and where
J (∆) [r
′
¸ = [r
′
+∆¸ . (3.73)
The generalization of Eq. (3.51) for three dimensions is
¸r
′
[p
′
¸ =
1
(2π)
3/2
exp
_
ip
′
r
′
_
. (3.74)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 57
Chapter 3. The Position and Momentum Observables
3.4 Problems
1. Show that
[p, A(x)] = −i
dA
dx
, (3.75)
[x, B(p)] = i
dB
dp
, (3.76)
where A(x) is a diﬀerentiable function of x and B(p) is a diﬀerentiable
function of p.
2. Show that the mean value of x in a state described by the wavefunction
ψ (x), namely
¸x¸ =
+∞
_
−∞
dxψ
∗
(x) xψ (x) , (3.77)
is equal to the value of a for which the expression
F (a) ≡
+∞
_
−∞
dxψ
∗
(x +a) x
2
ψ (x +a) (3.78)
obtains a minimum, and that this minimum has the value
F
min
= (∆x)
2
=
¸
x
2
_
−¸x¸
2
. (3.79)
3. Consider a Gaussian wave packet, whose x space wavefunction is given
by
ψ
α
(x
′
) =
1
π
1/4
√
d
exp
_
ikx
′
−
x
′2
2d
2
_
. (3.80)
Calculate
a)
_
(∆x)
2
__
(∆p)
2
_
b) ¸p
′
[α¸
4. Show that the state [α¸ with wave function
¸x
′
[α¸ =
_
1/
√
2a for [x[ ≤ a
0 for [x[ > a
(3.81)
the uncertainty in momentum is inﬁnity.
5. Show that
p = −i
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
[x
′
¸
d
dx
′
¸x
′
[ . (3.82)
6. Show that
1
(2π)
3
_
d
3
p
′
exp
_
ip
′
(r
′
−r
′′
)
_
= δ (r
′
−r
′′
) . (3.83)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 58
3.5. Solutions
3.5 Solutions
1. The commutator [x, p] = i is a constant, thus the relation (2.175) can
be employed
[p, x
m
] = −imx
m−1
= −i
dx
m
dx
, (3.84)
[x, p
m
] = imp
m−1
= i
dp
m
dp
. (3.85)
This holds for any m, thus, for any diﬀerentiable function A(x) of x and
for any diﬀerentiable function B(p) of p one has
[p, A(x)] = −i
dA
dx
, (3.86)
[x, B(p)] = i
dB
dp
. (3.87)
2. The following holds
F (a) =
+∞
_
−∞
dxψ
∗
(x +a) x
2
ψ(x +a)
=
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
ψ
∗
(x
′
) (x
′
−a)
2
ψ (x′)
=
_
(x −a)
2
_
=
¸
x
2
_
−2a ¸x¸ +a
2
.
(3.88)
The requirement
dF
da
= 0 (3.89)
leads to −2 ¸x¸ + 2a = 0, or a = ¸x¸. At that point one has
F
min
=
_
(x −¸x¸)
2
_
=
¸
x
2
_
−¸x¸
2
. (3.90)
3. The following hold
¸x¸ =
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
ψ
∗
α
(x
′
) x
′
ψ
α
(x
′
)
=
1
π
1/2
d
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
exp
_
−
x
′2
d
2
_
x
′
= 0 ,
(3.91)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 59
Chapter 3. The Position and Momentum Observables
¸
x
2
_
=
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
ψ
∗
α
(x
′
) x
′2
ψ
α
(x
′
)
=
1
π
1/2
d
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
exp
_
−
x
′2
d
2
_
x
′2
=
1
π
1/2
d
d
3
π
1/2
2
=
d
2
2
,
(3.92)
¸p¸ = −i
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
ψ
∗
α
(x
′
)
dψ
α
dx
′
= −
i
π
1/2
d
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
exp
_
−
x
′2
d
2
__
ik −
x
′
d
2
_
= −
i
π
1/2
d
ikdπ
1/2
= k ,
(3.93)
¸
p
2
_
= (−i)
2
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
ψ
∗
α
(x
′
)
d
2
ψ
α
dx
′2
= (−i)
2
1
π
1/2
d
+∞
_
−∞
dx
′
exp
_
−
x
′2
d
2
_
__
_
ik −
x
′
d
2
_
2
−
1
d
2
__
= (−i)
2
1
π
1/2
d
_
−
1
2
_
d
√
π
2d
4
k
2
+d
2
d
4
= (k)
2
_
1 +
1
2 (dk)
2
_
,
(3.94)
a) thus
_
(∆x)
2
__
(∆p)
2
_
=
d
2
2
_
(k)
2
_
1 +
1
2 (dk)
2
_
−(k)
2
_
=
2
4
.
(3.95)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 60
3.5. Solutions
b) Using Eq. (3.59) one has
¸p
′
[α¸ =
1
√
2π
_
dx
′
exp
_
−
ip
′
x
′
_
ψ
α
(x
′
)
=
1
√
2π
1
π
1/4
√
d
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
exp
__
ik −
ip
′
_
x
′
−
x
′2
2d
2
_
=
√
d
π
1/4
√
exp
_
−
(k −p
′
)
2
d
2
2
2
_
.
(3.96)
4. The momentum wavefunction is found using Eq. (3.59)
φ
α
(p
′
) =
1
√
2π
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
exp
_
−
ip
′
x
′
_
¸x
′
[α¸
=
1
√
4πa
a
_
−a
dx
′
exp
_
−
ip
′
x
′
_
=
_
a
π
sin
ap
′
ap
′
.
(3.97)
The momentum wavefunction φ
α
(p
′
) is normalizable, however, the inte
grals for evaluating both ¸p¸ and
¸
p
2
_
do not converge.
5. Using Eqs. (3.29) and (3.32) one has
p [α¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[ p [α¸
= −i
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
[x
′
¸
d
dx
′
¸x
′
[α¸ ,
(3.98)
thus, since [α¸ is an arbitrary ket vector, the following holds
p = −i
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
[x
′
¸
d
dx
′
¸x
′
[ . (3.99)
6. With the help of Eqs. (3.65), (3.70) and (3.74) one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 61
Chapter 3. The Position and Momentum Observables
δ (r
′
−r
′′
) = ¸r
′
[r
′′
¸
=
_
d
3
p
′
¸r
′
[p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[r
′′
¸
=
1
(2π)
3
_
d
3
p
′
exp
_
ip
′
(r
′
−r
′′
)
_
.
(3.100)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 62
4. Quantum Dynamics
The time evolution of a state vector [α¸ is postulated to be given by the
Schrödinger equation
i
d[α¸
dt
= H[α¸ , (4.1)
where the Hermitian operator H = H
†
is the Hamiltonian of the system.
The Hamiltonian operator is the observable corresponding to the classical
Hamiltonian function that we have studied in chapter 1. The time evolution
produced by Eq. (4.1) is unitary, as is shown below:
Claim. The norm ¸α [α¸ is time independent.
Proof. Since H = H
†
, the dual of the Schrödinger equation (4.1) is given by
−i
d¸α[
dt
= ¸α[ H . (4.2)
Using this one has
d¸α [α¸
dt
=
_
d¸α[
dt
_
[α¸+¸α[
d[α¸
dt
=
1
i
(−¸α[ H[α¸ +¸α[ H[α¸) = 0 . (4.3)
4.1 Time Evolution Operator
The time evolution operator u(t, t
0
) relates the state vector at time [α(t
0
)¸
with its value [α(t)¸ at time t:
[α(t)¸ = u(t, t
0
) [α(t
0
)¸ . (4.4)
Claim. The time evolution operator satisﬁes the Schrödinger equation (4.1).
Proof. Expressing the Schrödinger equation (4.1) in terms of Eq. (4.4)
i
d
dt
u(t, t
0
) [α(t
0
)¸ = Hu(t, t
0
) [α(t
0
)¸ , (4.5)
and noting that [α(t
0
)¸ is t independent yield
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
i
_
d
dt
u(t, t
0
)
_
[α(t
0
)¸ = Hu(t, t
0
) [α(t
0
)¸ . (4.6)
Since this holds for any [α(t
0
)¸ one concludes that
i
du(t, t
0
)
dt
= Hu(t, t
0
) . (4.7)
This results leads to the following conclusion:
Claim. The time evolution operator is unitary.
Proof. Using Eq. (4.7) one ﬁnds that
d
_
u
†
u
_
dt
= u
†
du
dt
+
du
†
dt
u
=
1
i
_
u
†
Hu −u
†
Hu
_
= 0 .
(4.8)
Furthermore, for t = t
0
clearly u(t
0
, t
0
) = u
†
(t
0
, t
0
) = 1. Thus, one concludes
that u
†
u = 1 for any time, namely u is unitary.
4.2 Time Independent Hamiltonian
A special case of interest is when the Hamiltonian is time independent. In
this case the solution of Eq. (4.7) is given by
u(t, t
0
) = exp
_
−
iH(t −t
0
)
_
. (4.9)
The operator u(t, t
0
) takes a relatively simple form in the basis of eigenvectors
of the Hamiltonian H. Denoting these eigenvectors as [a
n,i
¸, where the index
i is added to account for possible degeneracy, and denoting the corresponding
eigenenergies as E
n
one has
H[a
n,i
¸ = E
n
[a
n,i
¸ , (4.10)
where
¸a
n
′
,i
′ [a
n,i
¸ = δ
nn
′ δ
ii
′ . (4.11)
By using the closure relation, which is given by
1 =
n
g
n
i=1
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ , (4.12)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 64
4.3. Example  Spin 1/2
and Eq. (4.9) one ﬁnds that
u(t, t
0
) = exp
_
−
iH(t −t
0
)
_
1
=
n
gn
i=1
exp
_
−
iH(t −t
0
)
_
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[
=
n
g
n
i=1
exp
_
−
iE
n
(t −t
0
)
_
[a
n,i
¸ ¸a
n,i
[ .
(4.13)
Using this results the state vector [α(t)¸ can be written as
[α(t)¸ = u(t, t
0
) [α(t
0
)¸
=
n
gn
i=1
exp
_
−
iE
n
(t −t
0
)
_
¸a
n,i
[α(t
0
)¸ [a
n,i
¸ .
(4.14)
Note that if the system is initially in an eigenvector of the Hamiltonian
with eigenenergy E
n
, then according to Eq. (4.14)
[α(t)¸ = exp
_
−
iE
n
(t −t
0
)
_
[α(t
0
)¸ . (4.15)
However, the phase factor multiplying [α(t
0
)¸ has no eﬀect on any mea
surable physical quantity of the system, that is, the system’s properties are
time independent. This is why the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian are called
stationary states.
4.3 Example  Spin 1/2
In classical mechanics, the potential energy U of a magnetic moment µ in a
magnetic ﬁeld B is given by
U = −µ B . (4.16)
The magnetic moment of a spin 1/2 is given by [see Eq. (2.90)]
µ
spin
=
2µ
B
S , (4.17)
where S is the spin angular momentum vector and where
µ
B
=
e
2m
e
c
(4.18)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 65
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
is the Bohr’s magneton (note that the electron charge is taken to be negative
e < 0). Based on these relations we hypothesize that the Hamiltonian of a
spin 1/2 in a magnetic ﬁeld B is given by
H = −
e
m
e
c
S B . (4.19)
Assume the case where
B = Bˆz , (4.20)
where B is a constant. For this case the Hamiltonian is given by
H = ωS
z
, (4.21)
where
ω =
[e[ B
m
e
c
(4.22)
is the socalled Larmor frequency. In terms of the eigenvectors of the operator
S
z
S
z
[±¸ = ±
2
[±¸ , (4.23)
where the compact notation [±¸ stands for the states [±; ˆz¸, one has
H[±¸ = ±
ω
2
[±¸ , (4.24)
namely the states [±¸ are eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. Equation (4.13) for
the present case reads
u(t, 0) = e
−
iωt
2
[+¸ ¸+[ +e
iωt
2
[−¸ ¸−[ . (4.25)
Exercise 4.3.1. Consider spin 1/2 in magnetic ﬁeld given by B = Bˆz, where
B is a constant. Given that [α(0)¸ = [+; ˆ x¸ at time t = 0 calculate (a) the
probability p
±
(t) to measure S
x
= ±/2 at time t; (b) the expectation value
¸S
x
¸ (t) at time t.
Solution 4.3.1. Recall that [see Eq. (2.102)]
[±; ˆ x¸ =
1
√
2
([+¸ ±[−¸) (4.26)
(a) Using Eq. (4.25) one ﬁnds
p
±
(t) = [¸±; ˆ x[ u(t, 0) [α(0)¸[
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
2
(¸+[ ±¸−[)
_
e
−
iωt
2
[+¸ ¸+[ +e
iωt
2
[−¸ ¸−[
_
([+¸ +[−¸)
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
2
_
e
−
iωt
2
±e
iωt
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
,
(4.27)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 66
4.4. Connection to Classical Dynamics
thus
p
+
(t) = cos
2
_
ωt
2
_
, (4.28)
p
−
(t) = sin
2
_
ωt
2
_
. (4.29)
(b)Using the results for p
+
and p
−
one has
¸S
x
¸ =
2
(p
+
−p
−
)
=
2
_
cos
2
_
ωt
2
_
−sin
2
_
ωt
2
__
=
2
cos (ωt) .
(4.30)
4.4 Connection to Classical Dynamics
In chapter 1 we have found that in classical physics, the dynamics of a variable
A
(c)
is governed by Eq. (1.38), which is given by
dA
(c)
dt
=
_
A
(c)
, H
(c)
_
+
∂A
(c)
∂t
. (4.31)
We seek a quantum analogy to this equation. To that end, we derive an
equation of motion for the expectation value ¸A¸ of the observable A that
corresponds to the classical variable A
(c)
. In general, the expectation value
can be expressed as
¸A¸ = ¸α(t)[ A[α(t)¸ = ¸α(t
0
)[ u
†
(t, t
0
) Au(t, t
0
) [α(t
0
)¸ = ¸α(t
0
)[ A
(H)
[α(t
0
)¸ ,
(4.32)
where u is the time evolution operator and
A
(H)
= u
†
(t, t
0
) Au(t, t
0
) . (4.33)
The operator A
(H)
is called the Heisenberg representation of A. We ﬁrst
derive an equation of motion for the operator A
(H)
. By using Eq. (4.7) one
ﬁnds that the following holds
du
dt
=
1
i
Hu , (4.34)
du
†
dt
= −
1
i
u
†
H , (4.35)
therefore
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 67
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
dA
(H)
dt
=
du
†
dt
Au +u
†
A
du
dt
+u
†
∂A
∂t
u
=
1
i
_
−u
†
HAu +u
†
AHu
_
+u
†
∂A
∂t
u
=
1
i
_
−u
†
Huu
†
Au +u
†
Auu
†
Hu
_
+u
†
∂A
∂t
u
=
1
i
_
−H
(H)
A
(H)
+A
(H)
H
(H)
_
+
∂A
(H)
∂t
.
(4.36)
Thus, we have found that
dA
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
A
(H)
, H
(H)
_
+
∂A
(H)
∂t
. (4.37)
Furthermore, the desired equation of motion for ¸A¸ is found using Eqs. (4.32)
and (4.37)
d¸A¸
dt
=
1
i
¸[A, H]¸ +
_
∂A
∂t
_
. (4.38)
We see that the Poisson’s brackets in the classical equation of motion (4.31)
for the classical variable A
(c)
are replaced by a commutation relation in the
quantum counterpart equation of motion (4.38) for the expectation value ¸A¸
¦, ¦ →
1
i
[, ] . (4.39)
Note that for the case where the Hamiltonian is time independent, namely
for the case where the time evolution operator is given by Eq. (4.9), u com
mutes with H, namely [u, H] = 0, and consequently
H
(H)
= u
†
Hu = H . (4.40)
4.5 Symmetric Ordering
What is in general the correspondence between a classical variable and its
quantum operator counterpart? Consider for example the system of a point
particle moving in one dimension. Let x
(c)
be the classical coordinate and let
p
(c)
be the canonically conjugate momentum. As we have done in chapter 3,
the quantum observables corresponding to x
(c)
and p
(c)
are the Hermitian
operators x and p. The commutation relation [x, p] is derived from the cor
responding Poisson’s brackets
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
according to the rule
¦, ¦ →
1
i
[, ] , (4.41)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 68
4.5. Symmetric Ordering
namely
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
= 1 →[x, p] = i . (4.42)
However, what is the quantum operator corresponding to a general func
tion A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
of x
(c)
and p
(c)
? This question raises the issue of order
ing. As an example, let A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
= x
(c)
p
(c)
. Classical variables obviously
commute, therefore x
(c)
p
(c)
= p
(c)
x
(c)
. However, this is not true for quantum
operators xp ,= px. Moreover, it is clear that both operators xp and px cannot
be considered as observables since they are not Hermitian
(xp)
†
= px ,= xp , (4.43)
(px)
†
= xp ,= px . (4.44)
A better candidate to serve as the quantum operator corresponding to the
classical variables x
(c)
p
(c)
is the operator (xp +px) /2, which is obtained from
x
(c)
p
(c)
by a procedure called symmetric ordering. A general transformation
that produces a symmetric ordered observable A(x, p) that corresponds to
a given general function A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
of the classical variable x
(c)
and its
canonical conjugate p
(c)
is given below
A(x, p) =
∞
_
−∞
∞
_
−∞
A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
Υdx
(c)
dp
(c)
,
(4.45)
where
Υ =
1
(2π)
2
∞
_
−∞
∞
_
−∞
e
i
(η(x
(c)
−x)+ξ(p
(c)
−p))
dηdξ . (4.46)
This transformation is called the Weyl transformation. The identity
∞
_
−∞
dke
ik(x
′
−x
′′
)
= 2πδ (x
′
−x
′′
) , (4.47)
implies that
1
2π
_
e
i
η(x
(c)
−x)
dη = δ
_
x
(c)
−x
_
, (4.48)
1
2π
_
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dξ = δ
_
p
(c)
−p
_
. (4.49)
At ﬁrst glance these relations may lead to the (wrong) conclusion that the
term Υ equals to δ
_
x
(c)
−x
_
δ
_
p
(c)
−p
_
, however, this is incorrect since x
and p are noncommuting operators.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 69
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
4.6 Problems
1. Consider spin 1/2 in magnetic ﬁeld given by B = Bˆz, where B is a
constant. At time t = 0 the system is in the state [+; ˆ x¸. Calculate ¸S
x
¸,
¸S
y
¸ and ¸S
z
¸ as a function of time t.
2. Consider the Hamiltonian operator
H =
p
2
2m
+V (r) , (4.50)
where r = (x, y, z) is the vector of position operators, p = (p
x
, p
y
, p
z
)
is the vector of canonical conjugate operators, and the mass m is a con
stant. Let [ψ
n
¸ be a normalizable eigenvector of the Hamiltonian H with
eigenvalue E
n
. Show that
¸ψ
n
[ p[ψ
n
¸ = 0 . (4.51)
3. Show that in the p representation the Schrödinger equation
i
d[α¸
dt
= H[α¸ , (4.52)
where H is the Hamiltonian
H =
p
2
2m
+V (r) , (4.53)
can be transformed into the integrodiﬀerential equation
i
d
dt
φ
α
=
p
2
2m
φ
α
+
_
dp
′
U (p −p
′
) φ
α
, (4.54)
where φ
α
= φ
α
(p
′
, t) = ¸p
′
[α¸ is the momentum wave function and
where
U (p) = (2π)
−3
_
drV (r) exp
_
−
i
p r
_
. (4.55)
4. Consider a particle of mass m in a scalar potential energy V (r). Prove
Ehrenfest’s theorem
m
d
2
dt
2
¸r¸ = −¸∇V (r)¸ . (4.56)
5. Show that if the potential energy V (r) can be written as a sum of func
tions of a single coordinate, V (r) = V
1
(x
1
) +V
2
(x
2
) +V
3
(x
3
), then the
timeindependent Schrödinger equation can be decomposed into a set of
onedimensional equations of the form
d
2
ψ
i
(x
i
)
dx
2
i
+
2m
2
[E
i
−V
i
(x
i
)] ψ
i
(x
i
) = 0 , (4.57)
where i ∈ ¦1, 2, 3¦, with ψ (r) = ψ
1
(x
1
) ψ
2
(x
2
) ψ
3
(x
3
) and E = E
1
+
E
2
+E
3
.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 70
4.6. Problems
6. Show that, in onedimensional problems, the energy spectrum of the
bound states is always nondegenerate.
7. Let ψ
n
(x) (n = 1, 2, 3, ) be the eigenwavefunctions of a one
dimensional Schrödinger equation with eigenenergies E
n
placed in order
of increasing magnitude (E
1
< E
2
< . ). Show that between any two
consecutive zeros of ψ
n
(x), ψ
n+1
(x) has at least one zero.
8. What conclusions can be drawn about the parity of the eigenfunctions
of the onedimensional Schrödinger equation
d
2
ψ (x)
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E −V (x)) ψ (x) = 0 (4.58)
if the potential energy is an even function of x , namely V (x) = V (−x).
9. Show that the ﬁrst derivative of the timeindependent wavefunction is
continuous even at points where V (x) has a ﬁnite discontinuity.
10. A particle having mass mis conﬁned by a one dimensional potential given
by
V
s
(x) =
_
−W if [x[ ≤ a
0 if [x[ > a
, (4.59)
where a > 0 and W > 0 are real constants. Show that the particle has
at least one bound state (i.e., a state having energy E < 0 ).
11. Consider a particle having mass m conﬁned in a potential well given by
V (x) =
_
0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ a
∞if x < 0 or x > a
. (4.60)
The eigen energies are denoted by E
n
and the corresponding eigen states
are denoted by [ϕ
n
¸ , where n = 1, 2, (as usual, the states are num
bered in increasing order with respect to energy). The state of the system
at time t = 0 is given by
[Ψ(0)¸ = a
1
[ϕ
1
¸ +a
2
[ϕ
2
¸ +a
3
[ϕ
3
¸ . (4.61)
(a) The energy E of the system is measured at time t = 0 . What is the
probability to measure a value smaller than 3π
2
2
/
_
ma
2
_
? (b) Calculate
the standard deviation ∆E =
_
¸E
2
¸ −¸E¸
2
at time t = 0 . (c) the same
as (b), however for any time t > 0 . (d) The energy was measured at
time t and the value of 2π
2
2
/
_
ma
2
_
was found. The energy is measured
again at later time t
0
> t . Calculate ¸E¸ and ¸∆E¸ at time t
0
.
12. Consider a point particle having mass m in a one dimensional potential
given by
V (x) =
_
−αδ (x) [x[ < a
∞ [x[ ≥ a
, (4.62)
where δ (x) is the delta function and α is a constant. Let E
0
be the energy
of the ground state. Under what conditions E
0
< 0?
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 71
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
13. ThomasReicheKuhn sum rule  Let
H =
p
2
2m
+V (r) (4.63)
be the Hamiltonian of a particle of mass m moving in a potential V (r).
Show that
k
(E
k
−E
l
) [¸k[ x[l¸[
2
=
2
2m
, (4.64)
where the sum is taken over all energy eigenstates of the particle (where
H[k¸ = E
k
[k¸ ), and x is the x component of the position vector operator
r (the ThomasReicheKuhn sum rule).
14. A particle having mass m is conﬁned in a one dimensional potential well
given by
V (x) =
_
0 0 < x < a
∞ else
.
(a) At time t = 0 the position was measured and the result was x = a/2.
The resolution of the position measurement is ∆x , where ∆x << a.
After time τ
1
the energy was measured. Calculate the probability p
n
to
measure that the energy of the system is E
n
, where E
n
are the eigen
energies of the particle in the well, and where n = 1, 2, .(b) Assume
that the result of the measurement in the previous section was E
2
. At
a later time τ
2
> τ
1
the momentum p of the particle was measured.
Calculate the expectation value ¸p¸.
15. A particle having mass m is in the ground state of an inﬁnite potential
well of width a, which is given by
V
1
(x) =
_
0 0 < x < a
∞ else
. (4.65)
At time t = 0 the potential suddenly changes and becomes
V
2
(x) =
_
0 0 < x < 2a
∞ else
, (4.66)
namely the width suddenly becomes 2a. (a) Find the probability p to
ﬁnd the particle in the ground state of the new well. (b) Calculate the
expectation value of the energy ¸H¸ before and after the change in the
potential.
16. The continuity equation  Consider a point particle having mass m
and charge q placed in an electromagnetic ﬁeld. Show that
dρ
dt
+∇J = 0 , (4.67)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 72
4.7. Solutions
where
ρ = ψψ
∗
(4.68)
is the probability density, ψ (x
′
) is the wavefunction,
J =
m
Im(ψ
∗
∇ψ) −
q
mc
(ρA) (4.69)
is the current density, and A is the electromagnetic vector potential.
17. Calculate the Weyl transformation A(x, p) of the classical variable A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
=
p
(c)
x
(c)
.
18. Invert Eq. (4.45), i.e. express the variable A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
as a function of
the operator A(x, p).
4.7 Solutions
1. The operators S
x
, S
y
and S
z
are given by Eqs. (2.102), (2.103) and (2.99)
respectively. The Hamiltonian is given by Eq. (4.21). Using Eqs. (4.38)
and (2.132) one has
d¸S
x
¸
dt
=
ω
i
¸[S
x
, S
z
]¸ = −ω ¸S
y
¸ , (4.70)
d¸S
y
¸
dt
=
ω
i
¸[S
y
, S
z
]¸ = ω ¸S
x
¸ , (4.71)
d¸S
z
¸
dt
=
ω
i
¸[S
z
, S
z
]¸ = 0 , (4.72)
where
ω =
[e[ B
m
e
c
. (4.73)
At time t = 0 the system is in state
[+; ˆ x¸ =
1
√
2
([+¸ +[−¸) , (4.74)
thus
¸S
x
¸ (t = 0) =
4
(¸+[ +¸−[) ([+¸ ¸−[ +[−¸ ¸+[) ([+¸ +[−¸) =
2
.
¸S
y
¸ (t = 0) =
4
(¸+[ +¸−[) (−i [+¸ ¸−[ +i [−¸ ¸+[) ([+¸ +[−¸) = 0 .
¸S
z
¸ (t = 0) =
4
(¸+[ +¸−[) ([+¸ ¸+[ −[−¸ ¸−[) ([+¸ +[−¸) = 0 .
The solution is easily found to be given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 73
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
¸S
x
¸ (t) =
_
2
_
cos (ωt) , (4.75)
¸S
y
¸ (t) =
_
2
_
sin(ωt) , (4.76)
¸S
z
¸ (t) = 0 . (4.77)
2. Using [x, p
x
] = [y, p
y
] = [z, p
z
] = i one ﬁnds that
[H, r] =
_
p
2
2m
, r
_
=
1
2m
__
p
2
x
, x
¸
,
_
p
2
y
, y
¸
,
_
p
2
z
, z
¸_
=
im
(p
x
, p
y
, p
z
)
=
im
p .
(4.78)
Thus
¸ψ
n
[ p[ψ
n
¸ =
im
¸ψ
n
[ [H, r] [ψ
n
¸
=
im
¸ψ
n
[ (Hr −rH) [ψ
n
¸
=
imE
n
¸ψ
n
[ (r −r) [ψ
n
¸
= 0 .
(4.79)
3. Multiplying Eq. (4.52) from the left by the bra ¸p
′
[ and inserting the
closure relation
1 =
_
dp
′′
[p
′′
¸ ¸p
′′
[ (4.80)
yields
i
dφ
α
(p
′
)
dt
=
_
dp
′′
¸p
′
[ H[p
′′
¸ φ
α
(p
′′
) . (4.81)
The following hold
¸p
′
[ p
2
[p
′′
¸ = p
′2
δ (p
′
−p
′′
) , (4.82)
and
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 74
4.7. Solutions
¸p
′
[ V (r) [p
′′
¸ =
_
dr
′
_
dr
′′
¸p
′
[r
′
¸ ¸r
′
[ V (r) [r
′′
¸ ¸r
′′
[p
′′
¸
= (2π)
−3
_
dr
′
_
dr
′′
exp
_
−
ip
′
r
′
_
V (r
′
) δ (r
′
−r
′′
) exp
_
ip
′′
r
′′
_
= (2π)
−3
_
dr
′
exp
_
−
i (p
′
−p
′′
) r
′
_
V (r
′
)
= U (p
′
−p
′′
) ,
(4.83)
thus the momentum wave functionφ
α
(p
′
) satisﬁes the following equation
i
dφ
α
dt
=
p
′2
2m
φ
α
+
_
dp
′′
U (p
′
−p
′′
) φ
α
. (4.84)
4. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+V (r) . (4.85)
Using Eq. (4.38) one has
d¸x¸
dt
=
1
i
¸[x, H]¸ =
1
i2m
¸_
x, p
2
x
¸_
=
¸p
x
¸
m
, (4.86)
and
d¸p
x
¸
dt
=
1
i
¸[p
x
, V (r)]¸ , (4.87)
or with the help of Eq. (3.75)
d¸p
x
¸
dt
= −
_
∂V
∂x
_
. (4.88)
This together with Eq. (4.86) yield
m
d
2
¸x¸
dt
2
= −
_
∂V
∂x
_
. (4.89)
Similar equations are obtained for ¸y¸ and ¸z¸, which together yield Eq.
(4.56).
5. Substituting a solution having the form
ψ(r) = ψ
1
(x
1
) ψ
2
(x
2
) ψ
3
(x
3
) (4.90)
into the timeindependent Schrödinger equation, which is given by
∇
2
ψ (r) +
2m
2
[E −V (r)] ψ (r) = 0 , (4.91)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 75
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
and dividing by ψ (r) yield
3
i=1
_
1
ψ
i
(x
i
)
d
2
ψ
i
(x
i
)
dx
2
i
−
2m
2
V
i
(x
i
)
_
= −
2m
2
E . (4.92)
In the sum, the i th term (i ∈ ¦1, 2, 3¦) depends only on x
i
, thus each
term must be a constant
1
ψ
i
(x
i
)
d
2
ψ
i
(x
i
)
dx
2
i
−
2m
2
V
i
(x
i
) = −
2m
2
E
i
, (4.93)
where E
1
+E
2
+E
3
= E.
6. Consider two eigenwavefunctions ψ
1
(x) and ψ
2
(x) having the same
eigenenergy E. The following holds
d
2
ψ
1
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E −V (x)) ψ
1
= 0 , (4.94)
d
2
ψ
2
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E −V (x)) ψ
2
= 0 , (4.95)
thus
1
ψ
1
d
2
ψ
1
dx
2
=
1
ψ
2
d
2
ψ
2
dx
2
, (4.96)
or
ψ
2
d
2
ψ
1
dx
2
−ψ
1
d
2
ψ
2
dx
2
=
d
dx
_
ψ
2
dψ
1
dx
−ψ
1
dψ
2
dx
_
= 0 , (4.97)
therefore
ψ
2
dψ
1
dx
−ψ
1
dψ
2
dx
= C , (4.98)
where C is a constant. However, for bound states
lim
x→±∞
ψ (x) = 0 , (4.99)
thus C = 0, and consequently
1
ψ
1
dψ
1
dx
=
1
ψ
2
dψ
2
dx
. (4.100)
Integrating the above equation yields
log ψ
1
= log ψ
2
+α , (4.101)
where α is a constant. Therefore
ψ
1
= e
α
ψ
2
, (4.102)
and therefore ψ
2
is just proportional to ψ
1
(both represent the same
physical state).
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 76
4.7. Solutions
7. Consider two eigenwavefunctions ψ
n
(x) and ψ
n+1
(x) with E
n
< E
n+1
.
As we saw in the previous exercise, the spectrum is nondegenerate. More
over, the Schrödinger equation
d
2
ψ
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E −V (x)) ψ = 0 , (4.103)
which the eigenwavefunctions satisfy, is real. Therefore given that ψ (x)
is a solution with a given eigenenergy E, then also ψ
∗
(x) is a solution
with the same E. Therefore, all eigenwavefunctions can be chosen to be
real (i.e., by the transformation ψ (x) →(ψ (x) +ψ
∗
(x)) /2). We have
d
2
ψ
n
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E
n
−V (x)) ψ
n
= 0 , (4.104)
d
2
ψ
n+1
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E
n+1
−V (x)) ψ
n+1
= 0 . (4.105)
By multiplying the ﬁrst Eq. by ψ
n+1
, the second one by ψ
n
, and sub
tracting one has
ψ
n+1
d
2
ψ
n
dx
2
−ψ
n
d
2
ψ
n+1
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E
n
−E
n+1
) ψ
n
ψ
n+1
= 0 , (4.106)
or
d
dx
_
ψ
n+1
dψ
n
dx
−ψ
n
dψ
n+1
dx
_
+
2m
2
[E
n
−E
n+1
] ψ
n
ψ
n+1
= 0 . (4.107)
Let x
1
and x
2
be two consecutive zeros of ψ
n
(x) (i.e., ψ
n
(x
1
) =
ψ
n
(x
2
) = 0). Integrating from x
1
to x
2
yields
_
_
ψ
n+1
dψ
n
dx
− ψ
n
.¸¸.
=0
dψ
n+1
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x2
x1
=
2m
2
(E
n+1
−E
n
)
. ¸¸ .
>0
_
x
2
x
1
dxψ
n
ψ
n+1
.
(4.108)
Without lost of generality, assume that ψ
n
(x) > 0 in the range (x
1
, x
2
).
Since ψ
n
(x) is expected to be continuous, the following must hold
dψ
n
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=x1
> 0 , (4.109)
dψ
n
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=x2
< 0 . (4.110)
As can be clearly seen from Eq. (4.108), the assumption that ψ
n+1
(x) > 0
in the entire range (x
1
, x
2
) leads to contradiction. Similarly, the possibil
ity that ψ
n+1
(x) < 0 in the entire range (x
1
, x
2
) is excluded. Therefore,
ψ
n+1
must have at least one zero in this range.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 77
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
8. Clearly if ψ (x) is an eigen function with energy E, also ψ (−x) is an
eigen function with the same energy. Consider two cases: (i) The level E
is nondegenerate. In this case ψ (x) = cψ (−x), where c is a constant.
Normalization requires that [c[
2
= 1. Moreover, since the wavefunctions
can be chosen to be real, the following holds: ψ (x) = ±ψ(−x). (ii) The
level E is degenerate. In this case every superposition of ψ (x) and ψ (−x)
can be written as a superposition of an odd eigen function ψ
odd
(x) and
an even one ψ
even
(x), which are deﬁned by
ψ
odd
(x) = ψ (x) −ψ (−x) , (4.111)
ψ
even
(x) = ψ (x) +ψ (−x) . (4.112)
9. The timeindependent Schrödinger equation reads
d
2
ψ (x)
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E −V (x)) ψ (x) = 0 . (4.113)
Assume V (x) has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x = x
0
. Integrating the
Schrödinger equation in the interval (x
0
−ε, x
0
+ε) yields
_
dψ (x)
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x0+ε
x0−ε
=
2m
2
x0+ε
_
x0−ε
(V (x) −E) ψ (x) = 0 . (4.114)
In the limit ε → 0 the right hand side vanishes (assuming ψ (x) is
bounded). Therefore dψ(x) /dx is continuous at x = x
0
.
10. Since V
s
(−x) = V
s
(x) the ground state wavefunction is expected to be
an even function of x. Consider a solution having an energy E and a
wavefunction of the form
ψ(x) =
_
_
_
Ae
−γx
if x > a
Bcos (kx) if −a ≤ x ≤ a
Ae
γx
if x < −a
, (4.115)
where
γ =
√
−2mE
, (4.116)
and
k =
_
2m(W +E)
. (4.117)
Requiring that both ψ(x) and dψ (x) /dx are continuous at x = a yields
Ae
−γa
= Bcos (ka) , (4.118)
and
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 78
4.7. Solutions
−γAe
−γa
= −kBsin(ka) , (4.119)
or in a matrix form
C
_
A
B
_
=
_
0
0
_
, (4.120)
where
C =
_
e
−γa
−cos (ka)
−γe
−γa
k sin(ka)
_
. (4.121)
A nontrivial solution exists iﬀ Det (C) = 0, namely iﬀ
γ
k
= tan(ka) . (4.122)
This condition can be rewritten using Eqs. (4.116) and (4.117) and the
dimensionless parameters
K = ka , (4.123)
K
0
=
√
2mW
a , (4.124)
as
cos
2
K =
1
1 + tan
2
K
=
1
1 +
_
γ
k
_
2
=
_
K
K
0
_
2
. (4.125)
Note, however, that according to Eq. (4.122) tanK > 0. Thus, Eq. (4.122)
is equivalent to the set of equations
[cos K[ =
K
K
0
, (4.126)
tanK > 0 . (4.127)
This set has at least one solution (this can be seen by plotting the func
tions [cos K[ and K/K
0
).
11. Final answers: (a) [a
1
[
2
+[a
2
[
2
. (b)
∆E =
π
2
2
2ma
2
¸
¸
¸
_
3
n=1
[a
n
[
2
n
4
−
_
3
n=1
[a
n
[
2
n
2
_
2
. (4.128)
(c) The same as at t = 0. (d) ¸E¸ = 2π
2
2
/
_
ma
2
_
, ¸∆E¸ = 0.
12. The Schrödinger equation for the wavefunction ψ (x) is given by
_
d
2
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E −V )
_
ψ (x) = 0 . (4.129)
The boundary conditions imposed upon ψ (x) by the potential are
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 79
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
ψ (±a) = 0 , (4.130)
ψ
_
0
+
_
= ψ
_
0
−
_
, (4.131)
dψ (0
+
)
dx
−
dψ (0
−
)
dx
= −
2
a
0
ψ (0) , (4.132)
where
a
0
=
2
mα
. (4.133)
Due to symmetry V (x) = V (−x) the solutions are expected to have
deﬁnite symmetry (even ψ (x) = ψ (−x) or odd ψ (x) = −ψ (−x)). For
the ground state, which is expected to have even symmetry, we consider
a wavefunction having the form
ψ(x) =
_
Asinh(κ(x −a)) x > 0
−Asinh(κ(x +a)) x < 0
, (4.134)
where A is a normalization constants and where
κ =
√
−2mE
0
. (4.135)
The parameter κ is real for E
0
< 0. This even wavefunction satisﬁes Eq.
(4.129) for x ,= 0 and the boundary conditions (4.130) and (4.131). The
condition (4.132) reads
κa
0
= tanh(κa) . (4.136)
Nontrivial (κ ,= 0) real solution exists only when a > a
0
, thus E
0
< 0 iﬀ
a > a
0
=
2
mα
. (4.137)
13. Using Eq. (4.37) one has
dx
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
x
(H)
, H
_
, (4.138)
therefore
¸k[
dx
(H)
dt
[l¸ =
1
i
¸k[ x
(H)
H−Hx
(H)
[l¸ =
i (E
k
−E
l
)
¸k[ x
(H)
[l¸ .
(4.139)
Integrating yields
¸k[ x
(H)
(t) [l¸ = ¸k[ x
(H)
(t = 0) [l¸ exp
_
i (E
k
−E
l
) t
_
. (4.140)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 80
4.7. Solutions
Using this result one has
k
(E
k
−E
l
) [¸k[ x[l¸[
2
=
k
(E
k
−E
l
)
¸
¸
¸¸k[ x
(H)
[l¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
k
(E
k
−E
l
) ¸k[ x
(H)
[l¸ ¸l[ x
(H)
[k¸
=
2i
k
_
¸k[
dx
(H)
dt
[l¸ ¸l[ x
(H)
[k¸ −¸k[ x
(H)
[l¸ ¸l[
dx
(H)
dt
[k¸
_
=
2i
k
_
¸l[ x
(H)
[k¸ ¸k[
dx
(H)
dt
[l¸ −¸l[
dx
(H)
dt
[k¸ ¸k[ x
(H)
[l¸
_
=
2i
¸l[ x
(H)
dx
(H)
dt
−
dx
(H)
dt
x
(H)
[l¸ .
(4.141)
Using again Eq. (4.37) one has
dx
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
x
(H)
, H
_
=
p
(H)
x
m
, (4.142)
therefore
k
(E
k
−E
l
) [¸k[ x[l¸[
2
=
2im
¸l[
_
x
(H)
, p
(H)
x
_
[l¸
=
2im
i
=
2
2m
.
(4.143)
14. The wavefunctions of the normalized eigenstates are given by
ψ
n
(x) =
_
2
a
sin
nπx
a
, (4.144)
and the corresponding eigenenergies are
E
n
=
2
π
2
n
2
2ma
2
. (4.145)
(a) The wavefunction after the measurement is a normalized wavepacket
centered at x = a/2 and having a width ∆x
ψ(x) =
_
1
√
∆x
¸
¸
x −
a
2
¸
¸
≤
∆x
2
0 else
. (4.146)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 81
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
Thus in the limit ∆x << a
p
n
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
0
dxψ
∗
n
(x) ψ (x)
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
≃ 2
∆x
a
sin
2
nπ
2
. (4.147)
Namely, p
n
= 0 for all even n, and the probability of all energies with
odd n is equal. (b) Generally, for every bound state in one dimension
¸p¸ = 0 [see Eq. (4.51)].
15. For a well of width a the wavefunctions of the normalized eigenstates are
given by
ψ
(a)
n
(x) =
_
2
a
sin
nπx
a
, (4.148)
and the corresponding eigenenergies are
E
(a)
n
=
2
π
2
n
2
2ma
2
. (4.149)
(a) The probability is given by
p =
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
0
dxψ
(a)
1
(x) ψ
(2a)
1
(x)
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
32
9π
2
. (4.150)
(b) For times t < 0 it is given that ¸H¸ = E
(a)
1
. Immediately after the
change (t = 0
+
) the wavefunction remains unchanged. A direct evaluation
of ¸H¸ using the new Hamiltonian yields the same result ¸H¸ = E
(a)
1
as for
t < 0. At later times t > 0 the expectation value ¸H¸ remains unchanged
due to energy conservation.
16. The Schrödinger equation is given by
i
d[α¸
dt
= H[α¸ , (4.151)
where the Hamiltonian is given by [see Eq. (1.62)]
H =
_
p−
q
c
A
_
2
2m
+qϕ . (4.152)
Multiplying from the left by ¸x
′
[ yields
i
dψ
dt
=
1
2m
_
−i∇−
q
c
A
_
2
ψ +qϕψ , (4.153)
where
ψ = ψ (x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸ . (4.154)
Multiplying Eq. (4.153) by ψ
∗
, and subtracting the complex conjugate of
Eq. (4.153) multiplied by ψ yields
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 82
4.7. Solutions
i
dρ
dt
=
1
2m
_
ψ
∗
_
−i∇−
q
c
A
_
2
ψ −ψ
_
i∇−
q
c
A
_
2
ψ
∗
_
, (4.155)
where
ρ = ψψ
∗
(4.156)
is the probability density. Moreover, the following holds
ψ
∗
_
−i∇−
q
c
A
_
2
ψ −ψ
_
i∇−
q
c
A
_
2
ψ
∗
= ψ
∗
_
−
2
∇
2
+
_
q
c
_
2
A
2
+
iq
c
∇A+
iq
c
A∇
_
ψ
−ψ
_
−
2
∇
2
+
_
q
c
_
2
A
2
−
iq
c
∇A−
iq
c
A∇
_
ψ
∗
= −
2
_
ψ
∗
∇
2
ψ −ψ∇
2
ψ
∗
_
+
iq
c
(ψ
∗
∇Aψ +ψ
∗
A∇ψ +ψ∇Aψ
∗
+ψA∇ψ
∗
)
= −
2
∇(ψ
∗
∇ψ −ψ∇ψ
∗
) +
iq
c
∇(ψ
∗
Aψ +ψAψ
∗
) .
(4.157)
Thus, Eq. (4.155) can be written as
dρ
dt
+∇J = 0 , (4.158)
where
J =
m
Im(ψ
∗
∇ψ) −
q
mc
(ρA) . (4.159)
17. Using Eq. (4.45) one has
A(x, p) =
1
(2π)
2
_ _ _ _
p
(c)
x
(c)
e
i
[η(x
(c)
−x)+ξ(p
(c)
−p)]
dηdξdx
(c)
dp
(c)
.
(4.160)
With the help of Eq. (2.176), which is given by
e
A
e
B
= e
A+B
e
(1/2)[A,B]
, (4.161)
one has
e
−
i
ηx
e
−
i
ξp
= e
−
i
(ηx+ξp)
e
−
1
2
2
ηξ[x,p]
, (4.162)
thus
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 83
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
A(x, p) =
1
(2π)
2
_ _ _ _
p
(c)
x
(c)
e
i
(ηx
(c)
+ξp
(c)
)
e
i
ηξ
2
e
−
i
ηx
e
−
i
ξp
dηdξdx
(c)
dp
(c)
=
1
(2π)
2
_ _ _ _
p
(c)
x
(c)
e
i
[(η(x
(c)
+
ξ
2
)+ξp
(c)
)]
e
−
i
ηx
e
−
i
ξp
dηdξdx
(c)
dp
(c)
.
(4.163)
Changing the integration variable
x
(c)
= x
(c)′
−
ξ
2
, (4.164)
one has
A(x, p) =
1
(2π)
2
_ _ _ _
p
(c)
_
x
(c)′
−
ξ
2
_
e
i
(ηx
(c)′
+ξp
(c)
)
e
−
i
ηx
e
−
i
ξp
dηdξdx
(c)′
dp
(c)
=
1
(2π)
2
_ _ _ _
p
(c)
_
x
(c)′
−
ξ
2
_
e
i
η(x
(c)′
−x)
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dηdξdx
(c)′
dp
(c)
.
(4.165)
Using the identity
∞
_
−∞
dke
ik(x
′
−x
′′
)
= 2πδ (x
′
−x
′′
) , (4.166)
one ﬁnds that
1
2π
_
e
i
η(x
(c)′
−x)
dη = δ
_
x
(c)′
−x
_
, (4.167)
1
2π
_
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dξ = δ
_
p
(c)
−p
_
, (4.168)
thus
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 84
4.7. Solutions
A(x, p) =
1
2π
_ _ _
p
(c)
_
x
(c)′
−
ξ
2
_
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dξdx
(c)′
dp
(c)
1
2π
_
e
i
η(x
(c)′
−x)
dη
=
1
2π
_ _ _
p
(c)
_
x
(c)′
−
ξ
2
_
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dξdx
(c)′
dp
(c)
δ
_
x
(c)′
−x
_
=
1
2π
_ _
p
(c)
_
x −
ξ
2
_
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dξdp
(c)
=
_
p
(c)
xdp
(c)
1
2π
_
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dξ −
1
2π
_ _
p
(c)
ξ
2
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dξdp
(c)
= px −
1
2π
_ _
p
(c)
ξ
2
e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
dξdp
(c)
= px −
1
2π
2i
_ _
p
(c)
∂e
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
∂p
(c)
dξdp
(c)
= px −
2i
_
dp
(c)
p
(c)
∂
∂p
(c)
1
2π
_
dξe
i
ξ(p
(c)
−p)
. ¸¸ .
δ(p
(c)
−p)
.
(4.169)
Integration by parts yields
A(x, p) = px −
2i
_ _
∂p
(c)
∂p
(c)
_
δ
_
p
(c)
−p
_
dp
(c)
= px −
2i
= px +
[x, p]
2
=
xp +px
2
.
(4.170)
18. Below we derive an expression for the variable A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
in terms
of the matrix elements of the operator A(x, p) in the basis of position
eigenvectors [x
′
¸. To that end we begin by evaluating the matrix element
_
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸ A(x, p)
¸
¸
¸x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
using Eqs. (4.163), (3.19) and (4.167)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 85
Chapter 4. Quantum Dynamics
_
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
A(x, p)
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
=
1
(2π)
2
_ _ _ _
A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
e
i
[(η(x
(c)
+
ξ
2
)+ξp
(c)
)]
_
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
−
i
ηx
e
−
i
ξp
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
dηdξdx
(c)
dp
(c)
=
1
(2π)
2
_ _ _ _
A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
e
i
[(η(x
(c)
+
ξ
2
)+ξp
(c)
)]
e
−
i
η
_
x
′
−
x
′′
2
_
_
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
+ξ
_
dηdξdx
(c)
dp
(c)
=
1
(2π)
2
_ _
A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
e
−
i
x
′′
p
(c)
dx
(c)
dp
(c)
_
e
i
[η(x
(c)
−x
′
)]
dη
=
1
2π
_ _
A
_
x
(c)
, p
(c)
_
e
−
i
x
′′
p
(c)
dx
(c)
dp
(c)
δ
_
x
(c)
−x
′
_
=
1
2π
_
A
_
x
′
, p
(c)
_
e
−
i
x
′′
p
(c)
dp
(c)
.
Applying the inverse Fourier transform, i.e. multiplying by e
i
x
′′
p
′
and
integrating over x
′′
yields
_ _
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
A(x, p)
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
e
i
x
′′
p
′
dx
′′
=
1
2π
_
A
_
x
′
, p
(c)
_
dp
(c)
_
e
i
x
′′
(p
′
−p
(c)
)
dx
′′
,
(4.171)
thus with the help of Eq. (4.168) one ﬁnds the desired inversion of Eq.
(4.45) is given by
A(x
′
, p
′
) =
_ _
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
A(x, p)
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
e
i
x
′′
p
′
dx
′′
. (4.172)
Note that A(x
′
, p
′
), which appears on the left hand side of the above
equation (4.172) is a classical variable, whereas A(x, p) on the right hand
side is the corresponding quantum operator. A useful relations can be
obtained by integrating A(x
′
, p
′
) over p
′
. With the help of Eq. (4.167)
one ﬁnds that
_
A(x
′
, p
′
) dp
′
=
_
dx
′′
_
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
A(x, p)
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
__
e
i
x
′′
p
′
dp
′
= 2π ¸x
′
[ A(x, p) [x
′
¸ .
(4.173)
Another useful relations can be obtained by integrating A(x
′
, p
′
) over
x
′
.With the help of Eqs. (3.51) and (4.168) one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 86
4.7. Solutions
_
A(x
′
, p
′
) dx
′
=
_ _ _
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
A(x, p)
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
e
i
x
′′
p
′
dx
′′
dx
′
=
_ _ _ _ _
x
′
−
x
′′
2
[p
′′
¸ ¸p
′′
[ A(x, p) [p
′′′
¸ ¸p
′′′
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
e
i
x
′′
p
′
dx
′′
dx
′
dp
′′
dp
′′′
=
1
2π
_ _ _ _
e
i
x
′
(p
′′
−p
′′′
)
e
i
x
′′
2
(−p
′′
−p
′′′
)
¸p
′′
[ A(x, p) [p
′′′
¸ e
i
x
′′
p
′
dx
′′
dx
′
dp
′′
dp
′′′
=
_ _ _
δ (p
′′
−p
′′′
) e
i
x
′′
2
(−p
′′
−p
′′′
)
¸p
′′
[ A(x, p) [p
′′′
¸ e
i
x
′′
p
′
dx
′′
dp
′′
dp
′′′
=
_ _
¸p
′′
[ A(x, p) [p
′′
¸ e
i
x
′′
(p
′
−p
′′
)
dx
′′
dp
′′
= 2π
_
¸p
′′
[ A(x, p) [p
′′
¸ δ (p
′
−p
′′
) dp
′′
= 2π ¸p
′
[ A(x, p) [p
′
¸ .
(4.174)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 87
5. The Harmonic Oscillator
Consider a particle of mass m in a parabolic potential well
U (x) =
1
2
mω
2
x
2
,
where the angular frequency ω is a constant. The classical equation of motion
for the coordinate x is given by [see Eq. (1.19)]
m¨ x = −
∂U
∂x
= −mω
2
x . (5.1)
It is convenient to introduce the complex variable α, which is given by
α =
1
x
0
_
x +
i
ω
˙ x
_
, (5.2)
where x
0
is a constant having dimension of length. Using Eq. (5.1) one ﬁnds
that
˙ α =
1
x
0
_
˙ x +
i
ω
¨ x
_
=
1
x
0
_
˙ x −
i
ω
ω
2
x
_
= −iωα . (5.3)
The solution is given by
α = α
0
e
−iωt
, (5.4)
where α
0
= α(t = 0). Thus, x and ˙ x oscillate in time according to
x = x
0
Re
_
α
0
e
−iωt
_
, (5.5)
˙ x = x
0
ω Im
_
α
0
e
−iωt
_
. (5.6)
The Hamiltonian is given by [see Eq. (1.34)]
H =
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
. (5.7)
In quantum mechanics the variables x and p are regarded as operators satis
fying the following commutation relations [see Eq. (3.9)]
[x, p] = xp −px = i . (5.8)
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
5.1 Eigenstates
The annihilation and creation operators are deﬁned as
a =
_
mω
2
_
x +
ip
mω
_
, (5.9)
a
†
=
_
mω
2
_
x −
ip
mω
_
. (5.10)
The inverse transformation is given by
x =
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
, (5.11)
p = i
_
mω
2
_
−a +a
†
_
. (5.12)
The following holds
_
a, a
†
¸
=
i
2
([p, x] −[x, p]) = 1 , (5.13)
The number operator, which is deﬁned as
N = a
†
a, (5.14)
can be expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian
N = a
†
a
=
mω
2
_
x −
ip
mω
__
x +
ip
mω
_
=
mω
2
_
p
2
m
2
ω
2
+x
2
+
i [x, p]
mω
_
=
1
ω
_
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
_
−
1
2
=
H
ω
−
1
2
.
(5.15)
Thus, the Hamiltonian can be written as
H = ω
_
N +
1
2
_
. (5.16)
The operator N is Hermitian, i.e. N = N
†
, therefore its eigenvalues are
expected to be real. Let ¦[n¸¦ be the set of eigenvectors of N and let ¦n¦ be
the corresponding set of eigenvalues
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 90
5.1. Eigenstates
N [n¸ = n[n¸ . (5.17)
According to Eq. (5.16) the eigenvectors of N are also eigenvectors of H
H[n¸ = E
n
[n¸ , (5.18)
where the eigenenergies E
n
are given by
E
n
= ω
_
n +
1
2
_
. (5.19)
Theorem 5.1.1. Let [n¸ be a normalized eigenvector of the operator N with
eigenvalue n. Then (i) the vector
[n + 1¸ = (n + 1)
−1/2
a
†
[n¸ (5.20)
is a normalized eigenvector of the operator N with eigenvalue n + 1; (ii) the
vector
[n −1¸ = n
−1/2
a [n¸ (5.21)
is a normalized eigenvector of the operator N with eigenvalue n −1
Proof. Using the commutation relations
_
N, a
†
¸
= a
†
_
a, a
†
¸
= a
†
, (5.22)
[N, a] =
_
a
†
, a
¸
a = −a , (5.23)
one ﬁnds that
Na
†
[n¸ =
__
N, a
†
¸
+a
†
N
_
[n¸ = (n + 1) a
†
[n¸ , (5.24)
and
Na[n¸ = ([N, a] +aN) [n¸ = (n −1) a [n¸ . (5.25)
Thus, the vector a
†
[n¸, which is proportional to [n + 1¸, is an eigenvector of
the operator N with eigenvalue n + 1 and the vector a [n¸, which is propor
tional to [n −1¸, is an eigenvector of the operator N with eigenvalue n − 1.
Normalization is veriﬁed as follows
¸n + 1 [n + 1¸ = (n + 1)
−1
¸n[ aa
†
[n¸ = (n + 1)
−1
¸n[
_
a, a
†
¸
+a
†
a [n¸ = 1 ,
(5.26)
and
¸n −1 [n −1¸ = n
−1
¸n[ a
†
a [n¸ = 1 . (5.27)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 91
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
As we have seen from the above theorem the following hold
a[n¸ =
√
n[n −1¸ , (5.28)
a
†
[n¸ =
√
n + 1 [n + 1¸ . (5.29)
Claim. The spectrum (i.e. the set of eigenvalues) of N are the nonnegative
integers ¦0, 1, 2, ¦.
Proof. First, note that since the operator N is positivedeﬁnite the eigenval
ues are necessarily non negative
n = ¸n[ a
†
a [n¸ ≥ 0 . (5.30)
On the other hand, according to Eq. (5.28), if n is an eigenvalue also n − 1
is an eigenvalue, unless n = 0. For the later case according to Eq. (5.28)
a [0¸ = 0. Therefore, n must be an integer, since otherwise one reaches a
contradiction with the requirement that n ≥ 0.
According to exercise 6 of set 4, in onedimensional problems the energy
spectrum of the bound states is always nondegenerate. Therefore, one con
cludes that all eigenvalues of N are nondegenerate. Therefore, the closure
relation can be written as
1 =
∞
n=0
[n¸ ¸n[ . (5.31)
Furthermore, using Eq. (5.29) one can express the state [n¸ in terms of the
ground state [0¸ as
[n¸ =
_
a
†
_
n
√
n!
[0¸ . (5.32)
5.2 Coherent States
As can be easily seen from Eqs. (5.11), (5.12), (5.28) and (5.29), all energy
eigenstates [n¸ have vanishing position and momentum expectation values
¸n[ x[n¸ = 0 , (5.33)
¸n[ p [n¸ = 0 . (5.34)
Clearly these states don’t oscillate in phase space as classical harmonic os
cillators do. Can one ﬁnd quantum states having dynamics that resembles
classical harmonic oscillators?
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 92
5.2. Coherent States
Deﬁnition 5.2.1. Consider an harmonic oscillator having ground state [0¸.
A coherent state [α¸ with a complex parameter α is deﬁned by
[α¸ = D(α) [0¸ , (5.35)
where
D(α) = exp
_
αa
†
−α
∗
a
_
, (5.36)
is the displacement operator.
In the set of problems at the end of this chapter the following results are
obtained:
• The displacement operator is unitary D
†
(α) D(α) = D(α) D
†
(α) = 1.
• The coherent state [α¸ is an eigenvector of the operator a with an eigenvalue
α, namely
a [α¸ = α[α¸ . (5.37)
• For any function f
_
a, a
†
_
having a power series expansion the following
holds
D
†
(α) f
_
a, a
†
_
D(α) = f
_
a +α, a
†
+α
∗
_
. (5.38)
• The displacement operator satisﬁes the following relations
D(α) = e
−
α
2
2
e
αa
†
e
−α
∗
a
= e
α
2
2
e
−α
∗
a
e
αa
†
, (5.39)
D(α) = e
√
mω
α−α
∗
√
2
x
e
−
i
√
m ω
α+α
∗
√
2
p
e
α
∗2
−α
2
4
, (5.40)
D(α) D(α
′
) = exp
_
αα
′∗
−α
∗
α
′
2
_
D(α +α
′
) . (5.41)
• Coherent state expansion in the basis of number states
[α¸ = e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
α
n
√
n!
[n¸ . (5.42)
• The following expectation values hold
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 93
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
¸H¸
α
= ¸α[ H[α¸ = ω
_
[α[
2
+ 1/2
_
, (5.43)
¸α[ H
2
[α¸ =
2
ω
2
_
[α[
4
+ 2 [α[
2
+ 1/4
_
, (5.44)
∆H
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆H)
2
[α¸ = ω [α[ , (5.45)
¸x¸
α
= ¸α[ x[α¸ =
_
2
mω
Re (α) , (5.46)
¸p¸
α
= ¸α[ p [α¸ =
√
2mω Im(α) , (5.47)
∆x
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆x)
2
[α¸ =
_
2mω
, (5.48)
∆p
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆p)
2
[α¸ =
_
mω
2
, (5.49)
∆x
α
∆p
α
=
2
. (5.50)
• The wave function of a coherent state is given by
ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸
= exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
_
mω
π
_
1/4
exp
_
−
_
x
′
−¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
+i ¸p¸
α
x
′
_
.
(5.51)
• The following closure relation holds
1 =
1
π
_ _
[α¸ ¸α[ d
2
α , (5.52)
where d
2
α denotes inﬁnitesimal area in the α complex plane, namely d
2
α =
d¦Re α¦ d¦Imα¦.
Given that at time t = 0 the oscillator is in a coherent state with para
meter α
0
, namely [ψ(t = 0)¸ = [α
0
¸, the time evolution can be found with
the help of Eqs. (4.14), (5.19) and (5.42)
[ψ (t)¸ = e
−
α
0

2
2
∞
n=0
exp
_
−
iE
n
t
_
α
n
0
√
n!
[n¸
= e
−iωt/2
e
−
α
0

2
2
∞
n=0
exp(−iωnt)
α
n
0
√
n!
[n¸
= e
−iωt/2
e
−
α
0

2
2
∞
n=0
_
α
0
e
−iωt
_
n
√
n!
[n¸
= e
−iωt/2
¸
¸
α = α
0
e
−iωt
_
.
(5.53)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 94
5.3. Problems
In view of Eqs. (5.43), (5.45) (5.48) and (5.49), we see from this results that
¸H¸
α
, ∆H
α
, ∆x
α
and ∆p
α
are all time independent. On the other hand, as
can be seen from Eqs. (5.46) and (5.47) the following holds
¸x¸
α
= ¸α[ x[α¸ =
_
2
mω
Re
_
α
0
e
−iωt
_
, (5.54)
¸p¸
α
= ¸α[ p [α¸ =
√
2mω Im
_
α
0
e
−iωt
_
. (5.55)
These results show that indeed, ¸x¸
α
and ¸p¸
α
have oscillatory time depen
dence identical to the dynamics of the position and momentum of a classical
harmonic oscillator [compare with Eqs. (5.5) and (5.6)].
5.3 Problems
1. Calculate the wave functions ψ
n
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[n¸ of the number states [n¸
of a harmonic oscillator.
2. Show that
exp
_
2Xt −t
2
_
=
∞
n=0
H
n
(X)
t
n
n!
, (5.56)
where H
n
(X) is the Hermite polynomial of order n, which is deﬁned by
H
n
(X) = exp
_
X
2
2
__
X −
d
dX
_
n
exp
_
−
X
2
2
_
. (5.57)
3. Show that for the state [n¸ of a harmonic oscillator
_
(∆x)
2
__
(∆p)
2
_
=
_
n +
1
2
_
2
2
. (5.58)
4. Consider a free particle in one dimension having mass m. Express the
Heisenberg operator x
(H)
(t) in terms x
(H)
(0) and p
(H)
(0).
5. Consider a harmonic oscillator of angular frequency ω and mass m.
a) Express the Heisenberg picture x
(H)
(t) and p
(H)
(t) in terms x
(H)
(0)
and p
(H)
(0).
b) Calculate the following commutators
_
p
(H)
(t
1
) , x
(H)
(t
2
)
¸
,
_
p
(H)
(t
1
) , p
(H)
(t
2
)
¸
and
_
x
(H)
(t
1
) , x
(H)
(t
2
)
¸
.
6. Consider a particle having mass m conﬁned by a one dimensional poten
tial V (x), which is given by
V (x) =
_
mω
2
2
x
2
x > 0
∞ x ≤ 0
, (5.59)
where ω is a constant.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 95
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
a) Calculate the eigenenergies of the system.
b) Calculate the expectation values
¸
x
2
_
of all energy eigenstates of the
particle.
7. Calculate the possible energy values of a particle in the potential given
by
V (x) =
mω
2
2
x
2
+αx . (5.60)
8. A particle is in the ground state of harmonic oscillator with potential
energy
V (x) =
mω
2
2
x
2
. (5.61)
Find the probability p to ﬁnd the particle in the classically forbidden
region.
9. Consider an harmonic oscillator having angular resonance frequency ω
0
.
At time t = 0 the system’s state is given by
[α(t = 0)¸ =
1
√
2
([0¸ +[1¸) , (5.62)
where the states [0¸ and [1¸ are the ground and ﬁrst excited states, re
spectively, of the oscillator. Calculate as a function of time t the following
quantities:
a) ¸x¸
b) ¸p¸
c)
¸
x
2
_
d) ∆x∆p
10. Harmonic oscillator having angular resonance frequency ω is in state
[ψ(t = 0)¸ =
1
√
2
([0¸ +[n¸) (5.63)
at time t = 0, where [0¸ is the ground state and [n¸ is the eigenstate
with eigenenergy ω (n + 1/2) (n is a non zero integer). Calculate the
expectation value ¸x¸ for time t ≥ 0.
11. Consider a harmonic oscillator having mass m and angular resonance
frequency ω . At time t = 0 the system’s state is given by [ψ(0)¸ = c
0
[0¸+
c
1
[1¸ , where [n¸ are the eigenstates with energies E
n
= ω (n + 1/2).
Given that ¸H¸ = ω, [ψ(0)¸ is normalized, and ¸x¸ (t = 0) =
1
2
_
mω
,
calculate ¸x¸ (t) at times t > 0.
12. Show that
D(α) = e
−
α
2
2
e
αa
†
e
−α
∗
a
= e
α
2
2
e
−α
∗
a
e
αa
†
. (5.64)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 96
5.3. Problems
13. Show that the displacement operator D(α) is unitary.
14. Show that
[α¸ = e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
α
n
√
n!
[n¸ . (5.65)
15. Show that the coherent state [α¸ is an eigenvector of the operator a with
an eigenvalue α, namely
a[α¸ = α[α¸ . (5.66)
16. Show that
D(α) = exp
__
mω
α −α
∗
√
2
x
_
exp
_
−
i
√
mω
α +α
∗
√
2
p
_
exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
.
(5.67)
17. Show that for any function f
_
a, a
†
_
having a power series expansion the
following holds
D
†
(α) f
_
a, a
†
_
D(α) = f
_
a +α, a
†
+α
∗
_
. (5.68)
18. Show that the following holds for a coherent state [α¸:
a) ¸α[ H[α¸ = ω
_
[α[
2
+ 1/2
_
.
b) ¸α[ H
2
[α¸ =
2
ω
2
_
[α[
4
+ 2 [α[
2
+ 1/4
_
.
c)
_
¸α[ (∆H)
2
[α¸ = ω [α[.
d) ¸x¸
α
= ¸α[ x[α¸ =
_
2
mω
Re (α).
e) ¸p¸
α
= ¸α[ p [α¸ =
√
2mω Im(α).
f) ∆x
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆x)
2
[α¸ =
_
2mω
.
g) ∆p
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆p)
2
[α¸ =
_
mω
2
.
19. Consider a harmonic oscillator of mass m and angular resonance fre
quency ω. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
x
2
. (5.69)
The system at time t is in a normalized state [α¸, which is an eigenvector
of the annihilation operator a, thus
a[α¸ = α[α¸ , (5.70)
where the eigenvalue α is a complex number. At time t > 0 the energy of
the system is measured. What are the possible results E
n
and what are
the corresponding probabilities p
n
(t)?
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 97
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
20. Show that the wave function of a coherent state is given by
ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸
= exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
_
mω
π
_
1/4
exp
_
−
_
x −¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
+i ¸p¸
α
x
_
.
(5.71)
21. Show that
D(α) D(α
′
) = exp
_
αα
′∗
−α
∗
α
′
2
_
D(α +α
′
) . (5.72)
22. Show that the following closure relation holds
1 =
1
π
_ _
[α¸ ¸α[ d
2
α , (5.73)
where d
2
α denotes inﬁnitesimal area in the α complex plane, namely
d
2
α = d¦Re α¦ d¦Imα¦.
23. Calculate the inner product between two coherent states [α¸ and [β¸,
where α, β ∈ (.
24. A one dimensional potential acting on a particle having mass m is given
by
V
1
(x) =
1
2
mω
2
x
2
+βmω
2
x . (5.74)
a) Calculate the Heisenberg representation of the position operator
x
(H)
(t) and its canonically conjugate operator p
(H)
(t).
b) Given that the particle at time t = 0 is in the state [0¸, where the
state [0¸ is the ground state of the potential
V
1
(x) =
1
2
mω
2
x
2
. (5.75)
Calculate the expectation value ¸x¸ at later times t > 0.
25. A particle having mass m is in the ground state of the onedimensional
potential well V
1
(x) = (1/2) mω
2
(x −∆
x
)
2
for times t < 0 . At time
t = 0 the potential suddenly changes and becomes V
2
(x) = (1/2) mω
2
x
2
.
a) Calculate the expectation value ¸x¸ at times t > 0.
b) Calculate the variance
_
(∆x)
2
_
at times t > 0 , where ∆x = x−¸x¸.
c) The energy of the particle is measured at time t > 0 . What are the
possible results and what are the probabilities to obtain any of these
results.
26. Consider a particle having mass m in the ground state of the potential
well V
a
(x) = (1/2) mω
2
x
2
for times t < 0 . At time t = 0 the potential
suddenly changes and becomes V
b
(x) = gx . (a) Calculate the expecta
tion value ¸x¸ at times t > 0 . (b) Calculate the variance
_
(∆x)
2
_
at
times t > 0 , where ∆x = x −¸x¸.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 98
5.3. Problems
27. Consider a particle of mass m in a potential of a harmonic oscillator
having angular frequency ω. The operator S (r) is deﬁned as
S (r) = exp
_
r
2
_
a
2
−
_
a
†
_
2
__
, (5.76)
where r is a real number, and a and a
†
are the annihilation and creation
operators respectively. The operator T is deﬁned as
T = S (r) aS
†
(r) . (5.77)
a) Find an expression for the operator T of the form T = Aa + Ba
†
,
where both A and B are constants.
b) The vector state [r¸ is deﬁned as
[r¸ = S
†
(r) [0¸ , (5.78)
where [0¸ is the ground state of the harmonic oscillator. Calculate
the expectation values ¸r[ x[r¸ of the operator x (displacement) and
the expectation value ¸r[ p [r¸ of the operator p (momentum).
c) Calculate the variance (∆x)
2
of x and the variance (∆p)
2
of p.
28. Consider one dimensional motion of a particle having mass m. The Hamil
tonian is given by
H = ω
0
a
†
a +ω
1
a
†
a
†
aa , (5.79)
where
a =
_
mω
0
2
_
x +
ip
mω
0
_
, (5.80)
is the annihilation operator, x is the coordinate and p is its canonical
conjugate momentum. The frequencies ω
0
and ω
1
are both positive.
a) Calculate the eigenenergies of the system.
b) Let [0¸ be the ground state of the system. Calculate
i. ¸0[x[0¸
ii. ¸0[p[0¸
iii.
_
0[ (∆x)
2
[0
_
iv.
_
0[ (∆p)
2
[0
_
29. The Hamiltonian of a system is given by
H = ǫN , (5.81)
where the real nonnegative parameter ǫ has units of energy, and where
the operator N is given by
N = b
†
b . (5.82)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 99
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
The following holds
b
†
b +bb
†
= 1 , (5.83)
b
2
= 0 , (5.84)
_
b
†
_
2
= 0 . (5.85)
a) Find the eigenvalues of H. Clue: show ﬁrst that N
2
= N.
b) Let [0¸ be the ground state of the system, which is assumed to be
nondegenerate. Deﬁne the two states
[+¸ = A
+
_
1 +b
†
_
[0¸ , (5.86a)
[−¸ = A
−
_
1 −b
†
_
[0¸ , (5.86b)
where the real nonnegative numbers A
+
and A
−
are normalization
constants. Calculate A
+
and A
−
. Clue: show ﬁrst that b
†
[0¸ is an
eigenvector of N.
c) At time t = 0 the system is in the state
[α(t = 0)¸ = [+¸ , (5.87)
Calculate the probability p (t) to ﬁnd the system in the state [−¸ at
time t > 0.
30. Normal ordering  Let f
_
a, a
†
_
be a function of the annihilation a and
creation a
†
operators. The normal ordering of f
_
a, a
†
_
, which is denoted
by : f
_
a, a
†
_
: places the a operators on the right and the a
†
operators
on the left. Some examples are given below
: aa
†
: = a
†
a , (5.88)
: a
†
a : = a
†
a , (5.89)
:
_
a
†
a
_
n
: =
_
a
†
_
n
a
n
. (5.90)
Normal ordering is linear, i.e. : f +g :=: f : + : g :. Show that the projec
tion operator P
n
= [n¸ ¸n[, where [n¸ is an eigenvector of the Hamiltonian
of a harmonic oscillator, can be expressed as
P
n
=
1
n!
:
_
a
†
_
n
exp
_
−a
†
a
_
a
n
: . (5.91)
31. Consider a harmonic oscillator of angular frequency ω and mass m. A
time dependent force is applied f (t). The function f (t) is assumed to
vanish f (t) → 0 in the limit t → ±∞. Given that the oscillator was
initially in its ground state [0¸ at t → −∞ calculate the probability p
n
to ﬁnd the oscillator in the number state [n¸ in the limit t →∞.
32. The operator T is deﬁned by
T =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
[x
′
¸ ¸−x
′
[ , (5.92)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 100
5.4. Solutions
where [x
′
¸ is an eigenvector of the position operator x having eigenvalue
x
′
, i.e. x[x
′
¸ = x
′
[x
′
¸. Express the operator T as a function of the number
operator N = a
†
a.
33. Consider a system having Hamiltonian H given by
H = ωa
†
a +ω
1
_
a
†
a
_
k
, (5.93)
where a and a
†
are the annihilation and creation operators, both ω and
ω
1
are positive, and where k is integer. At initial time t = 0 the state
of the system is an eigenstate of the operator a with eigenvalue α, i.e.
[ψ (t = 0)¸ = [α¸
c
, where a [α¸
c
= α[α¸
c
.
a) Find a general expression for the state of the system [ψ (t)¸ at time
t > 0.
b) Evaluate [ψ (t)¸ at time t = 2π/ω
1
.
c) Evaluate [ψ (t)¸ at time t = π/ω
1
.
d) Evaluate [ψ (t)¸ at time t = π/2ω
1
for the case where k is even.
5.4 Solutions
1. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
.
Using Eqs. (3.21), (3.29), (5.9) and (5.10) one has
¸x
′
[ a [n¸ =
_
2x
2
0
_
−1/2
_
x
′
ψ
n
(x
′
) +x
2
0
dψ
n
dx
′
_
, (5.94)
¸x
′
[ a
†
[n¸ =
_
2x
2
0
_
−1/2
_
x
′
ψ
n
(x
′
) −x
2
0
dψ
n
dx
′
_
, (5.95)
where
x
0
=
_
mω
. (5.96)
For the ground state [0¸, according to Eq. (5.28), a [0¸ = 0, thus
x
′
ψ
0
(x
′
) +x
2
0
dψ
0
dx
′
= 0 . (5.97)
The solution is given by
ψ
0
(x
′
) = A
0
exp
_
−
1
2
_
x
′
x
0
_
2
_
, (5.98)
where the normalization constant A
0
is found from the requirement
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 101
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
_
∞
−∞
[ψ
0
(x
′
)[
2
dx = 1 , (5.99)
thus
[A
0
[
2
_
∞
−∞
exp
_
−
_
x
x
0
_
2
_
dx
. ¸¸ .
√
πx0
= 1 . (5.100)
Choosing A
0
to be real leads to
ψ
0
(x
′
) =
1
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
exp
_
−
1
2
_
x
′
x
0
_
2
_
. (5.101)
All other wavefunctions are found using Eqs. (5.32) and (5.95)
ψ
n
(x
′
) =
1
(2x
0
)
n/2
√
n!
_
x
′
−x
2
0
d
dx
′
_
n
ψ
0
(x
′
)
=
1
π
1/4
√
2
n
n!
1
x
n+1/2
0
_
x
′
−x
2
0
d
dx
′
_
n
exp
_
−
1
2
_
x
′
x
0
_
2
_
.
(5.102)
Using the notation
H
n
(X) = exp
_
X
2
2
__
X −
d
dX
_
n
exp
_
−
X
2
2
_
, (5.103)
the expression for ψ
n
(x
′
) can be rewritten as
ψ
n
(x
′
) =
exp
_
−
x
′2
2x
2
0
_
H
n
_
x
′
x
0
_
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
√
2
n
n!
. (5.104)
The term H
n
(X), which is called the Hermite polynomial of order n, is
calculated below for some low values of n
H
0
(X) = 1 , (5.105)
H
1
(X) = 2X , (5.106)
H
2
(X) = 4X
2
−2 , (5.107)
H
3
(X) = 8X
3
−12X , (5.108)
H
4
(X) = 16X
4
−48X
2
+ 12 . (5.109)
2. The relation (5.56), which is a Taylor expansion of the function f (t) =
exp
_
2Xt −t
2
_
around the point t = 0, implies that
H
n
(X) =
d
n
dt
n
exp
_
2Xt −t
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
t=0
. (5.110)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 102
5.4. Solutions
The identity 2Xt −t
2
= X
2
−(X −t)
2
yields
H
n
(X) = exp
_
X
2
_
d
n
dt
n
exp
_
−(X −t)
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
t=0
. (5.111)
Moreover, using the relation
d
dt
exp
_
−(X −t)
2
_
= −
d
dX
exp
_
−(X −t)
2
_
, (5.112)
one ﬁnds that
H
n
(X) = exp
_
X
2
_
(−1)
n
d
n
dX
n
exp
_
−(X −t)
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
t=0
= exp
_
X
2
_
(−1)
n
d
n
dX
n
exp
_
−X
2
_
.
(5.113)
Note that for an arbitrary function g (X) the following holds
−exp
_
X
2
_
d
dX
exp
_
−X
2
_
g =
_
2X −
d
dX
_
g , (5.114)
and
exp
_
X
2
2
__
X −
d
dX
_
exp
_
−
X
2
2
_
g =
_
2X −
d
dX
_
g , (5.115)
thus
H
n
(X) = exp
_
X
2
2
__
X −
d
dX
_
n
exp
_
−
X
2
2
_
. (5.116)
3. With the help of Eqs. (5.9), (5.10), (5.11), (5.12) and (5.13) one ﬁnds
¸n[ x[n¸ = 0 , (5.117)
¸n[ x
2
[n¸ =
2mω
¸n[ aa
†
+a
†
a [n¸ =
2mω
(2n + 1) , (5.118)
¸n[ p [n¸ = 0 , (5.119)
¸n[ p
2
[n¸ =
mω
2
¸n[ aa
†
+a
†
a [n¸ =
mω
2
(2n + 1) , (5.120)
thus
_
(∆x)
2
__
(∆p)
2
_
=
_
n +
1
2
_
2
2
.
4. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
. (5.121)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 103
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
Using Eqs. (4.37) and (5.8) one ﬁnds that
dx
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
x
(H)
, H
(H)
_
=
p
(H)
im
_
x
(H)
, p
(H)
_
=
p
(H)
m
(5.122)
dp
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
p
(H)
, H
(H)
_
= 0 (5.123)
The solution is thus
x
(H)
(t) = x
(H)
(0) +
1
m
p
(H)
(0) t . (5.124)
5. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
. (5.125)
Using Eqs. (4.37) and (5.8) one ﬁnds that
dx
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
x
(H)
, H
(H)
_
=
p
(H)
m
, (5.126)
and
dp
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
p
(H)
, H
(H)
_
= −mω
2
x
(H)
. (5.127)
a) The solutions of the above equations are given by
x
(H)
(t) = x
(H)
(0) cos (ωt) +
sin(ωt)
mω
p
(H)
(0) , (5.128)
and
p
(H)
(t) = p
(H)
(0) cos (ωt) −mω sin(ωt) x
(H)
(0) . (5.129)
b) Using the expressions for x
(H)
(t) and p
(H)
(t) and Eq. (5.8) one ﬁnds
that _
p
(H)
(t
1
) , x
(H)
(t
2
)
_
= −(cos (ωt
1
) cos (ωt
2
) + sin(ωt
1
) sin(ωt
2
))
_
x
(H)
(0) , p
(H)
(0)
_
= −icos (ω (t
1
−t
2
)) ,
(5.130)
_
p
(H)
(t
1
) , p
(H)
(t
2
)
_
= mω (cos (ωt
1
) sin(ωt
2
) −sin(ωt
1
) cos (ωt
2
))
_
x
(H)
(0) , p
(H)
(0)
_
= −imω sin(ω (t
1
−t
2
)) ,
(5.131)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 104
5.4. Solutions
and _
x
(H)
(t
1
) , x
(H)
(t
2
)
_
=
1
mω
(cos (ωt
1
) sin(ωt
2
) −sin(ωt
1
) cos (ωt
2
))
_
x
(H)
(0) , p
(H)
(0)
_
= −
i
mω
sin(ω (t
1
−t
2
)) .
(5.132)
6. Due to the inﬁnite barrier for x ≤ 0 the wavefunction must vanish at
x = 0. This condition is satisﬁed by the wavefunction of all number
states [n¸ with odd value of n (the states [n¸ are eigenstates of the ’regu
lar’ harmonic oscillator with potential V (x) =
_
mω
2
/2
_
x
2
). These wave
functions obviously satisfy the Schrödinger equation for x > 0.
a) Thus the possible energy values are E
k
= ω (2k + 3/2) where k =
0, 1, 2, .
b) The corresponding normalized wavefunctions are given by
˜
ψ
k
(x) =
_√
2ψ
2k+1
(x) x > 0
0 x ≤ 0
, (5.133)
where ψ
n
(x) is the wavefunction of the number states [n¸. Thus for
a given k
¸
x
2
_
k
=
∞
_
0
dx
¸
¸
¸
˜
ψ
k
(x)
¸
¸
¸
2
x
2
= 2
∞
_
0
dx
¸
¸
ψ
2k+1
(x)
¸
¸
2
x
2
=
∞
_
−∞
dx
¸
¸
ψ
2k+1
(x)
¸
¸
2
x
2
= ¸2k + 1[ x
2
[2k + 1¸ ,
(5.134)
thus with the help of Eq. (5.118) one ﬁnds that
¸
x
2
_
k
=
mω
_
2k +
3
2
_
. (5.135)
7. The potential can be written as
V (x) =
mω
2
2
_
x +
α
mω
2
_
2
−
α
2
2mω
2
. (5.136)
This describes a harmonic oscillator centered at x
0
= −α/mω
2
having
angular resonance frequency ω. The last constant term represents energy
shift. Thus, the eigenenergies are given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 105
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
E
n
= ω (n + 1/2) −α
2
/2mω
2
, (5.137)
where n = 0, 1, 2, .
8. In the classically forbidden region V (x) > E
0
= ω/2, namely [x[ > x
0
where
x
0
=
_
mω
. (5.138)
Using Eq. (5.101) one ﬁnds
p = 2
_
∞
x
0
[ψ
0
(x)[
2
dx
=
2
π
1/2
x
0
_
∞
x0
exp
_
−
_
x
x
0
_
2
_
dx
= 1 −erf (1)
= 0.157 .
(5.139)
9. With the help of Eq. (4.14) one has
[α(t)¸ =
1
√
2
e
−
iω
0
t
2
_
[0¸ +e
−iω
0
t
[1¸
_
. (5.140)
Moreover, the following hold
x =
_
2mω
0
_
a +a
†
_
, (5.141)
p = i
_
mω
0
2
_
−a +a
†
_
, (5.142)
a [n¸ =
√
n[n −1¸ , (5.143)
a
†
[n¸ =
√
n + 1 [n + 1¸ , (5.144)
_
a, a
†
¸
= 1 , (5.145)
thus
a)
¸x¸ =
_
2mω
0
¸α(t)[
_
a +a
†
_
[α(t)¸
=
_
2mω
0
1
2
_
¸0[ +e
iω0t
¸1[
_ _
a +a
†
_ _
[0¸ +e
−iω0t
[1¸
_
=
_
2mω
0
1
2
_
e
iω0t
+e
−iω0t
_
=
_
2mω
0
cos (ω
0
t) .
(5.146)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 106
5.4. Solutions
b)
¸p¸ = i
_
mω
0
2
¸α(t)[
_
−a +a
†
_
[α(t)¸
= i
_
mω
0
2
1
2
_
¸0[ +e
iω
0
t
¸1[
_ _
−a +a
†
_ _
[0¸ +e
−iω
0
t
[1¸
_
= −
_
mω
0
2
sin(ω
0
t) .
(5.147)
c)
¸
x
2
_
=
2mω
0
¸α(t)[
_
a +a
†
_
2
[α(t)¸
=
2mω
0
¸α(t)[
_
a
2
+
_
a
†
_
2
+
_
a, a
†
¸
+ 2a
†
a
_
[α(t)¸
=
2mω
0
_
1 + 2
1
2
_
=
mω
0
.
(5.148)
d) Similarly
¸
p
2
_
= −
mω
0
2
¸α(t)[
_
−a +a
†
_
2
[α(t)¸
= −
mω
0
2
¸α(t)[
_
a
2
+
_
a
†
_
2
−
_
a, a
†
¸
−2a
†
a
_
[α(t)¸
= mω
0
,
(5.149)
thus
∆x∆p =
_
1 −
cos
2
(ω
0
t)
2
_
1 −
sin
2
(ω
0
t)
2
=
2
_
2 +
1
4
sin
2
(2ω
0
t) .
(5.150)
10. The state [ψ (t)¸ is given by
[ψ(t)¸ =
1
√
2
_
exp
_
−
iE
0
t
_
[0¸ + exp
_
−
iE
n
t
_
[n¸
_
, (5.151)
where
E
n
= ω
_
n +
1
2
_
, (5.152)
thus, using
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 107
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
x =
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
, (5.153)
and
a [n¸ =
√
n[n −1¸ , (5.154)
a
†
[n¸ =
√
n + 1 [n + 1¸ , (5.155)
one ﬁnds that ¸x¸ (t) = 0 if n > 1, and for n = 1
¸x¸ (t) =
_
2mω
¸ψ (t)[
_
a +a
†
_
[ψ (t)¸
=
_
2mω
cos (ωt) .
(5.156)
11. Since ¸H¸ = ω and [ψ(0)¸ is normalized one has
[c
0
[
2
= [c
1
[
2
=
1
2
, (5.157)
thus [ψ(0)¸ can be written as
[ψ(0)¸ =
_
1
2
_
[0¸ +e
iθ
[1¸
_
, (5.158)
where θ is real. Given that at time t = 0
¸x¸ (t = 0) =
1
2
_
mω
, (5.159)
one ﬁnds using the identities
x =
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
, (5.160)
a [n¸ =
√
n[n −1¸ , (5.161)
a
†
[n¸ =
√
n + 1 [n + 1¸ , (5.162)
that
cos θ =
√
2
2
. (5.163)
Using this result one can evaluate ¸p¸ (t = 0), where
p = i
_
mω
2
_
−a +a
†
_
, (5.164)
thus
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 108
5.4. Solutions
¸p¸ (t = 0) =
_
mω
2
sinθ = ±
_
mω
2
√
2
2
= ±mω¸x¸ (t = 0) . (5.165)
Using these results together with Eq. (5.128) yields
¸x¸ (t) =
1
2
_
mω
(cos (ωt) ±sin(ωt))
=
_
2mω
cos
_
ωt ∓
π
4
_
.
(5.166)
12. According to identity (2.176), which states that
e
A+B
= e
A
e
B
e
−
1
2
[A,B]
= e
B
e
A
e
1
2
[A,B]
, (5.167)
provided that
[A, [A, B]] = [B, [A, B]] = 0 , (5.168)
one ﬁnds with the help of Eq. (5.13) that
D(α) = exp
_
αa
†
−α
∗
a
_
= e
−
α
2
2
e
αa
†
e
−α
∗
a
= e
α
2
2
e
−α
∗
a
e
αa
†
.
(5.169)
13. Using Eq. (5.169) one has
D
†
(α) = e
−
α
2
2
e
−αa
†
e
α
∗
a
= e
α
2
2
e
α
∗
a
e
−αa
†
, (5.170)
thus
D
†
(α) D(α) = D(α) D
†
(α) = 1 . (5.171)
14. Using Eqs. (5.35), (5.28) and (5.29) one ﬁnds that
[α¸ = e
−
α
2
2
e
αa
†
e
−α
∗
a
[0¸ = e
−
α
2
2
e
αa
†
[0¸
= e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
α
n
√
n!
[n¸ .
(5.172)
15. Using Eqs. (5.42) and (5.28) one has
a[α¸ = e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
α
n
√
n!
a [n¸
= αe
−
α
2
2
∞
n=1
α
n−1
_
(n −1)!
[n −1¸
= α[α¸ .
(5.173)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 109
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
16. Using Eqs. (5.36), (5.9) and (5.10) one has
D(α) = exp
_
_
mω
2
(α −α
∗
) x −i
_
1
2mω
(α +α
∗
) p
_
, (5.174)
thus with the help of Eqs. (2.176) and (5.8) the desired result is obtained
D(α) = exp
__
mω
α −α
∗
√
2
x
_
exp
_
−
i
√
mω
α +α
∗
√
2
p
_
exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
.
(5.175)
17. Using the operator identity (2.174)
e
L
Ae
−L
= A+[L, A] +
1
2!
[L, [L, A]] +
1
3!
[L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (5.176)
and the deﬁnition (5.36)
D(α) = exp
_
αa
†
−α
∗
a
_
, (5.177)
one ﬁnds that
D
†
(α) aD(α) = a +α , (5.178)
D
†
(α) a
†
D(α) = a
†
+α
∗
. (5.179)
Exploiting the unitarity of D(α)
D(α) D
†
(α) = 1
it is straightforward to show that for any function f
_
a, a
†
_
having a
power series expansion the following holds
D
†
(α) f
_
a, a
†
_
D(α) = f
_
a +α, a
†
+α
∗
_
(5.180)
(e.g., D
†
a
2
D = D
†
aDD
†
aD = (a +α)
2
).
18. Using Eq. (5.68) and the following identities
H = ω
_
a
†
a +
1
2
_
, (5.181)
x =
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
, (5.182)
p = i
_
mω
2
_
−a +a
†
_
, (5.183)
all these relations are easily obtained.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 110
5.4. Solutions
19. Expressing the state [α¸ in the basis of eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian
[n¸
[α¸ =
∞
n=0
c
n
[n¸ , (5.184)
using
a[α¸ = α[α¸ , (5.185)
and
a[n¸ =
√
n[n −1¸ , (5.186)
one ﬁnds
∞
n=0
c
n
√
n[n −1¸ = α
∞
n=0
c
n
[n¸ , (5.187)
thus
c
n+1
=
α
√
n + 1
c
n
, (5.188)
therefore
[α¸ = A
∞
n=0
α
n
√
n!
[n¸ . (5.189)
The normalization constant A is found by
1 = [A[
2
∞
n=0
_
[α[
2
_
n
n!
= [A[
2
e
α
2
. (5.190)
Choosing A to be real yields
A = e
−
α
2
2
, (5.191)
thus
c
n
= e
−
α
2
2
α
n
√
n!
. (5.192)
Note that this result is identical to Eq. (5.42), thus [α¸ is a coherent
state. The possible results of the measurement are
E
n
= ω
_
n +
1
2
_
, (5.193)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 111
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
and the corresponding probabilities, which are time independent, are
given by
p
n
(t) = [c
n
[
2
= e
−α
2
_
[α[
2
_
n
n!
. (5.194)
20. Using the relations
¸x¸
α
=
_
2
mω
Re (α) , (5.195)
¸p¸
α
=
√
2mω Im(α) , (5.196)
Eq. (5.67) can be written as
D(α) = exp
_
i ¸p¸
α
x
_
exp
_
−
i ¸x¸
α
p
_
exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
. (5.197)
Using Eqs. (3.12) and (3.19) one ﬁnds that
exp
_
−
i ¸x¸
α
p
_
[x
′
¸ = [x
′
+¸x¸
α
¸ ,
thus
¸x
′
[α¸ = ¸x
′
[ exp
_
i ¸p¸
α
x
_
exp
_
−
i ¸x¸
α
p
_
exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
[0¸
= exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
exp
_
i ¸p¸
α
x
′
_
¸x
′
−¸x¸
α
[0¸ .
(5.198)
Using Eq. (5.101) the wavefunction of the ground state is given by
¸x
′
[0¸ =
1
(2π)
1/4
1
√
∆x
α
exp
_
−
_
x
′
2∆x
α
_
2
_
, (5.199)
where
∆x
α
=
_
2mω
, (5.200)
thus
¸x
′
[α¸ = exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
exp
_
i ¸p¸
α
x
′
_ exp
_
−
_
x
′
−x
α
2∆xα
_
2
_
(2π)
1/4
√
∆x
α
= exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
_
mω
π
_
1/4
exp
_
−
_
x −¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
+i ¸p¸
α
x
_
.
(5.201)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 112
5.4. Solutions
21. Using Eqs. (5.36) and (2.176) this relation is easily obtained.
22. With the help of Eq. (5.42) one has
1
π
_ _
[α¸ ¸α[ d
2
α =
1
π
n,m
[n¸ ¸m[
1
√
n!m!
_ _
e
−α
2
α
n
α
∗m
d
2
α .
(5.202)
Employing polar coordinates in the complex plane α = ρe
iθ
, where ρ is
nonnegative real and θ is real, leads to
1
π
_ _
[α¸ ¸α[ d
2
α =
1
π
n,m
[n¸ ¸m[
1
√
n!m!
∞
_
0
dρρ
n+m+1
e
−ρ
2
2π
_
0
dθe
iθ(n−m)
. ¸¸ .
2πδ
nm
=
n
[n¸ ¸n[
2
n!
∞
_
0
dρρ
2n+1
e
−ρ
2
=
n
[n¸ ¸n[
1
n!
Γ (n + 1)
. ¸¸ .
=n!
=
n
[n¸ ¸n[
= 1 .
(5.203)
23. Using Eqs. (5.35) and (5.41) one ﬁnds that
¸β [α¸ = ¸0[ D
†
(β) D(α) [0¸
= ¸0[ D(−β) D(α) [0¸
= exp
_
−βα
∗
+β
∗
α
2
_
¸0[ D(−β +α) [0¸
= exp
_
−βα
∗
+β
∗
α
2
_
¸0 [α −β¸ .
(5.204)
Thus, with the help of Eq. (5.42) one has
¸β [α¸ = exp
_
−βα
∗
+β
∗
α
2
_
e
−
α−β
2
2
= exp
_
−
[α[
2
2
−
[β[
2
2
+αβ
∗
_
= exp
_
−
[α −β[
2
2
+i Im(αβ
∗
)
_
.
(5.205)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 113
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
24. The following holds
V
1
(x) =
1
2
mω
2
(x +β)
2
−
1
2
mω
2
β
2
=
1
2
mω
2
x
′2
−
1
2
mω
2
β
2
,
(5.206)
where
x
′
= x +β . (5.207)
a) Thus, using Eqs. (5.128) and (5.129) together with the relations
x
′(H)
(t) = x
(H)
(t) +β , (5.208)
p
(H)
(t) = p
′(H)
(t) , (5.209)
one ﬁnds
x
(H)
(t) =
_
x
(H)
(0) +β
_
cos (ωt) +
sin(ωt)
mω
p
(H)
(0) −β , (5.210)
p
(H)
(t) = p
(H)
(0) cos (ωt) −mω sin(ωt)
_
x
(H)
(0) +β
_
. (5.211)
b) For this case at time t = 0
_
x
(H)
(0)
_
= 0 , (5.212)
_
p
(H)
(0)
_
= 0 , (5.213)
thus
_
x
(H)
(t)
_
= β (cos (ωt) −1) . (5.214)
25. The state of the system at time t = 0 is given by
[ψ(t = 0)¸ = exp
_
−
i∆
x
p
_
[0¸ , (5.215)
where [0¸ is the ground state of the potential V
2
. In general a coherent
state with parameter α can be written as
[α¸ = exp
__
mω
α −α
∗
√
2
x
_
exp
_
−
i
√
mω
α +α
∗
√
2
p
_
exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
[0¸ .
(5.216)
a) Thus [ψ (t = 0)¸ = [α
0
¸, where
α
0
= ∆
x
_
mω
2
. (5.217)
The time evolution of a coherent state is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 114
5.4. Solutions
[ψ (t)¸ = e
−iωt/2
¸
¸
α = α
0
e
−iωt
_
, (5.218)
and the following holds
¸x¸ (t) =
_
2
mω
Re
_
α
0
e
−iωt
¸
= ∆
x
cos (ωt) , (5.219)
b) According to Eq. (5.48)
_
(∆x)
2
_
(t) =
2mω
. (5.220)
c) In general a coherent state can be expanded in the basis of number
states [n¸
[α¸ = e
−α
2
/2
n
α
n
√
n!
[n¸ , (5.221)
thus the probability to measure energy E
n
= ω (N + 1/2) at time t
is given by
P
n
= [¸n[ψ (t)¸[
2
=
e
−[α
2
0
[
α
2n
0
n!
=
1
n!
exp
_
−
mω∆
2
x
2
__
mω∆
2
x
2
_
n
.
(5.222)
26. At time t = 0 the following holds
¸x¸ = 0 , (5.223)
¸p¸ = 0 , (5.224)
_
(∆x)
2
_
=
¸
x
2
_
=
2mω
, (5.225)
_
(∆p)
2
_
=
¸
p
2
_
=
mω
2
. (5.226)
Moreover, to calculate ¸xp¸ it is convenient to use
x =
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
, (5.227)
p = i
_
mω
2
_
−a +a
†
_
, (5.228)
_
a, a
†
¸
= 1 , (5.229)
thus at time t = 0
¸xp¸ = i
2
¸0[ aa
†
−a
†
a [0¸ = i
2
. (5.230)
The Hamiltonian for times t > 0 is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 115
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
H =
p
2
2m
+gx . (5.231)
Using the Heisenberg equation of motion for the operators x and x
2
one
ﬁnds
dx
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
x
(H)
, H
¸
, (5.232)
dp
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
p
(H)
, H
¸
, (5.233)
dx
2
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
x
2
(H)
, H
_
, (5.234)
or using [x, p] = i
dx
(H)
dt
=
p
(H)
m
, (5.235)
dp
(H)
dt
= −g , (5.236)
dx
2
(H)
dt
=
1
m
_
x
(H)
p
(H)
+p
(H)
x
(H)
_
=
1
m
_
2x
(H)
p
(H)
−i
_
, (5.237)
thus
p
(H)
(t) = p
(H)
(0) −gt , (5.238)
x
(H)
(t) = x
(H)
(0) +
p
(H)
(0) t
m
−
gt
2
2m
, (5.239)
x
2
(H)
(t) = x
2
(H)
(0) −
it
m
+
2
m
_
t
0
x
(H)
(t
′
) p
(H)
(t
′
) dt
′
= x
2
(H)
(0) −
it
m
+
2
m
_
t
0
_
x
(H)
(0) +
p
(H)
(0) t
′
m
−
gt
′2
2m
_
_
p
(H)
(0) −gt
′
¸
dt
′
= x
2
(H)
(0) −
it
m
+
2
m
_
t
0
_
x
(H)
(0) p
(H)
(0) +
p
2
(H)
(0) t
′
m
−
gt
′2
2m
p
(H)
(0) −x
(H)
(0) gt
′
−
p
(H)
(0) gt
′2
m
+
g
2
t
′3
2m
_
dt
′
= x
2
(H)
(0) −
it
m
+
2
m
_
x
(H)
(0) p
(H)
(0) t +
p
2
(H)
(0) t
2
2m
−
p
(H)
(0) gt
3
6m
−
x
(H)
(0) gt
2
2
−
p
(H)
(0) gt
3
3m
+
g
2
t
4
8m
_
.
(5.240)
Using the initial conditions Eqs. (5.223), (5.224), (5.225), (5.226) and
(5.230) one ﬁnds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 116
5.4. Solutions
¸x(t)¸ = −
gt
2
2m
, (5.241)
¸x(t)¸
2
=
g
2
t
4
4m
2
, (5.242)
¸p (t)¸ = −gt , (5.243)
¸
x
2
(t)
_
=
2mω
−
it
m
+
2
m
_
it
2
+
ωt
2
4
+
g
2
t
4
8m
_
, (5.244)
and
_
(∆x)
2
(t)
_
=
¸
x
2
(t)
_
−¸x(t)¸
2
=
2mω
+
ωt
2
2m
=
2mω
_
1 +ω
2
t
2
_
.
(5.245)
27. Using the operator identity (2.174), which is given by
e
L
Oe
−L
= O+[L, O] +
1
2!
[L, [L, O]] +
1
3!
[L, [L, [L, O]]] + , (5.246)
for the operators
O = a , (5.247)
L =
r
2
_
a
2
−
_
a
†
_
2
_
, (5.248)
and the relations
_
a, a
†
¸
= 1 , (5.249)
[L, O] = ra
†
, (5.250)
[L, [L, O]] = r
2
a , (5.251)
[L, [L, [L, O]]] = r
3
a
†
, (5.252)
[L, [L, [L, [L, O]]]] = r
4
a , (5.253)
etc., one ﬁnds
T =
_
1 +
r
2
2!
+
r
4
4!
+
_
a +
_
r +
r
3
3!
+
_
a
†
+ , (5.254)
a) Thus
T = Aa +Ba
†
, (5.255)
where
A = coshr , (5.256)
B = sinhr . (5.257)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 117
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
b) Using the relations
x =
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
, (5.258)
p = i
_
mω
2
_
−a +a
†
_
. (5.259)
one ﬁnds
¸r[ x[r¸ =
_
2mω
¸0[ S (r)
_
a +a
†
_
S
†
(r) [0¸
=
_
2mω
_
¸0[ T [0¸ +¸0[ T
†
[0¸
_
= 0 ,
(5.260)
¸r[ p [r¸ = i
_
mω
2
¸0[ S (r)
_
−a +a
†
_
S
†
(r) [0¸
=
_
2mω
_
−¸0[ T [0¸ +¸0[ T
†
[0¸
_
= 0 .
(5.261)
c) Note that S (r) is unitary, namely S
†
(r) S (r) = 1, since the operator
a
2
−
_
a
†
_
2
is anti Hermitian. Thus
¸r[ x
2
[r¸ =
2mω
¸0[ S (r)
_
a +a
†
_ _
a +a
†
_
S
†
(r) [0¸
=
2mω
¸0[ S (r)
_
a +a
†
_
S
†
(r) S (r)
_
a +a
†
_
S
†
(r) [0¸
=
2mω
¸0[
_
T +T
†
_
2
[0¸
=
(A+B)
2
2mω
¸0[
_
a +a
†
_
2
[0¸
=
(coshr + sinhr)
2
2mω
=
e
2r
2mω
,
(5.262)
and
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 118
5.4. Solutions
¸r[ p
2
[r¸ =
mω
2
¸0[ S (r)
_
a −a
†
_
2
S
†
(r) [0¸
=
mω
2
¸0[
_
T −T
†
_
2
[0¸
=
mω (A−B)
2
2
¸0[
_
a −a
†
_
2
[0¸
=
mω (coshr −sinhr)
2
2
=
mωe
−2r
2
.
(5.263)
Thus
(∆x)
2
=
e
2r
2mω
, (5.264)
(∆p)
2
=
mωe
−2r
2
, (5.265)
(∆x) (∆p) =
2
. (5.266)
28. Using the commutation relation
_
a, a
†
¸
= 1 , (5.267)
one ﬁnds
H = ω
0
N +ω
1
_
N
2
−N
_
, (5.268)
where
N = a
†
a (5.269)
is the number operator.
a) The eigenvectors of N
N [n¸ = n[n¸ , (5.270)
(where n = 0, 1, ) are also eigenvectors of H and the following
holds
H[n¸ = E
n
[n¸ , (5.271)
where
E
n
=
_
ω
0
n +ω
1
_
n
2
−n
_¸
. (5.272)
Note that
E
n+1
−E
n
= ω
0
+ 2ω
1
n , (5.273)
thus E
n+1
> E
n
.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 119
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
b) Using the relations
x =
_
2mω
0
_
a
†
+a
_
, (5.274)
p = i
_
mω
0
2
_
a
†
−a
_
, (5.275)
x
2
=
2mω
0
_
a
†
a
†
+aa + 2N + 1
_
, (5.276)
p
2
=
mω
0
2
_
−a
†
a
†
−aa + 2N + 1
_
, (5.277)
a[n¸ =
√
n[n −1¸ , (5.278)
a
†
[n¸ =
√
n + 1 [n + 1¸ , (5.279)
one ﬁnds
i. ¸0[x[0¸ = 0
ii. ¸0[p[0¸ = 0
iii.
_
0[ (∆x)
2
[0
_
=
2mω0
iv.
_
0[ (∆p)
2
[0
_
=
mω0
2
29. The proof of the clue is:
N
2
= b
†
bb
†
b = b
†
_
1 −b
†
b
_
b = N . (5.280)
Moreover, N is Hermitian, thus N is a projector.
a) Let [n¸ be the eigenvectors of N and n the corresponding real eigen
values (N is Hermitian)
N [n¸ = n[n¸ . (5.281)
Using the clue one ﬁnds that n
2
= n, thus the possible values of n
are 0 (ground state) and 1 (excited state). Thus, the eigenvalues of
H are 0 and ǫ.
b) To verify the statement in the clue we calculate
Nb
†
[0¸ = b
†
bb
†
[0¸ = b
†
(1 −N) [0¸ = b
†
[0¸ , (5.282)
thus the state b
†
[0¸ is indeed an eigenvector of N with eigenvalue 1
(excited state). In what follows we use the notation
[1¸ = b
†
[0¸ . (5.283)
Note that [1¸ is normalized since
¸1[1¸ = ¸0[ bb
†
[0¸ = ¸0[ (1 −N) [0¸ = ¸0[0¸ = 1 . (5.284)
Moreover, since [0¸ and [1¸ are eigenvectors of an Hermitian operator
with diﬀerent eigenvalues they must be orthogonal to each other
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 120
5.4. Solutions
¸0[1¸ = 0 . (5.285)
Using Eqs. (5.283), (5.284) and (5.285) one ﬁnds
¸+[+¸ = 2 [A
+
[
2
, (5.286)
¸−[−¸ = 2 [A
−
[
2
. (5.287)
choosing the normalization constants to be nonnegative real num
bers lead to
A
+
= A
−
=
1
√
2
. (5.288)
c) Using N
2
= N one ﬁnds
exp
_
−
iHt
_
= 1 +
∞
n=1
1
n!
_
−
iHt
_
n
= 1 +N
∞
n=1
1
n!
_
−
iǫt
_
n
= 1 +N
_
−1 +
∞
n=0
1
n!
_
−
iǫt
_
n
_
= 1 +N
_
−1 + exp
_
−
iǫt
__
.
(5.289)
Thus
p
0
(t) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸−[ exp
_
−
iHt
_
[+¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
1
4
¸
¸
¸
¸
(¸0[ −¸1[)
_
1 +N
_
−1 + exp
_
−
iǫt
___
([0¸ +[1¸)
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
1
4
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −exp
_
−
iǫt
_¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= sin
2
_
ǫt
2
_
.
(5.290)
30. The closure relation (5.31) can be written as
1 =
∞
n,m=0
[n¸ ¸m[ δ
n,m
. (5.291)
With the help of Eq. (5.32) together with the relation
1
n!
_
d
dς
_
n
ς
m
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
= δ
n,m
, (5.292)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 121
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
which is obtained using the Taylor power expansion series of the function
ς
m
, one ﬁnds that
1 =
∞
n,m=0
[n¸ ¸m[ δ
n,m
=
∞
n,m=0
1
√
n!
√
m!
[n¸ ¸m[
_
d
dς
_
n
ς
m
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
=
∞
n,m=0
_
a
†
_
n
n!
[0¸ ¸0[
a
m
m!
_
d
dς
_
n
ς
m
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
=
_
∞
n=0
_
a
†
_
n
_
d
dς
_
n
n!
_
[0¸ ¸0[
_
∞
m=0
a
m
ς
m
m!
_¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
= exp
_
a
†
d
dς
_
[0¸ ¸0[ exp(aς)
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
.
(5.293)
Denote the normal ordering representation of the operator [0¸ ¸0[ by Z,
i.e.
[0¸ ¸0[ =: Z: . (5.294)
For general functions f, g and h of the operators a and a
†
it is easy to
show that the following holds
: fg : =: gf : , (5.295)
: fgh: =: fhg : , (5.296)
and
: f (: g : ) : =: fg : . (5.297)
Thus
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 122
5.4. Solutions
1 = exp
_
a
†
d
dς
_
: Z: exp(aς)
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
= : exp
_
a
†
d
dς
_
Z exp(aς)
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
:
= : exp
_
a
†
d
dς
_
exp(aς) Z
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
:
= :
n,m
_
a
† d
dς
_
n
n!
(aς)
m
m!
Z
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
:
= :
n,m
_
a
†
_
n
_
d
dς
_
n
n!
ς
m
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ς=0
. ¸¸ .
δ
n,m
a
m
m!
Z:
= : exp
_
a
†
a
_
Z:
= : exp
_
a
†
a
_
(: Z: ) : ,
(5.298)
and therefore
[0¸ ¸0[ =: exp
_
−a
†
a
_
: . (5.299)
Using again Eq. (5.32) one ﬁnds that
P
n
= [n¸ ¸n[ =
1
n!
:
_
a
†
_
n
exp
_
−a
†
a
_ _
a
†
_
n
: . (5.300)
31. The Hamiltonian H, which is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
+xf (t) , (5.301)
can be expressed in terms of the annihilation a and creation a
†
operators
[see Eqs. (5.11) and (5.12)] as
H = ω
_
a
†
a +
1
2
_
+f (t)
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
. (5.302)
The Heisenberg equation of motion for the operator a is given by [see
Eq. (4.37)]
da
dt
= −iωa −i
_
1
2mω
f (t) . (5.303)
The solution of this ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation is given by
a(t) = e
−iω(t−t0)
a (t
0
) −i
_
1
2mω
_
t
t0
dt
′
e
−iω(t−t
′
)
f (t
′
) , (5.304)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 123
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
where the initial time t
0
will be taken below to be −∞. The Heisenberg
operator a
†
(t) is found from the Hermitian conjugate of the last result.
Let P
n
(t) be the Heisenberg representation of the projector [n¸ ¸n[. The
probability p
n
(t) to ﬁnd the oscillator in the number state [n¸ at time t
is given by
p
n
(t) = ¸0[ P
n
(t) [0¸ . (5.305)
To evaluate p
n
(t) it is convenient to employ the normal ordering repre
sentation of the operator P
n
(5.91). In normal ordering the ﬁrst term of
Eq. (5.304), which is proportional to a (t
0
) does not contribute to p
n
(t)
since a (t
0
) [0¸ = 0 and also ¸0[ a
†
(t
0
) = 0. To evaluate p
n
= p
n
(t →∞)
the integral in the second term of Eq. (5.304) is evaluate from t
0
= −∞
to t = +∞. Thus one ﬁnds that
p
n
=
e
−µ
µ
n
n!
, (5.306)
where
µ =
1
2mω
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∞
−∞
dt
′
e
iωt
′
f (t
′
)
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
. (5.307)
32. As can be seen from the deﬁnition of T, the following holds
¸x
′
[ T[ψ¸ =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′′
¸x
′
[x
′′
¸ ¸−x
′′
[ψ¸
= ¸−x
′
[ψ¸ ,
(5.308)
thus the wave function of T[ψ¸ is ψ (−x
′
) given that the wave function
of [ψ¸ is ψ (x
′
). For the wavefunctions ϕ
n
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[n¸ of the number
states [n¸, which satisfy N [n¸ = n[n¸, the following holds
ϕ
n
(−x
′
) =
_
−ϕ
n
(x
′
) n odd
ϕ
n
(x
′
) n even
, (5.309)
thus
T[n¸ =
_
−[n¸ n odd
[n¸ n even
, (5.310)
or T[n¸ = (−1)
n
[n¸ ,thus, the operator T can be expressed as a function
of N
T = e
iπN
. (5.311)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 124
5.4. Solutions
33. Initially, the system is in a coherent state given by Eq. (5.42)
[ψ(t = 0)¸ = [α¸
c
= e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
α
n
√
n!
[n¸ . (5.312)
The notation [α¸
c
is used to label coherent states satisfying a [α¸
c
=
α[α¸
c
.
a) Since a
†
a commutes with
_
a
†
a
_
k
, the time evolution operator is given
by [see Eq. (4.9)]
u(t) = exp
_
−
iHt
_
= e
−iω
1(a
†
a)
k
t
e
−iωa
†
at
, (5.313)
thus
[ψ (t)¸ = u(t) [ψ (t = 0)¸
= e
−iω1(a
†
a)
k
t
e
−iωa
†
at
e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
α
n
√
n!
[n¸
= e
−iω
1(a
†
a)
k
t
e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
_
αe
−iωt
_
n
√
n!
[n¸
= e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
_
αe
−iωt
_
n
√
n!
e
−iφ
n
[n¸ ,
(5.314)
where
φ
n
= ω
1
tn
k
. (5.315)
b) At time t = 2π/ω
1
the phase factor φ
n
is given by φ
n
= 2πn
k
, thus
e
−iφ
n
= 1 , (5.316)
and therefore
¸
¸
¸
¸
ψ
_
2π
ω
1
__
=
¸
¸
¸αe
−
2πiω
ω
1
_
c
. (5.317)
c) At time t = π/ω
1
the phase factor φ
n
is given by φ
n
= πn
k
. Using
the fact that
mod
_
n
k
, 2
_
=
_
0 n is even
1 n is odd
, (5.318)
one has
e
−iφ
n
= (−1)
n
, (5.319)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 125
Chapter 5. The Harmonic Oscillator
and therefore
¸
¸
¸
¸
ψ
_
π
ω
1
__
= e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
_
αe
−
πiω
ω
1
_
n
√
n!
(−1)
n
[n¸
=
¸
¸
¸−αe
−
πiω
ω
1
_
c
.
(5.320)
d) At time t = π/2ω
1
the phase factor φ
n
is given by φ
n
= (π/2) n
k
.
For the case where k is even one has
mod
_
n
k
, 4
_
=
_
0 n is even
1 n is odd
, (5.321)
thus
e
−iφ
n
=
_
1 n is even
−i n is odd
, (5.322)
and therefore
¸
¸
¸
¸
ψ
_
π
2ω
1
__
= e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
_
αe
−
πiω
2ω
1
_
n
√
n!
e
−iφ
n
[n¸ . (5.323)
This state can be expressed as a superposition of two coherent states
¸
¸
¸
¸
ψ
_
π
2ω
1
__
=
1
√
2
_
e
−
iπ
4
¸
¸
¸αe
−
πiω
2ω
1
_
c
+e
iπ
4
¸
¸
¸−αe
−
πiω
2ω
1
_
c
_
. (5.324)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 126
6. Angular Momentum
Consider a point particle moving in three dimensional space. The orbital
angular momentum L is given by
L = r p = det
_
_
ˆ x ˆ y ˆz
x y z
p
x
p
y
p
z
_
_
,
where r = (x, y, z) is the position vector and where p = (p
x
, p
y
, p
z
) is the
momentum vector. In classical physics the following holds:
Claim.
¦L
i
, L
j
¦ = ε
ijk
L
k
, (6.1)
where
ε
ijk
=
_
_
_
0 i, j, k are not all diﬀerent
1 i, j, k is an even permutation of x, y, z
−1 i, j, k is an odd permutation of x, y, z
. (6.2)
Proof. Clearly, Eq. (6.1) holds for the case i = j. Using Eq. (1.48), which
reads
¦x
i
, p
j
¦ = δ
ij
, (6.3)
one has
¦L
x
, L
y
¦ = ¦yp
z
−zp
y
, zp
x
−xp
z
¦
= ¦yp
z
, zp
x
¦ +¦zp
y
, xp
z
¦
= y ¦p
z
, z¦ p
x
+x¦z, p
z
¦ p
y
= −yp
x
+xp
y
= L
z
.
(6.4)
In a similar way one ﬁnds that ¦L
y
, L
z
¦ = L
x
and ¦L
z
, L
x
¦ = L
y
. These
results together with Eq. (1.49) complete the proof.
Using the rule (4.41) ¦, ¦ → (1/i) [, ] one concludes that in quantum
mechanics the following holds:
[L
i
, L
j
] = iε
ijk
L
k
. (6.5)
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
6.1 Angular Momentum and Rotation
We have seen before that the unitary operator u(t, t
0
) is the generator of time
evolution [see Eq. (4.4)]. Similarly, we have seen that the unitary operator
J (∆) = exp
_
−
i∆ p
_
(6.6)
[see Eq. (3.72)] is the generator of linear translations:
J (∆) [r
′
¸ = [r
′
+∆¸ . (6.7)
Below we will see that one can deﬁne a unitary operator that generates ro
tations.
Exercise 6.1.1. Show that
D
†
ˆz
(φ)
_
_
x
y
z
_
_
D
ˆz
(φ) = R
ˆz
_
_
x
y
z
_
_
, (6.8)
where
D
ˆz
(φ) = exp
_
−
iφL
z
_
, (6.9)
and where
R
ˆz
=
_
_
cos φ −sinφ 0
sinφ cos φ 0
0 0 1
_
_
. (6.10)
Solution 6.1.1. Equation (6.8) is made of 3 identities:
D
†
ˆz
(φ) xD
ˆz
(φ) = xcos φ −y sinφ , (6.11)
D
†
ˆz
(φ) yD
ˆz
(φ) = xsinφ +y cos φ , (6.12)
D
†
ˆz
(φ) zD
ˆz
(φ) = z . (6.13)
As an example, we prove below the ﬁrst one. Using the identity (2.174), which
is given by
e
L
Ae
−L
= A+ [L, A] +
1
2!
[L, [L, A]] +
1
3!
[L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (6.14)
one has
D
†
ˆz
(φ) xD
ˆz
(φ)
= x +
iφ
[L
z
, x] +
1
2!
_
iφ
_
2
[L
z
, [L
z
, x]] +
1
3!
_
iφ
_
3
[L
z
, [L
z
, [L
z
, x]]] + .
(6.15)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 128
6.1. Angular Momentum and Rotation
Furthermore with the help of
L
z
= xp
y
−yp
x
, (6.16)
[x
i
, p
j
] = iδ
ij
, (6.17)
one ﬁnds that
[L
z
, x] = −y [p
x
, x] = iy ,
[L
z
, [L
z
, x]] = ix[p
y
, y] = −(i)
2
x ,
[L
z
, [L
z
, [L
z
, x]]] = −(i)
2
[L
z
, x] = −(i)
3
y ,
[L
z
, [L
z
, [L
z
, [L
z
, x]]]] = (i)
4
x ,
.
.
. (6.18)
thus
D
†
ˆz
(φ) xD
ˆz
(φ) = x
_
1 −
φ
2
2!
+
φ
4
4!
+
_
−y
_
φ −
φ
3
3!
+
_
= xcos φ −y sinφ .
(6.19)
The other 2 identities in Eq. (6.8) can be proven in a similar way.
The matrix R
ˆz
[see Eq. (6.10)] represents a geometrical rotation around
the z axis with angle φ. Therefore, in view of the above result, we refer to the
operator D
ˆz
(φ) as the generator of rotation around the z axis with angle φ.
It is straightforward to generalize the above results and to show that rotation
around an arbitrary unit vector ˆ n axis with angle φ is given by
D
ˆ n
(φ) = exp
_
−
iφL ˆ n
_
. (6.20)
In view of Eq. (3.72), it can be said that linear momentum p generates
translations. Similarly, in view of the above equation (6.20), angular momen
tumL generates rotation. However, there is an important distinction between
these two types of geometrical transformations. On one hand, according to
Eq. (3.7) the observables p
x
, p
y
and p
z
commute with each other, and con
sequently translation operators with diﬀerent translation vectors commute
[J (∆
1
) , J (∆
2
)] = 0 . (6.21)
On the other hand, as can be seen from Eq. (6.5), diﬀerent components of L do
not commute and therefore rotation operators D
ˆ n
(φ) with diﬀerent rotations
axes ˆ n need not commute. Both the above results, which were obtained from
commutation relations between quantum operators, demonstrate two well
known geometrical facts: (i) diﬀerent linear translations commute, whereas
(ii) generally, diﬀerent rotations do not commute.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 129
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
6.2 General Angular Momentum
Elementary particles carry angular momentum in two diﬀerent forms. The
ﬁrst one is the above discussed orbital angular momentum, which is com
monly labeled as L. This contribution L = r p has a classical analogue,
which was employed above to derive the commutation relations (6.5) from
the corresponding Poisson’s brackets relations. The other form of angular
momentum is spin, which is commonly labeled as S. Contrary to the orbital
angular momentum, the spin does not have any classical analogue. In a gen
eral discussion on angular momentum in quantum mechanics the label J is
commonly employed.
L  orbital angular momentum
S  spin angular momentum
J  general angular momentum
In the discussion below we derive some properties of angular momentum
in quantum mechanics, where our only assumption is that the components of
the angular momentum vector of operators J = (J
x
, J
y
, J
z
) obey the following
commutation relations
[J
i
, J
j
] = iε
ijk
J
k
. (6.22)
Namely, we assume that Eq. (6.5), which was obtained from the corresponding
Poisson’s brackets relations for the case of orbital angular momentum holds
for general angular momentum.
6.3 Simultaneous Diagonalization of J
2
and J
z
As we have seen in chapter 2, commuting operators can be simultaneously
diagonalized. In this section we seek such simultaneous diagonalization of the
operators J
2
and J
z
, where
J
2
= J
2
x
+J
2
y
+J
2
z
. (6.23)
As is shown by the claim below, these operators commute.
Claim. The following holds
_
J
2
, J
x
¸
=
_
J
2
, J
y
¸
=
_
J
2
, J
z
¸
= 0 .
Proof. Using Eq. (6.22) one ﬁnds that
_
J
2
, J
z
¸
=
_
J
2
x
, J
z
¸
+
_
J
2
y
, J
z
¸
= i (−J
x
J
y
−J
y
J
x
+J
y
J
x
+J
x
J
y
) = 0 .
(6.24)
In a similar way one can show that
_
J
2
, J
x
¸
=
_
J
2
, J
y
¸
= 0.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 130
6.3. Simultaneous Diagonalization of J
2
and J
z
The common eigenvectors of the operators J
2
and J
z
are labeled as [a, b¸,
and the corresponding eigenvalues are labeled as a
2
and b respectively
J
2
[a, b¸ = a
2
[a, b¸ , (6.25)
J
z
[a, b¸ = b [a, b¸ . (6.26)
Recall that we have shown in chapter 5 for the case of harmonic oscillator
that the ketvectors a [n¸ and a
†
[n¸ are eigenvectors of the number operator
N provided that [n¸ is an eigenvector of N. Somewhat similar claim can
be made regrading the current problem under consideration of simultaneous
diagonalization of J
2
and J
z
:
Theorem 6.3.1. Let [a, b¸ be a normalized simultaneous eigenvector of the
operators J
2
and J
z
with eigenvalues
2
a and b respectively, i.e.
J
2
[a, b¸ = a
2
[a, b¸ , (6.27)
J
z
[a, b¸ = b [a, b¸ , (6.28)
¸a, b [a, b¸ = 1 . (6.29)
Then (i) the vector
[a, b + 1¸ ≡
−1
[a −b (b + 1)]
−1/2
J
+
[a, b¸ (6.30)
where
J
+
= J
x
+iJ
y
, (6.31)
is a normalized simultaneous eigenvector of the operators J
2
and J
z
with
eigenvalues
2
a and (b + 1) respectively, namely
J
2
[a, b + 1¸ = a
2
[a, b + 1¸ , (6.32)
J
z
[a, b + 1¸ = (b + 1) [a, b + 1¸ . (6.33)
(ii) The vector
[a, b −1¸ ≡
−1
[a −b (b −1)]
−1/2
J
−
[a, b¸ (6.34)
where
J
−
= J
x
−iJ
y
, (6.35)
is a normalized simultaneous eigenvector of the operators J
2
and J
z
with
eigenvalues
2
a and (b −1) respectively, namely
J
2
[a, b −1¸ = a
2
[a, b −1¸ , (6.36)
J
z
[a, b −1¸ = (b −1) [a, b −1¸ . (6.37)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 131
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
Proof. The following holds
J
2
(J
±
[a, b¸) =
_
_
_
_
J
2
, J
±
¸
. ¸¸ .
0
+J
±
J
2
_
_
_[a, b¸ = a
2
(J
±
[a, b¸) . (6.38)
Similarly
J
z
(J
±
[a, b¸) = ([J
z
, J
±
] +J
±
J
z
) [a, b¸ , (6.39)
where
[J
z
, J
±
] = [J
z
, J
x
±iJ
y
] = (iJ
y
±J
x
) = ±J
±
, (6.40)
thus
J
z
(J
±
[a, b¸) = (b ±1) (J
±
[a, b¸) . (6.41)
Using the following relations
J
†
+
J
+
= J
−
J
+
= (J
x
−iJ
y
) (J
x
+iJ
y
)
= J
2
x
+J
2
y
+i [J
x
, J
y
]
= J
2
−J
2
z
−J
z
,
(6.42)
J
†
−
J
−
= J
+
J
−
= (J
x
+iJ
y
) (J
x
−iJ
y
)
= J
2
x
+J
2
y
+i [J
y
, J
x
]
= J
2
−J
2
z
+J
z
,
(6.43)
one ﬁnds that
¸a, b[ J
†
+
J
+
[a, b¸ = ¸a, b[ J
2
[a, b¸ −¸a, b[ J
z
(J
z
+) [a, b¸
=
2
[a −b (b + 1)] ,
(6.44)
and
¸a, b[ J
†
−
J
−
[a, b¸ = ¸a, b[ J
2
[a, b¸ −¸a, b[ J
z
(J
z
−) [a, b¸
=
2
[a −b (b −1)] .
(6.45)
Thus the states [a, b + 1¸ and [a, b −1¸ are both normalized.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 132
6.3. Simultaneous Diagonalization of J
2
and J
z
What are the possible values of b? Recall that we have shown in chapter 5
for the case of harmonic oscillator that the eigenvalues of the number operator
N must be nonnegative since the operator N is positivedeﬁnite. Below we
employ a similar approach to show that:
Claim. b
2
≤ a
Proof. Both J
2
x
and J
2
y
are positivedeﬁnite, therefore
¸j, b[ J
2
x
+J
2
y
[j, b¸ ≥ 0 . (6.46)
On the other hand, J
2
x
+J
2
y
= J
2
−J
2
z
, therefore a −b
2
≥ 0.
As we did in chapter 5 for the case of the possible eigenvalues n of the
number operator N, also in the present case the requirement b
2
≤ a restricts
the possible values that b can take:
Claim. For a given value of a the possible values of b are ¦−b
max
, −b
max
+ 1, , b
max
−1, b
max
¦
where a = b
max
(b
max
+ 1). Moreover, the possible values of b
max
are 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, .
Proof. There must be a maximum value b
max
for which
J
+
[a, b
max
¸ = 0 . (6.47)
Thus, also
J
†
+
J
+
[a, b
max
¸ = 0 (6.48)
holds. With the help of Eq. (6.42) this can be written as
_
J
2
−J
2
z
−J
z
_
[a, b
max
¸ = [a −b
max
(b
max
+ 1)]
2
[a, b
max
¸ = 0 . (6.49)
Since [a, b
max
¸ ,= 0 one has
a −b
max
(b
max
+ 1) = 0 , (6.50)
or
a = b
max
(b
max
+ 1) . (6.51)
In a similar way with the help of Eq. (6.43) one can show that there exists a
minimum value b
min
for which
a = b
min
(b
min
−1) . (6.52)
From the last two equations one ﬁnds that
b
max
(b
max
+ 1) = b
min
(b
min
−1) , (6.53)
or
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 133
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
(b
max
+b
min
) (b
max
−b
min
+ 1) = 0 . (6.54)
Thus, since b
max
−b
min
+ 1 > 0 one ﬁnds that
b
min
= −b
max
. (6.55)
The formal solutions of Eqs. (6.51) and (6.52) are given by
b
max
= −
1
2
±
1
2
√
1 + 4a , (6.56)
and
b
min
=
1
2
∓
1
2
√
1 + 4a . (6.57)
Furthermore, a is an eigenvalue of a positivedeﬁnite operator J
2
, therefore
a ≥ 0. Consequently, the only possible solutions for which b
max
≥ b
min
are
b
max
= −
1
2
+
1
2
√
1 + 4a ≥ 0 , (6.58)
and
b
min
=
1
2
−
1
2
√
1 + 4a = −b
max
≤ 0 . (6.59)
That is, for a given value of a, both b
max
and b
min
are uniquely de
termined. The value b
min
is obtained by successively applying the oper
ator J
−
to the state [a, b
max
¸ an integer number of times, and therefore
b
max
−b
min
= 2b
max
must be an integer. Consequently, the possible values of
b
max
are 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, .
We now change the notation [a, b¸ for the simultaneous eigenvectors to
the more common notation [j, m¸, where
j = b
max
, (6.60)
m = b . (6.61)
Our results can be summarized by the following relations
J
2
[j, m¸ = j (j + 1)
2
[j, m¸ , (6.62)
J
z
[j, m¸ = m[j, m¸ , (6.63)
J
+
[j, m¸ =
_
j (j + 1) −m(m+ 1)[j, m+ 1¸ , (6.64)
J
−
[j, m¸ =
_
j (j + 1) −m(m−1)[j, m−1¸ , (6.65)
where the possible values j can take are
j = 0,
1
2
, 1,
3
2
, , (6.66)
and for each given j, the quantum number m can take any of the 2j + 1
possible values
m = −j, −j + 1, , j −1, j . (6.67)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 134
6.5. Orbital Angular Momentum
6.4 Example  Spin 1/2
The vector space of a spin 1/2 system is the subspace spanned by the ket
vectors [j = 1/2, m = −1/2¸ and [j = 1/2, m = 1/2¸. In this subspace the
spin angular momentum is labeled using the letter S, as we have discussed
above. The matrix representation of some operators of interest in this basis
can be easily found with the help of Eqs. (6.62), (6.63), (6.64) and (6.65):
S
2
˙ =
3
2
4
_
1 0
0 1
_
, (6.68)
S
z
˙ =
2
_
1 0
0 −1
_
≡
2
σ
z
, (6.69)
S
+
˙ =
_
0 1
0 0
_
, (6.70)
S
−
˙ =
_
0 0
1 0
_
. (6.71)
The above results for S
+
and S
−
together with the identities
S
x
=
S
+
+S
−
2
, (6.72)
S
y
=
S
+
−S
−
2i
, (6.73)
can be used to ﬁnd the matrix representation of S
x
and S
y
S
x
˙ =
2
_
0 1
1 0
_
≡
2
σ
x
, (6.74)
S
y
˙ =
2
_
0 −i
i 0
_
≡
2
σ
y
. (6.75)
The matrices σ
x
, σ
y
and σ
z
are called Pauli’s matrices, and are related to
the corresponding spin angular momentum operators by the relation
S
k
˙ =
2
σ
k
. (6.76)
6.5 Orbital Angular Momentum
As we have discussed above, orbital angular momentum L = r p refers to
spatial motion. For this case the states [l, m¸ (here, the letter l is used instead
of j since we are dealing with orbital angular momentum) can be described
using wave functions. In this section we calculate these wave functions. For
this purpose it is convenient to employ the transformation from Cartesian to
spherical coordinates
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 135
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
x = r sinθ cos φ , (6.77)
y = r sinθ sinφ , (6.78)
x = r cos θ , (6.79)
where
r ≥ 0 , (6.80)
0 ≤ θ ≤ π , (6.81)
0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π . (6.82)
Exercise 6.5.1. Show that:
1.
¸r
′
[ L
z
[α¸ = −i
∂
∂φ
¸x
′
[α¸ . (6.83)
2.
¸r
′
[ L
±
[α¸ = −i exp(±iφ)
_
±i
∂
∂θ
−cot θ
∂
∂φ
_
¸r
′
[α¸ . (6.84)
3.
¸r
′
[ L
2
[α¸ = −
2
_
1
sin
2
θ
∂
2
∂φ
2
+
1
sinθ
∂
∂θ
_
sinθ
∂
∂θ
__
¸r
′
[α¸ . (6.85)
Solution 6.5.1. Using the relations
L = r p = det
_
_
ˆ x ˆ y ˆz
x y z
p
x
p
y
p
z
_
_
, (6.86)
¸r
′
[ r [α¸ = r
′
¸r
′
[α¸ , (6.87)
¸r
′
[ p[α¸ =
i
∇¸r
′
[α¸ , (6.88)
[see Eqs. (3.21) and (3.29)] one ﬁnds that
¸r
′
[ L
x
[α¸ =
i
_
y
∂
∂z
−z
∂
∂y
_
ψ
α
(r
′
) , (6.89)
¸r
′
[ L
y
[α¸ =
i
_
z
∂
∂x
−x
∂
∂z
_
ψ
α
(r
′
) , (6.90)
¸r
′
[ L
z
[α¸ =
i
_
x
∂
∂y
−y
∂
∂x
_
ψ
α
(r
′
) , (6.91)
where
ψ
α
(r
′
) = ¸r
′
[α¸ . (6.92)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 136
6.5. Orbital Angular Momentum
The inverse transformation is given by
r =
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
, (6.93)
cos θ =
z
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
, (6.94)
cot φ =
x
y
. (6.95)
1. The following holds
∂
∂φ
=
∂x
∂φ
∂
∂x
+
∂y
∂φ
∂
∂y
+
∂z
∂φ
∂
∂z
= −r sinθ sinφ
∂
∂x
+r sinθ cos φ
∂
∂y
= −y
∂
∂x
+x
∂
∂y
,
(6.96)
thus using Eq. (6.91) one has
¸r
′
[ L
z
[α¸ = −i
∂
∂φ
ψ
α
(r
′
) . (6.97)
2. Using Eqs. (6.89) and (6.90) together with the relation L
+
= L
x
+ iL
y
one has
i
¸r
′
[ L
+
[α¸ =
i
¸r
′
[ L
x
+iL
y
[α¸
=
_
y
∂
∂z
−z
∂
∂y
+iz
∂
∂x
−ix
∂
∂z
_
ψ
α
(r
′
)
=
_
z
_
i
∂
∂x
−
∂
∂y
_
−i (x +iy)
∂
∂z
_
ψ
α
(r
′
)
=
_
z
_
i
∂
∂x
−
∂
∂y
_
−ir sinθe
iφ
∂
∂z
_
ψ
α
(r
′
) .
(6.98)
Thus, by using the identity
∂
∂θ
=
∂x
∂θ
∂
∂x
+
∂y
∂θ
∂
∂y
+
∂z
∂θ
∂
∂z
= r cos θ
_
cos φ
∂
∂x
+ sinφ
∂
∂y
_
−r sinθ
∂
∂z
,
(6.99)
or
r sinθ
∂
∂z
= r cos θ
_
cos φ
∂
∂x
+ sinφ
∂
∂y
_
−
∂
∂θ
, (6.100)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 137
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
one ﬁnds that
i
¸r
′
[ L
+
[α¸ =
_
z
_
i
∂
∂x
−
∂
∂y
_
−ie
iφ
_
cot θ
_
x
∂
∂x
+y
∂
∂y
_
−
∂
∂θ
__
ψ
α
(r
′
)
=
_
i
_
z −e
iφ
xcot θ
_
∂
∂x
−
_
z +ie
iφ
y cot θ
_
∂
∂y
+ie
iφ
∂
∂θ
_
ψ
α
(r
′
)
= e
iφ
_
_
i cot θ
_
_
ze
−iφ
tanθ
. ¸¸ .
x−iy
−x
_
_
∂
∂x
−cot θ
_
_
ze
−iφ
tanθ
. ¸¸ .
x−iy
+iy
_
_
∂
∂y
+i
∂
∂θ
_
_
ψ
α
(r
′
)
= e
iφ
_
cot θ
_
y
∂
∂x
−x
∂
∂y
_
+i
∂
∂θ
_
ψ
α
(r
′
)
= e
iφ
_
i
∂
∂θ
−cot θ
∂
∂φ
_
ψ
α
(r
′
) .
(6.101)
In a similar way one evaluates ¸r
′
[ L
−
[α¸. Both results can be expressed
as
¸r
′
[ L
±
[α¸ = −i exp(±iφ)
_
±i
∂
∂θ
−cot θ
∂
∂φ
_
ψ
α
(r
′
) . (6.102)
3. Using the result of the previous section one has
¸r
′
[ L
x
[α¸ =
1
2
¸r
′
[ (L
+
+L
−
) [α¸
=
i
2
_
e
iφ
_
cot θ
∂
∂φ
−i
∂
∂θ
_
+e
−iφ
_
cot θ
∂
∂φ
+i
∂
∂θ
__
ψ
α
(r
′
)
= i
_
cos φcot θ
∂
∂φ
+ sinφ
∂
∂θ
_
ψ
α
(r
′
) .
(6.103)
Similarly
¸r
′
[ L
y
[α¸ = i
_
sinφcot θ
∂
∂φ
−cos φ
∂
∂θ
_
ψ
α
(r
′
) , (6.104)
thus
¸r
′
[ L
2
[α¸ = ¸r
′
[ L
2
x
+L
2
y
+L
2
z
[α¸
= −
2
_
_
cos φcot θ
∂
∂φ
+ sinφ
∂
∂θ
_
2
+
_
sinφcot θ
∂
∂φ
−cos φ
∂
∂θ
_
2
+
∂
2
∂φ
2
_
ψ
α
(r
′
)
= −
2
_
_
1 + cot
2
θ
_
∂
2
∂φ
2
+ cot θ
∂
∂θ
+
∂
2
∂θ
2
_
ψ
α
(r
′
)
= −
2
_
1
sin
2
θ
∂
2
∂φ
2
+
1
sinθ
∂
∂θ
_
sinθ
∂
∂θ
__
ψ
α
(r
′
) .
(6.105)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 138
6.5. Orbital Angular Momentum
Spherical Harmonics. The above exercise allows translating the relations
(6.62) and (6.63), which are given by
L
2
[l, m¸ = l (l + 1)
2
[l, m¸ , (6.106)
L
z
[l, m¸ = m [l, m¸ , (6.107)
into diﬀerential equations for the corresponding wavefunctions
−
_
1
sin
2
θ
∂
2
∂φ
2
+
1
sinθ
∂
∂θ
_
sinθ
∂
∂θ
__
ψ
α
(r
′
) = l (l + 1) ψ
α
(r
′
) , (6.108)
−i
∂
∂φ
ψ
α
(r
′
) = mψ
α
(r
′
) , (6.109)
where
m = −l, −l + 1, , l −1, l . (6.110)
We seek solutions having the form
ψ
α
(r
′
) = f (r) Y
m
l
(θ, φ) . (6.111)
We require that both f (r) and Y
m
l
(θ, φ) are normalized
1 =
∞
_
0
drr
2
[f (r)[
2
, (6.112)
1 =
π
_
0
dθ sinθ
2π
_
0
dφ[Y
m
l
(θ, φ)[
2
. (6.113)
These normalization requirements guarantee that the total wavefunction is
normalized
1 =
∞
_
−∞
dx
∞
_
−∞
dy
∞
_
−∞
dz [ψ
α
(r
′
)[
2
. (6.114)
Substituting into Eqs. (6.108) and (6.109) yields
−
_
1
sin
2
θ
∂
2
∂φ
2
+
1
sinθ
∂
_
sinθ
∂
∂θ
_
∂θ
_
Y
m
l
= l (l + 1) Y
m
l
, (6.115)
−i
∂
∂φ
Y
m
l
= mY
m
l
. (6.116)
The functions Y
m
l
(θ, φ) are called spherical harmonics
In the previous section, which discusses the case of general angular mo
mentum, we have seen that the quantum number m can take any half integer
value 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, [see Eq. (6.66)]. Recall that the only assumption em
ployed in order to obtain this result was the commutation relations (6.22).
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 139
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
However, as is shown by the claim below, only integer values are allowed for
the case of orbital angular momentum. In view of this result, one may argue
that the existence of spin, which corresponds to half integer values, is in fact
predicted by the commutation relations (6.22) only.
Claim. The variable m must be an integer.
Proof. Consider a solution having the form
Y
m
l
(θ, φ) = F
m
l
(θ) e
imφ
. (6.117)
Clearly, Eq. (6.116) is satisﬁed. The requirement
Y
m
l
(θ, φ) = Y
m
l
(θ, φ + 2π) , (6.118)
namely, the requirement that Y
m
l
(θ, φ) is continuos, leads to
e
2πim
= 1 , (6.119)
thus m must be an integer.
The spherical harmonics Y
m
l
(θ, φ) can be obtained by solving Eqs. (6.115)
and (6.116). However, we will employ an alternative approach, in which in
the ﬁrst step we ﬁnd the spherical harmonics Y
l
l
(θ, φ) by solving the equation
L
+
[l, l¸ = 0 , (6.120)
which is of ﬁrst order [contrary to Eq. (6.115), which is of the second order].
Using the identity (6.84), which is given by
¸r
′
[ L
+
[α¸ = −ie
iφ
_
i
∂
∂θ
−cot θ
∂
∂φ
_
¸r
′
[α¸ , (6.121)
one has
_
∂
∂θ
−l cot θ
_
F
l
l
(θ) = 0 . (6.122)
The solution is given by
F
l
l
(θ) = C
l
(sinθ)
l
, (6.123)
where C
l
is a normalization constant. Thus, Y
l
l
is given by
Y
l
l
(θ, φ) = C
l
(sinθ)
l
e
ilφ
. (6.124)
In the second step we employ the identity (6.65), which is given by
J
−
[j, m¸ =
_
j (j + 1) −m(m−1) [j, m−1¸ , (6.125)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 140
6.6. Problems
and Eq. (6.84), which is given by
¸r
′
[ L
±
[α¸ = −iexp(±iφ)
_
±i
∂
∂θ
−cot θ
∂
∂φ
_
¸r
′
[α¸ , (6.126)
to derive the following recursive relation
e
−iφ
_
−
∂
∂θ
−mcot θ
_
Y
m
l
(θ, φ) =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m−1)Y
m−1
l
(θ, φ) ,
(6.127)
which allows ﬁnding Y
m
l
(θ, φ) for all possible values of m provided that
Y
l
l
(θ, φ) is given. The normalized spherical harmonics are found using this
method to be given by
Y
m
l
(θ, φ) =
(−1)
l
2
l
l!
_
2l + 1
4π
(l +m)!
(l −m)!
e
imφ
(sinθ)
−m
d
l−m
d(cos θ)
l−m
(sinθ)
2l
.
(6.128)
As an example, closed form expressions for the cases l = 0 and l = 1 are
given below
Y
0
0
(θ, φ) =
1
√
4π
, (6.129)
Y
±1
1
(θ, φ) = ∓
_
3
8π
sinθe
±iφ
, (6.130)
Y
0
1
(θ, φ) =
_
3
4π
cos θ . (6.131)
6.6 Problems
1. Let R
ˆı
(where i ∈ ¦x, y, z¦ ) be the 33 rotation matrices (as deﬁned in
the lecture). Show that for inﬁnitesimal angle φ the following holds
[R
ˆ x
(φ) , R
ˆ y
(φ)] = 1 −R
ˆz
_
φ
2
_
, (6.132)
where
[R
ˆ x
(φ) , R
ˆ y
(φ)] = R
ˆ x
(φ) R
ˆ y
(φ) −R
ˆ y
(φ) R
ˆ x
(φ) . (6.133)
2. Show that
exp
_
iJ
z
φ
_
J
x
exp
_
−
iJ
z
φ
_
= J
x
cos φ −J
y
sinφ . (6.134)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 141
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
3. The components of the Pauli matrix vector σ are given by:
σ
x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
y
=
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, σ
z
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
. (6.135)
a) Show that
(σ a) (σ b) = a b +iσ (a b) , (6.136)
where a and b are vector operators which commute with σ , but not
necessarily commute with each other.
b) Show that
exp
_
−
iσ ˆ nφ
2
_
= 1cos
φ
2
−iσ ˆ nsin
φ
2
, (6.137)
where ˆ n is a unit vector and where 1 is the 2 2 identity matrix.
4. Find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix σ ˆ n (ˆ n is a unit
vector).
5. Consider an electron in a state in which the component of its spin along
the z axis is +/2 . What is the probability that the component of the spin
along an axis z
′
, which makes an angle θ with the z axis, will measured
to be +/2 or −/2 . What is the average value of the component of the
spin along this axis?
6. The 2 2 matrix U is given by
U =
1 +iα(σ ˆ n)
1 −iα(σ ˆ n)
, (6.138)
where
σ = σ
x
ˆ x +σ
y
ˆ y +σ
z
ˆz (6.139)
is the Pauli vector matrix,
ˆ n = n
x
ˆ x +n
y
ˆ y +n
z
ˆz (6.140)
is a unit vector, i.e. ˆ n ˆ n = 1, and n
x
, n
y
, n
z
and α are all real parameters.
Note that generally for a matrix or an operator
1
A
≡ A
−1
.
a) show that U is unitary.
b) Show that
dU
dα
=
2i (σ ˆ n)
1 +α
2
U . (6.141)
c) Calculate U by solving the diﬀerential equation in the previous sec
tion.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 142
6.6. Problems
7. A particle is located in a box, which is divided into a left and right
sections. The corresponding vector states are denoted as [L¸ and [R¸
respectively. The Hamiltonian of the system is given by
H = E
L
[L¸ ¸L[ +E
R
[R¸ ¸R[ +∆([L¸ ¸R[ +[R¸ ¸L[) . (6.142)
The particle at time t = 0 is in the left section
[ψ(t = 0)¸ = [L¸ . (6.143)
Calculate the probability p
R
(t) to ﬁnd the particle in the state [R¸ at
time t.
8. A magnetic ﬁeld given by
B(t) = B
0
ˆz +B
1
(ˆ xcos (ω
1
t) + ˆ ysin(ω
1
t)) (6.144)
is applied to a spin 1/2 particle. At time t = 0 the state is given by
[α¸ (t = 0) = [+; ˆz¸ . (6.145)
Calculate the probability P
+−
(t) to ﬁnd the system in the state [−; ˆz¸
at time t > 0.
9. Find the time evolution of the state vector of a spin 1/2 particle in
a magnetic ﬁeld along the z direction with time dependent magnitude
B(t) = B(t) ˆz.
10. A magnetic ﬁeld given by B = Bcos (ωt) ˆ z, where B is a constant, is
applied to a spin 1/2. At time t = 0 the spin is in state [ψ (t)¸, which
satisﬁes
S
x
[ψ (t = 0)¸ =
2
[ψ (t = 0)¸ , (6.146)
Calculate the expectation value ¸S
z
¸ at time t ≥ 0.
11. Consider a spin 1/2 particle. The time dependent Hamiltonian is given
by
H = −
4ωS
z
1 + (ωt)
2
, (6.147)
where ω is a real nonnegative constant and S
z
is the z component of the
angular momentum operator. Calculate the time evolution operator u of
the system.
12. Consider a spin 1/2 particle in an eigenstate of the operator S ˆ n with
eigenvalue +/2 , where S is the vector operator of angular momentum
and where ˆ n is a unit vector. The angle between the unit vector ˆ n and
the z axis is θ . Calculate the expectation values
a) ¸S
z
¸
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 143
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
b)
_
(∆S
z
)
2
_
13. An ensemble of spin 1/2 particles are in a normalized state
[ψ¸ = α[+¸ +β [−¸ ,
where the states [+¸ and [−¸ are the eigenstates of S
z
(the z component
of the angular momentum operator). At what direction the magnetic ﬁeld
should be aligned in a SternGerlach experiment in order for the beam
not to split.
14. Consider a spin 1/2 particle having gyromagnetic ratio γ in a magnetic
ﬁeld given by B(t) ˆ u . The unit vector is given by
ˆ u =(sinθ cos ϕ, sinθ sinϕ, cos θ) , (6.148)
where θ, ϕ are angles in spherical coordinates. The ﬁeld intensity is given
by
B(t) =
_
_
_
0 t < 0
B
0
0 < t < τ
0 t > τ
. (6.149)
At times t < 0 the spin was in state [+¸ , namely in eigenstate of S
z
with
positive eigenvalue. Calculate the probability P
−
(t) to ﬁnd the spin in
state [−¸ at time t , where t > τ .
15. Consider a spin 1/2 particle. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = ωS
x
, (6.150)
where ω is a Larmor frequency and where S
x
is the x component of the
angular momentum operator. The z component of the angular momen
tum is measured at the times t
n
= nT/N where n = 0, 1, 2, , N, N is
integer and T is the time of the last measurement.
a) Find the matrix representation of the time evolution operator u(t)
in the basis of [±; ˆz¸ states.
b) What is the probability p
same
to get the same result in all N + 1
measurements. Note that the initial state of the particle is unknown.
c) For a ﬁxed T calculate the limit lim
N→∞
p
same
.
16. Consider a spin 1/2 particle. No external magnetic ﬁeld is applied. Three
measurements are done one after the other. In the ﬁrst one the z com
ponent of the angular momentum is measured, in the second one the
component along the direction ˆ u is measured and in the third measure
ment, again the z component is measured. The unit vector ˆ u is described
using the angles θ and ϕ
ˆ u =(sinθ cos ϕ, sinθ sinϕ, cos θ) . (6.151)
Calculate the probability p
same
to have the same result in the 1st and
3rd measurements.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 144
6.6. Problems
17. Let ¸µ¸ (t) be the expectation value of the magnetic moment associated
with spin 1/2 particle (µ = γS , where S is the angular momentum and
γ is the gyromagnetic ratio). Show that in the presence of a time varying
magnetic ﬁeld B(t) the following holds
d
dt
¸µ¸ (t) = γ ¸µ¸ (t) B(t) . (6.152)
18. The Hamiltonian of an electron of mass m, charge q, spin 1/2, placed in
electromagnetic ﬁeld described by the vector potential A(r, t) and the
scalar potential ϕ(r, t), can be written as [see Eq. (1.62)]
H =
_
p −
q
c
A
_
2
2m
+qϕ −
q
2mc
σ B , (6.153)
where B = ∇A. Show that this Hamiltonian can also be written as
H =
1
2m
_
σ
_
p −
q
c
A
__
2
+qϕ . (6.154)
19. Show that
¸j, m[
_
(∆J
x
)
2
+ (∆J
y
)
2
_
[j, m¸ =
2
_
j
2
+j −m
2
_
. (6.155)
20. Find the condition under which the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in
a magnetic ﬁeld
H =
1
2m
_
p −
q
c
A
_
2
. (6.156)
can be written as
H =
1
2m
p
2
−
q
mc
p A+
q
2
2mc
2
A
2
. (6.157)
21. Consider a point particle having mass m and charge q moving under the
inﬂuence of electric ﬁeld E and magnetic ﬁeld B, which are related to
the scalar potential ϕ and to the vector potential A by
E = −∇ϕ −
1
c
∂A
∂t
, (6.158)
and
B = ∇A . (6.159)
Find the coordinates representation of the timeindependent Schrödinger
equation H[α¸ = E[α¸.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 145
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
22. A particle of mass m and charge e interacts with a vector potential
A
x
= A
z
= 0 , (6.160)
A
y
= Bx . (6.161)
Calculate the ground state energy. Clue: Consider a wave function of the
form
ψ(x, y, z) = χ(x) exp(ik
y
y) exp(ik
z
z) . (6.162)
23. Find the energy spectrum of a charged particle having mass mand charge
q moving in uniform and timeindependent magnetic ﬁeld B = Bˆz and
electric ﬁeld E = Eˆ x.
24. Consider a particle having mass m and charge e moving in xy plane under
the inﬂuence of the potential U (y) =
1
2
mω
2
0
y
2
. A uniform and time
independent magnetic ﬁeld given by B = Bˆz is applied perpendicularly
to the xy plane. Calculate the eigenenergies of the particle.
25. Consider a particle with charge q and mass µ conﬁned to move on a circle
of radius a in the xy plane, but is otherwise free. A uniform and time
independent magnetic ﬁeld B is applied in the z direction.
a) Find the eigenenergies.
b) Calculate the current J
m
for each of the eigenstates of the system.
26. The Hamiltonian of a non isotropic rigid rotator is given by
H =
L
2
x
2I
xy
+
L
2
y
2I
xy
+
L
2
z
2I
z
, (6.163)
where L is the vector angular momentum operator. At time t = 0 the
state of the system is described by the wavefunction
ψ(θ, φ) = Asinθ cos φ , (6.164)
where θ, φ are angles in spherical coordinates and A is a normalization
constant. Calculate the expectation value ¸L
z
¸ at time t > 0 .
27. The eigenstates of the angular momentum operators L
2
and L
z
with
l = 1 and m = −1, 0, 1 are denoted as [1, −1¸, [1, 0¸ and [1, 1¸.
a) Write the 3 3 matrix of the operator L
x
in this l = 1 subspace.
b) Calculate the expectation value ¸L
x
¸ for the state
1
2
_
[1, 1¸ +
√
2 [1, 0¸ +[1, −1¸
¸
.
c) The same as the previous section for the state
1
√
2
[[1, 1¸ −[1, −1¸].
d) Write the 3 3 matrix representation in this basis of the rotation
operator at angle φ around the z axis.
e) The same as in the previous section for an inﬁnitesimal rotation with
angle dφ around the x axis.
28. Consider a particle of mass m in a 3D harmonic potential
V (x, y, z, ) =
1
2
mω
2
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_
. (6.165)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 146
6.6. Problems
The state vector [ψ¸ of the particle satisfy
a
x
[ψ¸ = α
x
[ψ¸ , (6.166)
a
y
[ψ¸ = α
y
[ψ¸ , (6.167)
a
z
[ψ¸ = α
z
[ψ¸ , (6.168)
where α
x
, α
y
and α
z
are complex and a
x
, a
y
and a
z
are annihilation
operators
a
x
=
_
mω
2
_
x +
ip
x
mω
_
, (6.169)
a
y
=
_
mω
2
_
y +
ip
y
mω
_
, (6.170)
a
z
=
_
mω
2
_
z +
ip
z
mω
_
, (6.171)
Let L be the vector operator of the orbital angular momentum.
a) Calculate ¸L
z
¸.
b) Calculate ∆L
z
.
29. A rigid rotator is prepared in a state
[α¸ = A([1, 1¸ −[1, −1¸) , (6.172)
where A is a normalization constant, and where the symbol [l, m¸ denotes
an angular momentum state with quantum numbers l and m. Calculate
a) ¸L
x
¸.
b)
_
(∆L
x
)
2
_
.
30. The Hamiltonian of a top is given by
H =
L
2
x
+L
2
y
2I
1
+
L
2
z
2I
2
, (6.173)
where L is the angular momentum vector operator. Let [ψ
0
¸ be the
ground state of the system.
a) Calculate the quantity A
z
(φ), which is deﬁned as
A
z
(φ) = ¸ψ
0
[ exp
_
iL
z
φ
_
Hexp
_
−
iL
z
φ
_
[ψ
0
¸ . (6.174)
b) Calculate the quantity A
x
(φ), which is deﬁned as
A
x
(φ) = ¸ψ
0
[ exp
_
iL
x
φ
_
Hexp
_
−
iL
x
φ
_
[ψ
0
¸ .
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 147
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
6.7 Solutions
1. By cyclic permutation of
R
ˆz
=
_
_
cos φ −sinφ 0
sinφ cos φ 0
0 0 1
_
_
, (6.175)
one has
R
ˆ x
=
_
_
1 0 0
0 cos φ −sinφ
0 sinφ cos φ
_
_
, (6.176)
R
ˆ y
=
_
_
cos φ 0 −sinφ
0 1 0
sinφ 0 cos φ
_
_
. (6.177)
On one hand
1 −[R
ˆ x
(φ) , R
ˆ y
(φ)]
=
_
_
1 −1 + cos
2
φ sinφ −sinφcos φ
1 −cos
2
φ 1 sinφcos φ −sinφ
sinφ −sinφcos φ sinφcos φ −sinφ 1
_
_
=
_
_
1 −φ
2
0
φ
2
1 0
0 0 1
_
_
+O
_
φ
3
_
.
(6.178)
On the other hand
R
ˆz
_
φ
2
_
=
_
_
cos φ
2
−sinφ
2
0
sinφ
2
cos φ
2
0
0 0 1
_
_
=
_
_
1 −φ
2
0
φ
2
1 0
0 0 1
_
_
+O
_
φ
3
_
, (6.179)
thus
1 −[R
ˆ x
(φ) , R
ˆ y
(φ)] = R
ˆz
_
φ
2
_
+O
_
φ
3
_
. (6.180)
2. Using the identity (2.174), which is given by
e
L
Ae
−L
= A+[L, A] +
1
2!
[L, [L, A]] +
1
3!
[L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (6.181)
and the commutation relations (6.22), which are given by
[J
i
, J
j
] = iε
ijk
J
k
, (6.182)
one has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 148
6.7. Solutions
exp
_
iJ
z
φ
_
J
x
exp
_
−
iJ
z
φ
_
= J
x
+
iφ
[J
z
, J
x
] +
1
2!
_
iφ
_
2
[J
z
, [J
z
, J
x
]]
+
1
3!
_
iφ
_
3
[J
z
, [J
z
, [J
z
, J
x
]]] +
= J
x
_
1 −
1
2!
φ
2
+
_
−J
y
_
φ −
1
3!
φ
3
+
_
J
x
cos φ −J
y
sinφ .
(6.183)
3. The components of the Pauli matrix vector σ are given by:
σ
x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
y
=
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, σ
z
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
. (6.184)
a) The following holds
σ a =
_
a
z
a
x
−ia
y
a
x
+ia
y
−a
z
_
, (6.185)
σ b =
_
b
z
b
x
−ib
y
b
x
+ib
y
−b
z
_
, (6.186)
thus
(σ a) (σ b) =
_
a
z
b
z
+ (a
x
−ia
y
) (b
x
+ib
y
) a
z
(b
x
−ib
y
) −(a
x
−ia
y
) b
z
(a
x
+ia
y
) b
z
−a
z
(b
x
+ib
y
) a
z
b
z
+ (a
x
+ia
y
) (b
x
−ib
y
)
_
= a b
_
1 0
0 1
_
+i (a
y
b
z
−a
z
b
y
)
_
0 1
1 0
_
+i (a
z
b
x
−a
x
b
z
)
_
0 −i
i 0
_
+i (a
x
b
y
−a
y
b
x
)
_
1 0
0 −1
_
= a b +iσ (a b) .
(6.187)
b) Using (a) one has
(σ ˆ n)
2
= 1 , (6.188)
thus with the help of the Taylor expansion of the functions cos (x)
and sin(x) one ﬁnds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 149
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
exp
_
−
iσ ˆ nφ
2
_
= cos
_
σ ˆ nφ
2
_
−i sin
_
σ ˆ nφ
2
_
= 1cos
φ
2
−iσ ˆ nsin
φ
2
.
(6.189)
4. In spherical coordinates the unit vectors ˆ n is expressed as
ˆ n = (cos ϕsinθ, sinϕsinθ, cos θ) , (6.190)
thus
σ ˆ n =
_
cos θ sinθe
−iϕ
sinθe
iϕ
−cos θ
_
. (6.191)
The eigen values λ
+
and λ
−
are found solving
λ
+
+λ
−
= Tr (σ ˆ n) = 0 , (6.192)
and
λ
+
λ
−
= Det (σ ˆ n) = −1 , (6.193)
thus
λ
±
= ±1 . (6.194)
The normalized eigenvectors can be chosen to be given by
[+¸ ˙ =
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
sin
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
, (6.195)
[−¸ ˙ =
_
−sin
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
. (6.196)
5. Using Eq. (6.195) one ﬁnds the probability p
+
to measure +/2 is given
by
p
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0
_
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
sin
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= cos
2
θ
2
, (6.197)
and the probability p
−
to measure −/2 is
p
−
= 1 −p
+
= sin
2
θ
2
. (6.198)
The average value of the component of the spin along z
′
axis is thus
2
_
cos
2
θ
2
−sin
2
θ
2
_
=
2
cos θ . (6.199)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 150
6.7. Solutions
6. In general, note that all smooth functions of the matrix (σ ˆ n) commute,
a fact that greatly simpliﬁes the calculations.
a) The following holds
1
1 −iα(σ ˆ n)
= 1 +iα(σ ˆ n) + [iα(σ ˆ n)]
2
+ , (6.200)
thus
_
1
1 −iα(σ ˆ n)
_
†
= 1 −iα(σ ˆ n) + [(−i) α(σ ˆ n)]
2
+
=
1
1 +iα(σ ˆ n)
,
(6.201)
therefore
UU
†
=
1 +iα(σ ˆ n)
1 −iα(σ ˆ n)
1 −iα(σ ˆ n)
1 +iα(σ ˆ n)
= 1 , (6.202)
and similarly U
†
U = 1.
b) Exploiting again the fact that all smooth functions of the matrix
(σ ˆ n) commute and using Eq. (6.188) one has
dU
dα
= i
[1 −iα(σ ˆ n)] (σ ˆ n) + [1 +iα(σ ˆ n)] (σ ˆ n)
[1 −iα(σ ˆ n)]
2
= i
2 (σ ˆ n)
[1 −iα(σ ˆ n)]
2
= i
2 (σ ˆ n)
[1 −iα(σ ˆ n)] [1 +iα(σ ˆ n)]
1 +iα(σ ˆ n)
1 −iα(σ ˆ n)
=
2i (σ ˆ n)
1 +α
2
U .
(6.203)
c) By integration one has
U = U
0
exp
_
2i (σ ˆ n)
_
α
0
dα
′
1 +α
′2
_
U
0
exp
_
2i (σ ˆ n) tan
−1
α
_
,
(6.204)
where U
0
is a the matrix U at α = 0. With the help of Eq. (6.137)
one thus ﬁnds that
U = U
0
_
1 cos
_
2 tan
−1
α
_
+iσ ˆ nsin
_
2 tan
−1
α
_¸
, (6.205)
Using the identities
cos
_
2 tan
−1
α
_
=
1 −α
2
1 +α
2
, (6.206)
sin
_
2 tan
−1
α
_
=
2α
1 +α
2
, (6.207)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 151
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
and assuming U
0
= 1 one ﬁnds that
U =
1 −α
2
1 +α
2
+iσ ˆ n
2α
1 +α
2
. (6.208)
7. In terms of Pauli matrices
H˙ =E
a
σ
0
+∆σ
x
+E
d
σ
z
, (6.209)
where
E
a
=
E
L
+E
R
2
, E
d
=
E
L
−E
R
2
, (6.210)
and
σ
0
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
, σ
x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
z
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
. (6.211)
Using Eq. (6.137), which is given by
exp
_
−
iσ ˆ nφ
2
_
= cos
φ
2
−iσ ˆ nsin
φ
2
, (6.212)
the time evolution operator u(t) can be calculated
u(t) = exp
_
−
iHt
_
= exp
_
−
iE
a
σ
0
t
_
exp
_
−
i (∆σ
x
+E
d
σ
z
) t
_
= exp
_
−
iE
a
t
_
exp
_
−
iσ ˆ n
_
∆
2
+E
2
d
t
_
,
(6.213)
where
σ ˆ n = σ
(∆, 0, E
d
)
_
∆
2
+E
2
d
, (6.214)
thus
u(t) = exp
_
−
iE
a
t
_
_
cos
_
∆
2
+E
2
d
t
−i
∆σ
x
+E
d
σ
z
_
∆
2
+E
2
d
sin
t
_
∆
2
+E
2
d
_
.
(6.215)
The probability p
R
(t) is thus given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 152
6.7. Solutions
p
R
(t) = [¸R[ u(t) [ψ (t = 0)¸[
2
= [¸R[ u(t) [L¸[
2
=
∆
2
∆
2
+
_
EL−ER
2
_
2
sin
2
t
_
∆
2
+
_
EL−ER
2
_
2
.
(6.216)
8. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = ω
0
S
z
+ω
1
(cos (ωt) S
x
+ sin(ωt) S
y
) , (6.217)
where
ω
0
=
[e[ B
0
m
e
c
, (6.218)
ω
1
=
[e[ B
1
m
e
c
. (6.219)
The matrix representation in the basis ¦[+¸ , [−¸¦ (where [+¸ = [+; ˆz¸
and [−¸ = [−; ˆz¸) is found using Eqs. (6.69), (6.74) and (6.75)
H˙ =
2
_
ω
0
ω
1
exp(−iωt)
ω
1
exp(iωt) −ω
0
_
. (6.220)
The Schrödinger equation is given by
i
d
dt
[α¸ = H[α¸ . (6.221)
It is convenient to express the general solution as
[α¸ (t) = b
+
(t) exp
_
−
iωt
2
_
[+¸ +b
−
(t) exp
_
iωt
2
_
[−¸ . (6.222)
Substituting into the Schrödinger equation yields
i
d
dt
__
e
−
iωt
2
0
0 e
iωt
2
__
b
+
b
−
__
=
1
2
_
ω
0
ω
1
e
−iωt
ω
1
e
iωt
−ω
0
__
e
−
iωt
2
0
0 e
iωt
2
__
b
+
b
−
_
,
(6.223)
or
iω
2
_
−e
−
iωt
2
0
0 e
iωt
2
__
b
+
b
−
_
+
_
e
−
iωt
2
0
0 e
iωt
2
__
˙
b
+
˙
b
−
_
=
−i
2
_
ω
0
ω
1
e
−iωt
ω
1
e
iωt
−ω
0
__
e
−
iωt
2
0
0 e
iωt
2
__
b
+
b
−
_
.
(6.224)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 153
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
By multiplying from the left by
_
e
iωt
2
0
0 e
−
iωt
2
_
one has
iω
2
_
−1 0
0 1
__
b
+
b
−
_
+
_
˙
b
+
˙
b
−
_
=
−i
2
_
ω
0
ω
1
ω
1
−ω
0
__
b
+
b
−
_
, (6.225)
or
i
_
˙
b
+
˙
b
−
_
=
Ω
2
_
b
+
b
−
_
, (6.226)
where
Ω =
_
∆ω ω
1
ω
1
−∆ω
_
= ∆ωσ
z
+ω
1
σ
x
, (6.227)
and
∆ω = ω
0
−ω . (6.228)
At time t = 0
_
b
+
(0)
b
−
(0)
_
=
_
1
0
_
. (6.229)
The time evolution is found using Eq. (6.137)
_
b
+
(t)
b
−
(t)
_
= exp
_
−
iΩt
2
__
b
+
(0)
b
−
(0)
_
=
_
_
cos θ −i
∆ω sinθ
√
ω
2
1
+(∆ω)
2
−i
ω
1
sinθ
√
ω
2
1
+(∆ω)
2
−i
ω
1
sinθ
√
ω
2
1
+(∆ω)
2
cos θ +i
∆ωsinθ
√
ω
2
1
+(∆ω)
2
_
_
_
1
0
_
,
(6.230)
where
θ =
_
ω
2
1
+ (∆ω)
2
t
2
. (6.231)
The probability is thus given by
P
+−
(t) =
ω
2
1
ω
2
1
+ (∆ω)
2
sin
2
_
ω
2
1
+ (∆ω)
2
t
2
. (6.232)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 154
6.7. Solutions
9. The Schrödinger equation is given by
i
d[α¸
dt
= H[α¸ , (6.233)
where
H = ωS
z
, (6.234)
and
ω (t) =
[e[ B(t)
m
e
c
. (6.235)
In the basis of the eigenvectors of S
z
one has
[α¸ = c
+
[+¸ +c
−
[−¸ , (6.236)
and
i ( ˙ c
+
[+¸ + ˙ c
−
[−¸) = ωS
z
(c
+
[+¸ +c
−
[−¸) , (6.237)
where
S
z
[±¸ = ±
2
[±¸ , (6.238)
thus one gets 2 decoupled equations
˙ c
+
= −
iω
2
c
+
, (6.239)
˙ c
−
=
iω
2
c
−
. (6.240)
The solution is given by
c
±
(t) = c
±
(0) exp
_
∓
i
2
_
t
0
ω (t
′
) dt
′
_
= c
±
(0) exp
_
∓
i [e[
2m
e
c
_
t
0
B(t
′
) dt
′
_
.
(6.241)
10. At time t = 0
[ψ(t = 0)¸ =
1
√
2
([+¸ +[−¸) . (6.242)
Using the result of the previous problem and the notation
ω
c
=
eB
mc
, (6.243)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 155
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
one ﬁnds
[ψ (t)¸ =
1
√
2
_
_
exp
_
_
−
iω
c
2
t
_
0
cos (ωt
′
) dt
′
_
_
[+¸ + exp
_
_
iω
c
2
t
_
0
cos (ωt
′
) dt
′
_
_
[−¸
_
_
=
1
√
2
_
exp
_
−
iω
c
sinωt
2ω
_
[+¸ + exp
_
iω
c
sinωt
2ω
_
[−¸
_
,
(6.244)
thus
¸S
z
¸ (t) = ¸ψ (t)[ S
z
[ψ (t)¸ = 0 . (6.245)
11. The Schrödinger equation for u is given by
i
du
dt
= Hu , (6.246)
thus
du
dt
=
4iωS
z
1
1 + (ωt)
2
u . (6.247)
By integration one ﬁnds
u(t) = u(0) exp
_
_
4iωS
z
t
_
0
dt
′
1 + (ωt
′
)
2
_
_
= u(0) exp
_
4iS
z
tan
−1
(ωt)
_
.
(6.248)
Setting an initial condition u(t = 0) = 1 yields
u(t) = exp
_
4iS
z
tan
−1
(ωt)
_
. (6.249)
The matrix elements of u(t) in the basis of the eigenstates [±¸ of S
z
are
given by
¸+[ u(t) [+¸ = exp
_
2i tan
−1
(ωt)
_
=
1 +iωt
1 −iωt
, (6.250)
¸−[ u(t) [−¸ = exp
_
−2i tan
−1
(ωt)
_
=
1 −iωt
1 +iωt
, (6.251)
¸+[ u(t) [−¸ = ¸−[ u(t) [+¸ = 0 . (6.252)
12. The eigenvector of S ˆ n, where ˆ n =(sinθ cos ϕ, sinθ sinϕ, cos θ) with
eigenvalue +/2 is given by [see Eq. (6.195)]
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 156
6.7. Solutions
[+; S ˆ n¸ = cos
θ
2
e
−i
ϕ
2
[+¸ + sin
θ
2
e
i
ϕ
2
[−¸ . (6.253)
The operator S
z
is written as
S
z
=
2
([+¸ ¸+[ −[−¸ ¸−[) . (6.254)
a) Thus
¸+; S ˆ n[ S
z
[+; S ˆ n¸ =
2
_
cos
2
θ
2
−sin
2
θ
2
_
=
2
cos θ . (6.255)
b) Since S
2
z
is the identity operator times
2
/4 one has
_
(∆S
z
)
2
_
=
¸
S
2
z
_
−¸S
z
¸
2
=
2
4
_
1 −cos
2
θ
_
=
2
4
sin
2
θ . (6.256)
13. We seek a unit vector ˆ n such that
[ψ¸ = [+; S ˆ n¸ , (6.257)
where [+; S ˆ n¸ is given by Eq. (6.195)
[+; S ˆ n¸ = cos
θ
+
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
+
2
_
[+¸+sin
θ
+
2
exp
_
iϕ
+
2
_
[−¸ , (6.258)
thus the following hold
ctg
θ
+
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
α
β
¸
¸
¸
¸
, (6.259)
and
ϕ
+
= arg (β) −arg (α) . (6.260)
Similarly, by requiring that
[ψ¸ = [−; S ˆ n¸ , (6.261)
where
[−; S ˆ n¸ = −sin
θ
−
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
−
2
_
[+¸+cos
θ
−
2
exp
_
iϕ
−
2
_
[−¸ , (6.262)
one ﬁnds
tan
θ
−
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
α
β
¸
¸
¸
¸
, (6.263)
ϕ
−
= arg (β) −arg (α) +π . (6.264)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 157
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
14. The Hamiltonian at the time interval 0 < t < τ is given by
H = −γB
0
(S ˆ u) , (6.265)
where γ is the gyromagnetic ratio and S is the angular momentum op
erator. The eigenvectors of S ˆ u with eigenvalue ±/2 are given by [see
Eqs. (6.195) and (6.196)]
[+; S ˆ u¸ = cos
θ
2
e
−i
ϕ
2
[+¸ + sin
θ
2
e
i
ϕ
2
[−¸ , (6.266)
[−; S ˆ u¸ = −sin
θ
2
e
−i
ϕ
2
[+¸ + cos
θ
2
e
i
ϕ
2
[−¸ , (6.267)
Thus in the time interval 0 < t < τ the state vector is given by
[α¸ = [+; S ˆ u¸ ¸+; S ˆ u [+¸ exp
_
iγB
0
t
2
_
+[−; S ˆ u¸ ¸−; S ˆ u [+¸ exp
_
−
iγB
0
t
2
_
= [+; S ˆ u¸ cos
θ
2
e
i
ϕ
2
exp
_
iγB
0
t
2
_
−[−; S ˆ u¸ sin
θ
2
e
i
ϕ
2
exp
_
−
iγB
0
t
2
_
= e
iϕ
_
cos
2
θ
2
exp
_
iγB
0
t
2
_
+ sin
2
θ
2
exp
_
−
iγB
0
t
2
__
[+¸
+sin
θ
2
cos
θ
2
_
exp
_
iγB
0
t
2
_
−exp
_
−
iγB
0
t
2
__
[−¸
= e
iϕ
_
1 + cos θ
2
exp
_
iγB
0
t
2
_
+
1 −cos θ
2
exp
_
−
iγB
0
t
2
__
[+¸
+i sinθ sin
_
γB
0
t
2
_
[−¸
= e
iϕ
_
cos
_
γB
0
t
2
_
+i cos θ sin
_
γB
0
t
2
__
[+¸ +i sinθ sin
_
γB
0
t
2
_
[−¸ .
(6.268)
Thus for t > τ
P
−
(t) = sin
2
θ sin
2
_
γB
0
τ
2
_
. (6.269)
An alternative solution  The Hamiltonian in the basis of [±¸ states is
given by
H = −
γB
0
2
(σ ˆ u) , (6.270)
where σ is the Pauli matrix vector
σ
1
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
2
=
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, σ
3
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
. (6.271)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 158
6.7. Solutions
The time evolution operator is given by
u(t) = exp
_
−
iHt
_
= exp
_
iγB
0
t
2
(σ ˆ u)
_
. (6.272)
Using the identity (6.137) one ﬁnds
u(t) = I cos
_
γB
0
t
2
_
+iˆ u σsin
_
γB
0
t
2
_
=
_
_
cos
_
γB
0
t
2
_
+i cos θ sin
_
γB
0
t
2
_
i sinθe
−iϕ
sin
_
γB
0
t
2
_
i sinθe
iϕ
sin
_
γB0t
2
_
cos
_
γB0t
2
_
−i cos θ sin
_
γB0t
2
_
_
_
,
(6.273)
thus for t > τ
P
−
(t) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1
_
u(t)
_
1
0
_¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= sin
2
θ sin
2
_
γB
0
τ
2
_
. (6.274)
15. The matrix representation of the Hamiltonian in the basis of [±; S
z
¸
states is given by
H˙ =
ω
2
(ˆ x σ) , (6.275)
where σ is the Pauli matrix vector
σ
x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
y
=
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, σ
z
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
. (6.276)
a) The time evolution operator is given by
u(t) = exp
_
−
iHt
_
˙ =exp
_
−
iωt
2
(ˆ x σ)
_
. (6.277)
Using the identity
exp(iu σ) = 1cos α +iˆ u σsinα , (6.278)
where u =αˆ u is a threedimensional real vector and ˆ u is a three
dimensional real unit vector, one ﬁnds
u(t) ˙ = 1cos
ωt
2
−iσ
1
sin
ωt
2
=
_
cos
ωt
2
−i sin
ωt
2
−i sin
ωt
2
cos
ωt
2
_
.
(6.279)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 159
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
b) Let P
++
(t) be the probability to measure S
z
= +/2 at time t > 0
given that at time t = 0 the spin was found to have S
z
= +/2.
Similarly, P
−−
(t) is the probability to measure S
z
= −/2 at time
t > 0 given that at time t = 0 the spin was found to have S
z
= −/2.
These probabilities are given by
P
++
(t) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0
_
u(t)
_
1
0
_¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= cos
2
ωt
2
, (6.280)
P
−−
(t) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1
_
u(t)
_
0
1
_¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= cos
2
ωt
2
. (6.281)
Thus, assuming that the ﬁrst measurement has yielded S
z
= +/2
one ﬁnds p
same
=
_
P
++
_
T
N
_¸
N
, whereas assuming that the ﬁrst mea
surement has yielded S
z
= −/2 one ﬁnds p
same
=
_
P
−−
_
T
N
_¸
N
.
Thus in general independently on the result of the ﬁrst measurement
one has
p
same
= cos
2N
ωT
2N
. (6.282)
c) Using
p
same
= exp
_
2N log
_
cos
ωT
2N
__
= exp
_
2N log
_
1 −
1
2
_
ωT
2N
_
2
+O
_
1
N
_
4
__
= exp
_
−
(ωT)
2
4N
+O
_
1
N
_
3
_
,
(6.283)
one ﬁnds
lim
N→∞
p
same
= 1 . (6.284)
This somewhat surprising result is called the quantum Zeno eﬀect or
the ’watched pot never boils’ eﬀect.
16. The eigenvectors of S ˆ u with eigenvalues ±/2 are given by
[+; ˆ u¸ = cos
θ
2
e
−i
ϕ
2
[+¸ + sin
θ
2
e
i
ϕ
2
[−¸ , (6.285a)
[−; ˆ u¸ = −sin
θ
2
e
−i
ϕ
2
[+¸ + cos
θ
2
e
i
ϕ
2
[−¸ , (6.285b)
where the states [±¸ are eigenvectors of S ˆz. Let P (σ
3
, σ
2
[σ
1
) be the
probability to measure S ˆ u =σ
2
(/2) in the second measurement and to
measure Sˆz =σ
3
(/2) in the third measurement given that the result of
the ﬁrst measurement was S ˆz =σ
1
(/2), and where σ
n
∈ ¦+, −¦. The
following holds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 160
6.7. Solutions
P (+, +[+) = [¸+[+; ˆ u¸[
2
[¸+[+; ˆ u¸[
2
= cos
4
θ
2
, (6.286a)
P (+, −[+) = [¸+[−; ˆ u¸[
2
[¸+[−; ˆ u¸[
2
= sin
4
θ
2
, (6.286b)
P (−, −[−) = [¸−[−; ˆ u¸[
2
[¸−[−; ˆ u¸[
2
= cos
4
θ
2
, (6.286c)
P (−, +[−) = [¸−[+; ˆ u¸[
2
[¸−[+; ˆ u¸[
2
= sin
4
θ
2
, (6.286d)
thus independently on what was the result of the ﬁrst measurement one
has
p
same
= cos
4
θ
2
+ sin
4
θ
2
= 1 −
1
2
sin
2
θ . (6.287)
17. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = −µ B . (6.288)
Using Eq. (4.38) for µ
z
one has
d¸µ
z
¸
dt
=
1
i
¸[µ
z
, H]¸
= −
γ
2
i
¸B
x
[S
z
, S
x
] +B
y
[S
z
, S
y
]¸
= γ
2
¸B
y
S
x
−B
x
S
y
¸
= γ (µ B) ˆz .
(6.289)
Similar expressions are obtained for µ
x
and µ
y
that together can be
written in a vector form as
d
dt
¸µ¸ (t) = γ ¸µ¸ (t) B(t) . (6.290)
18. Using Eq. (6.136), which is given by
(σ a) (σ b) = a b +iσ (a b) , (6.291)
one has
_
σ
_
p −
q
c
A
__
2
=
_
p −
q
c
A
_
2
+iσ ((p −qA) (p −qA))
=
_
p −
q
c
A
_
2
−i
q
c
σ (Ap +p A) .
(6.292)
The z component of the term (Ap +p A) can be expressed as
(Ap +p A) ˆz = A
x
p
y
−A
y
p
x
+p
x
A
y
−p
y
A
x
= [A
x
, p
y
] −[A
y
, p
x
] ,
(6.293)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 161
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
thus, with the help of Eq. (3.75) one ﬁnds that
(Ap +p A) ˆz = i
_
dA
x
dy
−
dA
y
dx
_
= −i (∇A) ˆz . (6.294)
Similar results can be obtained for the x and y components, thus
_
σ
_
p −
q
c
A
__
2
=
_
p −
q
c
A
_
2
−
q
c
σ B . (6.295)
19. Since
¸j, m[ J
x
[j, m¸ = ¸j, m[ J
y
[j, m¸ = 0 , (6.296)
and
J
2
x
+J
2
y
= J
2
−J
2
z
, (6.297)
one ﬁnds that
¸j, m[
_
(∆J
x
)
2
+ (∆J
y
)
2
_
[j, m¸ = ¸j, m[ J
2
[j, m¸ −¸j, m[ J
2
z
[j, m¸
=
2
_
j
2
+j −m
2
_
.
(6.298)
20. The condition is
p A = A p , (6.299)
or
[p
x
, A
x
] + [p
y
, A
y
] + [p
z
, A
z
] = 0 , (6.300)
or using Eq. (3.75)
∂A
x
∂x
+
∂A
y
∂y
+
∂A
z
∂z
= 0 , (6.301)
or
∇ A = 0 . (6.302)
21. The Hamiltonian is given by Eq. (1.62)
H =
_
p−
q
c
A
_
2
2m
+qϕ , (6.303)
thus, the coordinates representation of H[α¸ = E[α¸ is given by
¸r
′
[ H[α¸ = E¸r
′
[α¸ . (6.304)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 162
6.7. Solutions
Using the notation
¸r
′
[α¸ = ψ (r
′
) (6.305)
for the wavefunction together with Eqs. (3.23) and (3.29) one has
_
1
2m
_
−i∇−
q
c
A
_
2
+qϕ
_
ψ (r
′
) = Eψ (r
′
) . (6.306)
22. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =
_
p−
e
c
A
_
2
2m
=
p
2
x
+p
2
z
2m
+
_
p
y
−
eBx
c
_
2
2m
=
p
2
x
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
c
_
x −
cp
y
eB
_
2
+
p
2
z
2m
,
(6.307)
where
ω
c
=
eB
mc
. (6.308)
Using the clue
ψ(x, y, z) = χ(x) exp(ik
y
y) exp(ik
z
z) (6.309)
one ﬁnds that the time independent Schrödinger equation for the wave
function χ(x) is thus given by
_
ˆ p
2
x
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
c
_
x −
ck
y
eB
_
2
_
χ(x) =
_
E −
2
k
2
z
2m
_
χ(x) , (6.310)
where ˆ p
x
= −i∂/∂x, thus the eigen energies are given by
E
n,k
= ω
c
_
n +
1
2
_
+
2
k
2
z
2m
, (6.311)
where n is integer and k is real, and the ground state energy is
E
n=0,k=0
=
ω
c
2
. (6.312)
23. Using the gauge A = Bxˆ y the Hamiltonian is given by [see Eq. (1.62)]
H =
_
p−
q
c
A
_
2
2m
−qEx
=
p
2
x
+p
2
z
2m
+
_
p
y
−
qBx
c
_
2
2m
−qEx .
(6.313)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 163
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
The last two terms can be written as
_
p
y
−
qBx
c
_
2
2m
−qEx =
p
2
y
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
c
_
(x −x
0
)
2
−x
2
0
_
, (6.314)
where
ω
c
=
qB
mc
, (6.315)
and
x
0
=
mc
2
q
2
B
2
_
qE +
qp
y
mc
B
_
. (6.316)
Substituting the trial wavefunction
ψ(x, y, z) = ϕ(x) exp(ik
y
y) exp(ik
z
z) , (6.317)
into the three dimensional Schrödinger equation yields a one dimensional
Schrödinger equation
_
ˆ p
2
x
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
c
(x − ˜ x
0
)
2
−
1
2
mω
2
c
˜ x
2
0
+
2
k
2
y
+
2
k
2
z
2m
_
ϕ(x) = Eϕ(x) ,
(6.318)
where ˆ p
x
= −i∂/∂x and where
˜ x
0
=
mc
2
q
2
B
2
_
qE +
qk
y
mc
B
_
. (6.319)
This equation describes a harmonic oscillator with a minimum potential
at x = ˜ x
0
, with added constant terms that give rise to a shift in the
energy level, which are thus given by
E
n,ky,kz
= ω
c
_
n +
1
2
_
−
1
2
mω
2
c
˜ x
2
0
+
2
k
2
y
+
2
k
2
z
2m
= ω
c
_
n +
1
2
_
−
mc
2
E
2
2B
2
−
ck
y
E
B
+
2
k
2
z
2m
,
(6.320)
where n = 0, 1, 2, and where the momentum variables k
y
and k
z
can
take any real value.
24. The Schrödinger equation reads
_
_
ˆ p −
e
c
A
_
2
2m
+U (y)
_
ψ (x, y) = Eψ (x, y) , (6.321)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 164
6.7. Solutions
where
ˆ p = −i∇.
Employing the gauge A = −Byˆ x one has
_
_
ˆ p
x
+
e
c
By
_
2
2m
+
ˆ p
2
y
2m
+U (y)
_
ψ (x, y) = Eψ (x, y) , (6.322)
where ˆ p
x
= −i∂/∂x and ˆ p
y
= −i∂/∂y. By substituting the trial wave
function
ψ(x, y) = exp(ikx) χ(y) , (6.323)
one obtains a one dimensional Schrödinger equation for χ(y)
_
ˆ p
2
y
2m
+
_
e
c
By +k
_
2
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
0
y
2
_
χ(y) = Eχ(y) , (6.324)
or
_
ˆ p
2
y
2m
+
2
k
2
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
c0
y
2
−
eBk
mc
y
_
χ(y) = Eχ(y) , (6.325)
where ω
2
c0
≡ ω
2
c
+ω
2
0
and ω
c
= [e[ B/mc. This can also be written as
_
ˆ p
2
y
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
c0
_
y −
eBk
m
2
cω
2
c0
_
2
+
2
k
2
2m
ω
2
0
ω
2
c0
_
χ(y) = Eχ(y) . (6.326)
This is basically a onedimensional Schrödinger equation with a parabolic
potential of an harmonic oscillator and the eigenenergies are thus given
by:
E(n, k) = ω
c0
_
n +
1
2
_
+
2
k
2
2m
ω
2
0
ω
2
c0
,
where n = 0, 1, 2, and k is real.
25. It is convenient to choose a gauge having cylindrical symmetry, namely
A = −
1
2
r B . (6.327)
For this gauge ∇ A = 0, thus according to Eq. (6.157) the Hamiltonian
is given by
H =
1
2µ
p
2
−
q
µc
p A+
q
2
2µc
2
A
2
. (6.328)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 165
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
The Schrödinger equation in cylindrical coordinates (ρ, z, φ) is given by
(note that A = (ρB/2)
ˆ
φ)
−
2
2µ
_
1
ρ
∂
∂ρ
_
ρ
∂ψ
∂ρ
_
+
1
ρ
2
∂
2
ψ
∂φ
2
+
∂
2
ψ
∂z
2
_
+
iqB
2µc
∂ψ
∂φ
+
q
2
2µc
2
_
ρB
2
_
2
ψ = Eψ .
(6.329)
The particle is constrained to move along the ring, which is located at
z = 0 and ρ = a, thus the eﬀective one dimensional Schrödinger equation
of the system is given by
−
2
2µa
2
∂
2
ψ
∂φ
2
+
iqB
2µc
∂ψ
∂φ
+
q
2
a
2
B
2
8µc
2
ψ = Eψ . (6.330)
a) Consider a solution of the form
ψ (φ) =
1
√
2πa
exp(imφ) , (6.331)
where the pre factor (2πa)
−1/2
ensures normalization. The continu
ity requirement that ψ(2π) = ψ(0) implies that m must be an inte
ger. Substituting this solution into the Schrödinger equation (6.330)
yields
E
m
=
2
m
2
2µa
2
−
qBm
2µc
+
q
2
a
2
B
2
8µc
2
=
2
2µa
2
_
m
2
−
qBa
2
c
m+
1
4
_
qBa
2
c
_
2
_
=
2
2µa
2
_
m−
qBa
2
2c
_
2
=
2
2µa
2
_
m−
Φ
Φ
0
_
2
,
(6.332)
where
Φ = Bπa
2
, (6.333)
is the magnetic ﬂux threading the ring and
Φ
0
=
ch
q
. (6.334)
b) In general the current density is given by Eq. (4.159). For a wave
function having the form
ψ (r) = α(r) e
iβ(r)
, (6.335)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 166
6.7. Solutions
where both α and β are real, one has
J =
µ
Im[α(∇(α) +α∇(iβ))] −
q
µc
(ρA)
=
α
2
µ
∇(β) −
q
µc
α
2
A
=
[ψ[
2
µ
_
∇(β) −
q
c
A
_
.
(6.336)
In the present case one has
A =
ρB
ˆ
φ
2
, (6.337)
∇(β) =
m
a
ˆ
φ , (6.338)
and the normalized wavefunctions are
ψ
m
(φ) =
1
√
2πa
exp(imφ) , (6.339)
thus
J
m
=
1
2πaµ
_
m
a
−
q
c
aB
2
_
ˆ
φ =
2πa
2
µ
_
m−
Φ
Φ
0
_
ˆ
φ . (6.340)
Note that the following holds
[J
m
[ = −
c
q
∂E
m
∂Φ
. (6.341)
26. The Hamiltonian can be written as
H =
L
2
−L
2
z
2I
xy
+
L
2
z
2I
z
=
L
2
2I
xy
+
_
1
2I
z
−
1
2I
xy
_
L
2
z
,
(6.342)
Thus the states [l, m¸ (the standard eigenstates of L
2
and L
z
) are eigen
states of H and the following holds
H[l, m¸ = E
l,m
[l, m¸ , (6.343)
where
E
l,m
=
2
_
l (l + 1)
2I
xy
+
_
1
2I
z
−
1
2I
xy
_
m
2
_
. (6.344)
Using the expression
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 167
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
Y
±1
1
(θ, φ) = ∓
_
3
8π
sinθe
±iφ
, (6.345)
one ﬁnds that
sinθ cos φ =
_
2π
3
_
Y
−1
1
−Y
1
1
_
, (6.346)
thus the normalized state at t = 0 can be written as
[ψ(0)¸ =
1
√
2
([1, −1¸ −[1, 1¸) . (6.347)
Since E
1,−1
= E
1,1
the state [ψ (0)¸ is stationary. Moreover
¸ψ (t)[ L
z
[ψ (t)¸ = ¸ψ (0)[ L
z
[ψ (0)¸
=
1
2
((¸1, −1[ −¸1, 1[)) L
z
(([1, −1¸ −[1, 1¸))
=
1
2
((¸1, −1[ −¸1, 1[)) ((−[1, −1¸ −[1, 1¸))
= 0 .
(6.348)
27. With the help of the relations
L
x
=
L
+
+L
−
2
, (6.349)
L
+
[l, m¸ =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m+ 1) [l, m+ 1¸ , (6.350)
L
−
[l, m¸ =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m−1) [l, m−1¸ . (6.351)
one ﬁnds
a)
L
x
˙ =
√
2
_
_
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
_
_
. (6.352)
b)
¸L
x
¸ =
√
2
_
1
2
1
√
2
1
2
_
_
_
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
_
_
_
_
1
2
1
√
2
1
2
_
_
= . (6.353)
c)
¸L
x
¸ =
√
2
_
−
1
√
2
0
1
√
2
_
_
_
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
_
_
_
_
−
1
√
2
0
1
√
2
_
_
= 0 . (6.354)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 168
6.7. Solutions
d)
D
ˆz
(φ) = exp
_
−
iφL
z
_
˙ =
_
_
exp(−iφ) 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 exp(iφ)
_
_
. (6.355)
e) In general
D
ˆ n
(dφ) = exp
_
−
i (dφ) L ˆ n
_
= 1 −
i (dφ) L ˆ n
+O
_
(dφ)
2
_
,
(6.356)
thus
D
ˆ x
(dφ) ˙ =
_
_
_
_
1 −
i(dφ)
√
2
0
−
i(dφ)
√
2
1 −
i(dφ)
√
2
0 −
i(dφ)
√
2
1
_
_
_
_
+O
_
(dφ)
2
_
. (6.357)
28. Using
L
z
= xp
y
−yp
x
, (6.358)
x =
_
2mω
_
a
x
+a
†
x
_
, (6.359)
y =
_
2mω
_
a
y
+a
†
y
_
, (6.360)
p
x
= i
_
mω
2
_
−a
x
+a
†
x
_
, (6.361)
p
y
= i
_
mω
2
_
−a
y
+a
†
y
_
, (6.362)
one ﬁnds
L
z
=
i
2
__
a
x
+a
†
x
_ _
−a
y
+a
†
y
_
−
_
a
y
+a
†
y
_ _
−a
x
+a
†
x
_¸
= i
_
a
x
a
†
y
−a
†
x
a
y
_
.
(6.363)
a) Thus
¸L
z
¸ = i
_
α
x
α
∗
y
−α
∗
x
α
y
_
. (6.364)
b) Using the commutation relations
_
a
x
, a
†
x
¸
= 1 , (6.365)
_
a
y
, a
†
y
¸
= 1 , (6.366)
one ﬁnds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 169
Chapter 6. Angular Momentum
¸
L
2
z
_
= −
2
¸α
x
, α
y
, α
z
[
_
a
x
α
∗
y
−α
∗
x
a
y
_ _
α
x
a
†
y
−a
†
x
α
y
_
[α
x
, α
y
, α
z
¸
=
2
_
[α
x
[
2
_
1 +[α
y
[
2
_
+[α
y
[
2
_
1 +[α
x
[
2
_
−
_
α
x
α
∗
y
_
2
−(α
∗
x
a
y
)
2
_
,
(6.367)
thus
(∆L
z
)
2
=
2
_
[α
x
[
2
_
1 +[α
y
[
2
_
+[α
y
[
2
_
1 +[α
x
[
2
_
+
_
α
x
α
∗
y
−α
∗
x
α
y
_
2
−
_
α
x
α
∗
y
_
2
−(α
∗
x
a
y
)
2
_
=
2
_
[α
x
[
2
_
1 +[α
y
[
2
_
+[α
y
[
2
_
1 +[α
x
[
2
_
−2 [α
x
[
2
[α
y
[
2
_
=
2
_
[α
x
[
2
+[α
y
[
2
_
,
(6.368)
and
∆L
z
=
_
[α
x
[
2
+[α
y
[
2
. (6.369)
29. The normalization constant can be chosen to be A = 1/
√
2. In general:
L
x
=
L
+
+L
−
2
, (6.370)
L
+
[l, m¸ =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m+ 1) [l, m+ 1¸ , (6.371)
L
−
[l, m¸ =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m−1) [l, m−1¸ . (6.372)
a) The following holds
L
x
[α¸ =
(L
−
[1, 1¸ −L
+
[1, −1¸)
2
√
2
=
([1, 0¸ −[1, 0¸)
2
= 0 ,
(6.373)
thus
¸L
x
¸ = 0 . (6.374)
b) Using L
x
[α¸ = 0 one ﬁnds
_
(∆L
x
)
2
_
=
¸
L
2
x
_
−¸L
x
¸
2
= 0 −0 = 0 . (6.375)
30. The Hamiltonian can be expressed as
H =
L
2
2I
1
+
L
2
z
2I
2
−
L
2
z
2I
1
=
L
2
2I
1
+
L
2
z
2I
e
, (6.376)
where
I
e
=
I
1
I
2
I
1
−I
2
. (6.377)
Thus, the angular momentum states [l, m¸, which satisfy
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 170
6.7. Solutions
L
2
[l, m¸ = l (l + 1)
2
[l, m¸ , (6.378)
L
z
[l, m¸ = m [l, m¸ , (6.379)
are eigenvector of H
H[l, m¸ = E
l,m
[l, m¸ , (6.380)
where
E
l,m
=
l (l + 1)
2
2I
1
+
m
2
2
2I
e
=
2
2I
1
_
l (l + 1) −m
2
+m
2
I
1
I
2
_
. (6.381)
a) Since [H, L
z
] = 0 one has
exp
_
iL
z
φ
_
Hexp
_
−
iL
z
φ
_
= H , (6.382)
thus for the ground state l = m = 0
A
z
(φ) = ¸ψ
0
[ H[ψ
0
¸ = E
0,0
= 0 . (6.383)
b) The operator L
x
can be expressed as
L
x
=
L
+
+L
−
2
. (6.384)
In general
L
+
[l, m¸ =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m+ 1) [l, m+ 1¸ , (6.385)
L
−
[l, m¸ =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m−1) [l, m−1¸ , (6.386)
thus
L
+
[0, 0¸ = L
−
[0, 0¸ = 0 , (6.387)
and consequently
exp
_
−
iL
x
φ
_
[ψ
0
¸ = [ψ
0
¸ , (6.388)
thus
A
x
(φ) = ¸ψ
0
[ H[ψ
0
¸ = E
0,0
= 0 . (6.389)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 171
7. Central Potential
Consider a particle having mass m in a central potential, namely a potential
V (r) that depends only on the distance
r =
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
(7.1)
from the origin. The Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+V (r) . (7.2)
Exercise 7.0.1. Show that
[H, L
z
] = 0 , (7.3)
_
H, L
2
¸
= 0 . (7.4)
Solution 7.0.1. Using
[x
i
, p
j
] = iδ
ij
, (7.5)
L
z
= xp
y
−yp
x
, (7.6)
one has
_
p
2
, L
z
¸
=
_
p
2
x
, L
z
¸
+
_
p
2
y
, L
z
¸
+
_
p
2
z
, L
z
¸
=
_
p
2
x
, xp
y
¸
−
_
p
2
y
, yp
x
¸
= i (−2p
x
p
y
+ 2p
y
p
x
)
= 0 ,
(7.7)
and
_
r
2
, L
z
¸
=
_
x
2
, L
z
¸
+
_
y
2
, L
z
¸
+
_
z
2
, L
z
¸
= −y
_
x
2
, p
x
¸
+
_
y
2
, p
y
¸
x
= 0 .
(7.8)
Thus L
z
commutes with any smooth function of r
2
, and consequently
[H, L
z
] = 0. In a similar way one can show that [H, L
x
] = [H, L
y
] = 0,
and therefore
_
H, L
2
¸
= 0.
Chapter 7. Central Potential
In classical physics the corresponding Poisson’s brackets relations hold
¦H, L
x
¦ = ¦H, L
y
¦ = ¦H, L
z
¦ = 0 , (7.9)
and
_
H, L
2
_
= 0 . (7.10)
These relations imply that classically the angular momentum is a constant of
the motion [see Eq. (1.40)]. On the other in quantum mechanics, as we have
seen in section 2.12 of chapter 2, the commutation relations
[H, L
z
] = 0 , (7.11)
_
H, L
2
¸
= 0 , (7.12)
imply that it is possible to ﬁnd a basis for the vector space made of common
eigenvectors of the operators H, L
2
and L
z
.
7.1 Simultaneous Diagonalization of the Operators H,
L
2
and L
z
We start by proving some useful relations:
Exercise 7.1.1. Show that
L
2
= r
2
p
2
−(r p)
2
+ir p . (7.13)
Solution 7.1.1. The following holds
L
2
z
= (xp
y
−yp
x
)
2
= x
2
p
2
y
+y
2
p
2
x
−xp
y
yp
x
−yp
x
xp
y
= x
2
p
2
y
+y
2
p
2
x
−xp
x
([p
y
, y] +yp
y
) −yp
y
([p
x
, x] +xp
x
)
= x
2
p
2
y
+y
2
p
2
x
−xp
x
yp
y
−yp
y
xp
x
+i (xp
x
+yp
y
) .
(7.14)
Using the relation
xp
x
xp
x
= x([p
x
, x] +xp
x
) p
x
= −ixp
x
+x
2
p
2
x
, (7.15)
or
ixp
x
= x
2
p
2
x
−xp
x
xp
x
, (7.16)
one has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 174
7.1. Simultaneous Diagonalization of the Operators H, L
2
and L
z
L
2
z
= x
2
p
2
y
+y
2
p
2
x
−xp
x
yp
y
−yp
y
xp
x
+
i
2
(xp
x
+yp
y
)
+
1
2
_
x
2
p
2
x
−xp
x
xp
x
+y
2
p
2
y
−yp
y
yp
y
_
.
(7.17)
By cyclic permutation one obtains similar expression for L
2
x
and for L
2
y
. Com
bining these expressions lead to
L
2
= L
2
x
+L
2
y
+L
2
z
= y
2
p
2
z
+z
2
p
2
y
−yp
y
zp
z
−zp
z
yp
y
+
i
2
(yp
y
+zp
z
) +
1
2
_
y
2
p
2
y
−yp
y
yp
y
+z
2
p
2
z
−zp
z
zp
z
_
+z
2
p
2
x
+x
2
p
2
z
−zp
z
xp
x
−xp
x
zp
z
+
i
2
(zp
z
+xp
x
) +
1
2
_
z
2
p
2
z
−zp
z
zp
z
+x
2
p
2
x
−xp
x
xp
x
_
+x
2
p
2
y
+y
2
p
2
x
−xp
x
yp
y
−yp
y
xp
x
+
i
2
(xp
x
+yp
y
) +
1
2
_
x
2
p
2
x
−xp
x
xp
x
+y
2
p
2
y
−yp
y
yp
y
_
=
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
_ _
p
2
x
+p
2
y
+p
2
z
_
−(xp
x
+yp
y
+zp
z
)
2
+i(xp
x
+yp
y
+zp
z
)
= r
2
p
2
−(r p)
2
+ir p .
(7.18)
Exercise 7.1.2. Show that
¸r
′
[ p
2
[α¸ = −
2
_
1
r
′
∂
2
∂r
′2
r
′
¸r
′
[α¸ −
1
2
r
′2
¸r
′
[ L
2
[α¸
_
. (7.19)
Solution 7.1.2. Using the identities
L
2
= r
2
p
2
−(r p)
2
+ir p , (7.20)
¸r
′
[ r [α¸ = r
′
¸r
′
[α¸ , (7.21)
and
¸r
′
[ p[α¸ =
i
∇¸r
′
[α¸ , (7.22)
one ﬁnds that
¸r
′
[ L
2
[α¸ = ¸r
′
[ r
2
p
2
[α¸ −¸r
′
[ (r p)
2
[α¸ +i ¸r
′
[ r p[α¸ . (7.23)
The following hold
¸r
′
[ r p[α¸ = −ir
′
∇¸r
′
[α¸ = −ir
′
∂
∂r
′
¸r
′
[α¸ , (7.24)
¸r
′
[ (r p)
2
[α¸ = −
2
_
r
′
∂
∂r
′
_
2
¸r
′
[α¸
= −
2
_
r
′2
∂
2
∂r
′2
+r
′
∂
∂r
′
_
¸r
′
[α¸ ,
(7.25)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 175
Chapter 7. Central Potential
¸r
′
[ r
2
p
2
[α¸ = r
′2
¸r
′
[ p
2
[α¸ , (7.26)
thus
¸r
′
[ p
2
[α¸ = −
2
__
∂
2
∂r
′2
+
2
r
′
∂
∂r
′
_
¸r
′
[α¸ −
1
2
r
′2
¸r
′
[ L
2
[α¸
_
, (7.27)
or
¸r
′
[ p
2
[α¸ = −
2
_
1
r
′
∂
2
∂r
′2
r
′
¸r
′
[α¸ −
1
2
r
′2
¸r
′
[ L
2
[α¸
_
. (7.28)
The timeindependent Schrödinger equation in the coordinates represen
tation
¸r
′
[ H[α¸ = E¸r
′
[α¸ , (7.29)
where the Hamiltonian H is given by Eq. (7.2), can thus be written using the
above results as
¸r
′
[ H[α¸ =
−
2
2m
_
1
r
′
∂
2
∂r
′2
r
′
¸r
′
[α¸ −
1
2
r
′2
¸r
′
[ L
2
[α¸
_
+V (r
′
) ¸r
′
[α¸ . (7.30)
7.2 The Radial Equation
Consider a solution having the form
¸r
′
[α¸ = ϕ(r
′
) = R(r
′
) Y
m
l
_
θ
′
, φ
′
_
. (7.31)
With the help of Eq. (6.106) one ﬁnds that
¸r
′
[ L
2
[α¸ =
2
l (l + 1) ϕ(r
′
) . (7.32)
Substituting into Eq. (7.30) yields an equation for R(r)
−
2
2m
_
1
r
d
2
dr
2
rR(r) −
1
r
2
l (l + 1) R(r)
_
+V (r) R(r) = ER(r) . (7.33)
The above equation, which is called the radial equation, depends on the quan
tum number l, however, it is independent on the quantum number m. The
diﬀerent solutions for a given l are labeled using the index k
−
2
2m
_
1
r
d
2
dr
2
rR
kl
−
1
r
2
l (l + 1) R
kl
_
+V R
kl
= ER
kl
. (7.34)
It is convenient to introduce the function u
kl
(r), which is related to R
kl
(r)
by the following relation
R
kl
(r) =
1
r
u
kl
(r) . (7.35)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 176
7.2. The Radial Equation
Substituting into Eq. (7.34) yields an equation for u
kl
(r)
_
−
2
2m
d
2
dr
2
+V
eﬀ
(r)
_
u
kl
(r) = E
kl
u
kl
(r) , (7.36)
where the eﬀective potential V
eﬀ
(r) is given by
V
eﬀ
(r) =
l (l + 1)
2
2mr
2
+V (r) . (7.37)
The total wave function is thus given by
ϕ
klm
(r) =
1
r
u
kl
(r) Y
m
l
(θ, φ) . (7.38)
Since the spherical harmonic Y
m
l
(θ, φ) is assumed to be normalized [see Eq.
(6.113)], to ensure that ϕ
klm
(r) is normalized we require that
1 =
∞
_
0
drr
2
[R
kl
(r)[
2
=
∞
_
0
dr [u
kl
(r)[
2
. (7.39)
In addition solutions with diﬀerent k are expected to be orthogonal, thus
∞
_
0
dru
∗
k
′
l
(r) u
kl
(r) = δ
kk
′ . (7.40)
The wave functions ϕ
klm
(r) represent common eigenstates of the operators
H, L
z
and L
2
, which are denoted as [klm¸ and which satisfy the following
relations
ϕ
klm
(r
′
) = ¸r
′
[klm¸ , (7.41)
and
H[klm¸ = E
kl
[klm¸ , (7.42)
L
2
[klm¸ = l (l + 1)
2
[klm¸ , (7.43)
L
z
[klm¸ = m [klm¸ . (7.44)
The following claim reveals an important property of the radial wavefunc
tion near the origin (r = 0):
Claim. If the potential energy V (r) does not diverge more rapidly than 1/r
near the origin then
lim
r→0
u(r) = 0 . (7.45)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 177
Chapter 7. Central Potential
Proof. Consider the case where near the origin u(r) has a dominant power
term having the form r
s
(namely, all other terms are of order higher than s,
and thus become negligibly small for suﬃciently small r). Substituting into
Eq. (7.36) and keeping only the dominant terms (of lowest order in r) lead
to
−
2
2m
s (s −1) r
s−2
+
l (l + 1)
2
2m
r
s−2
= 0 , (7.46)
thus s = −l or s = l + 1. However, the solution s = −l for l ≥ 1 must
be rejected since for this case the normalization condition (7.39) cannot be
satisﬁed as the integral diverges near r = 0. Moreover, also for l = 0 the
solution s = −l must be rejected. For this case ϕ(r) ≃ 1/r near the origin,
however, such a solution contradicts Eq. (7.30), which can be written as
−
2
2m
∇
2
ϕ(r) +V (r) ϕ(r) = Eϕ(r) . (7.47)
since
∇
2
1
r
= −4πδ (r) . (7.48)
We thus conclude that only the solution s = l + 1 is acceptable, and conse
quently lim
r→0
u(r) = 0.
7.3 Hydrogen Atom
The hydrogen atom is made of two particles, an electron and a proton. It
is convenient to employ the center of mass coordinates system. As is shown
below, in this reference frame the two body problem is reduced into a central
potential problem of eﬀectively a single particle.
Exercise 7.3.1. Consider two point particles having mass m
1
and m
2
re
spectively. The potential energy V (r) depends only on the relative coordi
nate r = r
1
− r
2
. Show that the Hamiltonian of the system in the center of
mass frame is given by
H =
p
2
2µ
+V (r) , (7.49)
where the reduced mass µ is given by
µ =
m
1
m
2
m
1
+m
2
. (7.50)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 178
7.3. Hydrogen Atom
Solution 7.3.1. The Lagrangian is given by
/ =
m
1
˙ r
2
1
2
+
m
2
˙ r
2
2
2
−V (r
1
−r
2
) . (7.51)
In terms of center of mass r
0
and relative r coordinates, which are given by
r
0
=
m
1
r
1
+m
2
r
2
m
1
+m
2
, (7.52)
r = r
1
−r
2
, (7.53)
the Lagrangian is given by
/ =
m
1
_
˙ r
0
+
m2
m1+m2
˙ r
_
2
2
+
m
2
_
˙ r
0
−
m1
m1+m2
˙ r
_
2
2
−V (r)
=
M˙ r
2
0
2
+
µ˙ r
2
2
−V (r) ,
(7.54)
where the total mass M is given by
M = m
1
+m
2
, (7.55)
and the reduced mass by
µ =
m
1
m
2
2
+m
2
m
2
1
(m
1
+m
2
)
2
=
m
1
m
2
m
1
+m
2
. (7.56)
Note that the Euler Lagrange equation for the coordinate r
0
yields that ¨r
0
= 0
(since the potential is independent on r
0
). In the center of mass frame r
0
= 0.
The momentum canonically conjugate to r is given by
p =
∂/
∂˙ r
. (7.57)
Thus the Hamiltonian is given by
H = p ˙ r−/ =
p
2
2µ
+V (r) . (7.58)
For the case of hydrogen atom the potential between the electron having
charge −e and the proton having charge e is given by
V (r) = −
e
2
r
. (7.59)
Since the proton’s mass m
p
is signiﬁcantly larger than the electron’s mass
m
e
(m
p
≃ 1800m
e
) the reduced mass is very close to m
e
µ =
m
e
m
p
m
e
+m
p
≃ m
e
. (7.60)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 179
Chapter 7. Central Potential
The radial equation (7.36) for the present case is given by
_
−
2
2µ
d
2
dr
2
+V
eﬀ
(r)
_
u
kl
(r) = E
kl
u
kl
(r) , (7.61)
where
V
eﬀ
(r) = −
e
2
r
+
l (l + 1)
2
2µr
2
. (7.62)
In terms of the dimensionless radial coordinate
ρ =
r
a
0
, (7.63)
where
a
0
=
2
µe
2
= 0.53 10
−10
m , (7.64)
is the Bohr’s radius, and in terms of the dimensionless parameter
λ
kl
=
_
−
E
kl
E
I
, (7.65)
where
E
I
=
µe
4
2
2
= 13.6 eV , (7.66)
is the ionization energy, the radial equation becomes
_
−
d
2
dρ
2
+V
l
(ρ) +λ
2
kl
_
u
kl
= 0 (7.67)
where
V
l
(ρ) = −
2
ρ
+
l (l + 1)
ρ
2
. (7.68)
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
1 2 3 4 5
The function V
l
(ρ) for l = 0 (solid line) and l = 1 (dashed line).
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 180
7.3. Hydrogen Atom
We seek solutions of Eq. (7.67) that represent bound states, for which E
kl
is negative, and thus λ
kl
is a nonvanishing real positive. In the limit ρ →∞
the potential V
l
(ρ) →0, and thus it becomes negligibly small in comparison
with λ
kl
[see Eq. (7.67)]. Therefore, in this limit the solution is expected to
be asymptotically proportional to e
±λklρ
. To ensure that the solution is nor
malizable the exponentially diverging solution e
+λ
kl
ρ
is excluded. Moreover,
as we have seen above, for small ρ the solution is expected to be proportional
to ρ
l+1
. Due to these considerations we express u
kl
(r) as
u
kl
(r) = y (ρ) ρ
l+1
e
−λ
kl
ρ
. (7.69)
Substituting into Eq. (7.67) yields an equation for the function y (ρ)
_
d
2
dρ
2
+ 2
_
(l + 1)
ρ
−λ
kl
_
d
dρ
+
2 (1 −λ
kl
(l + 1))
ρ
_
y = 0 . (7.70)
Consider a power series expansion of the function y (ρ)
y (ρ) =
∞
q=0
c
q
ρ
q
. (7.71)
Substituting into Eq. (7.70) yields
∞
q=0
q (q −1) c
q
ρ
q−2
+ 2 (l + 1)
∞
q=0
qc
q
ρ
q−2
−2λ
kl
∞
q=0
qc
q
ρ
q−1
+ 2 (1 −λ
kl
(l + 1))
∞
q=0
c
q
ρ
q−1
= 0 ,
(7.72)
thus
c
q
c
q−1
=
2 [λ
kl
(q +l) −1]
q (q + 2l + 1)
. (7.73)
We argue below that for physically acceptable solutions y (ρ) must be a poly
nomial function [i.e. the series (7.71) needs to be ﬁnite]. To see this note that
for large q Eq. (7.73) implies that
lim
q→∞
c
q
c
q−1
=
2λ
kl
q
. (7.74)
Similar recursion relation holds for the coeﬃcients of the power series expan
sion of the function e
2λ
kl
ρ
e
2λ
kl
ρ
=
∞
q=0
˜ c
q
ρ
q
, (7.75)
where
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 181
Chapter 7. Central Potential
˜ c
q
=
(2λ
kl
)
q
q!
, (7.76)
thus
˜ c
q
˜ c
q−1
=
2λ
kl
q
. (7.77)
This observation suggests that for large ρ the function u
kl
asymptotically
becomes proportional to e
λ
kl
ρ
. However, such an exponentially diverging so
lution must be excluded since it cannot be normalized. Therefore, to avoid
such a discrepancy, we require that y (ρ) must be a polynomial function.
As can be see from Eq. (7.73), this requirement is satisﬁed provided that
λ
kl
(q +l) − 1 = 0 for some q. A polynomial function of order k − 1 is ob
tained when λ
kl
is taken to be given by
λ
kl
=
1
k +l
, (7.78)
where k = 1, 2, 3, . With the help of Eq. (7.73) the polynomial function
can be evaluated. Some examples are given below
y
k=1,l=0
(ρ) = c
0
, (7.79)
y
k=1,l=1
(ρ) = c
0
, (7.80)
y
k=2,l=0
(ρ) = c
0
_
1 −
ρ
2
_
, (7.81)
y
k=2,l=1
(ρ) = c
0
_
1 −
ρ
6
_
. (7.82)
The coeﬃcient c
0
can be determined from the normalization condition.
As can be seen from Eqs. (7.65) and (7.78), all states having the same
sum k +l, which is denoted as
n = k +l , (7.83)
have the same energy. The index n is called the principle quantum number.
Due to this degeneracy, which is sometimes called accidental degeneracy, it
is common to label the states with the indices n, l and m, instead of k, l and
m. In such labeling the eigenenergies are given by
E
n
= −
E
I
n
2
, (7.84)
where
n = 1, 2, . (7.85)
For a given n the quantum number l can take any of the possible values
l = 0, 1, 2, , n −1 , (7.86)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 182
7.4. Problems
and the quantum number m can take any of the possible values
m = −l, −l + 1, , l −1, l . (7.87)
The level of degeneracy of the level E
n
is given by
g
n
= 2
n−1
l=0
(2l + 1) = 2
_
2 (n −1) n
2
+n
_
= 2n
2
. (7.88)
Note that the factor of 2 is due to spin. The normalized radial wave functions
of the states with n = 1 and n = 2 are found to be given by
R
10
(r) = 2
_
1
a
0
_
3/2
e
−r/a0
, (7.89)
R
20
(r) =
_
2 −
r
a
0
__
1
2a
0
_
3/2
e
−
r
2a
0
, (7.90)
R
21
(r) =
_
1
2a
0
_
3/2
r
√
3a
0
e
−
r
2a
0
. (7.91)
The wavefunction ϕ
n,l,m
(r) of an eigenstate with quantum numbers n, l and
m is given by
ψ
nlm
(r, θ, φ) = R
nl
(r) Y
m
l
(θ, φ) . (7.92)
While the index n labels the shell number, the index l labels the subshell.
In spectroscopy it is common to label diﬀerent subshells with letters:
l = 0 s
l = 1 p
l = 2 d
l = 3 f
l = 4 g
7.4 Problems
1. Consider the wave function with quantum numbers n, l, and m of a
hydrogen atom ϕ
n,l,m
(r).
a) Show that the probability current in spherical coordinates r, θ, ϕ is
given by
J
n,l,m
(r) =
µ
m
¸
¸
ϕ
n,l,m
(r)
¸
¸
2
r sinθ
ˆ
φ , (7.93)
where µ is the reduced mass and
ˆ
φ is a unit vector orthogonal to ˆz
and ˆr.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 183
Chapter 7. Central Potential
b) Use the result of the previous section to show that the total angular
momentum is given by L = mˆz.
2. Show that the average electrostatic potential in the neighborhood of an
hydrogen atom in its ground state is given by
ϕ = e
_
1
a
0
+
1
r
_
exp
_
−
2r
a
0
_
, (7.94)
where a
0
is the Bohr radius.
3. An hydrogen atom is in its ground state. The distance r between the
electron and the proton is measured. Calculate the expectation value ¸r¸
and the most probable value r
0
(at which the probability density obtains
a maximum).
4. Tritium, which is labeled as
3
H, is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
The nucleus of tritium contains 1 proton and two neutrons. An atom
of tritium is in its ground state, when the nucleus suddenly decays into
a Helium nucleus, with the emission of a fast electron, which leaves the
atom without perturbing the extranuclear electron. Find the probability
that the resulting He
+
ion will be left in:
a) 1s state.
b) 2s state.
c) a state with l ,= 0.
5. At time t = 0 an hydrogen atom is in the state
[α(t = 0)¸ = A([2, 1, −1¸ +[2, 1, 1¸) ,
where A is a normalization constant and where [n, l, m¸ denotes the eigen
state with quantum numbers n, l and m. Calculate the expectation value
¸x¸ at time t.
6. Consider a particle having mass m in a 3D potential given by
V (r) = −Aδ (r −a) , (7.95)
where r =
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
is the radial coordinate, the length a is a
constant and δ () is the delta function. For what range of values of the
constant A the particle has a bound state.
7. A spinless point particle is in state [γ¸. The state vector [γ¸ is an eigen
vector of the operators L
x
, L
y
and L
z
(the x, y and z components of
the angular momentum vector operator). What can be said about the
wavefunction ψ (r
′
) of the state [γ¸?
8. Consider two (nonidentical) particles having the same mass m moving
under the inﬂuence of a potential U (r), which is given by
U (r) =
1
2
mω
2
r
2
.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 184
7.5. Solutions
In addition, the particles interact with each other via a potential given
by
V (r
1
, r
2
) =
1
2
mΩ
2
(r
1
−r
2
)
2
,
where r
1
and r
2
are the (three dimensional) coordinate vectors of the ﬁrst
and second particle respectively. Find the eigenenergies of the system.
7.5 Solutions
1. In general the current density is given by Eq. (4.159). For a wavefunction
having the form
ψ(r) = α(r) e
iβ(r)
, (7.96)
where both α and β are real, one has
J =
µ
Im[α(∇(α) +α∇(iβ))]
=
α
2
µ
∇(β)
=
[ψ[
2
µ
∇(β) .
(7.97)
a) The wavefunction ϕ
n,l,m
(r) is given by
ψ
nlm
(r, θ, φ) = R
nl
(r) Y
m
l
(θ, φ) = R
nl
(r) F
m
l
(θ) e
imφ
, (7.98)
where both R
nl
and F
m
l
are real, thus
J
n,l,m
(r) =
¸
¸
ϕ
n,l,m
(r)
¸
¸
2
µ
∇(mφ) . (7.99)
In spherical coordinates one has
∇ = ˆ x
∂
∂x
+ ˆ y
∂
∂y
+ˆz
∂
∂z
= ˆr
∂
∂r
+
ˆ
θ
1
r
∂
∂θ
+
ˆ
φ
1
r sinθ
∂
∂φ
,
(7.100)
thus
J
n,l,m
(r) =
µ
m
¸
¸
ϕ
n,l,m
(r)
¸
¸
2
r sinθ
ˆ
φ . (7.101)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 185
Chapter 7. Central Potential
b) The contribution of the volume element d
3
r to the angular momen
tum with respect to the origin is given by dL = µr J
n,l,m
(r) d
3
r.
In spherical coordinates the total angular momentum is given by
L =
_
µr J
n,l,m
(r) d
3
r = m
_
¸
¸
ϕ
n,l,m
(r)
¸
¸
2
r sinθ
r ˆ ϕd
3
r . (7.102)
By symmetry, only the component along ˆz of r ˆ ϕ contributes, thus
L = mˆz . (7.103)
2. The charge density of the electron in the ground state is given by
ρ = −e
¸
¸
ϕ
1,0,0
(r)
¸
¸
2
= −
e
πa
3
0
exp
_
−
2r
a
0
_
. (7.104)
The Poisson’s equation is given by
∇
2
ϕ = −4πρ . (7.105)
To verify that the electrostatic potential given by Eq. (7.94) solves this
equation we calculate
∇
2
ϕ =
1
r
d
2
dr
2
(rϕ)
=
e
r
d
2
dr
2
__
r
a
0
+ 1
_
exp
_
−
2r
a
0
__
=
4e exp
_
−
2r
a0
_
a
3
0
= −4πρ .
(7.106)
Note also that
lim
r→∞
ϕ(r) = 0 , (7.107)
as is required for a neutral atom.
3. The radial wave function of the ground state is given by
R
10
(r) = 2
_
1
a
0
_
3/2
exp
_
−
r
a
0
_
(7.108)
thus the probability density of the variable r is given by
f (r) = [rR
10
(r)[
2
=
4
r
_
r
a
0
_
3
exp
_
−
2r
a
0
_
. (7.109)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 186
7.5. Solutions
Thus
¸r¸ =
_
∞
0
rf (r) dr = 4a
0
_
∞
0
x
3
exp(−2x) dx =
3
2
a
0
. (7.110)
The most probable value r
0
is found from the condition
0 =
df
dr
=
8r
0
a
4
0
exp
_
−
2r
0
a
0
_
(a
0
−r
0
) , (7.111)
thus
r
0
= a
0
. (7.112)
4. The radial wave function of a hydrogenlike atom with a nucleus having
charge Ze is found by substituting e
2
by Ze
2
in Eqs. (7.89), (7.90) and
(7.91), namely
R
(Z)
10
(r) = 2
_
Z
a
0
_
3/2
e
−Zr/a0
,
R
(Z)
20
(r) = (2 −Zr/a
0
)
_
Z
2a
0
_
3/2
e
−
Zr
2a
0
,
R
(Z)
21
(r) =
_
Z
2a
0
_
3/2
Zr
√
3a
0
e
−
Zr
2a
0
.
The change in reduced mass is neglected. Therefore
a) For the 1s state
Pr (1s) =
_
_
∞
_
0
drr
2
R
(Z=1)
10
R
(Z=2)
10
_
_
2
=
2
7
a
3
0
_
2a
3
0
_
2
3
3
= 0.702 .
b) For the 2s state
Pr (2s) =
_
_
∞
_
0
drr
2
R
(Z=1)
10
R
(Z=2)
20
_
_
2
=
16
a
6
0
_
a
3
0
8
(2 −3)
_
2
= 0.25 .
c) For this case the probability vanishes due to the orthogonality be
tween spherical harmonics with diﬀerent l.
5. The normalization constant is chosen to be A = 1/
√
2. Since both states
[2, 1, −1¸ and [2, 1, 1¸ have the same energy the state [α¸ is stationary.
The following holds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 187
Chapter 7. Central Potential
ψ
nlm
(r, θ, φ) = R
nl
(r) Y
m
l
(θ, φ) , (7.113a)
R
21
(r) =
_
1
2a
0
_
3/2
r
√
3a
0
e
−
r
2a
0
, (7.113b)
Y
−1
1
(θ, φ) =
1
2
_
3
2π
sinθe
−iφ
, (7.113c)
Y
1
1
(θ, φ) = −
1
2
_
3
2π
sinθe
iφ
, (7.113d)
x = r sinθ cos φ . (7.113e)
In general
¸n
′
l
′
m
′
[ x[nlm¸ =
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
n
′
l
′ R
nl
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ sinθ cos φ
_
Y
m
′
l
′
_
∗
Y
m
l
.
(7.114)
thus
¸2, 1, 1[x[2, 1, 1¸ ∝
2π
_
0
dφ cos φ = 0 , (7.115)
¸2, 1, −1[x[2, 1, −1¸ ∝
2π
_
0
dφ cos φ = 0 , (7.116)
¸2, 1, 1[x[2, 1, −1¸ ∝
2π
_
0
dφ cos φe
−2iφ
= 0 , (7.117)
¸2, 1, −1[x[2, 1, 1¸ ∝
2π
_
0
dφ cos φe
2iφ
= 0 , (7.118)
and therefore
¸x¸ (t) = 0 . (7.119)
6. The radial equation is given by
_
−
2
2m
d
2
dr
2
+
l (l + 1)
2
2mr
2
+V (r)
_
u
k,l
(r) = E
k,l
u
k,l
(r) . (7.120)
The boundary conditions imposed upon u(r) by the potential are
u(0) = 0 , (7.121)
u
_
a
+
_
= u
_
a
−
_
(7.122)
du(a
+
)
dr
−
du(a
−
)
dr
= −
2
a
0
u(a) . (7.123)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 188
7.5. Solutions
where
a
0
=
2
mA
. (7.124)
Since the centrifugal term l (l + 1)
2
/2mr
2
is nonnegative the ground
state is obtained with l = 0. We seek a solution for that case having the
form
u(r) =
_
sinh(κr) r < a
sinh(κa) exp(−κ(r −a)) r > a
, (7.125)
where
κ =
√
−2mE
. (7.126)
The condition (7.123) yields
−κsinh(κa) −κcosh(κa) = −
2
a
0
sinh(κa) , (7.127)
or
κa
0
2
=
1
1 + coth(κa)
.
A real solution exists only if
a
0
2
< a , (7.128)
or
A >
2
2ma
. (7.129)
7. The state vector [γ¸ is an eigenvector of the operators L
x
, L
y
, therefore it
is easy to see that it consequently must be an eigenvector of the operator
[L
x
, L
y
] with a zero eigenvalue. Thus, since [L
x
, L
y
] = iL
z
, one has
L
z
[γ¸ = 0. Similarly, one ﬁnds that L
x
[γ¸ = L
y
[γ¸ = 0. Therefore, [γ¸
is also an eigenvector of the operator L
2
= L
2
x
+ L
2
y
+ L
2
z
with a zero
eigenvalue. Therefore the wavefunction has the form
ψ(r
′
) = R(r
′
) Y
m=0
l=0
_
θ
′
, φ
′
_
=
R(r
′
)
√
4π
, (7.130)
where the radial function R(r
′
) is an arbitrary normalized function.
8. The Lagrangian is given by
/ =
m
_
˙ r
2
1
+ ˙ r
2
2
_
2
−
1
2
mω
2
_
r
2
1
+r
2
2
_
−
1
2
mΩ
2
(r
1
−r
2
)
2
. (7.131)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 189
Chapter 7. Central Potential
In terms of center of mass r
0
and relative r coordinates, which are given
by
r
0
=
r
1
+r
2
2
, (7.132)
r = r
1
−r
2
, (7.133)
the Lagrangian is given by
/ =
m
_
_
˙ r
0
+
1
2
˙ r
_
2
+
_
˙ r
0
−
1
2
˙ r
_
2
_
2
−
1
2
mω
2
_
_
r
0
+
1
2
r
_
2
+
_
r
0
−
1
2
r
_
2
_
−
1
2
mΩ
2
r
2
=
m
_
2˙ r
2
0
+
1
2
˙ r
2
_
2
−
1
2
mω
2
_
2r
2
0
+
1
2
r
2
_
−
1
2
mΩ
2
r
2
=
M˙ r
2
0
2
−
1
2
Mω
2
r
2
0
+
µ˙ r
2
2
−
1
2
µ
_
ω
2
+ 2Ω
2
_
r
2
,
(7.134)
where the total mass M is given by
M = 2m , (7.135)
and the reduced mass [see also Eq. (7.50)] by
µ =
m
2
. (7.136)
The Lagrangian / describes two decoupled three dimensional harmonic
oscillators. The ﬁrst, which is associated with the center of mass motion,
has mass M = 2m and angular resonance frequency ω, whereas the
second one, which is associated with the relative coordinate r, has mass
µ = m/2 and angular resonance frequency
√
ω
2
+ 2Ω
2
. The quantum
energy eigenvectors are denoted by [n
0x
, n
0y
, n
0z
, n
x
, n
y
, n
z
¸, where all
six quantum numbers n
0x
, n
0y
, n
0z
, n
x
, n
y
and n
z
are integers, and the
corresponding eigenenergies are given by
E
n
0x
,n
0y
,n
0z
,n
x
,n
y
,n
z
= ω
_
3
2
+n
0x
+n
0y
+n
0z
_
+
_
ω
2
+ 2Ω
2
_
3
2
+n
x
+n
y
+n
z
_
.
(7.137)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 190
8. Density Operator
Consider an ensemble of N identical copies of a quantum system. The en
semble can be divided into subsets, where all systems belonging to the same
subset have the same state vector. Let Nw
i
be the number of systems having
state vector
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
, where
0 ≤ w
i
≤ 1 , (8.1)
and where
i
w
i
= 1 . (8.2)
The state vectors are all assumed to be normalized
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
= 1 . (8.3)
Consider a measurement of an observable A, having a set of eigenvalues
¦a
n
¦ and corresponding set of eigenvectors ¦[a
n
¸¦
A[a
n
¸ = a
n
[a
n
¸ . (8.4)
The set of eigenvectors ¦[a
n
¸¦ is assumed to be orthonormal and complete
¸a
m
[a
n
¸ = δ
nm
, (8.5)
n
[a
n
¸ ¸a
n
[ = 1 . (8.6)
Consider a measurement of the observable A done on a system that is ran
domly chosen from the ensemble. The probability to choose a system having
state vector
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
is w
i
. Given that the state vector is
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
, the expectation
value of A is
¸
α
(i)
¸
¸
A
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
[see Eq. (2.84)]. Thus, the expectation (average)
value of such a measurement done on a system that is randomly chosen from
the ensemble is given by
¸A¸ =
i
w
i
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ A
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
=
i
n
w
i
¸
¸
¸¸a
n
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_¸
¸
¸
2
a
n
. (8.7)
Chapter 8. Density Operator
Claim. The expectation value can be expressed as
¸A¸ = Tr (ρA) , (8.8)
where
ρ =
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ (8.9)
is the density operator.
Proof. Let ¦[b
m
¸¦ be an orthonormal and complete basis for the vector space
m
[b
m
¸ ¸b
m
[ = 1 . (8.10)
The following holds
¸A¸ =
i
w
i
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ A
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
=
i
m
w
i
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ A[b
m
¸ ¸b
m
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
=
m
¸b
m
[
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ A[b
m
¸
= Tr (ρA) ,
(8.11)
where
ρ =
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ .
Below we discuss some basic properties of the density operator:
Exercise 8.0.1. Show that ρ
†
= ρ.
Solution 8.0.1. Trivial by the deﬁnition (8.9).
Exercise 8.0.2. Show that Tr (ρ) = 1.
Solution 8.0.2. Using a complete orthonormal basis
m
[b
m
¸ ¸b
m
[ = 1 one
has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 192
Tr (ρ) =
m
¸b
m
[
_
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸
_
[b
m
¸
=
i
w
i
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸
_
m
[b
m
¸ ¸b
m
[
_
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
=
i
w
i
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
=
i
w
i
= 1 .
(8.12)
Exercise 8.0.3. Show that for any normalized state [β¸ the following holds
0 ≤ ¸β[ ρ[β¸ ≤ 1 . (8.13)
Solution 8.0.3. Clearly, 0 ≤ ¸β[ ρ [β¸ since
¸β[ ρ [β¸ =
i
w
i
¸β
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
[β¸ =
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸
_
α
(i)
[β¸
¸
¸
¸
2
≥ 0 . (8.14)
On the other hand, according to the Schwartz inequality [see Eq. (2.167)],
which is given by
[¸u [v¸[ ≤
_
¸u [u¸
_
¸v [v¸ , (8.15)
one has
¸
¸
¸
_
α
(i)
[β¸
¸
¸
¸ ≤
_
¸β [β¸
_
¸
α
(i)
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
= 1 . (8.16)
Moreover,
i
w
i
= 1, thus
¸β[ ρ [β¸ =
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸
_
α
(i)
[β¸
¸
¸
¸
2
≤ 1 . (8.17)
Exercise 8.0.4. Show that Tr
_
ρ
2
_
≤ 1.
Solution 8.0.4. The fact that ρ is Hermitian (i.e., ρ
†
= ρ) guaranties the
existence of a complete orthonormal basis ¦[q
m
¸¦ of eigenvectors of ρ, which
satisfy
¸q
m
′ [q
m
¸ = δ
mm
′ , (8.18)
m
[q
m
¸ ¸q
m
[ = 1 , (8.19)
and
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 193
Chapter 8. Density Operator
ρ [q
m
¸ = q
m
[q
m
¸ , (8.20)
where the eigenvalues q
m
are real. Using this basis one has
Tr
_
ρ
2
_
=
m
¸q
m
[ ρ
2
[q
m
¸ =
m
q
2
m
. (8.21)
According to inequality (8.13)
0 ≤ q
m
= ¸q
m
[ ρ [q
m
¸ ≤ 1 , (8.22)
thus
Tr
_
ρ
2
_
=
m
q
2
m
≤
_
m
q
m
_
2
= (Tr (ρ))
2
= 1 . (8.23)
Deﬁnition 8.0.1. An ensemble is said to be pure if its density operator can
be expressed as
ρ = [α¸ ¸α[ .
Exercise 8.0.5. Show that Tr
_
ρ
2
_
= 1 iﬀ ρ represents a pure ensemble.
Solution 8.0.5. (i) Assuming that ρ represents a pure ensemble, one has
ρ
2
= ρ, thus Tr
_
ρ
2
_
= Tr (ρ) = 1. (ii) Assume that Tr
_
ρ
2
_
= 1. Since ρ
is Hermitian (i.e., ρ
†
= ρ), there is a complete orthonormal basis ¦[q
m
¸¦ of
eigenvectors of ρ, such that
¸q
m
′ [q
m
¸ = δ
mm
′ , (8.24)
m
[q
m
¸ ¸q
m
[ = 1 , (8.25)
and
ρ [q
m
¸ = q
m
[q
m
¸ , (8.26)
where the eigenvalues q
m
are real. Moreover, according to inequality (8.22)
0 ≤ q
m
≤ 1 . (8.27)
For this basis the assumption Tr
_
ρ
2
_
= 1 yields
1 = Tr
_
ρ
2
_
=
m
q
2
m
. (8.28)
Moreover, also Tr (ρ) = 1, thus
1 =
m
q
m
. (8.29)
Both equalities can be simultaneously satisﬁed only if
q
m
=
_
1 m = m
0
0 m ,= m
0
. (8.30)
For this case ρ = [q
m0
¸ ¸q
m0
[, thus ρ represents a pure ensemble.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 194
8.2. Quantum Statistical Mechanics
8.1 Time Evolution
Consider a density operator
ρ (t) =
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
(t)
__
α
(i)
(t)
¸
¸
¸ , (8.31)
where the state vectors
_¸
¸
α
(i)
(t)
__
evolve in time according to
i
d
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
dt
= H
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
, (8.32)
−i
d
¸
α
(i)
¸
¸
dt
=
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ H , (8.33)
where H is the Hamiltonian. Taking the time derivative yields
dρ
dt
=
1
i
_
i
w
i
H
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
(t)
¸
¸
¸ −
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
(t)
__
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ H
_
, (8.34)
thus
dρ
dt
= −
1
i
[ρ, H] . (8.35)
This result resembles the equation of motion (4.37) of an observable in the
Heisenberg representation, however, instead of a minus sign on the right hand
side, Eq. (4.37) has a plus sign.
Alternatively, the time evolution of the operator ρ can be expressed in
terms of the time evolution operator u(t, t
0
), which relates the state vector
at time
¸
¸
α
(i)
(t
0
)
_
with its value
¸
¸
α
(i)
(t)
_
at time t [see Eq. (4.4)]
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
(t)
_
= u(t, t
0
)
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
(t
0
)
_
. (8.36)
With the help of this relation Eq. (8.31) becomes
ρ (t) = u(t, t
0
) ρ (t
0
) u
†
(t, t
0
) . (8.37)
8.2 Quantum Statistical Mechanics
Consider an ensemble of identical copies of a quantum system. Let H be the
Hamiltonian having a set of eigenenergies ¦E
i
¦ and a corresponding set of
eigenstates ¦[i¸¦, which forms an orthonormal and complete basis
H[i¸ = E
i
[i¸ , (8.38)
i
[i¸ ¸i[ = 1 . (8.39)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 195
Chapter 8. Density Operator
Consider the case where the ensemble is assumed to be a canonical ensemble
in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. According to the laws of statistical
mechanics the probability w
i
to ﬁnd an arbitrary system in the ensemble in
a state vector [i¸ having energy E
i
is given by
w
i
=
1
Z
e
−βEi
, (8.40)
where β = 1/k
B
T, k
B
is Boltzmann’s constant, and where
Z =
i
e
−βE
i
(8.41)
is the partition function.
Exercise 8.2.1. Show that the density operator ρ can be written as
ρ =
e
−βH
Tr (e
−βH
)
. (8.42)
Solution 8.2.1. According to the deﬁnition (8.9) one has
ρ =
i
w
i
[i¸ ¸i[ =
1
Z
i
e
−βE
i
[i¸ ¸i[ . (8.43)
Moreover, the following hold
Z =
i
e
−βEi
=
i
¸i[ e
−βH
[i¸ = Tr
_
e
−βH
_
, (8.44)
and
i
e
−βEi
[i¸ ¸i[ =
i
e
−βH
[i¸ ¸i[ = e
−βH
i
[i¸ ¸i[ = e
−βH
, (8.45)
thus
ρ =
e
−βH
Tr (e
−βH
)
. (8.46)
As will be demonstrated below [see Eq. (8.301)], the last result for ρ can
also be obtained from the principle of maximum entropy.
8.3 Problems
1. Consider a spin 1/2 in a magnetic ﬁeld B = Bˆz and in thermal equilib
rium at temperature T. Calculate ¸S ˆ u¸ , where S is the vector operator
of the angular momentum and where ˆ u is a unit vector, which can be
described using the angles θ and φ
ˆ u =(sinθ cos φ, sinθ sinφ, cos θ) . (8.47)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 196
8.3. Problems
2. A spin 1/2 particle is an eigenstate of the operator S
y
with eigenvalue
+/2.
a) Write the density operator in the basis of eigenvectors of the operator
S
z
.
b) Calculate ρ
n
, where n is integer.
c) Calculate the density operator (in the same basis) of an ensemble of
particles, half of them in an eigenstate of S
y
with eigenvalue +/2,
and half of them in an eigenstate of S
y
with eigenvalue −/2.
d) Calculate ρ
n
for this case.
3. A spin 1/2 is at time t = 0 in an eigenstate of the operator S
θ
= S
x
sinθ+
S
z
cos θ with an eigenvalue +/2, where θ is real and S
x
and S
z
are
the x and z components, respectively, of the angular momentum vector
operator. A magnetic ﬁeld B is applied in the x direction between time
t = 0 and time t = T.
a) The z component of the angular momentum is measured at time
t > T. Calculate the probability P
+
to measure the value /2.
b) Calculate the density operator ρ of the spin at times t = T.
4. A spin 1/2 electron is put in a constant magnetic ﬁeld given by B =
Bˆz, where B is a constant. The system is in thermal equilibrium at
temperature T.
a) Calculate the correlation function
C
z
(t) = ¸S
z
(t) S
z
(0)¸ . (8.48)
b) Calculate the correlation function
C
x
(t) = ¸S
x
(t) S
x
(0)¸ . (8.49)
5. Consider a harmonic oscillator with frequency ω. Show that the variance
of the number operator ∆N =
_
¸N
2
¸ −¸N¸
2
(where N = a
†
a ) is given
by
a) ∆N = 0 for energy eigenstates.
b) ∆N =
_
¸N¸ for coherent states.
c) ∆N =
_
¸N¸ (¸N¸ + 1) for thermal states.
6. Consider a harmonic oscillator having angular resonance frequency ω.
The oscillator is in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. Calculate the
expectation value
¸
x
2
_
.
7. Consider a harmonic oscillator in thermal equilibrium at temperature T,
whose Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
. (8.50)
Show that the density operator is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 197
Chapter 8. Density Operator
ρ =
_ _
d
2
α[α¸ ¸α[ P (α) , (8.51)
where [α¸ is a coherent state, d
2
α denotes inﬁnitesimal area in the α
complex plane,
P (α) =
1
π ¸N¸
exp
_
−
[α[
2
¸N¸
_
, (8.52)
and where ¸N¸ is the expectation value of the number operator N.
8. Consider a harmonic oscillator in thermal equilibrium at temperature T,
whose Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
. (8.53)
Calculate the probability density f (x) of the random variable x.
9. An LC oscillator (see ﬁgure) made of a capacitor C in parallel with an
inductor L, is in thermal equilibrium at temperature T. The charge in
the capacitor q is being measured.
L C L C
a) Calculate the expectation value ¸q¸ of q.
b) Calculate the variance
_
(∆q)
2
_
.
10. Consider an observable A having a set of eigenvalues ¦a
n
¦. Let P
n
be
a projector operator onto the eigensubspace corresponding to the eigen
value a
n
. A given physical system is initially described by the density op
erator ρ
0
. A measurement of the observable A is then performed. What
is the density operator ρ
1
of the system immediately after the measure
ment?
11. The model that was proposed by von Neumann describes an indirect mea
surement process of a given observable A. The observable A is assumed
to be a function of the degrees of freedom of a subsystem, which we refer
to as the measured system (MS). The indirect measurement is performed
by ﬁrst letting the MS to interact with a measuring device (MD), hav
ing its own degrees of freedom, and then in the ﬁnal step, performing a
quantum measurement on the MD. The MS is assumed to initially be in
a pure state [α¸ (i.e. its density operator is assumed to initially be given
by ρ
0
= [α¸ ¸α[). Let A be an observable operating on the Hilbert space
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 198
8.3. Problems
of the MS. The initial state of the MS can be expanded in the basis of
eigenvectors ¦[a
n
¸¦ of the observable A
[α¸ =
n
c
n
[a
n
¸ , (8.54)
where c
n
= ¸a
n
[α¸ and where
A[a
n
¸ = a
n
[a
n
¸ . (8.55)
For simplicity, the Hamiltonian of the MS is taken to be zero. The MD is
assumed to be a one dimensional free particle, whose Hamiltonian van
ishes, and whose initial state is labeled by [ψ
i
¸. The position wavefunction
ψ (x
′
) = ¸x
′
[ψ
i
¸ of this state is taken to be Gaussian having width x
0
ψ(x
′
) =
1
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
exp
_
−
1
2
_
x
′
x
0
_
2
_
. (8.56)
The interaction between the MS and the MD is taken to be given by
V (t) = −f (t) xA , (8.57)
where f (t) is assumed to have compact support with a peak near the
time of the measurement.
a) Express the vector state of the entire system [Ψ (t)¸ at time t in the
basis of states ¦[p
′
¸ ⊗[a
n
′ ¸¦. This basis spans the Hilbert space of the
entire system (MS and MD). The [p
′
¸ ⊗[a
n
′ ¸ is both, an eigenvector
of A (with eigenvalue a
n
) and of the momentum p of the MD (with
eigenvalue p
′
).
b) In what follows the ﬁnal state of the system after the measurement
will be evaluated by taking the limit t → ∞. The outcome of the
measurement of the observable A, which is labeled by /, is deter
mined by performing a measurement of the momentum variable p of
the MD. The outcome, which is labeled by T, is related to / by
/ =
T
p
i
, (8.58)
where
p
i
=
_
∞
dt
′
f (t
′
) . (8.59)
Calculate the probability distribution g (/) of the random variable
/.
c) Consider another measurement that is performed after the entan
glement between the MS and the MD has been fully created. The
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 199
Chapter 8. Density Operator
additional measurement is associated with the observable B, which
is assumed to be a function of the degrees of freedom of the MS only.
Show that the expectation value
¯
B of the observable B is given by
¯
B =
n
′
¸a
n
′ [ Bρ
R
[a
n
′ ¸ , (8.60)
where the operator ρ
R
, which is called the reduced density operator,
is given by
ρ
R
=
n
′
,n
′′
c
n
′ c
∗
n
′′ e
−η
2
_
a
n
′ −a
n
′′
2
_
2
[a
n
′ ¸ ¸a
n
′′ [ . (8.61)
12. A particle having mass m moves in the xy plane under the inﬂuence of
a two dimensional potential V (x, y), which is given by
V (x, y) =
mω
2
2
_
x
2
+y
2
_
+λmω
2
xy , (8.62)
where both ω and λ are real constants. Calculate in thermal equilibrium
at temperature T the expectation values ¸x¸,
¸
x
2
_
.
13. Consider a harmonic oscillator having angular resonance frequency ω and
mass m. Calculate the correlation function G(t) =
¸
x
(H)
(t) x
(H)
(0)
_
,
where x
(H)
(t) is the Heisenberg representation of the position operator,
for the cases where
a) the oscillator is in its ground state.
b) the oscillator is in thermal equilibrium at temperature T.
14. In general, the Wigner function of a point particle moving in one dimen
sion is given by
W (x
′
, p
′
) =
1
2π
_
∞
−∞
exp
_
i
p
′
x
′′
__
x
′
−
x
′′
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
ρ
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
dx
′′
, (8.63)
where ρ is the density operator of the system, and where [x
′
¸ represents
an eigenvector of the position operator x having eigenvalue x
′
, i.e. x[x
′
¸ =
x
′
[x
′
¸. As can be seen from Eq. (4.172), the Wigner function is the inverse
Weyl transformation of the density operator divided by the factor of 2π.
Consider the case of a point particle having mass m in a potential of a
harmonic oscillator having angular frequency ω. Calculate the Wigner
function W (x
′
, p
′
) for the case where the system is in a coherent sate
[α¸.
15. Consider a point particle having mass m in a potential of a harmonic
oscillator having angular frequency ω. Calculate the Wigner function
W (x
′
, p
′
) for the case where the system is in thermal equilibrium at
temperature T.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 200
8.3. Problems
16. Consider a harmonic oscillator in thermal equilibrium at temperature T,
whose Hamiltonian is given by
H =
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
. (8.64)
Calculate the matrix elements ¸x
′′
[ ρ [x
′
¸ of the density operator in the
basis of eigenvectors of the position operator x.
17. The entropy σ is deﬁned by
σ = −Tr (ρlog ρ) . (8.65)
Show that σ is time independent.
18. Consider the 2 2 matrix ρ, which is given by
ρ =
1
2
(1 +k σ) , (8.66)
where k = (k
x
, k
y
, k
z
) is a three dimensional vector of complex numbers
and where σ = (σ
x
, σ
y
, σ
z
) is the Pauli matrix vector.
a) Under what conditions on k the matrix ρ can represent a valid density
operator of a spin 1/2 particle?
b) Under what conditions on k the matrix ρ can represent a valid density
operator of a spin 1/2 particle in a pure state?
c) Calculate the term Tr (ˆ u σρ), where ˆ u is a unit vector, i.e. ˆ u ˆ u = 1.
19. The matrix representation in the basis of eigenvectors of S
z
of the density
operator of a spin 1/2 particle is given by
ρ =
1
2
(1 +k σ) , (8.67)
where k = (k
x
, k
y
, k
z
) is a three dimensional vector of real numbers, and
σ = (σ
x
, σ
y
, σ
z
) is the Pauli matrix vector. The entropy σ is deﬁned by
σ = −Tr (ρlog ρ) . (8.68)
a) Calculate σ.
b) A measurement of S
z
is performed. Calculate the entropy after the
measurement.
20. The maximum entropy principle  The entropy σ is deﬁned by
σ (ρ) = −Tr (ρ log ρ) . (8.69)
Consider the case where the density matrix is assumed to satisfy a set of
contrarians, which are expressed as
g
l
(ρ) = 0 , (8.70)
where l = 0, 1, L. The functionals g
l
(ρ) maps the density operator ρ
to a complex number, i,e. g
l
(ρ) ∈ (.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 201
Chapter 8. Density Operator
a) Find an expression for a density matrix that satisfy all these con
strains, for which the entropy σ obtains a stationary point (maxi
mum, minimum or a saddle point). Assume that the constrain l = 0
is the requirement that Tr (ρ) = 1, i.e. g
0
(ρ) can be taken to be given
by
g
0
(ρ) = Tr (ρ) −1 = 0 . (8.71)
Moreover, assume that the other constrains l = 1, L are the re
quirements that the expectation values of the Hermitian operators
X
1
, X
2
, X
L
are the following real numbers A
1
, A
2
, ,A
L
respec
tively, i.e. g
l
(ρ) for l ≥ 1 can be taken to be given by
g
l
(ρ) = Tr (ρX
l
) −A
l
= 0 . (8.72)
b) Express ρ for the case of a microcanonical ensemble, for which the
only required constrain is (8.71).
c) Express ρ for the case of a canonical ensemble, for which in addition
to the constrain is (8.71) the expectation value of the Hamiltonian
H is required to have a given value, which is labeled by ¸H¸.
d) Express ρ for the case of a grandcanonical ensemble, for which in ad
dition to the constrain is (8.71) the expectation values of the Hamil
tonian H and of the operator N are required to have given values,
which are labeled by ¸H¸ and ¸N¸ respectively. The operator N,
which will be deﬁned in chapter 16, is called the number of particles
operator.
21. Consider a point particle having mass m moving in one dimension under
the inﬂuence of the potential V (x). Calculate the canonical partition
function Z
c
[see Eq. (8.302)] in the classical limit, i.e. in the limit of high
temperature.
22. Let ρ be the density operator of a given system. The system is composed
of two subsystems, each having its own degrees of freedom, which are
labeled as ’1’ and ’2’ (e.g. a system of two particles). Let ¦[n
1
¸
1
¦ (¦[n
2
¸
2
¦)
be an orthonormal basis spanning the Hilbert space of subsystem ’1’
(’2’). The set of vectors ¦[n
1
, n
2
¸¦, where [n
1
, n
2
¸ = [n
1
¸
1
[n
2
¸
2
, forms an
orthonormal basis spanning the Hilbert space of the combined system.
For a general operator O the partial trace over subsystem ’1’ is deﬁned
by the following relation
Tr
1
(O) ≡
n1
1
¸n
1
[ O[n
1
¸
1
. (8.73)
Similarly, the partial trace over subsystem ’2’ is deﬁned by
Tr
2
(O) ≡
n
2
2
¸n
2
[ O[n
2
¸
2
. (8.74)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 202
8.4. Solutions
The observable A
1
is a given Hermitian operator on the Hilbert space of
subsystem ’1’. Show that the expectation value of a measurement of A
1
that is performed on subsystem ’1’ is given by
¸A
1
¸ = Tr
1
(ρ
1
A
1
) . (8.75)
where the operator ρ
1
, which is given by
ρ
1
= Tr
2
ρ , (8.76)
is called the reduced density operator of subsystem ’1’.
23. Let ρ be the density operator of a given system. The total entropy of the
system σ is given by
σ = −Tr (ρlog ρ) . (8.77)
As in the previous exercise, the system is composed of two subsystems,
which are labeled as ’1’ and ’2’. Let ¦[n
1
¸
1
¦ (¦[n
2
¸
2
¦) be an orthonormal
basis spanning the Hilbert space of subsystem ’1’ (’2’). The set of vec
tors ¦[n
1
, n
2
¸¦, where [n
1
, n
2
¸ = [n
1
¸
1
[n
2
¸
2
, forms an orthonormal basis
spanning the Hilbert space of the combined system. The reduced density
operators ρ
1
and ρ
2
of subsystems ’1’ and ’2’ respectively are giving by
ρ
1
=
n2
2
¸n
2
[ ρ [n
2
¸
2
= Tr
2
ρ , (8.78)
ρ
2
=
n
1
1
¸n
1
[ ρ [n
1
¸
1
= Tr
1
ρ , (8.79)
and the subsystems’ entropies σ
1
and σ
2
are given by
σ
1
= −Tr
1
(ρ
1
log ρ
1
) , (8.80)
σ
2
= −Tr
2
(ρ
2
log ρ
2
) . (8.81)
Show that
σ
1
+σ
2
≥ σ . (8.82)
8.4 Solutions
1. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = ωS
z
, (8.83)
where
ω =
[e[ B
m
e
c
(8.84)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 203
Chapter 8. Density Operator
is the Larmor frequency. In the basis of the eigenvectors of S
z
S
z
[±¸ = ±
2
[±¸ , (8.85)
one has
H[±¸ = ±
ω
2
[±¸ , (8.86)
thus
ρ =
e
−Hβ
Tr (e
−Hβ
)
=
e
−
ωβ
2
[+¸ ¸+[ +e
ωβ
2
[−¸ ¸−[
e
−
ωβ
2
+e
ωβ
2
,
(8.87)
where β = 1/k
B
T, and therefore with the help of Eqs. (2.102) and (2.103),
which are given by
S
x
=
2
([+¸ ¸−[ +[−¸ ¸+[) , (8.88)
S
y
=
2
(−i [+¸ ¸−[ +i [−¸ ¸+[) , (8.89)
one has
¸S
x
¸ = Tr (ρS
x
) = 0 , (8.90)
¸S
y
¸ = Tr (ρS
y
) = 0 , (8.91)
and with the help of Eq. (2.99), which is given by
S
z
=
2
([+¸ ¸+[ −[−¸ ¸−[) , (8.92)
one has
¸S
z
¸ = Tr (ρS
z
)
= Tr
_
e
−
ωβ
2
[+¸ ¸+[ +e
ωβ
2
[−¸ ¸−[
e
−
ωβ
2
+e
ωβ
2
2
([+¸ ¸+[ −[−¸ ¸−[)
_
=
2
e
−
ωβ
2
−e
ωβ
2
e
−
ωβ
2
+e
ωβ
2
= −
2
tanh
_
ωβ
2
_
,
(8.93)
thus
¸S ˆ u¸ = −
cos θ
2
tanh
_
ωβ
2
_
. (8.94)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 204
8.4. Solutions
2. Recall that
[±; ˆ y¸ =
1
√
2
([+¸ ±i [−¸) , (8.95)
a) thus
ρ ˙ =
1
2
_
1
i
_
_
1 −i
_
=
1
2
_
1 −i
i 1
_
. (8.96)
b) For a pure state ρ
n
= ρ.
c) For this case
ρ =
1
2
_
_
[+; ˆ y¸ ¸+; ˆ y[ +[−; ˆ y¸ ¸−; ˆ y[
. ¸¸ .
=1
_
_
˙ =
1
2
_
1 0
0 1
_
, (8.97)
d) and
ρ
n
˙ =
1
2
n
_
1 0
0 1
_
. (8.98)
3. The state at time t = 0 is given by
[ψ(t = 0)¸ ˙ =
_
cos
θ
2
sin
θ
2
_
, (8.99)
and the one at time t = T is
[ψ(t = T)¸ = exp
_
iωTσ
x
2
_
[ψ (t = 0)¸ , (8.100)
where σ
x
is a Pauli matrix, and
ω =
eB
m
e
c
. (8.101)
Using the identity
exp
_
−
iσ ˆ nφ
2
_
= cos
φ
2
−iσ ˆ nsin
φ
2
, (8.102)
one ﬁnds
exp
_
−
iσ ˆ nφ
2
_
= cos
ωT
2
+iσ
x
sin
ωT
2
˙ =
_
cos
ωT
2
i sin
ωT
2
i sin
ωT
2
cos
ωT
2
_
, (8.103)
thus
[ψ(t = T)¸ ˙ =
_
cos
ωT
2
i sin
ωT
2
i sin
ωT
2
cos
ωT
2
__
cos
θ
2
sin
θ
2
_
=
_
cos
ωT
2
cos
θ
2
+i sin
ωT
2
sin
θ
2
i sin
ωT
2
cos
θ
2
+ cos
ωT
2
sin
θ
2
_
.
(8.104)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 205
Chapter 8. Density Operator
a) The probabilities to measured ±/2 are thus given by
P
+
= cos
2
ωT
2
cos
2
θ
2
+ sin
2
ωT
2
sin
2
θ
2
=
1 + cos (ωT) cos θ
2
, (8.105)
and
P
−
= cos
2
ωT
2
sin
2
θ
2
+ sin
2
ωT
2
cos
2
θ
2
=
1 −cos (ωT) cos θ
2
. (8.106)
b) The density operator is given by
ρ
11
= P
+
,
ρ
22
= P
−
,
ρ
21
=
_
cos
ωT
2
cos
θ
2
+i sin
ωT
2
sin
θ
2
__
−i sin
ωT
2
cos
θ
2
+ cos
ωT
2
sin
θ
2
_
=
sinθ
2
−
i
2
sinωT cos θ ,
ρ
12
= ρ
∗
21
.
4. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = −ωS
z
, (8.107)
where
ω =
eB
m
e
c
, (8.108)
thus, the density operator is given by
ρ ˙ =
1
Z
_
_
exp
_
ω
2kBT
_
0
0 exp
_
−
ω
2k
B
T
_
_
_
, (8.109)
where
Z = exp
_
ω
2k
B
T
_
+ exp
_
−
ω
2k
B
T
_
. (8.110)
a) Using
S
z
(t) = exp
_
iHt
_
S
z
(0) exp
_
−
iHt
_
= S
z
(0) , (8.111)
one ﬁnds
C
z
(t) =
¸
S
2
z
(0)
_
= Tr
_
ρS
2
z
(0)
_
=
2
4
. (8.112)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 206
8.4. Solutions
b) The following holds
S
x
(t) = exp
_
−
iωS
z
t
_
S
x
(0) exp
_
iωS
z
t
_
= S
x
cos (ωt) +S
y
sin(ωt) ,
(8.113)
thus
C
x
(t) = cos (ωt)
¸
S
2
x
(0)
_
+ sin(ωt) ¸S
y
(0) S
x
(0)¸ (8.114)
=
cos (ωt)
2
4
+ sin(ωt) ¸S
y
(0) S
x
(0)¸ .
In terms of Pauli matrices
¸S
y
(0) S
x
(0)¸ =
2
4Z
Tr
_
_
_
_
exp
_
ω
2k
B
T
_
0
0 exp
_
−
ω
2kBT
_
_
_
_
0 −i
i 0
__
0 1
1 0
_
_
_
=
2
4Z
Tr
_
_
_
_
−i exp
_
ω
2kBT
_
0
0 i exp
_
−
ω
2kBT
_
_
_
_
_
= −
i
2
4
tanh
_
ω
2k
B
T
_
,
(8.115)
thus
C
x
(t) =
2
4
_
cos (ωt) −i sin(ωt) tanh
_
ω
2k
B
T
__
. (8.116)
5. The variance ∆N is given by
a) For an energy eigenstate [n¸ one has
N [n¸ = n[n¸ , (8.117)
thus
¸N¸ = ¸n[ N [n¸ = n , (8.118)
and
¸
N
2
_
= ¸n[ N
2
[n¸ = n
2
, (8.119)
therefore
∆N = 0 . (8.120)
b) For a coherent state [α¸ one has
a [α¸ = α[α¸ , (8.121)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 207
Chapter 8. Density Operator
thus
¸N¸ = ¸α[ N [α¸ = ¸α[ a
†
a [α¸ = [α[
2
, (8.122)
and
¸
N
2
_
= ¸α[ a
†
aa
†
a[α¸ = ¸α[ a
†
_
_
_
_
a, a
†
¸
. ¸¸ .
=1
+a
†
a
_
_
_a [α¸ = [α[
2
+[α[
4
,
(8.123)
therefore
∆N =
_
¸N¸ . (8.124)
c) In general, for a thermal state one has
¸O¸ = Tr (ρO) , (8.125)
where O is an operator,
ρ =
1
Z
e
−Hβ
, (8.126)
Z = Tr
_
e
−Hβ
_
, (8.127)
and β = 1/k
B
T and H is the Hamiltonian. For the present case
H = ω
_
N +
1
2
_
, (8.128)
thus
¸N¸ = Tr (ρN)
=
∞
n=0
¸n[ e
−Hβ
N [n¸
∞
n=0
¸n[ e
−Hβ
[n¸
=
∞
n=0
ne
−nωβ
∞
n=0
e
−nωβ
= −
1
ω
∂ log
_
∞
n=0
e
−nωβ
_
∂β
=
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
,
(8.129)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 208
8.4. Solutions
and
¸
N
2
_
= Tr
_
ρN
2
_
=
∞
n=0
¸n[ e
−Hβ
N
2
[n¸
∞
n=0
¸n[ e
−Hβ
[n¸
=
∞
n=0
n
2
e
−nωβ
∞
n=0
e
−nωβ
=
_
1
ω
_
2
∂
2
∂β
2
∞
n=0
e
−nωβ
∞
n=0
e
−nωβ
=
_
e
−βω
+ 1
_
e
−βω
(1 −e
−βω
)
2
,
(8.130)
and therefore
(∆N)
2
=
¸
N
2
_
−¸N¸
2
=
e
−βω
(1 −e
−βω
)
2
= ¸N¸ (¸N¸ + 1) . (8.131)
6. The density operator is given by
ρ =
1
Z
e
−Hβ
. (8.132)
where
Z = tr
_
e
−Hβ
_
=
∞
n=0
e
−βω(n+
1
2
)
=
e
−
β ω
2
1 −e
−βω
=
1
2 sinh
_
ωβ
2
_ , (8.133)
and β = 1/k
B
T. Thus using
x
2
=
2mω
_
a
2
+
_
a
†
_
2
+ 2a
†
a + 1
_
, (8.134)
one ﬁnds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 209
Chapter 8. Density Operator
¸
x
2
_
= Tr
_
x
2
ρ
_
=
1
Z
∞
n=0
¸n[ x
2
e
−Hβ
[n¸
=
1
Z
∞
n=0
e
−ω(n+
1
2
)β
¸n[ x
2
[n¸
=
mω
1
Z
∞
n=0
_
n +
1
2
_
e
−ω(n+
1
2
)β
=
mω
1
Z
_
−
1
ω
_
d
dβ
∞
n=0
e
−ω(n+
1
2
)β
.
(8.135)
However
∞
n=0
e
−ω(n+
1
2
)β
= Z , (8.136)
thus
¸
x
2
_
=
1
mω
2
d
dβ
log Z
−1
=
1
mω
2
d
dβ
sinh
_
ωβ
2
_
sinh
_
ωβ
2
_
=
1
mω
2
ω
2
coth
_
ωβ
2
_
.
(8.137)
Note that at high temperatures ωβ ≪1
¸
x
2
_
≃
k
B
T
mω
2
, (8.138)
as is required by the equipartition theorem of classical statistical mechan
ics.
7. In the basis of number states the density operator is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 210
8.4. Solutions
ρ =
e
−Hβ
Tr (e
−Hβ
)
=
∞
n=0
e
−Hβ
[n¸ ¸n[
∞
n=0
¸n[ e
−Hβ
[n¸
=
∞
n=0
e
−βω(N+
1
2
)
[n¸ ¸n[
∞
n=0
¸n[ e
−βω(N+
1
2
)
[n¸
=
∞
n=0
e
−nβω
[n¸ ¸n[
∞
n=0
e
−nβω
=
_
1 −e
−βω
_
∞
n=0
e
−nβω
[n¸ ¸n[ ,
(8.139)
where β = 1/k
B
T. Thus, ¸N¸ is given by
¸N¸ = Tr (ρN)
=
_
1 −e
−βω
_
∞
n=0
ne
−nβω
= −ω
_
1 −e
−βω
_
∂
∂β
∞
n=0
e
−nβω
= −ω
_
1 −e
−βω
_
∂
∂β
1
1 −e
−βω
=
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
.
(8.140)
Moreover, the following holds
¸N¸ + 1 =
1
1 −e
−βω
, (8.141)
¸N¸
¸N¸ + 1
= e
−βω
, (8.142)
thus, ρ can be rewritten as
ρ =
_
1 −e
−βω
_
∞
n=0
e
−nβω
[n¸ ¸n[
=
1
¸N¸ + 1
∞
n=0
_
¸N¸
¸N¸ + 1
_
n
[n¸ ¸n[ .
(8.143)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 211
Chapter 8. Density Operator
To verify the validity of Eq. (8.51) we calculate
¸n[ ρ[m¸ =
_ _
d
2
αP (α) ¸n [α¸ ¸α [m¸ . (8.144)
With the help of Eq. (5.42), which is given by
[α¸ = e
−
α
2
2
∞
n=0
α
n
√
n!
[n¸ , (8.145)
one ﬁnds that
¸n[ ρ[m¸ =
1
π ¸N¸
_ _
d
2
αexp
_
−
[α[
2
¸N¸
_
e
−α
2 α
n
√
n!
α
∗m
√
m!
. (8.146)
Employing polar coordinates in the complex plane α = re
iθ
, where r is
nonnegative real and θ is real,
¸n[ ρ[m¸ =
1
π ¸N¸
√
n!m!
∞
_
0
dre
−(1+
1
N
)r
2
r
n+m+1
2π
_
0
dθe
iθ(n−m)
. ¸¸ .
2πδnm
=
2δ
nm
¸N¸ n!
∞
_
0
dre
−(1+
1
N
)r
2
r
2n+1
,
(8.147)
and the transformation of the integration variable
t =
_
1 +
1
¸N¸
_
r
2
, (8.148)
dt =
_
1 +
1
¸N¸
_
2rdr , (8.149)
lead to
¸n[ ρ[m¸ =
δ
nm
¸N¸
_
1 +
1
N
_
n+1
n!
∞
_
0
dte
−t
t
n
. ¸¸ .
Γ(n+1)=n!
=
δ
nm
¸N¸
_
1 +
1
N
_
n+1
=
¸N¸
n
δ
nm
(1 +¸N¸)
n+1
,
(8.150)
in agreement with Eq. (8.143).
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 212
8.4. Solutions
8. The density operator [see Eq. (8.51)] is given by
ρ =
_ _
d
2
α[α¸ ¸α[ P (α) , (8.151)
where [α¸ is a coherent state, d
2
α denotes inﬁnitesimal area in the α
complex plane,
P (α) =
1
π ¸N¸
exp
_
−
[α[
2
¸N¸
_
, (8.152)
and where
¸N¸ =
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
(8.153)
is the expectation value of the number operator N. Thus,
f (x
′
) = ¸x
′
[ ρ [x
′
¸ =
_ _
d
2
αP (α) ¸x
′
[α¸ ¸α [x
′
¸ .
By employing the expression for the wave function ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸ of a
coherent state which is given by [see Eq. (5.51)]
ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸
= exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
_
mω
π
_
1/4
exp
_
−
_
x
′
−¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
+i ¸p¸
α
x
′
_
,
(8.154)
where
¸x¸
α
= ¸α[ x[α¸ =
_
2
mω
Re (α) , (8.155)
∆x
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆x)
2
[α¸ =
_
2mω
, (8.156)
one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 213
Chapter 8. Density Operator
f (x
′
) = ¸x
′
[ ρ[x
′
¸ =
1
π ¸N¸
_
mω
π
_
1/2
_ _
d
2
αexp
_
−
[α[
2
¸N¸
_
exp
_
−2
_
x
′
−¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
_
=
1
π ¸N¸
_
mω
π
_
1/2
_ _
d
2
αexp
_
−
[α[
2
¸N¸
_
exp
_
_
_−2
_
_
x
′
_
2
mω
−Re (α)
_
_
2
_
_
_
=
_
mω
π
_
1/2
_
1 + 2 ¸N¸
e
−2
_
_
_
x
′
√
2
mω
_
_
_
2
1+2N
=
1
√
π
_
1
mω
(1 + 2 ¸N¸)
e
−2
_
_
_
x
′
√
2
mω
_
_
_
2
1+2N
=
1
ξ
√
π
e
−
_
x
′
ξ
_
2
,
where
ξ =
_
mω
(1 + 2 ¸N¸) ,
and where
1 + 2 ¸N¸ = 1 + 2
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
= coth
_
βω
2
_
. (8.157)
9. Recall that the LC circuit is a harmonic oscillator.
a) In terms of the annihilation and creation operators
a =
_
Lω
2
_
q +
ip
Lω
_
, (8.158)
a
†
=
_
Lω
2
_
q −
ip
Lω
_
, (8.159)
one has
q =
_
2Lω
_
a +a
†
_
, (8.160)
H = ω
_
a
†
a +
1
2
_
. (8.161)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 214
8.4. Solutions
The density operator is given by
ρ =
1
Z
e
−βH
, (8.162)
where
β =
1
k
B
T
, (8.163)
and
Z = Tr e
−βH
=
∞
n=0
e
−βω(n+
1
2
)
=
e
−
β ω
2
1 −e
−βω
=
1
2 sinh
βω
2
, (8.164)
thus
¸q¸ = Tr (qρ) =
1
Z
_
2Lω
∞
n=0
¸n[
_
a +a
†
_
e
−βH
[n¸ = 0 . (8.165)
b) Similarly
¸
q
2
_
= Tr
_
q
2
ρ
_
=
2Lω
1
Z
∞
n=0
¸n[
_
a +a
†
_
2
e
−βH
[n¸
=
1
Lω
2
1
Z
∞
n=0
ω
_
n +
1
2
_
e
−βω(n+
1
2
)
= −
1
Lω
2
1
Z
dZ
dβ
=
Cω
2
coth
ω
2k
B
T
.
(8.166)
10. In general, ρ
0
can be expressed as
ρ
0
=
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ , (8.167)
where 0 ≤ w
i
≤ 1,
i
w
i
= 1, and where
¸
α
(i)
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
= 1. Assume ﬁrst
that the system is initially in the state
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
. The probability for this to
be the case is w
i
. In general, the possible results of a measurement of the
observable A are the eigenvalues ¦a
n
¦. The probability p
n
to measure the
eigenvalue a
n
given that the system is initially in state
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
is given by
p
n
=
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ P
n
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
. (8.168)
After a measurement of A with an outcome a
n
the state vector collapses
onto the corresponding eigensubspace and becomes
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 215
Chapter 8. Density Operator
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
→
P
n
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
_
¸
α
(i)
¸
¸
P
n
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
. (8.169)
Thus, given that the system is initially in state
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
the ﬁnal density
operator is given by
ρ
(i)
1
=
n
_
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ P
n
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
_
P
n
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
_
¸
α
(i)
¸
¸
P
n
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
¸
α
(i)
¸
¸
P
n
_
¸
α
(i)
¸
¸
P
n
¸
¸
α
(i)
_
=
n
P
n
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ P
n
.
(8.170)
Averaging over all possible initial states thus yields
ρ
1
=
i
w
i
ρ
(i)
1
=
n
P
n
i
w
i
¸
¸
¸α
(i)
__
α
(i)
¸
¸
¸ P
n
=
n
P
n
ρ
0
P
n
. (8.171)
11. Since [V (t) , V (t
′
)] = 0 the time evolution operator from initial time t
0
to time t is given by
u(t, t
0
) = exp
_
−
i
_
t
t0
dt
′
V (t
′
)
_
= exp
_
ip
i
A
x
_
,
(8.172)
where
p
i
=
_
t
t0
dt
′
f (t
′
) . (8.173)
While the initial state of the entire system at time t
0
is given by [Ψ (t
0
)¸ =
[ψ
i
¸ ⊗[α¸, the ﬁnal state at time t is given by
[Ψ (t)¸ = u(t, t
0
) [Ψ (t
0
)¸
=
n
c
n
J
n
[ψ
i
¸ ⊗[a
n
¸ ,
(8.174)
where the operator J
n
is given by
J
n
= exp
_
ip
i
a
n
x
_
. (8.175)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 216
8.4. Solutions
a) By introducing the identity operator
_
dp
′
[p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[ = 1
MD
on the
Hilbert space of the MD, where [p
′
¸ are eigenvectors of the momen
tum operator p, which is canonically conjugate to x, the state [Ψ (t)¸
can be expressed as
[Ψ (t)¸ =
n
c
n
_
dp
′
¸p
′
[ J
n
[ψ
i
¸ [p
′
¸ ⊗[a
n
¸ . (8.176)
With the help of the general identity (3.75), which is given by
[p, A(x)] = −i
dA
dx
, (8.177)
where A(x) is a function of the operator x, one ﬁnds that
pJ
n
[p
′
¸ = ([p, J
n
] +J
n
p) [p
′
¸
= (p
i
a
n
+p
′
) J
n
[p
′
¸ ,
(8.178)
thus the vector J
n
[p
′
¸ is an eigenvector of p with eigenvalue p
i
a
n
+p
′
.
Moreover, note that this vector, which is labeled as [p
′
+p
i
a
n
¸ ≡
J
n
[p
′
¸, is normalized, provided that [p
′
¸ is normalized, since J
n
is
unitary. The momentum wavefunction φ(p
′
) = ¸p
′
[ψ
i
¸ of the state
[ψ
i
¸ is related to the position wavefunction ¸x
′
[ψ
i
¸ by a Fourier trans
form [see Eq. (3.59)]
φ(p
′
) =
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
e
−
ip
′
x
′
¸x
′
[ψ
i
¸
√
2π
=
1
π
1/4
p
1/2
0
exp
_
−
1
2
_
p
′
p
0
_
2
_
,
(8.179)
where
p
0
=
x
0
. (8.180)
In terms of φ(p
′
) the state [Ψ (t)¸ thus can be expressed as
[Ψ (t)¸ =
n
c
n
_
dp
′
¸p
′
−p
i
a
n
[ψ
i
¸ [p
′
¸ ⊗[a
n
¸
=
n
c
n
_
dp
′
φ(p
′
−p
i
a
n
) [p
′
¸ ⊗[a
n
¸ .
(8.181)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 217
Chapter 8. Density Operator
b) The probability distribution g (/) of the random variable / can be
calculated using Eq. (8.181)
g (/) = p
i
n
′
[(¸a
n
′ [ ⊗¸p
i
/[) [Ψ (t)¸[
2
= p
i
n
′
[c
n
′ [
2
[φ(p
i
(/−a
n
′ ))[
2
=
η
π
1/2
n
′
[c
n
′ [
2
e
−η
2
(A−a
n
′ )
2
,
(8.182)
where
η =
p
i
p
0
=
x
0
_
∞
t
0
dt
′
f (t
′
) . (8.183)
The expectation value of / is given by
¸/¸ =
∞
_
−∞
d/
′
g (/
′
) /
′
=
n
′
[c
n
′ [
2
η
π
1/2
∞
_
−∞
d/
′′
e
−(ηA
′′
)
2
(/
′′
+a
n
′ )
=
n
′
[c
n
′ [
2
a
n
′ .
(8.184)
c) The density operator of the entire system is taken to be given by
ρ
f
= [Ψ (∞)¸ ¸Ψ (∞)[ for this case. The additional measurement is
associated with the observable B, which is assumed to be a function
of the degrees of freedom of the MS only. This assumption allows
expressing the expectation value
¯
B of the observable B as
¯
B = Tr (Bρ
f
)
=
n
′
_
dp
′
¸a
n
′ [ ⊗¸p
′
[ Bρ
f
[p
′
¸ ⊗[a
n
′ ¸
=
n
′
¸a
n
′ [ Bρ
R
[a
n
′ ¸ ,
(8.185)
where ρ
R
, which is given by
ρ
R
=
_
dp
′
¸p
′
[ ρ
f
[p
′
¸ , (8.186)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 218
8.4. Solutions
is called the reduced density operator. Note that ρ
R
is an operator
on the Hilbert space of the MS. With the help of the expressions
[Ψ (∞)¸ =
n
c
n
′
_
dp
′′
φ(p
′′
−p
i
a
n
′ ) [p
′′
¸ ⊗[a
n
′ ¸ , (8.187)
¸Ψ (∞)[ =
n
′
c
∗
n
′′
_
dp
′′′
φ
∗
(p
′′′
−p
i
a
n
′′ ) ¸a
n
′′ [ ⊗¸p
′′′
[ , (8.188)
one ﬁnds that
ρ
R
=
n
′
,n
′′
c
n
′ c
∗
n
′′
_
dp
′
φ(p
′
−p
i
a
n
′ ) φ
∗
(p
′
−p
i
a
n
′′ ) [a
n
′ ¸ ¸a
n
′′ [ .
(8.189)
Employing the transformation of integration variable
x =
2p
′
−p
i
(a
n
′ +a
n
′′ )
2p
0
, (8.190)
and its inverse
p
′
= p
0
_
x +
p
i
p
0
a
n
′ +a
n
′′
2
_
, (8.191)
one ﬁnds that
_
dp
′
φ(p
′
−p
i
a
n
′ ) φ
∗
(p
′
−p
i
a
n
′′ ) = e
−η
2
_
a
n
′
−a
n
′′
2
_
2
, (8.192)
thus
ρ
R
=
n
′
,n
′′
c
n
′ c
∗
n
′′ e
−η
2
_
a
n
′
−a
n
′′
2
_
2
[a
n
′ ¸ ¸a
n
′′ [ . (8.193)
12. It is convenient to employ the coordinate transformation
x
′
=
x +y
√
2
, (8.194)
y
′
=
x −y
√
2
. (8.195)
The Lagrangian of the system can be written using these coordinates [see
Eq. (9.167)] as
/ = /
+
+/
−
, (8.196)
where
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 219
Chapter 8. Density Operator
/
+
=
m˙ x
′2
2
−
mω
2
2
(1 +λ) x
′2
, (8.197)
and
/
−
=
m˙ y
′2
2
−
mω
2
2
(1 −λ) y
′2
. (8.198)
Thus, the system is composed of two decoupled harmonic oscillators with
angular resonance frequencies ω
√
1 +λ (for x
′
) and ω
√
1 −λ (for y
′
). In
thermal equilibrium according to Eq. (8.137) one has
¸
x
′2
_
=
2mω
√
1 +λ
coth
_
ω
√
1 +λβ
2
_
, (8.199)
¸
y
′2
_
=
2mω
√
1 −λ
coth
_
ω
√
1 −λβ
2
_
, (8.200)
where β = 1/k
B
T. Moreover, due to symmetry, the following holds
¸x
′
¸ = ¸y
′
¸ = 0 , (8.201)
¸x
′
y
′
¸ = 0 . (8.202)
With the help of the inverse transformation, which is given by
x =
x
′
+y
′
√
2
, (8.203)
y =
x
′
−y
′
√
2
, (8.204)
one thus ﬁnds
¸x¸ = 0 , (8.205)
and
¸
x
2
_
=
1
2
¸
x
′2
+y
′2
_
=
4mω
_
_
coth
_
ω
√
1+λβ
2
_
√
1 +λ
+
coth
_
ω
√
1−λβ
2
_
√
1 −λ
_
_
.
(8.206)
13. Using Eq. (5.128), which is given by
x
(H)
(t) = x
(H)
(0) cos (ωt) +
p
(H)
(0)
mω
sin(ωt) , (8.207)
one ﬁnds that
G(t) = cos (ωt)
_
x
2
(H)
(0)
_
+
sin(ωt)
mω
¸
p
(H)
(0) x
(H)
(0)
_
. (8.208)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 220
8.4. Solutions
Using the relations
x =
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
, (8.209)
p = i
_
mω
2
_
−a +a
†
_
, (8.210)
_
a, a
†
¸
= 1 , (8.211)
one ﬁnds that
x
2
=
2mω
_
a
2
+
_
a
†
_
2
+ 2a
†
a + 1
_
, (8.212)
px
mω
= i
2mω
_
−a
2
+
_
a
†
_
2
−1
_
. (8.213)
a) Thus, for the ground state [see Eqs. (5.28) and (5.29)]
G(t) =
2mω
[cos (ωt) −i sin(ωt)] =
2mω
exp(−iωt) . (8.214)
b) The density operator ρ is given by Eq. (8.143)
ρ =
1
¸N¸ + 1
∞
n=0
_
¸N¸
¸N¸ + 1
_
n
[n¸ ¸n[ , (8.215)
where
¸N¸ = Tr (ρN) =
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
, (8.216)
N = a
†
a, and where β = 1/k
B
T. Using the fact that ρ is diagonal
in the basis of number states one ﬁnds that
¸
a
2
_
=
_
_
a
†
_
2
_
= 0.
Combining all these results leads to
G(t) =
2mω
[(2 ¸N¸ + 1) cos (ωt) −i sin(ωt)]
=
2mω
_
coth
βω
2
cos (ωt) −i sin(ωt)
_
.
(8.217)
14. The wave function of the coherent state [α¸ is given by Eq. (5.51)
ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸
= exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
_
mω
π
_
1/4
exp
_
−
_
x
′
−¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
+i ¸p¸
α
x
′
_
.
(8.218)
where
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 221
Chapter 8. Density Operator
¸x¸
α
= ¸α[ x[α¸ =
_
2
mω
α
′
, (8.219)
¸p¸
α
= ¸α[ p [α¸ =
√
2mωα
′′
, (8.220)
α
′
= Re (α) , (8.221)
α
′′
= Im(α) , (8.222)
∆x
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆x)
2
[α¸ =
_
2mω
, (8.223)
Using the deﬁnition (??) and the identity
∞
_
−∞
exp
_
−ax
2
+bx +c
_
dx =
_
π
a
e
1
4
4ca+b
2
a
, (8.224)
one has
W (x
′
, p
′
) =
1
2π
_
∞
−∞
exp
_
i
p
′
x
′′
__
x
′
−
x
′′
2
[α¸ ¸α
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
dx
′′
=
_
mω
π
_
1/2
2π
_
∞
−∞
dx
′′
e
−
_
x
′
−
x
′′
2
−x
α
2∆xα
_
2
−
_
x
′
+
x
′′
2
−x
α
2∆xα
_
2
+i
_
p
′
−p
α
_
x
′′
=
_
mω
π
_
1/2
2π
_
∞
−∞
dx
′′
e
−
(x
′
−x
α
)
2
+
(
x
′′
2
)
2
2(∆xα)
2
+i
_
p
′
−p
α
_
x
′′
,
(8.225)
thus
W (x
′
, p
′
) =
1
π
e
−
1
2
_
x
′
−x
α
∆xα
_
2
−
1
2
_
p
′
−p
α
∆pα
_
2
, (8.226)
where [see Eq. (5.49)]
∆p
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆p)
2
[α¸ =
_
mω
2
=
2∆x
α
. (8.227)
15. The density operator [see Eq. (8.51)] is given by
ρ =
_ _
d
2
α[α¸ ¸α[ P (α) , (8.228)
where [α¸ is a coherent state, d
2
α denotes inﬁnitesimal area in the α
complex plane,
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 222
8.4. Solutions
P (α) =
1
π ¸N¸
exp
_
−
[α[
2
¸N¸
_
, (8.229)
and where
¸N¸ =
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
(8.230)
is the expectation value of the number operator N. Thus
W (x
′
, p
′
) =
_ _
d
2
αP (α) W
α
(x
′
, p
′
) . (8.231)
where
W
α
(x
′
, p
′
) =
1
2π
_
∞
−∞
exp
_
i
p
′
x
′′
__
x
′
−
x
′′
2
[α¸ ¸α
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
′
+
x
′′
2
_
dx
′′
,
(8.232)
which is the Wigner function of a coherent state [α¸, was found to be
given by [see Eq. (??)]
W (x
′
, p
′
) =
1
π
e
−
1
2
_
x
′
−x
α
∆xα
_
2
−
1
2
_
p
′
−p
α
∆pα
_
2
, (8.233)
where
¸x¸
α
= ¸α[ x[α¸ =
_
2
mω
α
′
= 2∆x
α
α
′
, (8.234)
¸p¸
α
= ¸α[ p [α¸ =
√
2mωα
′′
= 2∆p
α
α
′′
, (8.235)
α
′
= Re (α) , (8.236)
α
′′
= Im(α) , (8.237)
∆x
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆x)
2
[α¸ =
_
2mω
, (8.238)
∆p
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆p)
2
[α¸ =
_
mω
2
=
2∆x
α
. (8.239)
Thus W (x
′
, p
′
) is given by
W (x
′
, p
′
) =
1
π
2
¸N¸
_ _
d
2
αe
−
α
2
N
e
−
1
2
_
x
′
−x
α
∆xα
_
2
−
1
2
_
p
′
−p
α
∆pα
_
2
=
1
π
2
¸N¸
_
dα
′
e
−
α
′2
N
−
1
2
_
x
′
−2∆xαα
′
∆xα
_
2
_
dα
′′
e
−
α
′′2
N
−
1
2
_
p
′
−2∆xαα
′
∆pα
_
2
.
(8.240)
With the help of the identity
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 223
Chapter 8. Density Operator
∞
_
−∞
exp
_
−ax
2
+bx +c
_
dx =
_
π
a
e
1
4
4ca+b
2
a
, (8.241)
one thus ﬁnds that
W (x
′
, p
′
) =
1
π
1
2 ¸N¸ + 1
e
−
1
2
1
2N+1
_
_
x
′
∆xα
_
2
+
_
p
′
∆pα
_
2
_
, (8.242)
where
2 ¸N¸ + 1 = 1 + 2
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
= coth
_
βω
2
_
, (8.243)
and where β = 1/k
B
T.
16. The density operator [see Eq. (8.51)] is given by
ρ =
_ _
d
2
α[α¸ ¸α[ P (α) , (8.244)
where [α¸ is a coherent state, d
2
α denotes inﬁnitesimal area in the α
complex plane,
P (α) =
1
π ¸N¸
exp
_
−
[α[
2
¸N¸
_
, (8.245)
and where
¸N¸ =
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
(8.246)
is the expectation value of the number operator N. By employing the
expression for the wave function ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸ of a coherent state
which is given by [see Eq. (5.51)]
ψ
α
(x
′
) = ¸x
′
[α¸
= exp
_
α
∗2
−α
2
4
_
_
mω
π
_
1/4
exp
_
−
_
x
′
−¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
+i ¸p¸
α
x
′
_
,
(8.247)
where
¸x¸
α
= ¸α[ x[α¸ =
_
2
mω
α
′
, (8.248)
¸p¸
α
= ¸α[ p [α¸ =
√
2mωα
′′
, (8.249)
α
′
= Re (α) , (8.250)
α
′′
= Im(α) , (8.251)
∆x
α
=
_
¸α[ (∆x)
2
[α¸ =
_
2mω
, (8.252)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 224
8.4. Solutions
one ﬁnds that
¸x
′′
[ ρ [x
′
¸ =
_ _
d
2
αP (α) ¸x
′′
[α¸ ¸α [x
′
¸
=
_
mω
π
_
1/2
π ¸N¸
_ _
d
2
αexp
_
−
[α[
2
¸N¸
_
exp
_
−
_
x
′
−¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
−
_
x
′′
−¸x¸
α
2∆x
α
_
2
+i ¸p¸
α
(x
′′
−x
′
)
_
=
_
mω
π
_
1/2
π ¸N¸
_ _
d
2
αexp
_
−
α
′2
+α
′′2
¸N¸
_
exp
_
−
_
X
′
−2α
′
2
_
2
−
_
X
′′
−2α
′
2
_
2
+iα
′′
(X
′′
−X
′
)
_
=
_
mω
π
_
1/2
π ¸N¸
_
dα
′
exp
_
−
2 ¸N¸ + 1
¸N¸
α
′2
+ (X
′
+X
′′
) α
′
−
X
′2
+X
′′2
4
_
_
dα
′′
exp
_
−
α
′′2
¸N¸
+iα
′′
(X
′′
−X
′
)
_
.
(8.253)
where
X
′
=
_
2mω
x
′
, (8.254)
X
′′
=
_
2mω
x
′′
. (8.255)
With the help of the identity
∞
_
−∞
exp
_
−ax
2
+bx +c
_
dx =
_
π
a
e
1
4
4ca+b
2
a
, (8.256)
one ﬁnds that
¸x
′′
[ ρ[x
′
¸ =
_
mω
π
_
1/2
_
1
2 ¸N¸ + 1
e
−
(
X
′2
+X
′′2
)
−N(X
′′
−X
′
)
2
+
N(X
′
+X
′′
)
2
2N+1
4
,
(8.257)
or using the identity
X
′2
+X
′′2
=
(X
′
+X
′′
)
2
+ (X
′
−X
′′
)
2
2
, (8.258)
one has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 225
Chapter 8. Density Operator
¸x
′′
[ ρ[x
′
¸ =
_
mω
π
_
1/2
_
1
2 ¸N¸ + 1
e
−
_
X
′
+X
′′
2
_
2
2(2N+1)
−
_
X
′
−X
′′
2
_
2
2N+1
2
.
(8.259)
In terms of x
′
and x
′′
this result can be written as
¸x
′′
[ ρ[x
′
¸ =
1
ξ
√
π
e
−
_
x
′
+x
′′
2ξ
_
2
−(2N+1)
2
_
x
′
−x
′′
2ξ
_
2
, (8.260)
where
ξ =
_
mω
(2 ¸N¸ + 1) , (8.261)
2 ¸N¸ + 1 = 1 + 2
e
−βω
1 −e
−βω
= coth
_
βω
2
_
, (8.262)
and where β = 1/k
B
T. Alternatively, the result can be expressed as
¸x
′′
[ ρ[x
′
¸ =
e
−tanh(
β ω
2
)
_
x
′
+x
′′
2x
0
_
2
−coth(
β ω
2
)
_
x
′
−x
′′
2x
0
_
2
x
0
_
π coth
_
βω
2
_
, (8.263)
where
x
0
=
_
mω
. (8.264)
17. In general, for any smooth function f (ρ) of ρ the following holds
f (ρ (t)) = u(t, t
0
) f (ρ (t
0
)) u
†
(t, t
0
) . (8.265)
This can be shown by Taylor expanding the function f (ρ) as a power
series
f (ρ (t)) =
∞
n=0
a
n
(ρ(t))
n
, (8.266)
using Eq. (8.37) and the fact that u
†
(t, t
0
) u(t, t
0
) = 1, i.e. the unitarity
of the time evolution operator. By using this result for the function ρ log ρ
together with the general identity Tr (XY ) = Tr (Y X) [see Eq. (2.129)]
one easily ﬁnds that σ is time independent. This somewhat surprising
result can be attributed to the fact that the unitary time evolution that is
governed by the Schrödinger equation is symmetric under time reversal.
In the language of statistical mechanics it corresponds to a reversible
process, for which entropy is preserved.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 226
8.4. Solutions
18. Using the deﬁnition of the Pauli matrices (6.135) one ﬁnds that
ρ =
1
2
_
1 +k
z
k
x
−ik
y
k
x
+ik
y
1 −k
z
_
, (8.267)
and
ρ
2
=
1
4
_
1 + 2k
z
+k
2
2 (k
x
−ik
y
)
2 (k
x
+ik
y
) 1 −2k
z
+k
2
_
,
where k
2
= k
2
x
+k
2
y
+k
2
z
.
a) Note that for any k the following holds Tr (ρ) = 1. The requirement
that ρ is Hermitian, i.e. the requirement that ρ
†
= ρ, implies that
k
∗
z
= k
z
and k
x
−k
∗
x
+i
_
k
y
−k
∗
y
_
= 0, thus k
x
, k
y
and k
z
are all real.
Moreover, the requirement that Tr
_
ρ
2
_
=
_
1 +k
2
_
/2 ≤ 1 implies
that k
2
≤ 1.
b) For this case Tr
_
ρ
2
_
= 1, thus k
2
= 1.
c) With the help of Eq. (6.136), which is given by
(σ a) (σ b) = a b +iσ (a b) , (8.268)
and the fact that all three Pauli matrices have a vanishing trace, one
ﬁnds that
Tr (ˆ u σρ) =
1
2
Tr (ˆ u σ) +
1
2
Tr ((ˆ u σ) (k σ))
=
1
2
Tr ((ˆ u σ) (k σ))
=
1
2
Tr (ˆ u k) +
i
2
Tr (σ (ˆ u k))
=
1
2
Tr (ˆ u k)
= ˆ u k .
(8.269)
19. Using the deﬁnition of the Pauli matrices (6.135) one ﬁnds that
ρ =
1
2
_
1 +k
z
k
x
−ik
y
k
x
+ik
y
1 −k
z
_
. (8.270)
a) Let λ
±
be the two eigenvalues of ρ. The following holds
Tr (ρ) = λ
+
+λ
−
= 1 , (8.271)
and
Det (ρ) = λ
+
λ
−
=
_
1 −k
2
_
/4 , (8.272)
where k
2
= k
2
x
+k
2
y
+k
2
z
. Thus
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 227
Chapter 8. Density Operator
λ
±
=
1 ±[k[
2
, (8.273)
and therefore
σ = f ([k[) (8.274)
where
f (x) = −
1 −x
2
log
1 −x
2
−
1 +x
2
log
1 +x
2
. (8.275)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
y
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x
The function f (x) = −
1−x
2
log
1−x
2
−
1+x
2
log
1+x
2
.
b) As can be seen from Eq. (8.171), after the measurement ρ becomes
diagonal in the basis of eigenvectors of the measured observable,
namely, after the measurement the density matrix is given by
ρ
c
=
1
2
_
1 +k
z
0
0 1 −k
z
_
, (8.276)
and thus the entropy after the measurement is
σ
c
= f (k
z
) = −
1 −k
z
2
log
1 −k
z
2
−
1 +k
z
2
log
1 +k
z
2
. (8.277)
20. First, consider a general functional g (ρ) of the density operator having
the form
g (ρ) = Tr (f (ρ)) , (8.278)
where the function f (ρ) can be Taylor expanded as a power series
f (ρ) =
∞
k=0
a
k
ρ
k
, (8.279)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 228
8.4. Solutions
and where a
k
are complex constants. Consider an inﬁnitesimal change in
the density operator ρ → ρ + dρ. To ﬁrst order in dρ the corresponding
change dg in the functional g (ρ) can be expressed as
dg = g (ρ + dρ) −g (ρ)
= Tr
_
∞
k=0
a
k
_
(ρ + dρ)
k
−ρ
k
_
_
= Tr
_
_
∞
k=0
a
k
_
_
ρ
k−1
dρ +ρ
k−2
(dρ) ρ +ρ
k−3
(dρ) ρ
2
+
. ¸¸ .
k terms
_
_
_
_
+O
_
(dρ)
2
_
.
(8.280)
By exploiting the general identity Tr (XY ) = Tr (Y X) the above result
can be simpliﬁed (note that generally ρ needs not to commute with dρ)
dg = Tr
__
∞
k=0
a
k
kρ
k−1
_
dρ
_
+O
_
(dρ)
2
_
, (8.281)
thus to ﬁrst order in dρ the following holds
dg = Tr
_
df
dρ
dρ
_
. (8.282)
In the above expression the term df/dρ is calculated by simply taking the
derivative of the function f (x) (where x is considered to be a number)
and substituting x = ρ. Alternatively, the change dg can be expressed in
terms of the inﬁnitesimal change dρ
nm
in the matrix elements ρ
nm
of ρ.
To ﬁrst order in the inﬁnitesimal variables dρ
nm
one has
dg =
n,m
∂g
∂ρ
nm
dρ
nm
. (8.283)
It is convenient to rewrite the above expression as
dg =
¯
∇g dρ , (8.284)
where the vector elements of the nabla operator
¯
∇ and of dρ are given
by
_
¯
∇
_
n,m
=
∂
∂ρ
nm
, (8.285)
and
_
dρ
_
n,m
= dρ
nm
. (8.286)
Thus, to ﬁrst order one has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 229
Chapter 8. Density Operator
dσ =
¯
∇σ dρ , (8.287)
and
dg
l
=
¯
∇g
l
dρ , (8.288)
where l = 0, 1, 2, ...L.
a) In general, the technique of Lagrange multipliers is very useful for
ﬁnding stationary points of a function, when constrains are applied.
A stationary point of σ occurs iﬀ for every small change dρ, which is
orthogonal to all vectors
¯
∇g
0
,
¯
∇g
1
,
¯
∇g
2
, ...,
¯
∇g
L
(i.e. a change which
does not violate the constrains) one has
0 = dσ =
¯
∇σ dρ . (8.289)
This condition is fulﬁlled only when the vector
¯
∇σ belongs to the
subspace spanned by the vectors
_
¯
∇g
0
,
¯
∇g
1
,
¯
∇g
2
, ...,
¯
∇g
L
_
. In other
words, only when
¯
∇σ = ξ
0
¯
∇g
0
+ξ
1
¯
∇g
1
+ξ
2
¯
∇g
2
+... +ξ
L
¯
∇g
L
, (8.290)
where the numbers ξ
0
, ξ
1
, ..., ξ
L
, which are called Lagrange multipli
ers, are constants. By multiplying by dρ the last result becomes
dσ = ξ
0
dg
0
+ξ
1
dg
1
+ξ
2
dg
2
+... +ξ
L
dg
L
. (8.291)
Using Eqs. (8.282), (8.69, (8.71) and (8.72) one ﬁnds that
dσ = −Tr ((1 + log ρ) dρ) , (8.292)
dg
0
= Tr (dρ) , (8.293)
dg
l
= Tr (X
l
dρ) , (8.294)
thus
0 = Tr
__
1 + log ρ +ξ
0
+
L
l=1
ξ
l
X
l
_
dρ
_
. (8.295)
The requirement that the last identity holds for any dρ implies that
1 + log ρ +ξ
0
+
L
l=1
ξ
l
X
l
= 0 , (8.296)
thus
ρ = e
−1−ξ
0
exp
_
−
L
l=1
ξ
l
X
l
_
. (8.297)
The Lagrange multipliers ξ
0
, ξ
1
, ..., ξ
L
can be determined from Eqs.
(8.71) and (8.72). The ﬁrst constrain (8.71) is satisfy by replacing
the factor e
−1−ξ
0
by the inverse of the partition function Z
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 230
8.4. Solutions
ρ =
1
Z
exp
_
−
L
l=1
ξ
l
X
l
_
. (8.298)
where
Z = Tr
_
−
L
l=1
ξ
l
X
l
_
. (8.299)
As can be seen from the above expression for Z, the following holds
¸X
l
¸ =
1
Z
Tr
_
X
l
e
−βH
_
= −
∂ log Z
∂ξ
l
. (8.300)
b) For the case of a microcanonical ensemble Eq. (8.298) yields ρ = 1/Z,
i.e. ρ is proportional to the identity operator.
c) For the case of a canonical ensemble Eq. (8.298) yields
ρ
c
=
1
Z
c
e
−βH
, (8.301)
where the canonical partition function Z
c
is given by
Z
c
= Tr
_
e
−βH
_
, (8.302)
and where β labels the Lagrange multiplier associated with the given
expectation value ¸H¸. By solving Eq. (8.72), which for this case is
given by [see also Eq. (8.300)]
¸H¸ =
1
Z
c
Tr
_
He
−βH
_
= −
∂ log Z
c
∂β
. (8.303)
the Lagrange multiplier β can be determined. Note that the tem
perature T is deﬁned by the relation β = 1/k
B
T, where k
B
is the
Boltzmann’s constant.
d) For the case of a grandcanonical ensemble Eq. (8.298) yields
ρ
gc
=
1
Z
gc
e
−βH+βµN
, (8.304)
where the grandcanonical partition function Z
gc
is given by
Z
gc
= Tr
_
e
−βH+βµN
_
. (8.305)
Here the Lagrange multiplier associated with the given expectation
value ¸N¸ is given by −βµ, where µ is known as the chemical poten
tial. The average energy ¸H¸ is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 231
Chapter 8. Density Operator
¸H¸ = Tr
_
Hρ
gc
_
=
Tr
_
He
−β(H−µN)
_
Tr
_
e
−β(H−µN)
_
= −
Tr
_
−(H−µN) e
−β(H−µN)
_
Tr
_
e
−β(H−µN)
_ +
µ
β
β Tr
_
Ne
−βH+βµN
_
Tr (e
−βH+βµN
)
,
thus
¸H¸ = −
_
∂ log Z
gc
∂β
_
µ
+
µ
β
_
∂ log Z
gc
∂µ
_
β
. (8.306)
Similarly, the average number of particles ¸N¸ is given by
¸N¸ = Tr
_
Nρ
gc
_
=
Tr
_
Ne
−βH+βµN
_
Tr (e
−βH+βµN
)
. (8.307)
In terms of the fugacity λ , which is deﬁned by
λ = e
βµ
, (8.308)
¸N¸ can be expressed as
¸N¸ = λ
∂ log Z
gc
∂λ
. (8.309)
21. The Hamiltonian can be expressed as a function of the operators p and
x as
H(p, x) =
p
2
2m
+V (x) . (8.310)
Evaluating Z
c
according to Eq. (8.302) by tracing over momentum states
yields
Z
c
= Tr
_
e
−βH
_
=
_
dp
′
¸p
′
[ e
−βH
[p
′
¸
=
_
dx
′
_
dp
′
¸p
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[ e
−βH
[p
′
¸ .
(8.311)
In the classical limit the parameter β, which is inversely proportional to
the temperature, is considered as small. Using Eq. (12.119) from chapter
12, which states that for general operators A and B the following holds
e
β(A+B)
= e
βA
e
βB
+O
_
β
2
_
, (8.312)
one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 232
8.4. Solutions
e
−βH
= e
−βV (x)
e
−β
p
2
2m
+O
_
β
2
_
. (8.313)
This result together with Eq. (3.51), which is given by
¸x
′
[p
′
¸ =
1
√
2π
exp
_
ip
′
x
′
_
, (8.314)
yield in the classical limit
Z
c
=
_
dx
′
_
dp
′
¸p
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[ e
−βV (x)
e
−β
p
2
2m
[p
′
¸
=
_
dx
′
_
dp
′
e
−βV (x
′
)
e
−β
p
′2
2m
¸p
′
[x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[p
′
¸
=
1
2π
_
dx
′
_
dp
′
e
−βH(p
′
,x
′
)
.
(8.315)
Note that the this result can be also obtained by taking the limit →0,
for which the operator x and p can be considered as commuting operators
(recall that [x, p] = i), and consequently in this limit e
−βH
can be
factored in the same way [see Eq. (8.313)].
22. The measurement of the observable A
1
is describe by the its extension,
which is given by A
1
1
2
, where 1
2
is the identity operator on subsystem
’2’. Thus with the help of Eq. (8.8) one ﬁnds that
¸A
1
¸ = Tr (ρA
1
1
2
)
=
n1,n2
¸n
1
, n
2
[ ρA
1
1
2
[n
1
, n
2
¸
=
n
1
1
¸n
1
[
_
n
2
2
¸n
2
[ ρ [n
2
¸
2
_
A
1
[n
1
¸
1
= Tr
1
(ρ
1
A
1
) .
(8.316)
23. In terms of the matrix elements ρ
n1,n2,m1,m2
of the operator ρ, which are
given by
ρ
(n1,n2),(m1,m2)
= ¸n
1
, n
2
[ ρ [m
1
, m
2
¸ , (8.317)
the matrix elements of ρ
1
and ρ
2
are given by
(ρ
1
)
n1,m1
=
n
2
ρ
(n1,n2),(m1,n2)
, (8.318)
and
(ρ
2
)
n2,m2
=
n1
ρ
(n1,n2),(n1,m2)
. (8.319)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 233
Chapter 8. Density Operator
In general ρ is Hermitian, i.e.
_
ρ
(n
1
,n
2
),(m
1
,n
2
)
_
∗
= ρ
(m
1
,n
2
),(n
1
,n
2
)
, (8.320)
and therefore
_
(ρ
1
)
n1,m1
_
∗
=
n
2
_
ρ
(n1,n2),(m1,n2)
_
∗
=
n2
ρ
(m1,n2),(n1,n2)
= (ρ
1
)
m1,n1
,
(8.321)
i.e. ρ
1
is also Hermitian, and similarly ρ
2
is also Hermitian. Thus the
eigenvalues of ρ
1
and ρ
2
are all real. Moreover, these eigenvalues represent
probabilities, and therefore they are expected to be all nonnegative and
smaller than unity. In what follows it is assumed that the set of vectors
¦[n
1
¸
1
¦ (¦[n
2
¸
2
¦) are chosen to be eigenvectors of the operator ρ
1
(ρ
2
).
Thus ρ
1
and ρ
2
can be expressed as
ρ
1
=
n1
w
(1)
n1
[n
1
¸
1
1
¸n
1
[ , (8.322)
and
ρ
2
=
n
2
w
(2)
n1
[n
2
¸
2
2
¸n
2
[ , (8.323)
where the eigenvalues satisfy 0 ≤ w
(1)
n
1
≤ 1 and 0 ≤ w
(2)
n
1
≤ 1. Similarly, ρ
can be diagonalized as
ρ =
k
w
k
[k¸ ¸k[ , (8.324)
where 0 ≤ w
k
≤ 1. In terms of these eigenvalues the entropies are given
by
σ
1
= −Tr
1
(ρ
1
log ρ
1
) = −
n1
w
(1)
n1
log w
(1)
n1
, (8.325)
σ
2
= −Tr
2
(ρ
2
log ρ
2
) = −
n2
w
(2)
n2
log w
(2)
n2
, (8.326)
and
σ = −Tr (ρlog ρ) = −
k
w
k
log w
k
. (8.327)
As can be seen from Eqs. (8.317), (8.318) and (8.322), the following holds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 234
8.4. Solutions
w
(1)
n1
= (ρ
1
)
n1,n1
=
n
2
ρ
(n1,n2),(n1,n2)
=
n2
¸n
1
, n
2
[ ρ[n
1
, n
2
¸
=
n
2
k
¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸ w
k
¸k [n
1
, n
2
¸ ,
(8.328)
thus
w
(1)
n1
=
n2
w
n1,n2
, (8.329)
and similarly
w
(2)
n2
=
n1
w
n1,n2
, (8.330)
where
w
n
1
,n
2
=
k
¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸ w
k
¸k [n
1
, n
2
¸ . (8.331)
Note that
n1,n2
w
n1,n2
=
k
w
k
¸k[
_
n1,n2
[n
1
, n
2
¸ ¸n
1
, n
2
[
_
[k¸
=
k
w
k
¸k [k¸ ,
(8.332)
thus the normalization condition ¸k [k¸ = 1 together with the require
ment that
Tr ρ =
k
w
k
= 1 , (8.333)
imply that
n
1
,n
2
w
n
1
,n
2
= 1 , (8.334)
i.e.
Tr
1
ρ
1
=
n
1
w
(1)
n1
= 1 , (8.335)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 235
Chapter 8. Density Operator
and
Tr
2
ρ
2
=
n
2
w
(2)
n
2
= 1 . (8.336)
Consider the quantity y
_
w
n
1
,n
2
/w
(1)
n1
w
(2)
n2
_
, where the function y (x) is
given by
y (x) = xlog x −x + 1 . (8.337)
The following holds
dy
dx
= log x , (8.338)
and
d
2
y
dx
2
=
1
x
, (8.339)
thus the function y (x) has a single stationary point at x = 1, which is a
minima point. Moreover y (1) = 0, thus one concludes that
y (x) ≥ 0 (8.340)
for x ≥ 0. For x = w
n
1
,n
2
/w
(1)
n1
w
(2)
n2
the inequality (8.340) implies that
w
n1,n2
w
(1)
n1
w
(2)
n2
log
w
n1,n2
w
(1)
n1
w
(2)
n2
−
w
n1,n2
w
(1)
n1
w
(2)
n2
+ 1 ≥ 0 . (8.341)
Multiplying by w
(1)
n
1
w
(2)
n
2
and summing over n
1
and n
2
yields
n
1
,n
2
w
n1,n2
log
w
n1,n2
w
(1)
n1
w
(2)
n2
−
n
1
,n
2
w
n1,n2
+
n
1
w
(1)
n
1
n
2
w
(2)
n
2
≥ 0 , (8.342)
thus with the help of Eqs. (8.334), (8.335) and (8.336) one ﬁnds that
n1,n2
w
n1,n2
log
w
n1,n2
w
(1)
n1
w
(2)
n2
≥ 0 , (8.343)
and with the help of Eqs. (8.325) and (8.326) that
σ
1
+σ
2
≥ −
n1,n2
w
n1,n2
log w
n1,n2
. (8.344)
Using Eq. (8.331) one obtains
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 236
8.4. Solutions
−
n1,n2
w
n1,n2
log w
n1,n2
=
n1,n2
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
k
log
1
w
n1,n2
=
n
1
,n
2
_
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
k
log
w
k
w
n
1
,n
2
_
−
n1,n2
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
k
log w
k
=
n
1
,n
2
_
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
k
log
w
k
w
n
1
,n
2
_
−
k
w
k
log w
k
n1,n2
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
. ¸¸ .
=1
,
(8.345)
thus
−
n1,n2
w
n1,n2
log w
n1,n2
=
n
1
,n
2
_
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
k
log
w
k
w
n
1
,n
2
_
+σ .
(8.346)
Furthermore, according to inequality (8.340) the following holds
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
k
log
w
k
w
n1,n2
=
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
n1,n2
w
k
w
n1,n2
log
w
k
w
n1,n2
≥
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
n1,n2
_
w
k
w
n1,n2
−1
_
,
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
w
k
−w
n
1
,n
2
k
[¸n
1
, n
2
[k¸[
2
= 0 .
(8.347)
These results together with inequality (8.344) yield
σ
1
+σ
2
≥ σ . (8.348)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 237
9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
Consider a Hamiltonian H
0
having a set of eigenenergies ¦E
k
¦. Let g
k
be
the degree of degeneracy of eigenenergy E
k
, namely g
k
is the dimension of
the corresponding eigensubspace , which is denoted by T
k
. The set ¦[k, i¸¦
of eigenvectors of H
0
is assumed to form an orthonormal basis for the vector
space, namely
H
0
[k, i¸ = E
k
[k, i¸ , (9.1)
and
¸k
′
, i
′
[k, i¸ = δ
kk
′ δ
ii
′ . (9.2)
For a given k the degeneracy index i can take the values 1, 2, , g
k
. The
set of vectors ¦[k, 1¸ , [k, 2¸ , , [k, g
k
¸¦ forms an orthonormal basis for the
eigensubspace T
k
. The closure relation can be written as
1 =
k
g
k
i=1
[k, i¸ ¸k, i[ =
k
P
k
, (9.3)
where
P
k
=
g
k
i=1
[k, i¸ ¸k, i[ (9.4)
is a projector onto eigen subspace T
k
. The orthogonality condition (9.2)
implies that
P
k
P
k
′ = P
k
δ
kk
′ . (9.5)
A perturbation V = λ
˜
V is being added to the Hamiltonian
H = H
0
+λ
˜
V , (9.6)
where λ ∈ ¹. We wish to ﬁnd the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the
Hamiltonian H
H[α¸ = E[α¸ . (9.7)
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
In many cases ﬁnding an analytical solution to the above equation is either
very hard or impossible. In such cases one possibility is to employ numerical
methods. However, another possibility arrises provided that the eigenvalues
and eigenvectors of H
0
are known and provided that the perturbation λ
˜
V can
be considered as small, namely, provided the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of
H do not signiﬁcantly diﬀer from those of H
0
. In such a case an approximate
solution can be obtained by the time independent perturbation theory.
9.1 The Level E
n
Consider the level E
n
of the unperturbed Hamiltonian H
0
. Let P
n
be the
projector onto the eigensubspace T
n
, and let
Q
n
= 1 −P
n
=
k=n
P
k
. (9.8)
Equation (9.7) reads
λ
˜
V [α¸ = (E −H
0
) [α¸ . (9.9)
It is useful to introduce the operator R, which is deﬁned as
R =
k=n
P
k
E −E
k
. (9.10)
Claim. The eigenvector [α¸ of the Hamiltonian H is given by
[α¸ =
_
1 −λR
˜
V
_
−1
P
n
[α¸ . (9.11)
Proof. Using Eq. (9.5) it is easy to show that
P
n
R = RP
n
= 0 . (9.12)
Moreover, the following hold
Q
n
R =
k=n
k
′
=n
P
k
P
k
′
E −E
k
′
=
k=n
P
k
E −E
k
= R , (9.13)
and similarly
RQ
n
= R . (9.14)
Furthermore, by expressing H
0
as
H
0
=
k
g
k
i=1
E
k
[k, i¸ ¸k, i[ = E
n
P
n
+
k=n
E
k
P
k
, (9.15)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 240
9.1. The Level E
n
one ﬁnds that
R(E −H
0
) =
k=n
P
k
_
E −E
n
P
n
−
k
′
=n
E
k
′ P
k
′
_
E −E
k
=
k=n
P
k
(E −E
k
)
E −E
k
= Q
n
,
(9.16)
and similarly
(E −H
0
) R = Q
n
. (9.17)
The last two results suggest that the operator R can be considered as the
inverse of E − H
0
in the subspace of eigenvalue zero of the projector P
n
(which is the subspace of eigenvalue unity of the projector Q
n
). Multiplying
Eq. (9.9) from the left by R yields
λR
˜
V [α¸ = R(E −H
0
) [α¸ . (9.18)
With the help of Eq. (9.16) one ﬁnds that
λR
˜
V [α¸ = Q
n
[α¸ . (9.19)
Since P
n
= 1 −Q
n
[see Eq. (9.8)] the last result implies that
P
n
[α¸ = [α¸ −λR
˜
V [α¸ =
_
1 −λR
˜
V
_
[α¸ , (9.20)
which leads to Eq. (9.11)
[α¸ =
_
1 −λR
˜
V
_
−1
P
n
[α¸ . (9.21)
Note that Eq. (9.11) can be expanded as power series in λ
[α¸ =
_
1 +λR
˜
V +λ
2
R
˜
V R
˜
V +
_
P
n
[α¸ . (9.22)
9.1.1 Nondegenerate Case
In this case g
n
= 1 and
P
n
= [n¸ ¸n[ . (9.23)
In general the eigenvector [α¸ is determined up to multiplication by a con
stant. For simplicity we choose that constant to be such that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 241
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
P
n
[α¸ = [n¸ , (9.24)
namely
¸n [α¸ = 1 . (9.25)
Multiplying Eq. (9.9), which is given by
λ
˜
V [α¸ = (E −H
0
) [α¸ , (9.26)
from the left by ¸n[ yields
¸n[ λ
˜
V [α¸ = ¸n[ (E −H
0
) [α¸ , (9.27)
or
¸n[ E[α¸ = ¸n[ H
0
[α¸ +¸n[ λ
˜
V [α¸ , (9.28)
thus
E = E
n
+¸n[ λ
˜
V [α¸ . (9.29)
Equation (9.22) together with Eq. (9.24) yield
[α¸ =
_
1 +λR
˜
V +λ
2
R
˜
V R
˜
V +
_
[n¸
= [n¸ +λ
k=n
i
[k, i¸ ¸k, i[
˜
V [n¸
E −E
k
+λ
2
k=n
i
k
′
=n
i
[k, i¸ ¸k, i[
˜
V [k
′
, i¸ ¸k
′
, i[
˜
V [n¸
(E −E
k
) (E −E
k
′ )
+ .
(9.30)
Substituting Eq. (9.30) into Eq. (9.29) yields
E = E
n
+λ¸n[
˜
V [n¸
+λ
2
k=n
i
¸n[
˜
V [k, i¸ ¸k, i[
˜
V [n¸
E −E
k
+λ
3
k=n
i
k
′
=n
i
¸n[
˜
V [k, i¸ ¸k, i[
˜
V [k
′
, i¸ ¸k
′
, i[
˜
V [n¸
(E −E
k
) (E −E
k
′ )
+ .
(9.31)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 242
9.2. Example
Note that the right hand side of Eq. (9.31) contains terms that depend on E.
To second order in λ one ﬁnds
E = E
n
+¸n[ V [n¸ +
k=n
i
[¸k, i[ V [n¸[
2
E
n
−E
k
+O
_
λ
3
_
. (9.32)
Furthermore, to ﬁrst order in λ Eq. (9.30) yields
[α¸ = [n¸ +
k=n
i
[k, i¸ ¸k, i[ V [n¸
E
n
−E
k
+O
_
λ
2
_
. (9.33)
9.1.2 Degenerate Case
The set of vectors ¦[n, 1¸ , [n, 2¸ , , [n, g
n
¸¦ forms an orthonormal basis for
the eigensubspace T
n
. Multiplying Eq. (9.9) from the left by P
n
yields
P
n
λ
˜
V [α¸ = P
n
(E −H
0
) [α¸ , (9.34)
thus with the help of Eq. (9.15) one has
P
n
λ
˜
V [α¸ = (E −E
n
) P
n
[α¸ . (9.35)
Substituting Eq. (9.22), which is given by
[α¸ =
_
P
n
+λR
˜
V P
n
+λ
2
R
˜
V R
˜
V P
n
+
_
[α¸ , (9.36)
into this and noting that P
n
R = 0 and P
2
n
= P
n
yield
P
n
λ
˜
V P
n
[α¸ +λ
2
P
n
˜
V R
˜
V P
n
[α¸ + = (E −E
n
) P
n
[α¸ . (9.37)
Thus, to ﬁrst order in λ the energy correction E −E
n
is found by solving
P
n
V P
n
[α¸ = (E −E
n
) P
n
[α¸ . (9.38)
The solutions are the eigenvalues of the g
n
g
n
matrix representation of the
operator V in the subspace T
n
.
9.2 Example
Consider a point particle having mass m whose Hamiltonian is given by
H = H
0
+V , (9.39)
where
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 243
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
H
0
=
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
. (9.40)
and where
V = λω
_
mω
x . (9.41)
The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian H
0
, which describes a
one dimensional harmonic oscillator, are given by
H
0
[n¸ = E
n
[n¸ , (9.42)
where n = 0, 1, , 2 , and where
E
n
(λ = 0) = ω
_
n +
1
2
_
. (9.43)
Note that, as was shown in chapter 5 [see Eq. (5.137)], the eigenvectors
and eigenvalues of H can be found analytically for this particular case. For
the sake of comparison we ﬁrst derive this exact solution. Writing H as
H =
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
x
2
2
+λω
_
mω
x
=
p
2
2m
+
mω
2
2
_
x +λ
_
mω
_
2
−
1
2
ωλ
2
,
(9.44)
one sees that H describes a one dimensional harmonic oscillator (as H
0
also
does). The exact eigenenergies are given by
E
n
(λ) = E
n
(λ = 0) −
1
2
ωλ
2
, (9.45)
and the corresponding exact wavefunctions are
¸x
′
[n(λ)¸ =
_
x
′
+λ
_
mω
[n¸ . (9.46)
Using identity (3.19), which is given by
J (∆x) [x
′
¸ = [x
′
+∆x¸ , (9.47)
where J (∆x) is the translation operator, the exact solution (9.46) can be
rewritten as
¸x
′
[n(λ)¸ = ¸x
′
[ J
_
−λ
_
mω
_
[n¸ , (9.48)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 244
9.2. Example
or simply as
[n(λ)¸ = J
_
−λ
_
mω
_
[n¸ . (9.49)
Next we calculate an approximate eigenvalues and eigenvectors using per
turbation theory. Using the identity
x =
_
2mω
_
a +a
†
_
, (9.50)
one has
V =
λω
√
2
_
a +a
†
_
. (9.51)
Furthermore, using the identities
a[n¸ =
√
n[n −1¸ , (9.52)
a
†
[n¸ =
√
n + 1 [n + 1¸ , (9.53)
one has
¸m[ V [n¸ =
λω
√
2
_
¸m[ a [n¸ +¸m[ a
†
[n¸
_
=
λω
√
2
_√
nδ
m,n−1
+
√
n + 1δ
m,n+1
_
.
(9.54)
Thus E
n
(λ) can be expanded using Eq. (9.32) as
E
n
(λ) = E
n
+¸n[ V [n¸
. ¸¸ .
=0
+
k=n
i
[¸k, i[ V [n¸[
2
E
n
−E
k
+O
_
λ
3
_
= E
n
+
[¸n −1[ V [n¸[
2
E
n
−E
n−1
+
[¸n + 1[ V [n¸[
2
E
n
−E
n+1
+O
_
λ
3
_
= ω
_
n +
1
2
_
+ω
nλ
2
2
−ω
(n + 1) λ
2
2
+O
_
λ
3
_
= ω
_
n +
1
2
_
−ω
λ
2
2
+O
_
λ
3
_
,
(9.55)
in agreement (to second order) with the exact result (9.45), and [n(λ)¸ can
be expanded using Eq. (9.30) as
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 245
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
[n(λ)¸ = [n¸ +
k=n
i
[k, i¸ ¸k, i[ V [n¸
E
n
−E
k
+O
_
λ
2
_
= [n¸ +
[n −1¸ ¸n −1[ V [n¸
E
n
−E
n−1
+
[n + 1¸ ¸n + 1[ V [n¸
E
n
−E
n+1
+O
_
λ
2
_
= [n¸ +
[n −1¸
λω
√
2
√
n
ω
−
[n + 1¸
λω
√
2
√
n + 1
ω
+O
_
λ
2
_
= [n¸ +
λ
√
2
a[n¸ −
λ
√
2
a
†
[n¸ +O
_
λ
2
_
.
(9.56)
Note that with the help of the following identify
p = i
_
mω
2
_
−a +a
†
_
, (9.57)
the last result can be written as
[n(λ)¸ =
_
1 +λ
_
mω
ip
_
[n¸ +O
_
λ
2
_
. (9.58)
Alternatively, in terms of the translation operator J (∆x), which is given by
J (∆x) = exp
_
−
ip∆x
_
, (9.59)
one has
[n(λ)¸ = J
_
−λ
_
mω
_
[n¸ +O
_
λ
2
_
, (9.60)
in agreement (to second order) with the exact result (9.49).
9.3 Problems
1. The volume eﬀect: The energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom was
calculated in chapter 8 by considering the proton to be a point particle.
Consider a model in which the proton is instead assumed to be a sphere
of radius ρ
0
where ρ
0
<< a
0
(a
0
is Bohr’s radius), and the charge of
the proton +e is assumed to be uniformly distributed in that sphere.
Show that the energy shift due to such perturbation to lowest order in
perturbation theory is given by
∆E
n,l
=
e
2
10
ρ
2
0
[R
n,l
(0)[
2
, (9.61)
where R
n,l
(r) is the radial wave function.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 246
9.3. Problems
2. Consider an hydrogen atom. A perturbation given by
V = Ar , (9.62)
where r =
_
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
is the radial coordinate and A is a constant is
added.
a) Calculate to ﬁrst order in A the energy of the ground state.
b) Calculate to ﬁrst order in A the energy of the ﬁrst excited state.
3. A weak uniform electric ﬁeld E = Eˆz, where E is a constant, is applied
to a hydrogen atom. Calculate to 1st order in perturbation theory the
correction to the energy of the
a) level n = 1 (n is the principle quantum number).
b) level n = 2.
4. Consider two particles, both having the same mass m, moving in a one
dimensional potential with coordinates x
1
and x
2
respectively. The po
tential energy is given by
V (x
1
, x
2
) =
1
2
mω
2
(x
1
−a)
2
+
1
2
mω
2
(x
2
+a)
2
+λmω
2
(x
1
−x
2
)
2
,
(9.63)
where λ is real. Find the energy of the ground state to lowest non
vanishing order in λ.
5. A particle having mass m is conﬁned in a potential well of width l, which
is given by
V (x) =
_
0 for 0 ≤ x ≤ l
+∞ elsewhere
. (9.64)
Find to lowest order in perturbation theory the correction to the ground
state energy due to a perturbation given by
W (x) = w
0
δ
_
x −
l
2
_
, (9.65)
where w
0
is a real constant.
6. Consider a particle having mass m in a two dimensional potential well of
width a that is given by
V (x, y) =
_
0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ a and 0 ≤ y ≤ a
+∞ elsewhere
. (9.66)
A perturbation given by
W (x, y) =
_
w
0
if 0 ≤ x ≤
a
2
and 0 ≤ y ≤
a
2
0 elsewhere
, (9.67)
is added.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 247
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
a) Calculate to lowest nonvanishing order in w
0
the energy of the
ground state.
b) The same for the ﬁrst excite state.
7. Consider a particle having mass m moving in a potential energy given by
V (x, y) =
mω
2
2
_
x
2
+y
2
_
+βmω
2
xy , (9.68)
where the angular frequency ω is a constant and where the dimensionless
real constant β is assumed to be small.
a) Calculate to ﬁrst order in β the energy of the ground state.
b) Calculate to ﬁrst order in β the energy of the ﬁrst excited state.
8. Consider an harmonic oscillator having angular resonance frequency ω.
A perturbation given by
V = β
_
a
†
a
†
+aa
_
(9.69)
is added, where a is the annihilation operator and β is a real constant.
Calculate the energies of the system to second order in β.
9. The Hamiltonian of a spin S = 1 is given by
H = αS
2
z
+β
_
S
2
x
−S
2
y
_
, (9.70)
where α and β are both constants.
a) Write the matrix representation of Hin the basis ¦[S = 1, m = −1¸ , [S = 1, m = 0¸ [S = 1, m = 1¸¦.
b) Calculate (exactly) the eigenenergies and the corresponding eigen
vectors.
c) For the case β << α use perturbation theory to calculate to lowest
order in α and β the eigen energies of the system.
10. Consider a system composed of an harmonic oscillator having angular
resonance frequency ω
r
> 0 and a twolevel system. The Hamiltonian of
the system is given by
H = H
r
+H
a
+V . (9.71)
The term H
r
is the Hamiltonian for the harmonic oscillator
H
r
= ω
r
_
a
†
a +
1
2
_
, (9.72)
where a and a
†
are annihilation and creation operators respectively. The
term H
a
is the Hamiltonian for the twolevel system
H
a
=
ω
a
2
([+¸ ¸+[ −[−¸ ¸−[) , (9.73)
where the ket vectors [±¸ represent the two levels and where ω
a
> 0. The
coupling term between the oscillator and the twolevel system is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 248
9.3. Problems
V = g
_
a
+
[−¸ ¸+[ +a [+¸ ¸−[
_
. (9.74)
Assume the case where [g[ << ω
r
and where [g[ << ω
a
. Calculate to
lowest nonvanishing order in g the eigen energies of the system for the
following cases: (a) ω
r
,= ω
a
; (b) ω
r
= ω
a
.
11. Consider a particle having mass m in a twodimensional potential given
by
V
0
=
1
2
mω
2
_
x
2
+y
2
_
. (9.75)
The following perturbation is added
V
1
=
βω
L
2
z
, (9.76)
where L
z
is the z component of the angular momentum operator.
a) Find to second orders in β the energy of the ground state.
b) Find to ﬁrst order in β the energy of the ﬁrst excited level.
12. A particle having mass m moves in a one dimensional potential
V (x) =
_
V
0
sin
2πx
l
0 ≤ x ≤ l
∞ else
. (9.77)
Consider the constant V
0
to be small. Calculate the system’s eigenenergies
E
n
to ﬁrst order in V
0
.
13. Consider a particle having mass m conﬁnes by the onedimensional po
tential well, which is given by
V (x) =
_
_
_
∞ x < 0
εx
L
0 ≤ x ≤ L
∞ x > L
.
Find to ﬁrst order in ǫ the energy of the ground state.
14. A particle of mass m is trapped in an inﬁnite 2 dimensional well of width
l
V (x, y) =
_
0 0 ≤ x ≤ l and 0 ≤ y ≤ l
∞ else
. (9.78)
A perturbation given by
W (x, y) = λ
2
π
2
m
δ (x −l
x
) δ (y −l
y
) . (9.79)
is added, where
0 ≤ l
x
≤ l , (9.80)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 249
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
and
0 ≤ l
y
≤ l . (9.81)
Calculate to 1st order in perturbation theory the correction to the energy
of the:
a) ground state.
b) ﬁrst excited state.
15. Consider a rigid rotator whose Hamiltonian is given by
H =
L
2
x
+L
2
y
2I
xy
+
L
2
z
2I
z
+λ
L
2
x
−L
2
y
2I
xy
, (9.82)
where L is the angular momentum vector operator. Use perturbation
theory to calculate the energy of the ground state to second order in λ.
16. Consider two particles having the same mass m moving along the x axis.
The Hamiltonian of the system is given by
H =
p
2
1
2m
+
p
2
2
2m
−αδ (x
1
) −αδ (x
2
) +λδ (x
1
−x
2
) , (9.83)
where x
1
and x
2
are the coordinates of the ﬁrst and second particle
respectively, p
1
and p
2
are the corresponding canonically conjugate mo
mentums, α and λ are both real positive constants and δ () denotes the
delta function. Calculate to ﬁrst order in λ the energy of the ground state
of the system.
17. In this problem the main results of time independent perturbation theory
are derived using an alternative approach. Consider a general square
matrix
W = D +ΩV , (9.84)
where Ω ∈ ¹, D is diagonal
D[n
0
¸ = λ
n0
[n
0
¸ , (9.85a)
¸n
0
[ D = λ
n0
¸n
0
[ , (9.85b)
and we assume that none of the eigenvalues of D is degenerate. The set
of eigenvectors of D is assumed to be orthonormal
¸n
0
[m
0
¸ = δ
nm
, (9.86)
and complete (the dimensionality is assumed to be ﬁnite)
1 =
n
[n
0
¸ ¸n
0
[ . (9.87)
Calculate the eigenvalues of W
W [n¸ = λ[n¸ (9.88)
to second order in Ω.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 250
9.4. Solutions
9.4 Solutions
1. The radial force acting on the electron is found using Gauss’ theorem
F
r
(r) =
_
_
_
e
2
r
2
r > ρ
0
e
2
r
2
_
r
ρ
0
_
3
r ≤ ρ
0
. (9.89)
The potential energy V (r) is found by integrating F
r
(r) and by requiring
that V (r) is continuous at r = ρ
0
V (r) =
_
_
_
−
e
2
r
r > ρ
0
e
2
2ρ
0
_
_
r
ρ
0
_
2
−3
_
r ≤ ρ
0
. (9.90)
Thus, the perturbation term in the Hamiltonian is given by
V
p
(r) = V (r) −
_
−
e
2
r
_
=
_
_
_
0 r > ρ
0
e
2
2ρ
0
_
_
r
ρ
0
_
2
+
2ρ
0
r
−3
_
r ≤ ρ
0
. (9.91)
To ﬁrst order one has
∆E
n,l
= ¸nlm[ V
p
[nlm¸ . (9.92)
The wavefunctions for the unperturbed case are given by
ψ
nlm
(r, θ, φ) = R
nl
(r) Y
m
l
(θ, φ) , (9.93)
Since V
p
depends on r only, one ﬁnds that
∆E
n,l
=
∞
_
0
drr
2
[R
nl
(r)[
2
V
p
(r)
=
ρ
0
_
0
drr
2
[R
nl
(r)[
2
e
2
2ρ
0
_
_
r
ρ
0
_
2
+
2ρ
0
r
−3
_
.
(9.94)
In the limit where ρ
0
<< a
0
the term [R
nl
(r)[
2
can approximately be
replaced by [R
nl
(0)[
2
, thus
∆E
n,l
= [R
nl
(0)[
2
ρ
0
_
0
drr
2
e
2
2ρ
0
_
_
r
ρ
0
_
2
+
2ρ
0
r
−3
_
=
e
2
ρ
2
0
10
[R
nl
(0)[
2
.
(9.95)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 251
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
2. The wavefunctions for the unperturbed case are given by
ψ
nlm
(r, θ, φ) = R
nl
(r) Y
m
l
(θ, φ) , (9.96)
where for the states relevant to this problem
R
10
(r) = 2
_
1
a
0
_
3/2
e
−r/a0
, (9.97a)
R
20
(r) = (2 −r/a
0
)
_
1
2a
0
_
3/2
e
−
r
2a
0
, (9.97b)
R
21
(r) =
_
1
2a
0
_
3/2
r
√
3a
0
e
−
r
2a
0
, (9.97c)
Y
0
0
(θ, φ) =
_
1
4π
, (9.97d)
Y
−1
1
(θ, φ) =
1
2
_
3
2π
sinθe
−iφ
, (9.97e)
Y
0
1
(θ, φ) =
1
2
_
3
π
cos θ , (9.97f)
Y
1
1
(θ, φ) = −
1
2
_
3
2π
sinθe
iφ
, (9.97g)
and the corresponding eigenenergies are given by
E
(0)
n
= −
E
I
n
2
, (9.98)
where
E
I
=
m
e
e
4
2
2
. (9.99)
The perturbation term V in the Hamiltonian is given by V = Ar. The
matrix elements of V are expressed as
¸n
′
l
′
m
′
[ V [nlm¸ = A
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
n
′
l
′ R
nl
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ
_
Y
m
′
l
′
_
∗
Y
m
l
= Aδ
l,l
′ δ
m,m
′
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
n
′
l
′ R
nl
.
(9.100)
a) Thus, to ﬁrst order
E
1
= E
(0)
1
+¸100[ V [100¸ +O(A
2
) , (9.101)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 252
9.4. Solutions
where
¸100[ V [100¸ = A
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
2
10
(r) =
3Aa
0
2
. (9.102)
b) The ﬁrst excited state is degenerate, however, as can be seen from
Eq. (9.100) all oﬀdiagonal elements are zero. The diagonal elements
are given by
¸200[ V [200¸ = A
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
2
20
= 6Aa
0
, (9.103a)
¸21m[ V [21m¸ = A
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
21
= 5Aa
0
. (9.103b)
Thus, the degeneracy is lifted
E
2,l=0
= E
(0)
2
+ 6Aa
0
+O(A
2
) , (9.104)
E
2,l=1
= E
(0)
2
+ 5Aa
0
+O(A
2
) . (9.105)
3. The wavefunctions for the unperturbed case are given by
ψ
nlm
(r, θ, φ) = R
nl
(r) Y
m
l
(θ, φ) , (9.106)
where for the states relevant to this problem
R
10
(r) = 2
_
1
a
0
_
3/2
e
−r/a
0
, (9.107)
R
20
(r) = (2 −r/a
0
)
_
1
2a
0
_
3/2
e
−
r
2a
0
, (9.108)
R
21
(r) =
_
1
2a
0
_
3/2
r
√
3a
0
e
−
r
2a
0
, (9.109)
Y
0
0
(θ, φ) =
_
1
4π
, (9.110)
Y
−1
1
(θ, φ) =
1
2
_
3
2π
sinθe
−iφ
, (9.111)
Y
0
1
(θ, φ) =
1
2
_
3
π
cos θ , (9.112)
Y
1
1
(θ, φ) = −
1
2
_
3
2π
sinθe
iφ
, (9.113)
and the corresponding eigenenergies are given by
E
(0)
n
= −
E
I
n
2
, (9.114)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 253
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
where
E
I
=
m
e
e
4
2
2
. (9.115)
The perturbation term V in the Hamiltonian is given by
V = eEz = eEr cos θ . (9.116)
The matrix elements of V are expressed as
¸n
′
l
′
m
′
[ V [nlm¸ = eE
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
n
′
l
′ R
nl
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ cos θ
_
Y
m
′
l
′
_
∗
Y
m
l
.
(9.117)
a) Disregarding spin this level is non degenerate. To 1st order
E
1
= E
(0)
1
+¸1, 0, 0[ V [1, 0, 0¸ = E
(0)
1
,
since
1
_
−1
d(cos θ) cos θ = 0 ,
thus the energy of the ground state is unchanged to 1st order.
b) The level n = 2 has degeneracy 4. The matrix of the perturbationV
in the degenerate subspace is given by
M =
_
_
_
_
¸2, 0, 0[ V [2, 0, 0¸ ¸2, 0, 0[ V [2, 1, −1¸ ¸2, 0, 0[ V [2, 1, 0¸ ¸2, 0, 0[ V [2, 1, 1¸
¸2, 1, −1[ V [2, 0, 0¸ ¸2, 1, −1[ V [2, 1, −1¸ ¸2, 1, −1[ V [2, 1, 0¸ ¸2, 1, −1[ V [2, 1, 1¸
¸2, 1, 0[ V [2, 0, 0¸ ¸2, 1, 0[ V [2, 1, −1¸ ¸2, 1, 0[ V [2, 1, 0¸ ¸2, 1, 0[ V [2, 1, 1¸
¸2, 1, 1[ V [2, 0, 0¸ ¸2, 1, 1[ V [2, 1, −1¸ ¸2, 1, 1[ V [2, 1, 0¸ ¸2, 1, 1[ V [2, 1, 1¸
_
_
_
_
.
(9.118)
Using
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 254
9.4. Solutions
1
_
−1
d(cos θ) cos θ = 0 , (9.119)
1
_
−1
d(cos θ) cos θ sinθ = 0 , (9.120)
1
_
−1
d(cos θ) cos θ sin
2
θ = 0 , (9.121)
1
_
−1
d(cos θ) cos
3
θ = 0 , (9.122)
2π
_
0
dφ e
±iφ
= 0 , (9.123)
one ﬁnds
M =
_
_
_
_
0 0 γ 0
0 0 0 0
γ
∗
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
_
_
_
, (9.124)
where
γ = ¸2, 0, 0[ V [2, 1, 0¸
= eE
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
2,0
R
2,1
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ cos θ
_
Y
0
0
_
∗
Y
0
1
=
eE
8
∞
_
0
dr
_
2 −
r
a
0
__
r
a
0
_
4
e
−
r
a
0
1
4π
1
_
−1
d(cos θ) cos
2
θ
2π
_
0
dφ .
(9.125)
Using
1
_
−1
d(cos θ) cos
2
θ =
2
3
, (9.126)
and
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 255
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
_
∞
0
x
4
e
−x
dx = 24 (9.127)
_
∞
0
x
5
e
−x
dx = 120 (9.128)
one ﬁnds
γ = ¸2, 0, 0[ V [2, 1, 0¸
=
eE
24
∞
_
0
dr
_
2 −
r
a
0
__
r
a
0
_
4
e
−
r
a
0
=
a
0
eE
24
∞
_
0
dx (2 −x) x
4
e
−x
= −3a
0
eE .
(9.129)
The eigenvalues of the matrix M are 0, 0, 3a
0
eE and −3a
0
eE. Thus
to 1st order the degeneracy is partially lifted with subspace of dimen
sion 2 having energy E
(0)
2
, and another 2 nondegenerate subspaces
having energies E
(0)
2
±3a
0
eE.
4. To lowest order in perturbation theory the ground state energy is given
by
E
gs
= ω+λmω
2
∞
_
−∞
dx
1
∞
_
−∞
dx
2
ϕ
2
0
(x
1
−a) ϕ
2
0
(x
2
+a) (x
1
−x
2
)
2
+O
_
λ
2
_
,
(9.130)
where ϕ
0
(x) is the ground state wavefunction of a particle having mass
m conﬁned by a potential (1/2) mω
2
x
2
centered at x = 0. Employing the
transformation
x
′
1
= x
1
−a , (9.131)
x
′
2
= x
2
+a , (9.132)
and Eq. (5.118) one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 256
9.4. Solutions
E
gs
= ω
+λmω
2
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
1
ϕ
2
0
(x
′
1
) (x
′
1
+a)
2
+λmω
2
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
2
ϕ
2
0
(x
′
2
) (x
′
2
+a)
2
−2λmω
2
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
1
ϕ
2
0
(x
′
1
) (x
′
1
+a)
∞
_
−∞
dx
′
2
ϕ
2
0
(x
′
2
) (x
′
2
−a)
+O
_
λ
2
_
= ω + 2λmω
2
_
2mω
+a
2
_
+ 2λmω
2
a
2
+O
_
λ
2
_
= ω +λ
_
ω + 4mω
2
a
2
_
+O
_
λ
2
_
.
(9.133)
Note that this problem can be also solved exactly by employing the co
ordinate transformation
x
+
=
x
1
+x
2
√
2
, (9.134)
x
−
=
x
1
−x
2
√
2
. (9.135)
The inverse transformation is given by
x
1
=
x
+
+x
−
√
2
, (9.136)
x
2
=
x
+
−x
−
√
2
. (9.137)
The following holds
x
2
1
+x
2
2
= x
2
+
+x
2
−
, (9.138)
and
˙ x
2
1
+ ˙ x
2
2
= ˙ x
2
+
+ ˙ x
2
−
. (9.139)
Thus, the Lagrangian of the system can be written as
/ =
m
_
˙ x
2
1
+ ˙ x
2
2
_
2
−V (x
1
, x
2
)
=
m
_
˙ x
2
+
+ ˙ x
2
−
_
2
−
1
2
mω
2
_
x
2
+
+x
2
−
−2a
√
2x
−
+ 2a
2
+ 4λx
2
−
_
= /
+
+/
−
,
(9.140)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 257
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
where
/
+
=
m˙ x
2
+
2
−
1
2
mω
2
x
2
+
, (9.141)
and
/
−
=
m˙ x
2
−
2
−
1
2
mω
2
_
_
(1 + 4λ)
_
x
−
−
a
√
2
1 + 4λ
_
2
+
8λa
2
1 + 4λ
_
_
. (9.142)
Thus, the system is composed of two decoupled harmonic oscillators, and
therefore, the exact eigenenergies are given by
E
n+,n−
= ω
_
n
+
+
1
2
_
+ω
√
1 + 4λ
_
n
−
+
1
2
_
+
4λmω
2
a
2
1 + 4λ
, (9.143)
where n
+
, n
−
= 0, 1, 2, . To ﬁrst order in λ one thus has
E
n+,n−
= ω
_
n
+
+
1
2
_
+ω
_
n
−
+
1
2
_
+λ
_
ω (2n
−
+ 1) + 4mω
2
a
2
¸
+O
_
λ
2
_
.
(9.144)
5. For w
0
= 0 the normalized wavefunctions ψ
(0)
n
(x) are given by
ψ
(0)
n
(x) = ¸x
′
[n¸ =
_
2
l
sin
nπx
′
l
, (9.145)
and the corresponding eigenenergies are
E
(0)
n
=
2
π
2
n
2
2ml
2
. (9.146)
The matrix elements of the perturbation are given by
¸n[W[m¸ =
2w
0
l
l
_
0
sin
nπx
l
sin
mπx
l
δ
_
x −
l
2
_
dx
=
2w
0
l
sin
nπ
2
sin
mπ
2
.
(9.147)
For the ground state
¸1[V [1¸ =
2w
0
l
, (9.148)
thus
E
1
=
2
π
2
2ml
2
+
2w
0
l
+O
_
w
2
0
_
. (9.149)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 258
9.4. Solutions
6. For w
0
= 0 the normalized wavefunctions ψ
(0)
nx,ny
(x, y) are given by
ψ
(0)
nx,ny
(x
′
, y
′
) = ¸x
′
, y
′
[n
x
, n
y
¸ =
2
a
sin
n
x
πx
′
a
sin
n
y
πy
′
a
, (9.150)
and the corresponding eigenenergies are
E
(0)
nx,ny
=
2
π
2
_
n
2
x
+n
2
y
_
2ma
2
, (9.151)
where n
x
= 1, 2, and n
y
= 1, 2, .
a) The ground state (n
x
, n
y
) = (1, 1) is nondegenerate, thus to ﬁrst
order in w
0
E
0
=
2
π
2
ma
2
+¸1, 1[W[1, 1¸
=
2
π
2
ma
2
+
4w
0
a
2
a/2
_
0
sin
2
πx
a
dx
a/2
_
0
sin
2
πy
a
dy
2
π
2
ma
2
+
w
0
4
,
(9.152)
b) The ﬁrst excite state is doubly degenerate. The matrix of the per
turbation in the corresponding subspace is given by
_
¸1, 2[W[1, 2¸ ¸1, 2[W[2, 1¸
¸2, 1[W[1, 2¸ ¸2, 1[W[2, 1¸
_
=
4w
0
a
2
_
_
_
_
_
a/2
_
0
sin
2 πx
a
dx
a/2
_
0
sin
2 2πy
a
dy
a/2
_
0
sin
πx
a
sin
2πx
a
dx
a/2
_
0
sin
2πy
a
sin
πy
a
dy
a/2
_
0
sin
2πx
a
sin
1πx
a
dx
a/2
_
0
sin
πy
a
sin
2πy
a
dy
a/2
_
0
sin
2 2πx
a
dx
a/2
_
0
sin
2 πy
a
dy
_
_
_
_
_
= w
0
_
1
4
16
9π
2
16
9π
2
1
4
_
,
(9.153)
To ﬁrst order in perturbation theory the eigenenergies are found
by adding the eigenvalues of the above matrix to the unperturbed
eigenenergy E
(0)
1,2
= E
(0)
2,1
. Thus, to ﬁrst order in w
0
E
1,±
=
5
2
π
2
2ma
2
+
w
0
4
±
16w
0
9π
2
+O
_
w
2
0
_
. (9.154)
7. For the unperturbed case β = 0 one has
H
0
[n
x
, n
y
¸ = ω (n
x
+n
y
+ 1) [n
x
, n
y
¸ , (9.155)
where n
x
, n
y
= 0, 1, 2, . Using the identities
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 259
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
x =
_
2mω
_
a
x
+a
†
x
_
, (9.156)
y =
_
2mω
_
a
y
+a
†
y
_
, (9.157)
the perturbation term V
1
= βmω
2
xy can be expressed as
V
1
= β
ω
2
_
a
x
+a
†
x
_ _
a
y
+a
†
y
_
.
a) For the ground state [0, 0¸, which is nondegenerate, one has
E
0,0
(β) = ω +¸0, 0[ V
1
[0, 0¸
. ¸¸ .
=0
+
n
x
,n
y
=0,0
[¸n
x
, n
y
[ V
1
[0, 0¸[
2
E
0,0
(0) −E
nx,ny
= ω +
[¸1, 1[ V
1
[0, 0¸[
2
2ω
= ω −
_
ωβ
2
_
2
2ω
= ω
_
1 −
β
2
8
_
.
(9.158)
b) The ﬁrst excited state is doubly degenerate, thus the eigenenergies
are found by diagonalizing the matrix of V
1
in the corresponding
subspace
_
¸1, 0[ V
1
[1, 0¸ ¸1, 0[ V
1
[0, 1¸
¸0, 1[ V
1
[1, 0¸ ¸0, 1[ V
1
[0, 1¸
_
=
ωβ
2
_
0 1
1 0
_
. (9.159)
Thus the degeneracy is lifted and the energies are given by 2ω (1 ±β/4).
Note that this problem can be also solved exactly by employing the
coordinate transformation
x
′
=
x +y
√
2
, (9.160)
y
′
=
x −y
√
2
. (9.161)
The inverse transformation is given by
x =
x
′
+y
′
√
2
, (9.162)
y =
x
′
−y
′
√
2
. (9.163)
The following hold
x
2
+y
2
= x
′2
+y
′2
, (9.164)
˙ x
2
+ ˙ y
2
= ˙ x
′2
+ ˙ y
′2
, (9.165)
xy =
1
2
_
x
′2
−y
′2
_
. (9.166)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 260
9.4. Solutions
Thus, the Lagrangian of the system can be written as
/ =
m
_
˙ x
2
+ ˙ y
2
_
2
−V (x
1
, x
2
)
=
m
_
˙ x
′2
+ ˙ y
′2
_
2
−
mω
2
2
_
x
′2
+y
′2
_
−
βmω
2
2
_
x
′2
−y
′2
_
= /
+
+/
−
,
(9.167)
where
/
+
=
m˙ x
′2
2
−
mω
2
2
(1 +β) x
′2
, (9.168)
and
/
−
=
m˙ y
′2
2
−
mω
2
2
(1 −β) y
′2
. (9.169)
Thus, the system is composed of two decoupled harmonic oscillators,
and therefore, the exact eigenenergies are given by
E
n+,n−
= ω
_
_
1 +β
_
n
x
+
1
2
_
+
_
1 −β
_
n
y
+
1
2
__
, (9.170)
where n
x
, n
y
= 0, 1, 2, . To second order in β one thus has
E
n+,n−
= ω
_
n
x
+n
y
+ 1 +
n
x
−n
y
2
β −
n
x
+n
y
+ 1
8
β
2
_
+O
_
β
3
_
.
(9.171)
8. Using Eqs. (5.28) and (5.29) one ﬁnds that
¸m[ V [n¸ = β
_
n(n −1)δ
m,n−2
+β
_
(n + 1) (n + 2)δ
m,n+2
, (9.172)
thus
E
n
(β) = ω
_
n +
1
2
_
+¸n[ V [n¸
. ¸¸ .
=0
+
m=n
[¸m[ V [n¸[
2
E
n
(0) −E
m
(0)
+O
_
β
3
_
= ω
_
n +
1
2
_
+
β
2
2ω
[n(n −1) −(n + 1) (n + 2)] +O
_
β
3
_
= ω
_
n +
1
2
_
_
1 −2
_
β
ω
_
2
_
+O
_
β
3
_
.
(9.173)
9. In general the subspace of angular momentum states with J = 1 is
spanned by the basis
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 261
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
¦[j = 1, m = −1¸ , [j = 1, m = 0¸ , [j = 1, m = 1¸¦ , (9.174)
and the following holds
¸j
′
, m
′
[ J
z
[j, m¸ = mδ
j
′
,j
δ
m
′
,m
, (9.175)
¸j
′
, m
′
[ J
2
[j, m¸ = j (j + 1)
2
δ
j
′
,j
δ
m
′
,m
, (9.176)
¸j
′
, m
′
[ J
±
[j, m¸ =
_
(j ∓m) (j ±m+ 1)δ
j
′
,j
δ
m
′
,m±1
, (9.177)
J
±
= J
x
±iJ
y
. (9.178)
In matrix form
J
z
˙ =
_
_
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 −1
_
_
, (9.179)
J
2
˙ = 2
2
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
, (9.180)
J
+
˙ =
√
2
_
_
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
_
_
, (9.181)
J
−
˙ =
√
2
_
_
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
_
_
. (9.182)
a) The Hamiltonian is given by
H = αS
2
z
+β
_
S
2
x
−S
2
y
_
= αS
2
z
+
β
4
_
(S
+
+S
−
)
2
+ (S
+
−S
−
)
2
_
= αS
2
z
+
β
2
_
S
2
+
+S
2
−
_
.
(9.183)
Thus, in matrix form
H ˙ = α
2
_
_
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
_
_
+β
2
_
_
_
_
0 0 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
+
_
_
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
_
_
_
_
=
2
_
_
α 0 β
0 0 0
β 0 α
_
_
.
(9.184)
b) The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 262
9.4. Solutions
2
_
_
α 0 β
0 0 0
β 0 α
_
_
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
=
2
(α +β)
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
, (9.185)
2
_
_
α 0 β
0 0 0
β 0 α
_
_
_
_
−1
0
1
_
_
=
2
(α −β)
_
_
−1
0
1
_
_
, (9.186)
2
_
_
α 0 β
0 0 0
β 0 α
_
_
_
_
0
1
0
_
_
=
2
0
_
_
0
1
0
_
_
. (9.187)
c) The Hamiltonian is written as H = H
0
+V where in matrix form
H
0
˙ =
2
α
_
_
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 1
_
_
, (9.188)
V ˙ =
2
β
_
_
0 0 1
0 0 0
1 0 0
_
_
. (9.189)
For the nondegenerate eigenenergy E
0
m=0
= 0 on has to second order
in perturbation expansion
E
m=0
= E
0
m=0
+¸1, 0[ V [1, 0¸+
m
′
=±1
[¸1, m
′
[ V [1, 0¸[
2
E
0
m=0
−E
0
m
′
= 0 . (9.190)
For the degenerate eigenenergy E
0
m=±1
=
2
α the perturbation in
the subspace spanned by ¦[1, −1¸ , [1, 1¸¦ is given in matrix form by
V
m=±1
˙ =
2
β
_
0 1
1 0
_
, (9.191)
thus to ﬁrst order in perturbation expansion
E
m=±1
=
2
(α ±β) . (9.192)
10. For the unperturbed case V = 0, the eigenvectors and eigenenergies are
related by
(H
r
+H
a
) [n, σ¸ = E
0
n,σ
[n, σ¸ , (9.193)
where n = 0, 1, 2, is the quantum number of the harmonic oscillator,
and σ ∈ ¦−1, +1¦ is the quantum number associated with the twolevel
particle, and
E
0
n,σ
= ω
r
_
n +
1
2
_
+σ
ω
a
2
. (9.194)
Consider ﬁrst the nondegenerate case where ω
r
,= ω
a
. To second order
in perturbation theorem
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 263
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
E
n,σ
= E
0
n,σ
+¸n, σ[ V [n, σ¸ +
n
′
,σ
′
=n,σ
[¸n
′
, σ
′
[ V [n, σ¸[
2
E
0
n,σ
−E
0
n
′
,σ
′
. (9.195)
Using
V [n, +¸ = ga
†
[n, −¸ = g
√
n + 1 [n + 1, −¸ , (9.196)
V [n, −¸ = ga[n, +¸ = g
√
n[n −1, +¸ , (9.197)
one ﬁnds for σ = +1
E
n,+1
= ω
r
_
n +
1
2
_
+
ω
a
2
+
g
2
(n + 1)
ω
a
−ω
r
, (9.198)
and for σ = −1
E
n,−1
= ω
r
_
n +
1
2
_
−
ω
a
2
−
g
2
n
ω
a
−ω
r
. (9.199)
For the general case this can be written as
E
n,σ
=
_
ω
r
+
σg
2
ω
a
−ω
r
__
n +
1
2
_
+
σω
a
2
+
1
2
g
2
ω
a
−ω
r
. (9.200)
In the degenerate case ω
r
= ω
a
≡ ω the eigenenergies for the case V = 0
are given by
E
0
n,σ
= ω
_
n +
1
2
+
σ
2
_
, (9.201)
thus the pairs of states [n, +¸ and [n + 1, −¸ are degenerate. In the subset
of such a pair the perturbation is given by
_
¸n, +[ V [n, +¸ ¸n, +[ V [n + 1, −¸
¸n + 1, −[ V [n, +¸ ¸n + 1, −[ V [n + 1, −¸
_
=
_
0 g
√
n + 1
g
√
n + 1 0
_
,
(9.202)
thus to ﬁrst order in g the eigenenergies are given by
E =
_
ω (n + 1) ±g
√
n + 1
¸
. (9.203)
11. Using creation and annihilation operators one has
H
0
=
p
2
x
+p
2
y
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
_
x
2
+y
2
_
= ω (N
x
+N
y
+ 1) , (9.204)
where N
x
= a
†
x
a
x
, N
y
= a
†
y
a
y
, and
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 264
9.4. Solutions
V =
βω
L
2
z
=
βω
(xp
y
−yp
x
)
2
=
βω
_
i
_
a
x
a
†
y
−a
†
x
a
y
_¸
2
= −βω
__
a
2
x
_
a
†
y
_
2
+
_
a
†
x
_
2
a
2
y
−a
x
a
†
x
a
†
y
a
y
−a
†
x
a
x
a
y
a
†
y
__
= −βω
_
a
2
x
_
a
†
y
_
2
+
_
a
†
x
_
2
a
2
y
−(1 +N
x
) N
y
−N
x
(1 +N
y
)
_
.
(9.205)
a) For the case β = 0 the ground state [0, 0¸ is nondegenerate and has
energy E
0,0
= ω. Since V [0, 0¸ = 0 one ﬁnds to second order in β
E
0,0
= ω+¸0, 0[ V [0, 0¸−
1
ω
nx,ny=0,0
[¸n
x
, n
y
[ V [0, 0¸[
2
n
x
+n
y
= ω+O
_
β
3
_
.
(9.206)
b) For the case β = 0 the ﬁrst excited state is doubly degenerate
H
0
[1, 0¸ = 2ω [1, 0¸ , (9.207)
H
0
[0, 1¸ = 2ω [0, 1¸ . (9.208)
The matrix of V in the basis ¦[1, 0¸ , [0, 1¸¦ is given by
_
¸1, 0[ V [1, 0¸ ¸1, 0[ V [0, 1¸
¸0, 1[ V [1, 0¸ ¸0, 1[ V [0, 1¸
_
= βω
_
¸1, 0[ [(1 +N
x
) N
y
+N
x
(1 +N
y
)] [1, 0¸ 0
0 ¸0, 1[ [(1 +N
x
) N
y
+N
x
(1 +N
y
)] [0, 1¸
_
= βω
_
1 0
0 1
_
.
(9.209)
Thus to ﬁrst order in β the ﬁrst excited state remains doubly de
generate with energy 2ω (1 +β). Note  The exact solution can be
found using the transformation
a
d
=
1
√
2
(a
x
−ia
y
) , (9.210)
a
g
=
1
√
2
(a
x
+ia
y
) . (9.211)
The following holds
_
a
d
, a
†
d
_
=
_
a
g
, a
†
g
¸
= 1 ,
a
†
d
a
d
+a
†
g
a
g
=
1
2
_
a
†
x
+ia
†
y
_
(a
x
−ia
y
) +
1
2
_
a
†
x
−ia
†
y
_
(a
x
+ia
y
)
= a
†
x
a
x
+a
†
y
a
y
,
(9.212)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 265
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
and
a
†
d
a
d
−a
†
g
a
g
=
1
2
_
a
†
x
+ia
†
y
_
(a
x
−ia
y
) −
1
2
_
a
†
x
−ia
†
y
_
(a
x
+ia
y
)
= i
_
a
x
a
†
y
−a
†
x
a
y
_
,
(9.213)
thus
H
0
= ω (N
d
+N
g
+ 1) , (9.214)
V = βω (N
d
−N
g
)
2
, (9.215)
and the exact eigen vectors and eigen energies are given by
(H
0
+V ) [n
d
, n
g
¸ = ω
_
n
d
+n
g
+ 1 +β (n
d
−n
g
)
2
_
[n
d
, n
g
¸ .
(9.216)
12. For V
0
= 0 the wavefunctions ψ
(0)
n
(x) are given by
ψ
(0)
n
(x) = ¸x
′
[n¸ =
_
2
l
sin
nπx
′
l
, (9.217)
and the corresponding eigenenergies are
E
(0)
n
=
2
π
2
n
2
2ml
2
. (9.218)
The matrix elements of the perturbation are given by
¸n[V [m¸ =
2V
0
l
l
_
0
sin
nπx
l
sin
mπx
l
sin
2πx
l
dx . (9.219)
For the diagonal case n = m
¸n[V [n¸ =
2V
0
l
l
_
0
sin
2
nπx
l
sin
2πx
l
dx (9.220)
=
2V
0
l
l/2
_
−l/2
sin
2
_
nπy
l
+
nπ
2
_
sin
_
2πy
l
+π
_
dy (9.221)
= −
2V
0
l
l/2
_
−l/2
1 −cos
_
2nπy
l
+nπ
_
2
sin
2πy
l
dy (9.222)
= 0 , (9.223)
(9.224)
since the integrand is clearly an odd function of y. Thus to ﬁrst order in
V
0
the energies are unchanged
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 266
9.4. Solutions
E
n
=
2
π
2
n
2
2ml
2
+O
_
V
2
0
_
. (9.225)
13. For the case ε = 0 the exact wave functions are given by
ψ
(0)
n
(x) =
_
2
L
sin
_
nπx
L
_
, (9.226)
and the corresponding eigen energies are
E
(0)
n
=
2
π
2
n
2
2mL
2
, (9.227)
where n is integer. To ﬁrst order in ε the energy of the ground state n = 1
is given by
E
1
= E
(0)
1
+
ε
L
_
L
0
dx
_
ψ
(0)
1
(x)
_
2
x +O
_
ε
2
_
= E
(0)
1
+
2ε
L
2
_
L
0
dx sin
2
_
πx
L
_
x +O
_
ε
2
_
= E
(0)
1
+
ε
2
+O
_
ε
2
_
(9.228)
14. For the case λ = 0 the exact wave functions of the eigenstates are given
by
ψ
(0)
nx,ny
(x, y) =
2
l
sin
n
x
πx
l
sin
n
y
πy
l
, (9.229)
and the corresponding eigen energies are
E
(0)
nx,ny
=
2
π
2
_
n
2
x
+n
2
y
_
2ml
2
, (9.230)
where n
x
and n
y
are nonzero integers.
a) The ground state is non degenerate thus to 1st order the energy is
given by
E
0
= E
(0)
1,1
+
_
l
0
_
l
0
_
ψ
(0)
1,1
_
2
W dxdy
=
2
π
2
ml
2
+
2
π
2
ml
2
4λ
_
l
0
_
l
0
sin
2
πx
l
sin
2
πy
l
δ (x −l
x
) δ (y −l
y
) dxdy
=
2
π
2
ml
2
_
1 + 4λsin
2
πl
x
l
sin
2
πl
y
l
_
.
(9.231)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 267
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
b) The ﬁrst excited state is doubly degenerate. The matrix of the per
turbation W in the eigen subspace is given by
W ˙ =
_
¸2, 1[ W [2, 1¸ ¸2, 1[ W [1, 2¸
¸1, 2[ W [2, 1¸ ¸1, 2[ W [1, 2¸
_
= 4λ
2
π
2
ml
2
_
sin
2 2πl
x
l
sin
2 πl
y
l
sin
2πl
x
l
sin
πl
x
l
sin
πl
y
l
sin
2πl
y
l
sin
πlx
l
sin
2πlx
l
sin
2πly
l
sin
πly
l
sin
2 πlx
l
sin
2 2πly
l
_
= 4λ
2
π
2
ml
2
_
4 sin
2 πlx
l
cos
2 πlx
l
sin
2 πly
l
4 cos
πlx
l
sin
2 πlx
l
cos
πly
l
sin
2 πly
l
4 cos
πlx
l
sin
2 πlx
l
cos
πly
l
sin
2 πly
l
4 sin
2 πlx
l
sin
2 πly
l
cos
2
πly
l
_
=
16λ
2
π
2
sin
2 πlx
l
sin
2 πly
l
ml
2
_
cos
2 πlx
l
cos
πlx
l
cos
πly
l
cos
πl
x
l
cos
πl
y
l
cos
2
πl
y
l
_
.
(9.232)
The eigenvalues of W are
w
1
= 0 , (9.233)
and
w
2
=
16λ
2
π
2
sin
2 πl
x
l
sin
2 πl
y
l
_
cos
2 πl
x
l
+ cos
2
πl
y
l
_
ml
2
. (9.234)
15. The unperturbed Hamiltonian (λ = 0) can be written as
H =
L
2
−L
2
z
2I
xy
+
L
2
z
2I
z
=
L
2
2I
xy
+
_
1
2I
z
−
1
2I
xy
_
L
2
z
,
(9.235)
thus the states [l, m¸ (the standard eigenstates of L
2
and L
z
) are eigen
states of H and the following holds
H[l, m¸ = E
l,m
[l, m¸ , (9.236)
where
E
l,m
=
2
_
l (l + 1)
2I
xy
+
_
1
2I
z
−
1
2I
xy
_
m
2
_
. (9.237)
Since the unperturbed Hamiltonian is positivedeﬁnite, it is clear that
the state [l = 0, m = 0¸ is the (nondegenerate) ground state of the system
since its energy vanishes E
0,0
= 0. Using
L
x
=
L
+
+L
−
2
, (9.238)
L
y
=
L
+
−L
−
2i
, (9.239)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 268
9.4. Solutions
one ﬁnds that the perturbation term V can be written as
V = λ
L
2
+
+L
2
−
4I
xy
. (9.240)
To second order in λ the energy of the ground state is found using Eq.
(9.32)
E
0
= E
0,0
+¸0, 0[ V [0, 0¸+
l
′
,m
′
=0,0
[¸l
′
, m
′
[ V [0, 0¸[
2
E
0,0
−E
l
′
,m
′
+O
_
λ
3
_
. (9.241)
Using the relations
L
+
[l, m¸ =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m+ 1)[l, m+ 1¸ , (9.242)
L
−
[l, m¸ =
_
l (l + 1) −m(m−1)[l, m−1¸ , (9.243)
it is easy to see that all terms to second order in λ vanish, thus
E
0
= 0 +O
_
λ
3
_
. (9.244)
16. The Hamiltonian can be written as
H = H
1
+H
2
+V , (9.245)
where
H
1
=
p
2
1
2m
−αδ (x
1
) , (9.246)
H
2
=
p
2
2
2m
−αδ (x
2
) , (9.247)
and
V = λδ (x
1
−x
2
) . (9.248)
First consider H
1
only. A wavefunction ψ
(1)
(x
1
) of an eigenstate of H
1
must satisfy the following Schrödinger equation
_
d
2
dx
2
1
+
2m
2
(E +αδ (x
1
))
_
ψ
(1)
(x
1
) = 0 . (9.249)
Integrating around x
1
= 0 yields the condition
dψ
(1)
(0
+
)
dx
1
−
dψ
(1)
(0
−
)
dx
1
+
2mα
2
ψ
(1)
(0) = 0 . (9.250)
Requiring also that the wavefunction is normalizable leads to
ψ
(1)
(x
1
) =
_
mα
2
exp
_
−
mα
2
[x
1
[
_
.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 269
Chapter 9. Time Independent Perturbation Theory
The corresponding eigenenergy is
E
(1)
0
= −
mα
2
2
2
.
The ground state of H
2
can be found in a similar way. Thus, the normal
ized wavefunction of the only bound state of H
1
+H
2
, which is obviously
the ground state, is given by
ψ
0
(x
1
, x
2
) =
mα
2
exp
_
−
mα
2
[x
1
[
_
exp
_
−
mα
2
[x
2
[
_
, (9.251)
and the corresponding energy is given by
E
0
= −
mα
2
2
. (9.252)
Therefore, to ﬁrst order in λ the energy of the ground state of H is given
by Eq. (9.32)
E
gs
= −
mα
2
2
+λ
∞
_
−∞
dx
1
∞
_
−∞
dx
2
ψ
∗
0
(x
1
, x
2
) δ (x
1
−x
2
) ψ
0
(x
1
, x
2
) +O
_
λ
2
_
= −
mα
2
2
+λ
_
mα
2
_
2
∞
_
−∞
dx
1
exp
_
−
4mα
2
[x
1
[
_
+O
_
λ
2
_
= −
mα
2
2
+
λmα
2
2
+O
_
λ
2
_
.
(9.253)
17. Substituting the expansions
[n¸ = [n
0
¸ +Ω[n
1
¸ +Ω
2
[n
2
¸ +O
_
Ω
3
_
, (9.254)
and
λ = λ
n0
+Ωλ
n1
+Ω
2
λ
n2
+O
_
Ω
3
_
, (9.255)
into Eq. (9.88) and collecting terms having the same order in Ω (up to
second order) yield
(D−λ
n0
) [n
0
¸ = 0 , (9.256)
(D−λ
n0
) [n
1
¸ + (V −λ
n1
) [n
0
¸ = 0 , (9.257)
(D−λ
n0
) [n
2
¸ + (V −λ
n1
) [n
1
¸ −λ
n2
[n
0
¸ = 0 . (9.258)
We further require normalization
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 270
9.4. Solutions
¸n[n¸ = 1 , (9.259)
and choose the phase of ¸n
0
[n¸ such that
¸n
0
[n¸ ∈ ¹ . (9.260)
Expressing the normalization condition using Eq. (9.254) and collecting
terms having the same order in Ω yield
¸n
0
[n
0
¸ = 1 , (9.261)
¸n
0
[n
1
¸ +¸n
1
[n
0
¸ = 0 , (9.262)
¸n
0
[n
2
¸ +¸n
2
[n
0
¸ +¸n
1
[n
1
¸ = 0 . (9.263)
These results together with Eq. (9.260) yield
¸n
0
[n
1
¸ = ¸n
1
[n
0
¸ = 0 , (9.264)
¸n
0
[n
2
¸ = ¸n
2
[n
0
¸ = −
1
2
¸n
1
[n
1
¸ . (9.265)
Multiplying Eq. (9.257) by ¸m
0
[ yields
λ
n1
¸m
0
[n
0
¸ = (λ
m0
−λ
n0
) ¸m
0
[n
1
¸ +¸m
0
[ V [n
0
¸ , (9.266)
thus for m = n
λ
n1
= ¸n
0
[ V [n
0
¸ . (9.267)
Using this result for m ,= n yields
¸m
0
[n
1
¸ =
¸m
0
[ V [n
0
¸
λ
n0
−λ
m0
, (9.268)
thus with the help of Eq. (9.87) one has
[n
1
¸ =
m
¸m
0
[ V [n
0
¸
λ
n0
−λ
m0
[m
0
¸ . (9.269)
Multiplying Eq. (9.258) by ¸n
0
[ yields
λ
n2
= ¸n
0
[ V [n
1
¸ −λ
n1
¸n
0
[n
1
¸ , (9.270)
or using Eq. (9.269)
λ
n2
=
m
¸n
0
[ V [m
0
¸ ¸m
0
[ V [n
0
¸
λ
n0
−λ
m0
. (9.271)
Thus, using this result together with Eq. (9.267) one ﬁnds
λ = λ
n0
+Ω¸n
0
[ V [n
0
¸
+Ω
2
m
¸n
0
[ V [m
0
¸ ¸m
0
[ V [n
0
¸
λ
n0
−λ
m0
+O
_
Ω
3
_
.
(9.272)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 271
10. TimeDependent Perturbation Theory
Recall that the time evolution of a state vector [α¸ is governed by the
Schrödinger equation (4.1)
i
d[α¸
dt
= H[α¸ , (10.1)
where the Hermitian operator H = H
†
is the Hamiltonian of the system. The
time evolution operator u(t, t
0
) [see Eq. (4.4)] relates the state vector [α(t
0
)¸
at time t
0
with its value [α(t)¸ at time t
[α(t)¸ = u(t, t
0
) [α(t
0
)¸ . (10.2)
As we have seen in chapter 4, when the Hamiltonian is time independent
u(t, t
0
) is given by
u(t, t
0
) = exp
_
−
i (t −t
0
)
H
_
. (10.3)
In this chapter we consider the more general case where H is allowed to vary
in time. We ﬁrst derive a formal expression for the time evolution operator
u(t, t
0
) applicable for general H. Then we present the perturbation theory
expansion of the time evolution operator, and discuss approximation schemes
to evaluated u(t, t
0
).
10.1 Time Evolution
Dividing the time interval (t
0
, t) into N sections of equal duration allows
expressing the time evolution operator as
u(t, t
0
) =
N
n=1
u(t
n
, t
n−1
) , (10.4)
where
t
n
= t
0
+nǫ , (10.5)
Chapter 10. TimeDependent Perturbation Theory
and where
ǫ =
t −t
0
N
. (10.6)
Furthermore, according to the Schrödinger equation (4.7), the following holds
u(t
n−1
+ǫ, t
n−1
) = 1 −
iǫ
H(t
n
) +O
_
ǫ
2
_
. (10.7)
In the limit where N → ∞ higher than ﬁrst order terms in ǫ, i.e. O
_
ǫ
2
_
terms, are not expected to contribute, thus the time evolution operator can
be expressed as
u(t, t
0
) = lim
N→∞
N
n=1
_
1 −
iǫ
H(t
n
)
_
. (10.8)
10.2 Perturbation Expansion
Consider the case where
H = H
0
+λH
1
, (10.9)
where λ is real. The perturbation expansion expresses the time evolution
operator u(t, t
0
) of the full Hamiltonian H as
u(t, t
0
) = u
0
(t, t
0
) +λu
1
(t, t
0
) +λ
2
u
2
(t, t
0
) +O
_
λ
3
_
, (10.10)
where u
0
(t, t
0
) is the time evolution of the Hamiltonian H
0
. Such an expan
sion can be very useful for cases where u
0
(t, t
0
) can be exactly calculated and
where the parameter λ is small, i.e. [λ[ ≪ 1. For such cases only low order
terms in this expansion are needed for approximately evaluating u(t, t
0
).
By employing Eq. (10.8)
u(t, t
0
) = lim
N→∞
N
n=1
_
1 −
iǫ
(H
0
(t
n
) +λH
1
(t
n
))
_
, (10.11)
one easily obtain the terms u
0
, u
1
and u
2
u
0
(t, t
0
) = lim
N→∞
N
n=1
_
1 −
iǫ
H
0
(t
n
)
_
, (10.12)
u
1
(t, t
0
) = − lim
N→∞
N
n=1
iǫ
u
0
(t, t
n
) H
1
(t
n
) u
0
(t
n
, t
0
)
= −
i
t
_
t
0
dt
′
u
0
(t, t
′
) H
1
(t
′
) u
0
(t
′
, t
0
) ,
(10.13)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 274
10.3. The Operator O(t) = u
†
0
(t, t
0
) u(t, t
0
)
and
u
2
(t, t
0
) = − lim
N→∞
N−1
n=1
N
m=n+1
_
ǫ
_
2
u
0
(t, t
n
) H
1
(t
n
) u
0
(t
n
, t
m
) H
1
(t
m
) u
0
(t
m
, t
0
)
= −
1
2
t
_
t
0
dt
′
t
′
_
t
0
dt
′′
u
0
(t, t
′
) H
1
(t
′
) u
0
(t
′
, t
′′
) H
1
(t
′′
) u
0
(t
′′
, t
0
) .
(10.14)
10.3 The Operator O(t) = u
†
0
(t, t
0
) u(t, t
0
)
As can be seen from its deﬁnition, the operator O(t) = u
†
0
(t, t
0
) u(t, t
0
)
combines forward time evolution governed by the full Hamiltonian H from
time t
0
to time t, and backward time evolution governed by the unperturbed
Hamiltonian H
0
from time t back to time t
0
. Using the above expansion one
can calculate the operator O(t) to second order in λ
O(t) = 1 −
iλ
t
_
t0
dt
′
u
0
(t
0
, t
′
) H
1
(t
′
) u
0
(t
′
, t
0
)
−
λ
2
2
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
′
_
t0
dt
′′
u
0
(t
0
, t
′
) H
1
(t
′
) u
0
(t
′
, t
′′
) H
1
(t
′′
) u
0
(t
′′
, t
0
)
+O
_
λ
3
_
,
(10.15)
or
O(t) = 1 −
iλ
t
_
t0
dt
′
H
1I
(t
′
)
−
λ
2
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
′
_
t0
dt
′′
H
1I
(t
′
) H
1I
(t
′′
)
+O
_
λ
3
_
,
(10.16)
where H
1I
(t), which is deﬁned by
H
1I
(t) ≡ u
†
0
(t, t
0
) H
1
(t
0
) u
0
(t, t
0
) , (10.17)
is the so called interaction representation of H
1
with respect to u
0
.
Exercise 10.3.1. Calculate the expectation value squared [¸O(t)¸[
2
to low
est nonvanishing order in λ.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 275
Chapter 10. TimeDependent Perturbation Theory
Solution 10.3.1. Since H
1
(t) is Hermitian one ﬁnds that
[¸O(t)¸[
2
=
_
1 −
iλ
t
_
t0
dt
′
¸H
1I
(t
′
)¸ −
λ
2
2
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
′
_
t0
dt
′′
¸H
1I
(t
′
) H
1I
(t
′′
)¸
_
_
1 +
iλ
t
_
t
0
dt
′
¸H
1I
(t
′
)¸ −
λ
2
2
t
_
t
0
dt
′
t
′
_
t
0
dt
′′
¸H
1I
(t
′′
) H
1I
(t
′
)¸
_
= 1 +
λ
2
2
_
t
_
t0
dt
′
¸H
1I
(t
′
)¸
_
2
−
λ
2
2
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
′
_
t0
dt
′′
(¸H
1I
(t
′
) H
1I
(t
′′
)¸ +¸H
1I
(t
′′
) H
1I
(t
′
)¸)
+O
_
λ
3
_
.
(10.18)
Using
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
′
_
t0
dt
′′
¸H
1I
(t
′′
) H
1I
(t
′
)¸ =
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
_
t
′
dt
′′
¸H
1I
(t
′
) H
1I
(t
′′
)¸ , (10.19)
one gets
[¸O(t)¸[
2
= 1 +
λ
2
2
_
t
_
t
0
dt
′
¸H
1I
(t
′
)¸
_
2
−
λ
2
2
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
_
t0
dt
′′
¸H
1I
(t
′
) H
1I
(t
′′
)¸ ,
(10.20)
thus
[¸O(t)¸[
2
= 1 −
λ
2
2
t
_
t
0
dt
′
t
_
t
0
dt
′′
[¸H
1I
(t
′
) H
1I
(t
′′
)¸ −¸H
1I
(t
′
)¸ ¸H
1I
(t
′′
)¸] ,
(10.21)
or
[¸O(t)¸[
2
= 1 −
λ
2
2
t
_
t
0
dt
′
t
_
t
0
dt
′′
¸∆H
1I
(t
′
) ∆H
1I
(t
′′
)¸ , (10.22)
where
∆H
1I
(t) = H
1I
(t) −¸H
1I
(t)¸ . (10.23)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 276
10.4. Transition Probability
10.4 Transition Probability
Consider the case where the unperturbed Hamiltonian H
0
is time indepen
dent. The eigenvectors of H
0
are denoted as [a
n
¸, and the corresponding
eigenenergies are denoted as E
n
H
0
[a
n
¸ = E
n
[a
n
¸ , (10.24)
where
¸a
n
′ [a
n
¸ = δ
nn
′ . (10.25)
In this basis u
0
(t, t
0
) is given by
u
0
(t, t
0
) = exp
_
−
i (t −t
0
)
H
0
_
=
n
exp
_
−
iE
n
(t −t
0
)
_
[a
n
¸ ¸a
n
[ .
(10.26)
Assuming that initially at time t
0
the system is in state [a
n
¸, what is the
probability to ﬁnd it later at time t > t
0
in the state [a
m
¸? The answer to
this question is the transition probability p
nm
, which is given by
p
nm
= [¸a
m
[ u(t, t
0
) [a
n
¸[
2
. (10.27)
With the help of Eq. (10.16) one ﬁnds that
e
−
iEm(t−t
0
)
¸a
m
[ u(t, t
0
) [a
n
¸ = ¸a
m
[ O(t) [a
n
¸
= δ
nm
−
iλ
t
_
t0
dt
′
¸a
m
[ H
1I
(t
′
) [a
n
¸
−
λ
2
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
′
_
t0
dt
′′
¸a
m
[ H
1I
(t
′
) H
1I
(t
′′
) [a
n
¸
+O
_
λ
3
_
,
(10.28)
thus
p
nm
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
δ
nm
−
iλ
t
_
t0
dt
′
¸a
m
[ H
1I
(t
′
) [a
n
¸
−
λ
2
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
′
_
t0
dt
′′
¸a
m
[ H
1I
(t
′
) H
1I
(t
′′
) [a
n
¸ +O
_
λ
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
.
(10.29)
In what follows, we calculate the transition probability p
nm
to lowest non
vanishing order in λ for the case where n ,= m, for which the dominant
contribution comes from the term of order λ in Eq. (10.29). For simplicity
the initial time t
0
, at which the perturbation is turned on, is taken to be zero,
i.e. t
0
= 0. We consider below the following cases:
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 277
Chapter 10. TimeDependent Perturbation Theory
10.4.1 The Stationary Case
In this case H
1
is assumed to be time independent (after being turned on at
t
0
= 0). To lowest nonvanishing order in λ Eq. (10.29) yields
p
nm
=
λ
2
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
_
0
dt
′
e
iωmnt
′
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
[¸a
m
[ H
1
(t
′
) [a
n
¸[
2
, (10.30)
where
ω
mn
=
E
m
−E
n
. (10.31)
Using the identity
t
_
0
dt
′
e
iΩt
′
= 2e
i
Ωt
2
sin
_
Ωt
2
_
Ω
, (10.32)
one ﬁnds that
p
nm
=
4
2
sin
2 ωmnt
2
ω
2
mn
[¸a
m
[ λH
1
(t
′
) [a
n
¸[
2
. (10.33)
Note that in the limit t →∞ one ﬁnds with the help of Eq. (10.32) that
lim
t→∞
4 sin
2
_
Ωt
2
_
Ω
2
= lim
t→∞
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
_
0
e
iΩt
′
dt
′
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= lim
t→∞
t
_
0
dt
′
t
_
0
dt
′′
e
iΩ(t
′
−t
′′
)
= 2πδ (Ω)
t
_
0
dt
′
= 2πtδ (Ω) .
(10.34)
In this limit p
nm
is proportional to the time t, i.e. p
nm
can be expressed as
p
nm
= w
nm
t, where w
nm
is the transition rate, which is given by
w
nm
=
2π
2
δ (ω
mn
) [¸a
m
[ λH
1
(t
′
) [a
n
¸[
2
. (10.35)
The delta function δ (ω
mn
) ensures that energy is conserved in the limit
of long time, and transitions between states having diﬀerent energies are
excluded. However, such transitions have ﬁnite probability to occur for any
ﬁnite time interval ∆t. On the other hand, as can be see from Eq. (10.33)
(see also the ﬁgure below, which plots the function f (x) = sin
2
x/x
2
), the
probability is signiﬁcant only when ω
mn
∆t 1, or alternatively when
∆E∆t , (10.36)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 278
10.4. Transition Probability
where ∆E = ω
mn
.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10
x
The function f (x) = sin
2
x/x
2
.
10.4.2 The NearResonance Case
In this case H
1
is assumed to be given by
H
1
(t
′
) = /e
−iωt
′
+/
†
e
iωt
′
, (10.37)
where / is an operator that is assumed to be time independent (after being
turned on at t
0
= 0), and where the angular frequency ω is a positive constant.
The transition probability is given by [see Eq. (10.29)]
p
nm
=
4
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
i
(ωmn−ω)t
2
sin
_
(ωmn−ω)t
2
_
¸a
m
[ λ/[a
n
¸
ω
mn
−ω
+
e
i
(ωmn+ω)t
2
sin
_
(ωmn+ω)t
2
_
¸a
m
[ λ/
†
[a
n
¸
ω
mn
+ω
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
,
(10.38)
We refer to the case where ω = ω
mn
as absorption resonance, and to the
case where ω = −ω
mn
as stimulated emission resonance. Near any of these
resonances ω ≃ ±ω
mn
the dominant contribution to p
nm
comes from only
one out of the two terms in Eq. (10.38), thus
p
nm
≃
_
_
_
4
2
sin
2 (ωmn−ω)t
2
(ωmn−ω)
2
[¸a
m
[ λ/[a
n
¸[
2
ω
mn
≃ ω
4
2
sin
2 (ω
mn
+ω)t
2
(ω
mn
+ω)
2
¸
¸
¸a
m
[ λ/
†
[a
n
¸
¸
¸
2
ω
mn
≃ −ω
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (10.39)
In the long time limit, i.e. in the limit t → ∞, the probability p
nm
is
found using Eq. (10.34) to be proportional to the time t, i.e. p
nm
= w
nm
t,
where the transition rate w
nm
is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 279
Chapter 10. TimeDependent Perturbation Theory
w
nm
≃
_
2π
2
δ (ω
mn
−ω) [¸a
m
[ λ/[a
n
¸[
2
ω
mn
≃ ω
2π
2
δ (ω
mn
+ω)
¸
¸
¸a
m
[ λ/
†
[a
n
¸
¸
¸
2
ω
mn
≃ −ω
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (10.40)
In many cases of interest the ﬁnal state [a
m
¸ lie in a band of dense states. Let
w
n
be the total transition rate from the initial state [a
n
¸. Assume that the
matrix element ¸a
m
[ λ/[a
n
¸ does not vary signiﬁcantly as a function of the
energy E
m
. For this case the total rate w
n
can be expressed in terms of the
density of states g (E
m
) (i.e. number of states per unit energy) in the vicinity
of the ﬁnal state [a
m
¸ [see Eq. (10.40)] as
w
n
=
2π
g (E
m
) [¸a
m
[ λ/[a
n
¸[
2
, (10.41)
where E
m
= E
n
+ω. This result is known as the Fermi’s golden rule.
10.4.3 H
1
is Separable
For this case it is assumed that H
1
can be expressed as
H
1
(t
′
) = f (t
′
)
¯
H
1
, (10.42)
where f (t
′
) is a real function of time and where
¯
H
1
is time independent
Hermitian operator. To lowest nonvanishing order in λ Eq. (10.29) yields
p
nm
=
1
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
_
0
dt
′
e
iωmnt
′
f (t
′
)
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
¸
¸
¸a
m
[ λ
¯
H
1
[a
n
¸
¸
¸
2
. (10.43)
10.5 Problems
1. Find the exact time evolution operator u(t, 0) of the Hamiltonian H,
which is given by
H = H
0
+H
p
, (10.44)
where
H
0
= ωa
†
a , (10.45)
H
p
= iωζ (t)
_
e
2i(ωt−φ)
a
2
−e
−2i(ωt−φ)
a
†2
_
, (10.46)
a and a
†
are the annihilation and creation operators (as deﬁned in chapter
5), ω is positive, φ is real and ζ (t) is an arbitrary real function of time t.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 280
10.6. Solutions
2. Consider a particle having mass m moving under the inﬂuence of a one
dimensional potential given by
V (x) =
mω
2
0
x
2
2
, (10.47)
where the angular resonance frequency ω
0
is a constant. A perturbation
given by
H
1
(t
′
) = 2αxcos (ωt
′
) , (10.48)
where the real constant α is assumed to be small, is turned on at time
t = 0. Given that the system was initially at time t = 0 in the ground
state [0¸ of the unperturbed Hamiltonian, calculate the transition proba
bility p
n0
(t) to the number state [n¸ to lowest nonvanishing order in the
perturbation expansion.
3. Repeat the previous exercise with the perturbation
H
1
(t
′
) = xf (t
′
) , (10.49)
where the force f (t
′
) is given by
f (t
′
) = α
exp
_
−
t
′2
τ
2
_
√
πτ
, (10.50)
and where both α and τ are real. Given that the system was initially at
time t → −∞ in the ground state [0¸ of the unperturbed Hamiltonian,
ﬁnd the transition probability p
n0
to the number state [n¸ in the limit
t → ∞. Compare your approximated result with the exact result given
by Eq. (5.306).
4. Consider a spin 1/2 particle. The Hamiltonian is given by
H = ωS
x
, (10.51)
where ω is a Larmor frequency and where S
x
is the x component of the
angular momentum operator. Given that the spin is initially at time t = 0
in the eigenstate [+; ˆz¸ of the operator S
z
(having eigenvalue +/2), what
is the probability p
++
(t) to ﬁnd the spin at the same state [+; ˆz¸ at a
later time t. Compare the exact result with the approximated value that
is obtained from Eq. (10.22).
10.6 Solutions
1. Expressing the ket vector state as
[ψ¸ = e
−iH0t/
[ψ
I
¸ , (10.52)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 281
Chapter 10. TimeDependent Perturbation Theory
and substituting into the Schrödinger equation, which is given by
i
d[ψ¸
dt
= (H
0
+H
p
) [ψ¸ , (10.53)
yield
i
d[ψ
I
¸
dt
= H
I
[ψ
I
¸ . (10.54)
where H
I
, which is given by
H
I
= e
iH0t/
H
p
e
−iH0t/
, (10.55)
is the interaction picture representation of H
p
. With the help of the vector
identity (2.174), which is given by
e
L
Ae
−L
= A+[L, A] +
1
2!
[L, [L, A]] +
1
3!
[L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (10.56)
and the relations
it
_
H
0
, a
2
¸
= −2iωta
2
, (10.57)
and
it
_
H
0
, a
†2
¸
= 2iωta
†
a
†2
, (10.58)
one ﬁnds that
e
iH0t/
a
2
e
−iH0t/
= a
2
e
−2iωt
, (10.59)
e
iH0t/
a
†2
e
−iH0t/
= a
†2
e
2iωt
, (10.60)
thus
H
I
= iζ (t)
_
e
−2iφ
a
2
−e
2iφ
a
†2
_
. (10.61)
Since [H
I
(t) , H
I
(t
′
)] = 0 the solution of Eq. (10.54) is given by
[ψ
I
(t)¸ = exp
_
−
i
_
t
0
dt
′
H
I
(t
′
)
_
[ψ
I
(0)¸
= S (ξ, φ) [ψ
I
(0)¸ ,
(10.62)
where
S (ξ, φ) = exp
_
ξ
_
e
−2iφ
a
2
−e
2iφ
a
†2
_¸
, (10.63)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 282
10.6. Solutions
and where
ξ =
_
t
0
dt
′
ζ (t
′
) , (10.64)
and thus the time evolution operator is thus given by
u(t, 0) = e
−iH
0
t/
S (ξ, φ) . (10.65)
2. To lowest nonvanishing order in the perturbation expansion one ﬁnds
using Eq. (10.39) together with Eqs. (5.11), (5.28) and (5.29) that
p
n0
(t) =
2α
2
mω
sin
2 (ω0−ω)t
2
(ω
0
−ω)
2
δ
n,1
. (10.66)
3. To lowest nonvanishing order in perturbation expansion Eq. (10.43) yields
p
n0
= µδ
n,1
, (10.67)
where
µ =
1
2mω
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∞
−∞
dt
′
e
iω0t
′
f (t
′
)
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
α
2
2mω
0
e
−
1
2
τ
2
ω
2
0
.
(10.68)
The exact result is found from Eq. (5.306)
p
n
=
e
−µ
µ
n
n!
. (10.69)
To ﬁrst order in µ both results agree.
4. While the exact result is [see Eq. (6.280)]
p
++
(t) = cos
2
ωt
2
, (10.70)
Eq. (10.22) yields
p
++
(t) = 1 −
1
2
t
_
0
dt
′
t
_
0
dt
′′
¸+; ˆz[ (ωS
x
−¸+; ˆz[ ωS
x
[+; ˆz¸)
2
[+; ˆz¸
= 1 −
ω
2
¸+; ˆz[ S
2
x
[+; ˆz¸
2
t
_
0
dt
′
t
_
0
dt
′′
= 1 −
_
ωt
2
_
2
.
(10.71)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 283
11. WKB Approximation
The theory of geometrical optics provides an approximated solution to
Maxwell’s equation that is valid for systems whose typical size scales are
much larger than the wavelength λ of electromagnetic waves. In 1926 using a
similar approach the physicists Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin (WKB) in
dependently found an approximated solution to the Schrödinger equation in
the coordinate representation for the case where the wavelength associated
with the wavefunction (to be deﬁned below) can be considered as short. Be
low the WKB approximation is discussed for the time independent and one
dimensional case. This chapter is mainly based on Ref. [3].
11.1 WKB Wavefunction
Consider a point particle having mass m moving under the inﬂuence of a one
dimensional potential V (x). The time independent Schrödinger equation for
the wavefunction ψ (x) is given by
d
2
ψ (x)
dx
2
+
2m
2
(E −V (x)) ψ (x) = 0 , (11.1)
where E is the energy. Using the notations
p (x) =
_
2m(E −V (x)) , (11.2)
ψ (x) = e
iW(x)/
, (11.3)
and the relation
d
2
ψ (x)
dx
2
=
_
i
d
2
W
dx
2
−
_
1
dW
dx
_
2
_
ψ (x) , (11.4)
one ﬁnds that the Schrödinger equation can be written as
i
d
2
W
dx
2
−
_
dW
dx
_
2
+p
2
= 0 . (11.5)
In the WKB approach the Plank’s constant is treated as a small para
meter. Expanding W as a power series in
Chapter 11. WKB Approximation
W = W
0
+W
1
+
2
W
2
+ (11.6)
one ﬁnds that
−
_
dW
0
dx
_
2
+i
d
2
W
0
dx
2
−2
dW
0
dx
dW
1
dx
+p
2
+O
_
2
_
= 0 . (11.7)
The terms of order zero in yield
−
_
dW
0
dx
_
2
+p
2
= 0 . (11.8)
thus
W
0
(x) = ±
x
_
x0
dx
′
p (x
′
) , (11.9)
where x
0
is a constant.
What is the range of validity of the zero order approximation? As can be
seen by comparing Eq. (11.5) with Eq. (11.8), the approximation W ≃ W
0
is valid when the ﬁrst term in Eq. (11.5) is negligibly small in absolute value
in comparison with the second one, namely when
¸
¸
¸
¸
d
2
W
dx
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
≪
¸
¸
¸
¸
dW
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
. (11.10)
It is useful to express this condition in terms of the local wavelength λ(x),
which is given by
λ(x) =
2π
p (x)
. (11.11)
By employing the lowest order approximation dW/dx = ±p the condition
(11.10) becomes
¸
¸
¸
¸
dλ
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
≪2π . (11.12)
This means that the approximation is valid provided that the change in
wavelength over a distance of one wavelength is small.
The terms of 1st order in of Eq. (11.7) yield an equation for W
1
dW
1
dx
=
i
2
d
2
W0
dx
2
dW
0
dx
=
i
2
d
dx
log
_
dW
0
dx
_
. (11.13)
Using Eq. (11.8) one thus has
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 286
11.1. WKB Wavefunction
d
dx
_
iW
1
−log
1
√
p
_
= 0 . (11.14)
Therefor, to 1st order in the wave function is given by
ψ (x) = C
+
ϕ
+
(x) +C
−
ϕ
−
(x) , (11.15)
where
ϕ
±
(x) =
1
√
p
exp
_
_
±
i
x
_
x
0
dx
′
p (x
′
)
_
_
, (11.16)
and where both C
+
and C
−
are constants.
In general, the continuity equation (4.67), which is given by
dρ
dt
+
dJ
dx
= 0 , (11.17)
relates the probability density ρ = [ψ[
2
and the current density J =
(/m) Im(ψ
∗
dψ/dx) associated with a given one dimensional wavefunction
ψ (x). For a stationary ψ (x) the probability density ρ is time independent,
and thus J is a constant. Consider a region where E > V (x). In such a region,
which is classically accessible, the momentum p (x) is real and positive, and
thus the probability density ρ (x) of the WKB wavefunctions ϕ
±
(x) is pro
portional to 1/p. This is exactly what is expected from a classical analysis
of the dynamics, where the time spent near a point x is inversely propor
tional to the local classical velocity at that point v (x) = p (x) /m. With the
help of Eq. (4.159) one ﬁnds that the current density J associated with the
wavefunction (11.15) is given by
J =
m
Im
_
_
C
∗
+
ϕ
∗
+
+C
∗
−
ϕ
∗
−
_
_
C
+
dϕ
+
dx
+C
−
dϕ
−
dx
__
=
m
_
[C
+
[
2
Im
_
ϕ
∗
+
dϕ
+
dx
_
+[C
−
[
2
Im
_
ϕ
∗
−
dϕ
−
dx
_
+Im
_
C
∗
+
C
−
ϕ
∗
+
dϕ
−
dx
+C
+
C
∗
−
ϕ
∗
−
dϕ
+
dx
__
.
(11.18)
As can be seen from Eq. (11.16), the last term vanishes since ϕ
−
(x) = ϕ
∗
+
(x).
Therefor, with the help of Eq. (6.336) one ﬁnds that
J =
1
m
_
[C
+
[
2
−[C
−
[
2
_
. (11.19)
Thus, the current density J associated with the state ϕ
+
(x) is positive,
whereas J < 0 for ϕ
−
(x). Namely, ϕ
+
(x) describes a state propagating from
left to right, whereas ϕ
−
(x) describes a state propagating in the opposite
direction.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 287
Chapter 11. WKB Approximation
11.2 Turning Point
Consider a point x = a for which E = V (a), namely p (a) = 0 [see Fig.
11.1 (a)]. Such a point is called a turning point since a classical particle that
reaches the point x = a momentarily stops and changes its direction. Near
a turning point the local wavelength λ diverges, and consequently, as can be
seen from Eq. (11.12), the WKB approximation breaks down. Consider the
case where E > V (x) for x > a and where E < V (x) for x < a. In the region
x > a the WKB wave function is expressed using Eq. (11.15), where, for
convenient, the constant x
0
is chosen to be a. However, on the other side of
the turning point, namely for x < a, the momentum p (x) becomes imaginary
since E < V (x). Thus, in this region, which is classically forbidden, the wave
function given by Eq. (11.15) contains one exponentially decaying term in
the limit x → −∞ and another exponentially diverging term in the same
limit. To ensure that the wavefunction remains normalizable, the coeﬃcient
of the exponentially diverging term is required to vanish, and thus we seek a
solution having the form
ψ (x) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
C
√
p
exp
_
1
x
_
a
dx
′
[p[
_
x < a
C+
√
p
exp
_
i
x
_
a
dx
′
p
_
+
C−
√
p
exp
_
−
i
x
_
a
dx
′
p
_
x > a
. (11.20)
Note that the prefactor 1/
√
p in the classically forbidden region x < a is
substituted in Eq. (11.20) by 1/
_
[p[. The ratio between these two factors
in the region x < a is a constant, which is assumed to be absorbed by the
constant C. For given value of C, what are the values of C
+
and C
−
? It
should be kept in mine that Eq. (11.20) becomes invalid close to the turning
point x = a where the WKB approximation breaks down. Thus, this question
cannot be simply answered by requiring that ψ (x
′
) and its ﬁrst derivative
are continuous at x = a [e.g., see Eq. (4.114)].
As we have seen above, the WKB approximation breaks down near the
turning point x = a. However the two regions x < a and x > a can be tailored
together by the technique of analytical continuation. In the vicinity of the
turning point, namely for x ≃ a, the potential V (x) can be approximated by
V (x) ≃ V (a) −α(x −a) , (11.21)
where
α = −
dV
dx
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=a
, (11.22)
and thus for x ≃ a
p (x) ≃
_
2mα(x −a) . (11.23)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 288
11.2. Turning Point
x
a
( ) E x V −
( ) x Re
a
( ) x Im
θ
( ) x Re
a
( ) x Im
( ) x Re
a
( ) x Im
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
θ
Γ
+
Θ
−
Θ
x
a
( ) E x V −
( ) x Re
a
( ) x Im
θ
( ) x Re
a
( ) x Im
( ) x Re
a
( ) x Im
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
θ
Γ
+
Θ
−
Θ
Fig. 11.1. (a) The turning point at x = a. (b) The integration trajectory Γ
θ
. The
singly connected region Θ
+
(c) and Θ
−
(d).
Formally, the coordinate x can be considered as complex. Consider a circle
in the complex plane centered at x = a having a radius ρ. The radius ρ > 0
is assumed to be suﬃciently large to ensure the validity of the WKB approx
imation outside it. On the other hand, it is also assumed to be suﬃciently
small to allow the employment of the approximation (11.23), namely, for any
point on that circle
x = a +ρe
iθ
, (11.24)
where θ is real, it is assumed that
p (x) ≃
_
2mαρe
iθ/2
. (11.25)
We consider below analytical continuation of the wavefunction given by Eq.
(11.20) for the case x > a into a region in the complex plane. Such a region
must excludes the vicinity of the turning point x = a where the WKB approx
imation breaks down and in addition it is required to be singly connected to
allow analytical continuation. Two such regions are considered below, the ﬁrst
one, which is labeled as Θ
+
(see Fig. 11.1 (c)), excludes the circle [x −a[ ≤ ρ
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 289
Chapter 11. WKB Approximation
and also excludes the negative imaginary line x = a − ib, whereas the sec
ond one, which is labeled as Θ
−
(see Fig. 11.1 (d)), also excludes the circle
[x −a[ ≤ ρ and in addition excludes the positive imaginary line x = a + ib,
where in both cases the parameter b is assumed to be real and positive.
To perform the tailoring it is convenient to deﬁne the term
I
±
(θ) = ±
i
_
Γ
θ
dx
′
p ,
where the integration trajectory Γ
θ
[see Fig. 11.1 (b)] contains two sections,
the ﬁrst along the real axis from x = a to x = a+ρ and the second along the
arc x = a +ρe
iθ
′
from θ
′
= 0 to θ
′
= θ. With the help of the approximation
(11.25) one ﬁnds that
I
±
(θ) = ±
i
√
2mα
_
_
ρ
_
0
dρ
′
_
ρ
′
+iρ
3/2
θ
_
0
dθ
′
e
i3θ
′
/2
_
_
= ±
i
√
2mα
_
_
2
3
ρ
3/2
−iρ
3/2
2i
_
e
3
2
iθ
−1
_
3
_
_
= ±
2i
√
2mαρ
3/2
3
e
3
2
iθ
=
2
√
2mαρ
3/2
3
e
i(π(1∓
1
2
)+
3
2
θ)
,
(11.26)
thus
I
±
(π) = ±
2
√
2mαρ
3/2
3
, (11.27)
I
±
(−π) = ∓
2
√
2mαρ
3/2
3
. (11.28)
The last result allows expressing the analytical continuation of the wavefunc
tion given by Eq. (11.20) for the case x > a and evaluate its value at the
point x = a −ρ. For the case where the singly connected region Θ
+
(Θ
−
) is
employed, this is done using integration along the trajectory Γ
π
(Γ
−π
), and
the result is labeled as ψ
+
(a −ρ) [ψ
−
(a −ρ)]
ψ
+
(a −ρ) =
C
+
exp
_
2
√
2mαρ
3/2
3
_
+C
−
exp
_
−
2
√
2mαρ
3/2
3
_
(2mαρ)
1/4
e
iπ/4
, (11.29)
ψ
−
(a −ρ) =
C
+
exp
_
−
2
√
2mαρ
3/2
3
_
+C
−
exp
_
2
√
2mαρ
3/2
3
_
(2mαρ)
1/4
e
−iπ/4
. (11.30)
Note that the denominators of Eqs. (11.29) and (11.30) are evaluated by
analytical continuation of the factor
√
p [see Eq. (11.25)] along the trajectories
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 290
11.2. Turning Point
Γ
π
and Γ
−π
respectively. On the other hand, according to Eq. (11.20) in the
region x < a one ﬁnds by integration along the real axis that
ψ (a −ρ) =
C
(2mαρ)
1/4
exp
_
−
2
√
2mαρ
3
2
3
_
. (11.31)
Comparing Eqs. (11.29) and (11.30) with Eq. (11.31) shows that for each of
the two choices Θ
+
and Θ
−
the analytical continuation yields one exponential
term having the same form as the one in Eq. (11.31), and another one, which
diverges in the limit x →−∞. Excluding the diverging terms one ﬁnds that
continuity of the non diverging term requires that
C =
C
+
e
−iπ/4
=
C
−
e
iπ/4
, (11.32)
and thus the tailored wavefunction is given by
ψ (x) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
C
√
p
exp
_
1
x
_
a
dx
′
[p[
_
x < a
2C
√
p
cos
_
1
x
_
a
dx
′
p −
π
4
_
x > a
. (11.33)
The fact that analytical continuation of the wavefunction in the region x < a
along the trajectory Γ
π
(Γ
−π
) yields only the right to left (left to right) prop
agating term in the region x > a, and the other term is getting lost along the
way, can be attributed to the limited accuracy of the WKB approximation.
As can be seen from Eq. (11.26), along the integration trajectory Γ
θ
near the
point θ = ±π/3 one term becomes exponentially larger than the other, and
consequently, within the accuracy of this approximation the small term gets
lost.
It is important to keep in mind that the above result (11.33) is obtained
by assuming a particular form for the solution in the region x < a, namely
by assuming that in that classically forbidden region the coeﬃcient of the
exponentially diverging term vanishes. This tailoring role will be employed in
the next section that deals with bound states in a classically accessible region
between two turning points [see Fig. 11.2(a)]. On the other hand, a modiﬁed
tailoring role will be needed when dealing with quantum tunneling. For this
case, which will be discussed below, we seek a wave function having the form
ψ (x) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
C
+
√
p
exp
_
1
x
_
a
dx
′
[p[
_
+
C
−
√
p
exp
_
−
1
x
_
a
dx
′
[p[
_
x < a
C
√
p
exp
_
i
x
_
a
dx
′
p +
iπ
4
_
x > a
. (11.34)
Thus, in this case only the term describing propagation from left to right
is kept in the region x > a, and the coeﬃcient of the other term in that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 291
Chapter 11. WKB Approximation
x
a
( ) E x V −
(a)
b
x
( ) E x V −
(b)
a
b
x
a
( ) E x V −
(a)
b
x
( ) E x V −
(b)
a
b
Fig. 11.2. The region a ≤ x ≤ b bounded by the two turning points at x = a
and x = b is classically accessible in panel (a), whereas it is classically forbidden in
panel (b) .
region that describes propagation in the opposite direction is assumed to
vanish. Using the same tailoring technique as in the previous case one ﬁnd
that C
+
= 0 and C
−
= C, and thus
ψ (x) =
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
C
√
p
exp
_
−
1
x
_
a
dx
′
[p[
_
x < a
C
√
p
exp
_
i
x
_
a
dx
′
p +
iπ
4
_
x > a
. (11.35)
11.3 BohrSommerfeld Quantization Rule
Consider a classical accessible region a ≤ x ≤ b bounded by two turning
points at x = a and x = b, namely, consider the case where E > V (x) for
a ≤ x ≤ b and where E < V (x) for x < a and for x > b [see Fig. 11.2(a)].
We seek a normalizable solution, thus the wave function in the classically
forbidden regions x < a and for x > b is assumed to vanish in the limit
x → ±∞. Employing the tailoring role (11.33) with respect to the turning
point at x = a yields the following wave function for the region a ≤ x ≤ b
ψ
a
(x) =
2C
a
√
p
cos
_
_
1
x
_
a
dx
′
p −
π
4
_
_
, (11.36)
where C
a
is a constant. Similarly, employing the tailoring role (11.33) with
respect to the turning point at x = b yields
ψ
b
(x) =
2C
b
√
p
cos
_
_
1
b
_
x
dx
′
p −
π
4
_
_
. (11.37)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 292
11.3. BohrSommerfeld Quantization Rule
The requirement ψ
a
(x) = ψ
b
(x) can be satisﬁed for any x in the region
a ≤ x ≤ b only if
1
b
_
a
dx
′
p =
π
2
+nπ . (11.38)
where n is integer. Alternatively, this result, which is known as Bohr
Sommerfeld quantization rule, can be expressed as
1
2π
_
dx
′
p = n +
1
2
, (11.39)
where
_
dx
′
p = 2
b
_
a
dx
′
p . (11.40)
To normalize the wavefunction ψ
a
(x) = ψ
b
(x) we assume that (a) only
the accessible region a ≤ x ≤ b contributes, since outside this region the
wavefunction exponentially decays; and (b) in the limit of large n the co
sine term rapidly oscillates and therefore the average of its squared value is
approximately 1/2. Applying these assumptions to ψ
a
(x), which is given by
Eq. (11.36), implies that
1 ≃
b
_
a
dx
′
[ψ
a
(x)[
2
≃ 2 [C
a
[
2
b
_
a
dx
′
p
. (11.41)
Note that the time period T of classical oscillations between the turning
points x = a and x = b is given by
T = 2
b
_
a
dx
′
v
. (11.42)
where v (x) = p (x) /m is the local classical velocity. Thus, by choosing the
prefactor to be real, one ﬁnds that the normalized wavefunction is given by
ψ (x) = 2
_
m
pT
cos
_
_
1
x
_
a
dx
′
p −
π
4
_
_
. (11.43)
The BohrSommerfeld quantization rule (11.39) can be used to relate the
classical time period T with the energy spacing ∆E = E
n+1
− E
n
between
consecutive quantum eigen energies. As can be seen from the validity condi
tion of the WKB approximation (11.12), the integer n is required to be large
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 293
Chapter 11. WKB Approximation
to ensure the validity of Eq. (11.39). In this limit ∆E ≪ E, and thus by
taking the derivative of Eq. (11.39) with respect to energy one ﬁnds that
∆E
_
dx
′
_
∂E
∂p
_
−1
= 2π . (11.44)
In classical mechanics ∂E/∂p is the velocity of the particle v, therefor
_
dx
′
_
∂E
∂p
_
−1
= T , (11.45)
thus
∆E =
2π
T
. (11.46)
11.4 Tunneling
In this case we consider a classical forbidden region a ≤ x ≤ b bounded by
two turning points at x = a and x = b, namely, it is assumed that E < V (x)
for a ≤ x ≤ b and E > V (x) for x < a and for x > b [see Fig. 11.2(b)].
In classical mechanics a particle cannot penetrate into the potential barrier
in the region a ≤ x ≤ b, however such a process is possible in quantum
mechanics. Consider a solution having the form
ψ (x) =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
√
p
exp
_
i
x
_
a
dx
′
p
_
+
r
√
p
exp
_
−
i
x
_
a
dx
′
p
_
x < a
C+
√
p
exp
_
1
x
_
b
dx
′
[p[
_
+
C−
√
p
exp
_
−
1
x
_
b
dx
′
[p[
_
a ≤ x ≤ b
t
√
p
exp
_
i
x
_
b
dx
′
p +
iπ
4
_
x > b
,
where we have introduced the transmission and reﬂection coeﬃcients t and
r respectively. Such a solution describes an incident wave of unit amplitude
propagating in the region x < a from left to right, a reﬂected wave having
amplitude r in the same region, and a transmitted wave having amplitude t
in the opposite side of the barrier x > b.
Employing the tailoring role (11.35) yields C
+
= 0 and C
−
= t. Moreover,
employing the tailoring role (11.33) and using the identity
exp
_
_
−
1
x
_
b
dx
′
[p[
_
_
= τ
−1/2
exp
_
_
−
1
x
_
a
dx
′
[p[
_
_
, (11.47)
where
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 294
11.6. Solutions
τ = exp
_
_
−
2
b
_
a
dx
′
[p[
_
_
, (11.48)
yield [t[ τ
−1/2
= 1, thus the transmission probability is given by
[t[
2
= τ = exp
_
_
−
2
b
_
a
dx
′
[p[
_
_
. (11.49)
It is important to keep in mind that this approximation is valid only when
τ ≪1. One way of seeing this is by noticing that the second tailoring step, as
can be seen from Eq. (11.33), also leads to the conclusion that [r[ = 1. This
apparently contradicts Eq. (11.49), which predicts a nonvanishing value for
[t[, whereas current conservations, on the other hand, requires that [t[
2
+[r[
2
=
1. This apparent contradiction can be attributed to limited accuracy of the
WKB approximation, however, Eq. (11.49) can be considered to be a good
approximation only provided that τ ≪1.
11.5 Problems
1. Calculate the transmission probability τ of a particle having mass m
and energy E through the potential barrier V (x), which vanishes in the
region x < 0 and which is given by V (x) = U −ax in the region x ≥ 0,
where a > 0 and where U > E.
2. Calculate the transmission probability τ of a particle having mass m and
energy E through the potential barrier V (x) = −mω
2
x
2
/2, where ω > 0.
Consider the general case without assuming τ ≪1.
3. Consider a particle having mass m moving in a one dimensional double
well potential (see Fig. 11.3), which is assumed to be symmetric, i.e.
V (x) = V (−x). In the limit where the barrier separating the two wells
can be considered as impenetrable, each well is characterized by a set of
eigenstates having eigen energies ¦E
n
¦. To lowest nonvanishing order in
the penetrability of the barrier calculate the eigenenergies of the system.
4. Employ the WKB approximation to derive the eigenenergies of the hy
drogen atom.
11.6 Solutions
1. The classical turning points are x = 0 and x = (U −E) /α. Thus with
the help of Eq. (11.49) one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 295
Chapter 11. WKB Approximation
x
( ) x V
n
E
a a −
x
( ) x V
n
E
a a −
Fig. 11.3. Double well potential.
τ = exp
_
_
_−
2
√
2mα
(U−E)/α
_
0
dx
_
U −E
α
−x
_
_
_
= exp
_
−
4
√
2m
3α
(U −E)
3
2
_
.
(11.50)
2. The factor p/ can be expressed as
p (x)
=
_
2m
_
E +
mω
2
x
2
2
_
=
=
x
x
2
0
_
1 +
2Ex
2
0
E
0
x
2
,
(11.51)
where x
0
=
_
/mω and where E
0
= ω. For suﬃciently large [x[, namely
for x
2
≫Ex
2
0
/E
0
, one has
p (x)
≃
x
x
2
0
+
E
E
0
x
, (11.52)
where x is assumed to be positive. The corresponding WKB wavefunc
tions (11.16) in the same limit of large large [x[ are given (up to multi
plication by a constant) by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 296
11.6. Solutions
ϕ
±
(x) =
1
_
x
0
p/
exp
_
_
±
i
x
_
dx
′
p (x
′
)
_
_
≃
exp
_
±
i
x
2
0
x
_
0
dx
′
x
′
_
exp
_
±i
E
E0
x
_
x
0
dx
′
x
′
_
_
x
x
2
0
_
1/2
_
1 +
2Ex
2
0
E
0
x
2
_
1/4
≃
_
x
x
0
_
±i
E
E
0
−
1
2
exp
_
±
ix
2
2x
2
0
_
.
(11.53)
Consider a solution having the asymptotic form
ψ (x
′
) =
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
−
x
x0
_
−i
E
E
0
−
1
2
exp
_
−
ix
2
2x
2
0
_
+r
_
−
x
x0
_
i
E
E
0
−
1
2
exp
_
ix
2
2x
2
0
_
x →−∞
t
_
x
x0
_
i
E
E
0
−
1
2
exp
_
ix
2
2x
2
0
_
x →∞
,
(11.54)
where t and r are transmission and reﬂection coeﬃcients respectively,
which can be related one to another by the technique of analytical con
tinuation. Consider x as a complex variable
x
x
0
= ρe
iθ
, (11.55)
where ρ > 0 and θ is real. The transmitted term in the limit x → ∞
along the upper semicircle x/x
0
= ρe
iθ
, where 0 ≤ θ ≤ π is given by
t
_
ρe
iθ
_
i
E
E
0
−
1
2
exp
_
iρ
2
e
2iθ
2
_
, (11.56)
thus for θ = π this term becomes identical to the reﬂected term at x/x
0
=
−ρ, which is given by
r (ρ)
i
E
E
0
−
1
2
exp
_
iρ
2
2
_
, (11.57)
provided that
t
_
ρe
iπ
_
i
E
E
0
−
1
2
exp
_
iρ
2
e
2iπ
2
_
= r (ρ)
i
E
E
0
−
1
2
exp
_
iρ
2
2
_
, (11.58)
or
−ite
−
πE
E
0
= r . (11.59)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 297
Chapter 11. WKB Approximation
Moreover, current conservation requires that [t[
2
+[r[
2
= 1, thus
[t[
2
+
¸
¸
¸−ite
−
πE
E
0
¸
¸
¸
2
= 1 , (11.60)
and therefor the transmission probability τ = [t[
2
is given by
τ =
1
1 +e
−
2πE
E
0
. (11.61)
As we have seen above, the analytical continuation of the transmitted
term in the region x → ∞ leads to the reﬂected term in the region
x →−∞. What about the incident term in the region x →−∞(the ﬁrst
term)? Note that this term (the incident one) becomes exponentially
small compared with the reﬂected term in a section near θ = 3π/4 along
the upper semicircle [due to the exponential factors exp
_
±ix
2
/2x
2
0
_
].
Consequently, within the accuracy of the WKB approximation it does
not contribute to the analytically continued value.
3. Consider one of the singlewell eigenenergies E
n
. The associated eigen
state corresponding to the left well is labeled as [n, L¸ and the one corre
sponding to the right well as [n, R¸. The eﬀect of ﬁnite penetrability of
the barrier can be evaluated using time independent perturbation theory
for the degenerate case [see Eq. (9.38]. For the unperturbed case, where
the barrier separating the two wells can be considered as impenetrable,
the level E
n
is doubly degenerate, and the corresponding eigen space
is spanned by the vectors ¦[n, L¸ , [n, R¸¦. The projection of the Hamil
tonian of the system H = p
2
/2m+V on this eigen space is represented
by the 2 2 matrix H
n
, which is given by
H
n
=
_
¸n, L[ H[n, L¸ ¸n, L[ H[n, R¸
¸n, R[ H[n, L¸ ¸n, R[ H[n, R¸
_
. (11.62)
Employing the approximations
H[n, L¸ ≃ E
n
[n, L¸ , (11.63)
H[n, R¸ ≃ E
n
[n, R¸ , (11.64)
one ﬁnds that
H
n
= E
n
_
1 γ
γ
∗
1
_
, (11.65)
where
γ = ¸n, L [n, R¸ , (11.66)
or in the coordinate representation
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 298
11.6. Solutions
γ =
∞
_
−∞
dx ϕ
∗
n,L
(x) ϕ
n,R
(x) , (11.67)
where ϕ
n,L
(x) and ϕ
n,R
(x) are the wavefunctions of the states [n, L¸
and [n, R¸ respectively, i.e.
ϕ
n,L
(x) = ¸x [n, L¸ , (11.68)
ϕ
n,R
(x) = ¸x [n, R¸ . (11.69)
The main contribution to the overlap integral (11.67) comes from the
classically forbidden region [x[ ≤ a, where x = ±a are turning points
(i.e., E
n
= V (a) = V (−a)). With the help of Eq. (11.35) one ﬁnds that
γ ≃
a
_
−a
dx
[C[
2
exp
_
−
1
x
_
−a
dx
′
[p[
_
exp
_
−
1
a
_
x
dx
′
[p[
_
[p[
(11.70)
= [C[
2
exp
_
_
−
1
a
_
−a
dx
′
[p[
_
_
a
_
−a
dx
[p[
, (11.71)
(11.72)
where C is the normalization factor of the WKB wavefunction, which is
approximately given by C = 2
_
m/T (T is the time period of classical
oscillations of a particle having energy E
n
in a well) in the limit of large
n [see Eq. (11.43)], thus
γ ≃
4
a
_
−a
dx
p/m
T
exp
_
_
−
1
a
_
−a
dx
′
[p[
_
_
. (11.73)
Finally, By diagonalizing the matrix H
n
one ﬁnds that the two eigenen
ergies are E
n
(1 ±γ).
4. The radial equation for the case of hydrogen is given by [see Eq. (7.61)]
_
−
2
2µ
d
2
dr
2
+V
eﬀ
(r)
_
u
kl
(r) = E
kl
u
kl
(r) , (11.74)
where µ ≃ m
e
is the reduced mass (m
e
is the electron’s mass), and where
V
eﬀ
(r) = −
e
2
r
+
l (l + 1)
2
2µr
2
. (11.75)
The eigenenergies E
kl
are calculated using the BohrSommerfeld quanti
zation rule (11.39)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 299
Chapter 11. WKB Approximation
1
π
r2
_
r1
dr
_
2µ(E
kl
−V
eﬀ
(r)) = k +
1
2
. (11.76)
where k is required to be an integer. The points r
1,2
are classical turning
points that satisfy
E
kl
= V
eﬀ
(r
1,2
) . (11.77)
Using the notation
ρ
1,2
=
r
1,2
a
0
, (11.78)
ε = −
E
kl
E
I
, (11.79)
where
a
0
=
2
µe
2
(11.80)
is the Bohr’s radius and where
E
I
=
µe
4
2
2
(11.81)
is the ionization energy, Eq. (11.77) becomes
ε =
2
ρ
−
l (l + 1)
ρ
2
, (11.82)
thus
ρ
1,2
=
1
ε
_
1 ±
_
1 −l (l + 1) ε
_
. (11.83)
Similarly Eq. (11.76) becomes
ρ
2
_
ρ
1
dρ
_
2
ρ
−
l (l + 1)
ρ
2
−ε = π
_
k +
1
2
_
, (11.84)
or
√
εI = π
_
k +
1
2
_
, (11.85)
where the integral I, which is given by
I =
ρ
2
_
ρ
1
dρ
_
(ρ −ρ
1
) (ρ
2
−ρ)
ρ
, (11.86)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 300
11.6. Solutions
can be calculated using the residue theorem
I = π
ρ
1
+ρ
2
2
_
1 −
_
4ρ
1
ρ
2
(ρ
1
+ρ
2
)
2
_
. (11.87)
Thus the quantization condition (11.85) becomes
ε = −
E
kl
E
I
=
1
_
_
l (l + 1) +k +
1
2
_
2
. (11.88)
Comparing with the exact result (7.84) shows that the WKB result is a
good approximation provided that the quantum numbers are large.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 301
12. Path Integration
In this chapter, which is mainly based on Ref. [4], the technique of Feynman’s
path integration is brieﬂy reviewed.
12.1 Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Field
Consider a point particle having mass m and charge q moving under the
inﬂuence of electric ﬁeld E and magnetic ﬁeld B, which are related to the
scalar potential ϕ and to the vector potential A by
E = −∇ϕ −
1
c
∂A
∂t
, (12.1)
and
B = ∇A . (12.2)
The classical Lagrangian of the system is given by Eq. (1.43)
/ =
1
2
m˙ r
2
−qϕ +
q
c
A ˙ r , (12.3)
and the classical Hamiltonian is given by Eq. (1.62)
H =
_
p−
q
c
A
_
2
2m
+qϕ . (12.4)
The solution of the Euler Lagrange equations (1.8) yields the classical equa
tion of motion of the system, which is given by Eq. (1.60)
m¨r = q
_
E+
1
c
˙ r B
_
. (12.5)
In what follows, we consider for simplicity the case where both ϕ and A are
time independent. For this case H becomes time independent, and thus the
quantum dynamics is governed by the time evolution operator, which is given
by Eq. (4.9)
Chapter 12. Path Integration
u(t) = exp
_
−
iHt
_
. (12.6)
The propagator K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) is deﬁned by
K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) = ¸r
′
b
[ u(t) [r
′
a
¸ , (12.7)
where [r
′
¸ denotes a common eigenvector of the position operators x, y, and z
with vector of eigenvalues r
′
= (x
′
, y
′
, z
′
). As can be seen from the deﬁnition,
the absolute value squared of the propagator K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) is the probability
density to ﬁnd the particle at point r
′
b
at time t given that it was initially
localized at point r
′
a
at time t = 0.
Dividing the time interval (0, t) into N sections of equal duration allows
expressing the time evolution operator as
u(t) =
_
u
_
t
N
__
N
. (12.8)
The identity operator in the position representation [see Eq. (3.64)] is given
by
1
r
=
_
d
3
r
′
[r
′
¸ ¸r
′
[ . (12.9)
Inserting 1
r
between any two factors in Eq. (12.8) and using the notation
r
′
a
= r
′
0
, (12.10)
r
′
b
= r
′
N
, (12.11)
ǫ =
t
N
, (12.12)
one ﬁnds that
K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) = ¸r
′
N
[ u(ǫ) u(ǫ) u(ǫ) u(ǫ) [r
′
0
¸
=
_
d
3
r
′
1
_
d
3
r
′
2
_
d
3
r
′
N−1
¸r
′
N
[ u(ǫ)
¸
¸
r
′
N−1
_ ¸
r
′
N−1
¸
¸
u(ǫ)
¸
¸
r
′
N−2
_ ¸
r
′
N−2
¸
¸
u(ǫ) [r
′
1
¸ ¸r
′
1
[ u(ǫ) [r
′
0
¸ ,
(12.13)
thus
K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) =
N−1
n=1
_
d
3
r
′
n
N−1
m=0
K
_
r
′
m+1
, ǫ; r
′
m
_
. (12.14)
In what follows the limit N → ∞ will be taken, and therefor it is suﬃcient
to calculate the inﬁnitesimal propagator K
_
r
′
m+1
, ǫ; r
′
m
_
to ﬁrst order only
in ǫ.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 304
12.1. Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Field
With the help of the relation (12.119), which is given by
e
ǫ(A+B)
= e
ǫA
e
ǫB
+O
_
ǫ
2
_
, (12.15)
one has
u(ǫ) = exp
_
−
iHǫ
_
= exp
_
−
iǫ
_
p−
q
c
A
_
2
2m
_
exp
_
−
iǫqϕ
_
+O
_
ǫ
2
_
.
(12.16)
Equation (12.121), which is given by
exp
_
−
iǫV
2
2m
_
=
1
(2πi)
3/2
_
d
3
r
′
exp
_
ir
′2
2
−i
_
ǫ
m
V r
′
_
, (12.17)
allows expressing the ﬁrst term in Eq. (12.16) as
exp
_
−
iǫ
_
p−
q
c
A
_
2
2m
_
=
1
(2πi)
3/2
_
d
3
r
′
exp
_
ir
′2
2
−i
_
ǫ
m
_
p−
q
c
A
_
r
′
_
.
(12.18)
Moreover, with the help of Eq. (12.120), which is given by
e
ǫ(A+B)
= e
ǫB/2
e
ǫA
e
ǫB/2
+O
_
ǫ
3
_
, (12.19)
one ﬁnds that
exp
_
−i
_
ǫ
m
_
p−
q
c
A
_
r
′
_
= exp
_
i
_
ǫ
m
q
c
A r
′
2
_
exp
_
−i
_
ǫ
m
p r
′
_
exp
_
i
_
ǫ
m
q
c
A r
′
2
_
+O
_
ǫ
3/2
_
.
(12.20)
Combining these results yields
K
_
r
′
m+1
, ǫ; r
′
m
_
=
¸
r
′
m+1
¸
¸
u(ǫ) [r
′
m
¸
=
1
(2πi)
3/2
_
d
3
r
′
exp
_
ir
′2
2
_
exp
_
i
_
ǫ
m
q
c
_
A(r
′
m
) +A
_
r
′
m+1
_¸
r
′
2
_
exp
_
−
iǫqϕ(r
′
m
)
_
¸
r
′
m+1
¸
¸
exp
_
−i
_
ǫ
m
p r
′
_
[r
′
m
¸
+O
_
ǫ
3/2
_
.
(12.21)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 305
Chapter 12. Path Integration
In the next step the identity operator in the momentum representation [see
Eq. (3.70)], which is given by
1
p
=
_
d
3
p
′
[p
′
¸ ¸p
′
[ , (12.22)
is inserted to the left of the ket vector [r
′
m
¸. With the help of Eq. (3.74),
which is given by
¸r
′
[p
′
¸ =
1
(2π)
3/2
exp
_
ip
′
r
′
_
, (12.23)
one ﬁnds that
¸
r
′
m+1
¸
¸
exp
_
−i
_
ǫ
m
p r
′
_
[r
′
m
¸
=
1
(2π)
3
_
d
3
p
′
exp
_
ip
′
_
r
′
m+1
−r
′
m
_
_
exp
_
−i
_
ǫ
m
p
′
r
′
_
.
(12.24)
Thus, by using Eq. (3.83), which is given by
1
(2π)
3
_
d
3
p
′
exp
_
ip
′
r
′
_
= δ (r
′
) , (12.25)
one ﬁnds that
¸
r
′
m+1
¸
¸
exp
_
−i
_
ǫ
m
p r
′
_
[r
′
m
¸ = δ
_
r
′
m+1
−r
′
m
−
_
ǫ
m
r
′
_
, (12.26)
and thus
K
_
r
′
m+1
, ǫ; r
′
m
_
=
_
m
2πiǫ
_
3/2
exp
_
iǫ
L
m
_
+O
_
ǫ
3/2
_
, (12.27)
where
L
m
=
m
_
r
′
m+1
−r
′
m
ǫ
_
2
2
−qϕ(r
′
m
)+
q
c
A(r
′
m
) +A
_
r
′
m+1
_
2
r
′
m+1
−r
′
m
ǫ
. (12.28)
Comparing Eq. (12.28) with the classical Lagrangian of the system, which
is given by Eq. (1.43)
/ =
1
2
m˙ r
2
−qϕ +
q
c
A ˙ r , (12.29)
shows that L
m
is nothing but the Lagrangian at point r
′
m
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 306
12.2. Classical Limit
L
m
= /(r
′
m
) . (12.30)
As we have discussed above, the terms of order ǫ
3/2
in Eq. (12.27) are not
expected to contribute to K (r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) in the limit of N → ∞. By ignoring
these terms Eq. (12.14) becomes
K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) = lim
N→∞
_
Nm
2πit
_
N/2 N−1
n=1
_
d
3
r
′
n
exp
_
i
t
N
N−1
m=0
/(r
′
m
)
_
.
(12.31)
Recall that the action in classical physics [see Eq. (1.4)] associated with a
given path is given by
S =
_
dt / . (12.32)
Thus, by deﬁning the integral operator
_
r
′
b
r
′
a
T[r
′
(t)] = lim
N→∞
_
Nm
2πit
_
N/2 N−1
n=1
_
d
3
r
′
n
, (12.33)
the propagator K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) can be written as
K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) =
_
r
′
b
r
′
a
T[r
′
(t
′
)] exp
_
i
S
r
′
(t
′
)
_
, (12.34)
where
S
r
′
(t)
=
t
_
0
dt /[r
′
(t)] . (12.35)
Equation (12.34), which is known as Feynman’s path integral, expresses the
propagator K(r
′
b
, t; r
′
a
) in terms of all possible paths r
′
(t
′
) satisfying r
′
(0) =
r
′
a
and r
′
(t) = r
′
b
, where each path r
′
(t
′
) contributes a phase factor given by
exp
_
iS
r
′
(t
′
)
/
_
, where S
r
′
(t
′
)
is the classical action of the path r
′
(t
′
).
A note regarding notation: In the above derivation of Eq. (12.34) eigenval
ues and eigenvectors were denoted with prime (e.g., r
′
, [r
′
¸, ¸r
′
[, p
′
) to make
them distinguishable from the corresponding operators (e.g., r and p). This
distinction is no longer needed for the rest of this chapter, since no quan
tum operators are used to evaluate path integrals, and therefore, to make the
notation less cumbersome, we omit the prime notation.
12.2 Classical Limit
Recall that the Hamilton’s principle of least action states that the path taken
by a classical system is the one for which the action S obtains a local mini
mum. This implies that for any inﬁnitesimal change in the path the resultant
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 307
Chapter 12. Path Integration
change in the action δS vanishes (i.e., δS = 0). As we have seen in chapter 1,
this principle leads to Lagrange’s equations of motion (1.8), which are given
by
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
=
∂/
∂q
n
. (12.36)
While in classical mechanics a deﬁnite path is associated with the system’s
dynamics, in quantum mechanics all possible paths are included in Feynman’s
path integral. However, as we show below, in the classical limit the dominant
contribution to the path integral comes only from paths near the classical
one. The classical limit is deﬁned to be the limit where the Plank’s constant
approaches zero → 0. In this limit the exponent exp(iS/) in the path
integral rapidly oscillates, and consequently contributions from neighboring
paths tend to cancel each other. However, near the classical path, such ’av
eraging out’ does not occur since according to the principle of least action
δS = 0 for the classical path. Consequently, constructive interference between
neighboring paths is possible near the classical path, and as a result the main
contribution to the path integral in the classical limit comes from the paths
near the classical path.
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
4 2 2 4
x
Graphical demonstration of the stationary phase approximation The plot
shows the function cos
_
αx
2
_
for the case α = 1. According to the
stationary phase approximation, in the limit α →∞, the main contribution
to the integral
_
∞
−∞
dx cos
_
αx
2
_
comes from the region near the point
x = 0, where d
_
x
2
_
/dx = 0.
12.3 AharonovBohm Eﬀect
Using Eq. (1.43) for the classical Lagrangian of a charged particle in station
ary electromagnetic ﬁeld one ﬁnds that the classical action (12.35) associated
with a path r (t) in the time interval (0, t) is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 308
12.3. AharonovBohm Eﬀect
S =
t
_
0
dt
_
1
2
m˙ r
2
−qϕ +
q
c
A ˙ r
_
. (12.37)
Consider ﬁrst the case where the vector potential vanishes, i.e. A = 0. For
this case, the system is said to be conservative, and therefor, as we have seen
in chapter 1 [see Eq. (1.29)], the energy of the system
E =
1
2
m˙ r
2
+qϕ (12.38)
is a constant of the motion (see exercise 5 below). In terms of E the action
S (12.37), which is labeled as S
0
for this case where A = 0, can be expressed
as
S
0
=
t
_
0
dt
_
1
2
m˙ r
2
−qϕ
_
=
t
_
0
dt
_
−E +m˙ r
2
_
= −Et +m
rb
_
ra
dr ˙ r .
(12.39)
where r
a
= r (0) and r
b
= r (t). Employing Eq. (12.38) again allows rewriting
S
0
as
S
0
= −Et +
r
b
_
ra
dr p (r) , (12.40)
where p (r) is the local classical momentum
p (r) =
_
2m(E −qϕ(r)) . (12.41)
The phase factor in the path integral corresponding to S
0
is given by
exp
_
iS
0
_
= exp
_
−
iEt
_
exp
_
_
i
rb
_
ra
dr p (r)
_
_
. (12.42)
Note the similarity between the second factor in the above equation and
between the WKB wavefunction [see Eq. (11.16)]. In the general case, where
A can be nonzero, the phase factor in the path integral becomes [see Eq.
(12.37)]
exp
_
iS
_
= exp
_
iS
0
_
exp
_
_
iq
c
r
b
_
ra
dr A
_
_
. (12.43)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 309
Chapter 12. Path Integration
source
collector
0 ≠ B
impenetrable
long coil
0 ,
a
r
t ,
b
r
source
collector
0 ≠ B 0 ≠ B
impenetrable
long coil
0 ,
a
r
t ,
b
r
Fig. 12.1. Twoslit interference experiment with a very long impenetrable cylinder
placed near the gap between the slits.
12.3.1 Twoslit Interference
Consider a twoslit interference experiment where electrons having charge
q = e are injected from a point source at r
a
(see Fig. 12.1). A collector at
point r
b
measures the probability density to detect an electron at that point.
A very long impenetrable cylinder is placed near the gap between the slits in
order to produce a magnetic ﬁeld inside the cylinder in the direction normal
to the plane of the ﬁgure. The ﬁeld outside the cylinder, however, can be
made arbitrarily small, and in what follows we assume that it vanishes.
The probability density P
b
to detect the electron at time t by the collector
located at point r
b
is given by
P
b
= [K(r
b
, t; r
a
)[
2
, (12.44)
where the propagator (12.34) is given for this case by
K(r
b
, t; r
a
) =
_
r
b
ra
T[r (t)] exp
_
iS
0,r(t)
_
exp
_
_
_
ie
c
_
r(t)
dr A
_
_
_ , (12.45)
where the trajectories r (t) satisfy r (0) = r
a
and r (t) = r
b
.
How P
b
is modiﬁed when the magnetic ﬁeld is turned on, and consequently
the last factor in Eq. (12.45) starts to play a role? To answer this question
it is convenient to divide the sum over all paths into two groups, one for all
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 310
12.3. AharonovBohm Eﬀect
paths going through the left slit, and another for all paths going through the
right one. Here we disregard paths crossing a slit more than one time, as their
contribution is expected to be small. In general, the diﬀerence Θ
12
between
the vector potential phase factor in Eq. (12.45) associated with two diﬀerent
paths r
1
(t) and r
2
(t) is given by
Θ
12
=
e
c
_
_
_
_
r1(t)
dr A−
_
r2(t)
dr A
_
_
_
=
e
c
_
dr A ,
(12.46)
where the closed path integral is evaluated along the path r
1
(t) in the forward
direction from r
a
to r
b
, and then along the path r
2
(t) in the backward
direction from r
b
back to r
a
. This integral can be calculated using Stokes’
theorem [see Eq. (12.2)]
Θ
12
=
e
c
_
dr A =
e
c
_
ds B = 2π
φ
φ
0
, (12.47)
where φ is the magnetic ﬂux threaded through the area enclosed by the closed
path, and where
φ
0
=
hc
e
(12.48)
is the so called ﬂux quantum. While Θ
12
vanishes for pairs of paths going
through the same slit, it has the same value Θ
12
= 2πφ/φ
0
(Θ
12
= −2πφ/φ
0
)
for all the pairs where r
1
(t) goes through the left (right) path and where r
2
(t)
goes through the right (left) one. Thus, we come to the somewhat surprising
conclusion that the probability density P
b
is expected to be dependent on
the magnetic ﬁeld. The expected dependence is periodic in the magnetic
ﬂux φ with ﬂux quantum φ
0
period. Such dependence cannot be classically
understood, since in this example the electrons can never enter the region in
which the magnetic ﬁeld B is ﬁnite, and thus the Lorentz force vanishes in
the entire region accessible for the electrons outside the impenetrable coil.
12.3.2 Gauge Invariance
Consider the following gauge transformation
A →
˜
A = A+∇λ , (12.49)
ϕ → ˜ ϕ = ϕ , (12.50)
where λ = λ(r) is an arbitrary smooth and continuous function of r, which
is assumed to be time independent. As can be seen from Eqs. (12.1) and
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 311
Chapter 12. Path Integration
(12.2), this transformation leaves E and B unchanged, since ∇(∇λ) = 0.
In chapter 1 we have seen that such a gauge transformation [see Eqs. (1.44)
and 1.45)] modiﬁes the Lagrangian [see Eq. (1.43)]
/ →
˜
/ = / +
q
c
∇λ ˙ r , (12.51)
and also the action [see Eq. (12.37)]
S →
˜
S = S +
t
_
0
dt
q
c
∇λ ˙ r
= S +
q
c
rb
_
ra
dr ∇λ
= S +
q
c
[λ(r
b
) −λ(r
a
)] ,
(12.52)
however, the classical motion is unaﬀected.
In quantum mechanics, the propagator is expressed as a path integral
[see Eq. (12.34)], where each path r (t) contributes a phase factor given by
exp
_
iS
r(t)
/
_
. As can be seen from Eq. (12.52), this phase factor is generally
not singly determined, since it depends on the chosen gauge. This result,
however, should not be considered as paradoxical, since only phase diﬀerence
between diﬀerent paths has any physical meaning. Indeed, as we have seen
above [see Eq. (12.47)], phase diﬀerence Θ
12
, which determines the relative
phase between two diﬀerent paths, is evaluated along a closed path, which is
singly determined, and therefore gauge invariant.
Exercise 12.3.1. Given that the wavefunction ψ (r
′
, t
′
) solves the Schrödinger
equation with vector A and scalar ϕ potentials, show that the wavefunction
˜
ψ (r
′
, t
′
), which is given by
˜
ψ (r
′
, t
′
) = exp
_
iqΛ(r
′
)
c
_
ψ (r
′
, t
′
) ,
solves the Schrödinger equation with vector
˜
A = A+∇λ and scalar ˜ ϕ = ϕ
potentials.
Solution 12.3.1. Using Eq. (3.75) one ﬁnds that
exp
_
−
iqΛ
c
_
pexp
_
iqΛ
c
_
= exp
_
−
iqΛ
c
__
p, exp
_
iqΛ
c
__
+p
= p+
q∇Λ
c
.
(12.53)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 312
12.4. One Dimensional Path Integrals
This result implies that
exp
_
−
iqΛ
c
_
_
p−
q
c
A−
q
c
∇Λ
_
exp
_
iqΛ
c
_
=
_
p−
q
c
A
_
, (12.54)
and therefore the following holds
exp
_
−
iqΛ
c
_
˜
Hexp
_
iqΛ
c
_
= H , (12.55)
where [see Eq. (1.62)]
H =
_
p−
q
c
A
_
2
2m
+qϕ (12.56)
is the Hamiltonian corresponding to the vector potential A, whereas
˜
H =
_
p−
q
c
A−
q
c
∇Λ
_
2
2m
+qϕ , (12.57)
is the Hamiltonian corresponding to the vector potential
˜
A. Thus, one ﬁnds
that the state vector
¸
¸
¸
˜
ψ
_
= exp
_
iqΛ
c
_
[ψ¸ (12.58)
solves the Schrödinger equation with
˜
H, provided that the state vector [ψ¸
solves the Schrödinger equation with H, and therefore
˜
ψ (r
′
, t
′
) = exp
_
iqΛ(r
′
)
c
_
ψ (r
′
, t
′
) . (12.59)
12.4 One Dimensional Path Integrals
Consider a point particle having mass m moving in one dimension along the
x axis under the inﬂuence of the potential V (x). The path integral (12.34)
for this case becomes
K (x
b
, t; x
a
) = lim
N→∞
_
Nm
2πit
_
N/2 N−1
n=1
_
dx
n
exp
_
i
t
N
N−1
m=0
/
_
x
m
,
x
m+1
−x
m
t
N
_
_
.
(12.60)
where the Lagrangian is
/(x, ˙ x) =
1
2
m˙ x
2
−V (x) . (12.61)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 313
Chapter 12. Path Integration
The solution of the Euler Lagrange equation, which is given by Eq. (1.8)
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ x
=
∂/
∂x
, (12.62)
yields the classical equation of motion of the system
m¨ x = −
dV
dx
. (12.63)
12.4.1 One Dimensional Free Particle
For this case V (x) = 0.
Exercise 12.4.1. Show that
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) =
_
m
2πit
exp
_
im
2t
(x
b
−x
a
)
2
_
. (12.64)
Solution 12.4.1. The path integral (12.60) for this case becomes
K (x
b
, t; x
a
) = lim
N→∞
_
−
imN
2πt
_
N/2 N−1
n=1
_
dx
n
exp
_
imN
2t
N−1
m=0
(x
m+1
−x
m
)
2
_
,
(12.65)
or
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) = lim
N→∞
_
α
π
_
N/2
N−1
n=1
_
dx
n
exp
_
−α
N−1
m=0
(x
m+1
−x
m
)
2
_
,
(12.66)
where
α = −
imN
2t
. (12.67)
The ﬁrst integral
_
dx
1
can be calculated using the identity
∞
_
−∞
dx
1
exp
_
−α(x
2
−x
1
)
2
−α(x
1
−x
0
)
2
_
=
_
π
2α
exp
_
−
α
2
(x
2
−x
0
)
2
_
,
(12.68)
The second integral
_
dx
2
can be calculated using the identity
∞
_
−∞
dx
2
exp
_
−α(x
3
−x
2
)
2
−
α
2
(x
2
−x
0
)
2
_
=
_
2π
3α
exp
_
−
α
3
(x
3
−x
0
)
2
_
.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 314
12.4. One Dimensional Path Integrals
(12.69)
Similarly, the nth integral
_
dx
n
yields
_
nπ
(n + 1) α
exp
_
−
α
n + 1
(x
n+1
−x
0
)
2
_
. (12.70)
Therefor, the propagator is given by
K (x
b
, t; x
a
) = lim
N→∞
_
α
π
_
N/2
_
π
2α
2π
3α
(N −1) π
Nα
exp
_
−
α
N
(x
b
−x
a
)
2
_
,
(12.71)
or
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) =
_
m
2πit
exp
_
im
2t
(x
b
−x
a
)
2
_
. (12.72)
As can be seen from the classical equation of motion (12.63), a free particle
moves at a constant velocity. Thus, the classical path satisfying x(0) = x
a
and x(t) = x
b
is given by
x
c
(t
′
) = x
a
+
(x
b
−x
a
) t
′
t
. (12.73)
The corresponding classical action S
c
is
S
c
=
_
x
c
(t
′
)
dt
′
/(x, ˙ x) =
m(x
b
−x
a
)
2
2t
. (12.74)
Note that the following holds
d
2
S
c
dx
a
dx
b
= −
m
t
. (12.75)
Thus the propagator can be expressed in terms of the classical action S
c
as
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) =
_
i
2π
d
2
S
c
dx
a
dx
b
exp
_
i
S
c
_
. (12.76)
As we will see below, a similar expression for the propagator is obtained also
for other cases.
12.4.2 Expansion Around the Classical Path
Motivated by the previous example of a free particle, we attempt below to
relate the propagator for the more general case, where V (x) is allowed to be
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 315
Chapter 12. Path Integration
x dependent, with the classical path x
c
(t
′
) and the corresponding classical
action S
c
. Consider a general path x(t
′
) satisfying the boundary conditions
x(0) = x
a
and x(t) = x
b
. It is convenient to express the path as
x(t
′
) = x
c
(t
′
) +δ (t
′
) , (12.77)
where the deviation δ (t
′
) from the classical path x
c
(t
′
) vanishes at the end
points δ (0) = δ (t) = 0. The action associated with the path x(t
′
) can be
expressed as
S =
_
x(t
′
)
dt
′
/(x, ˙ x) , (12.78)
where the Lagrangian is given by Eq. (12.61).
Expanding S is orders of δ yields
S = S
c
+S
1
+S
2
+ , (12.79)
where
S
c
=
_
dt
′
/(x, ˙ x) , (12.80)
S
1
=
_
dt
′
_
∂/
∂x
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=x
c
δ +
∂/
∂ ˙ x
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=x
c
˙
δ
_
, (12.81)
S
2
=
_
dt
′
_
∂
2
/
∂x
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=xc
δ
2
+ 2
∂
2
/
∂x∂ ˙ x
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=xc
δ
˙
δ +
∂
2
/
∂ ˙ x
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=xc
˙
δ
2
_
. (12.82)
In the general case, higher orders in such an expansion may play an important
role, however, as will be discussed below, in the classical limit the dominant
contribution to the path integral comes from the lowest order terms.
Claim. S
1
= 0.
Proof. Integrating by parts the term proportional to
˙
δ in the expression for
S
1
yields
S
1
=
_
∂/
∂ ˙ x
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=xc
δ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
0
+
_
dt
′
_
∂/
∂x
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=xc
−
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ x
¸
¸
¸
¸
x=xc
_
δ . (12.83)
The ﬁrst term in Eq. (12.83) vanishes due to the boundary conditions δ (0) =
δ (t) = 0, whereas the second one vanishes because x
c
(t
′
) satisﬁes the Euler
Lagrange equation (12.62), thus S
1
= 0. The fact that S
1
vanishes is a direct
consequence of the principle of least action of classical mechanics that was
discussed in chapter 1.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 316
12.4. One Dimensional Path Integrals
Employing the coordinate transformation (12.77) and the expansion of S
around the classical path allows rewriting the path integral (12.60) as
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) = P
c
(x
b
, t; x
a
) /(t) , (12.84)
where
P
c
(x
b
, t; x
a
) = exp
_
iS
c
_
, (12.85)
/(t) =
_
T[δ (t
′
)] exp
_
i
_
S
2
+O
_
δ
3
__
_
, (12.86)
and where
_
T[δ (t
′
)] = lim
N→∞
_
Nm
2πit
_
N/2 N−1
n=1
_
dδ
n
. (12.87)
The term /(t) is evaluated by integrating over all paths δ (t
′
) satisfying the
boundary conditions δ (0) = δ (t) = 0.
Exercise 12.4.2. Show that
_
dx
′
P
c
(x
b
, t
2
; x
′
) P
c
(x
′
, t
1
; x
a
)
P
c
(x
b
, t
1
+t
2
; x
a
)
=
/(t
1
+t
2
)
/(t
1
) /(t
2
)
. (12.88)
Solution 12.4.2. As can be seen from the deﬁnition of the propagator
(12.7), the following holds
_
dx
′
K(x
b
, t
2
; x
′
) K (x
′
, t
1
; x
a
) =
_
dx
′
¸x
b
[ u(t
2
) [x
′
¸ ¸x
′
[ u(t
1
) [x
a
¸
= ¸x
b
[ u(t
1
+t
2
) [x
a
¸
= K(x
b
, t
1
+t
2
; x
a
) .
(12.89)
Requiring that this property is satisﬁed by the propagator K (x
b
, t; x
a
) that
is given by Eq. (12.84) leads to
_
dx
′
P
c
(x
b
, t
2
; x
′
) P
c
(x
′
, t
1
; x
a
)
P
c
(x
b
, t
1
+t
2
; x
a
)
=
/(t
1
+t
2
)
/(t
1
) /(t
2
)
. (12.90)
12.4.3 One Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator
For this case the Lagrangian is taken to be given by
/(x, ˙ x) =
m˙ x
2
2
+
mω
1
x˙ x
2
−
mω
2
x
2
2
, (12.91)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 317
Chapter 12. Path Integration
where m, ω and ω
1
are assumed to be real constants. As we will see below,
the term (mω
1
/2) x˙ x doesn’t aﬀect the dynamics, however, it is taken into
account in order to allows studying the more general case where the La
grangian contains all possible types of quadratic (in x and ˙ x) terms (though,
for simplicity, all coeﬃcients in the Lagrangian are assumed to be time inde
pendent). Consider a general path x(t
′
) satisfying the boundary conditions
x(0) = x
a
and x(t) = x
b
. Using the notation
x(t
′
) = x
c
(t
′
) +δ (t
′
) ,
the Lagrangian becomes
/(x, ˙ x) =
m
2
_
_
˙ x
c
+
˙
δ
_
2
+ω
1
(x
c
+δ)
_
˙ x
c
+
˙
δ
_
−ω
2
(x
c
+δ)
2
_
, (12.92)
thus the action associated with the path x(t
′
) can be expressed as
S =
_
x(t
′
)
dt
′
/(x, ˙ x) = S
c
+S
1
+S
2
, (12.93)
where
S
c
=
m
2
t
_
0
dt
′
_
˙ x
2
c
+ω
1
x
c
˙ x
c
−ω
2
x
2
c
_
, (12.94)
S
1
= m
t
_
0
dt
′
_
˙ x
c
˙
δ +
ω
1
2
_
x
c
˙
δ +δ ˙ x
c
_
−ω
2
x
c
δ
_
, (12.95)
S
2
=
m
2
t
_
0
dt
′
_
˙
δ
2
+ω
1
δ
˙
δ −ω
2
δ
2
_
. (12.96)
As we have seen above, the principle of least action implies that S
1
= 0. Note
that in this case the expansion to second order in δ is exact and all higher
order terms vanish. Thus, the exact solution of this problem will also provide
an approximate solution for systems whose Lagrangian can be approximated
by a quadratic one.
Exercise 12.4.3. Find the classical action S
c
of a classical path satisfying
x(0) = x
a
and x(t) = x
b
.
Solution 12.4.3. The Euler Lagrange equation (12.62)
d
dt
∂/
∂ ˙ x
=
∂/
∂x
, (12.97)
for this case yields
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 318
12.4. One Dimensional Path Integrals
¨ x = −ω
2
x , (12.98)
thus, indeed the term (mω
1
/2) x˙ x doesn’t aﬀect the dynamics. Requiring also
boundary conditions x(0) = x
a
and x(t) = x
b
leads to
x
c
(t
′
) =
x
b
sin(ωt
′
) −x
a
sin(ω (t
′
−t))
sin(ωt)
. (12.99)
To evaluate the corresponding action we calculate the following integrals
t
_
0
dt
′
_
˙ x
2
c
−ω
2
x
2
c
_
=
ω
2
sin
2
(ωt)
t
_
0
dt
′
_
(x
b
cos (ωt
′
) −x
a
cos (ω (t
′
−t)))
2
−(x
b
sin(ωt
′
) −x
a
sinω (t
′
−t))
2
_
= ω
_
_
x
2
a
+x
2
b
_
cot (ωt) −
2x
a
x
b
sin(ωt)
_
= ω
_
(x
a
−x
b
)
2
cot (ωt) −2x
a
x
b
tan
_
ωt
2
__
,
(12.100)
and
t
_
0
dt
′
x
c
˙ x
c
=
ω
t
_
0
dt
′
(x
b
sin(ωt
′
) −x
a
sin(ω (t
′
−t))) (x
b
cos (ωt
′
) −x
a
cos (ω (t
′
−t)))
sin
2
(ωt)
=
x
2
b
−x
2
a
2
,
(12.101)
thus, the action is given by
S
c
=
_
xc(t
′
)
dt
′
/(x, ˙ x)
=
mω
2
_
(x
a
−x
b
)
2
cot (ωt) −2x
a
x
b
tan
_
ωt
2
__
+
mω
1
_
x
2
b
−x
2
a
_
4
.
(12.102)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 319
Chapter 12. Path Integration
To evaluate the propagator according to Eq. (12.84) the factor /(t) has
to be determined. This can be done by employing relation (12.88) for the
case where x
a
= x
b
= 0
_
dx
′
P
c
(0, t
2
; x
′
) P
c
(x
′
, t
1
; 0)
P
c
(0, t
1
+t
2
; 0)
=
/(t
1
+t
2
)
/(t
1
) /(t
2
)
. (12.103)
Exercise 12.4.4. Show that
/(t) =
_
mω
2πi sin(ωt)
. (12.104)
Solution 12.4.4. By using Eqs. (12.102) and (12.103) one ﬁnds that
_
dx
′
exp
_
i
mω
2
(cot (ωt
2
) + cot (ωt
1
)) x
′2
_
=
/(t
1
+t
2
)
/(t
1
) /(t
2
)
, (12.105)
thus, using the general integral identity
_
∞
−∞
dx
′
exp
_
iαx
′2
_
=
_
iπ
α
, (12.106)
where α is real, one ﬁnds that
_
2πi
mω (cot (ωt
2
) + cot (ωt
1
))
=
/(t
1
+t
2
)
/(t
1
) /(t
2
)
. (12.107)
Alternatively, using the identity
1
cot (ωt
2
) + cot (ωt
1
)
=
sin(ωt
1
) sin(ωt
2
)
sin(ω (t
1
+t
2
))
, (12.108)
this can be rewritten as
_
2πi
mω
sin(ωt
1
) sin(ωt
2
)
sin(ω (t
1
+t
2
))
=
/(t
1
+t
2
)
/(t
1
) /(t
2
)
. (12.109)
Consider a solution having the form
/(t) = e
f(t)
_
mω
2πisin(ωt)
, (12.110)
where f (t) is an arbitrary function of time. Substituting this into Eq. (12.109)
yields
f (t
1
) +f (t
2
) = f (t
1
+t
2
) , (12.111)
thus f (t) = At, where A is a constant. Combining all these results the prop
agator (12.84) for the present case becomes
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 320
12.5. Semiclassical Limit
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) = e
At
_
mω
2πi sin(ωt)
exp
_
i
mω
2
_
(x
a
−x
b
)
2
cot (ωt) −2x
a
x
b
tan
_
ωt
2
__
+
mω
1
_
x
2
b
−x
2
a
_
4
_
.
(12.112)
In addition we require that in the limit ω, ω
1
→ 0 the above result will
approach the result given by Eq. (12.64) for the propagator of a free particle.
This requirement yields A = 0. Note that
(x
a
−x
b
)
2
cot (ωt) −2x
a
x
b
tan
_
ωt
2
_
=
_
x
2
a
+x
2
b
_
cot (ωt) −
2x
a
x
b
sin(ωt)
.
(12.113)
For the case ω
1
= 0 the propagator K (x
b
, t; x
a
) becomes
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) =
_
mω
2πi sin(ωt)
exp
_
imω
2sin(ωt)
__
x
2
a
+x
2
b
_
cos (ωt) −2x
a
x
b
¸
_
.
(12.114)
As can be seen from Eq. (12.102), the following holds
d
2
S
c
dx
a
dx
b
= −
mω
sin(ωt)
, (12.115)
thus, similar to the case of a free particle [see Eq. (12.76)], also for the present
case of a harmonic oscillator, the propagator can be expressed in terms of
the classical action S
c
as
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) =
_
i
2π
d
2
S
c
dx
a
dx
b
exp
_
i
S
c
_
. (12.116)
12.5 Semiclassical Limit
In the semiclassical limit the Plank’s constant is considered to be small.
In this limit the dominant contribution to the path integral comes only from
paths near the classical one, which has the least action. This implies that in
the expansion of S around the classical path (12.79) terms of order O
_
δ
3
_
can be approximately neglected. Thus, as can be seen from Eq. (12.86), in
this limit [see also Eq. (12.84)] the propagator K (x
b
, t; x
a
) is evaluated by
path integration over the quadratic terms S
2
only of the action [see Eq.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 321
Chapter 12. Path Integration
(12.82)]. In the previous section we have exactly calculated the propagator
associated with the quadratic Lagrangian of a harmonic oscillator. The result
was expressed in Eq. (12.116) in terms of the classical action S
c
. As can be
seen from Eq. (12.76), the same expression is applicable also for the case
of a free particle. It can be shown that the same form is also applicable
for expressing the propagator K (x
b
, t; x
a
) in the semiclassical limit for the
general case
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) =
_
i
2π
d
2
S
c
dx
a
dx
b
exp
_
i
S
c
_
. (12.117)
The proof of the above result, which requires generalization of the derivation
that led to Eq. (12.116) for the case of a general quadratic Lagrangian, will
not be given here. Another important result, which also is given here without
a proof, generalizes Eq. (12.117) for the case of motion in n spacial dimensions
K(r
b
, t; r
a
) =
_
det
_
i
2π
d
2
S
c
dr
a
dr
b
_
exp
_
i
S
c
_
. (12.118)
12.6 Problems
1. Show that
e
ǫ(A+B)
= e
ǫA
e
ǫB
+O
_
ǫ
2
_
, (12.119)
where A and B are operators.
2. Show that
e
ǫ(A+B)
= e
ǫB/2
e
ǫA
e
ǫB/2
+O
_
ǫ
3
_
, (12.120)
where A and B are operators.
3. Show that
exp
_
−
iǫV
2
2m
_
=
1
(2πi)
3/2
_
d
3
r
′
exp
_
ir
′2
2
−i
_
ǫ
m
V r
′
_
, (12.121)
where V is a vector operator.
4. Show that the energy (12.38) is indeed a constant of the motion.
5. Consider a quantum system having time independent Hamiltonian Hand
a discrete energy spectrum. Express its partition function Z in terms of
the systems’s propagator K (x
b
, t; x
a
).
6. Consider a one dimensional harmonic oscillator having mass m and res
onance angular frequency ω in thermal equilibrium at temperature T.
Calculate the matrix elements ¸x
′′
[ ρ [x
′
¸ of the density operator in the
basis of eigenvectors [x
′
¸ of the position operator x.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 322
12.7. Solutions
7. Consider a free particle in one dimension having mass m. Calculate the
position wavefunction ψ (x
′
, t) at time t given that the position wave
function ψ (x
′
, 0) at time t = 0 is given by
ψ(x
′
, 0) =
1
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
exp
_
−
1
2
_
x
′
x
0
_
2
_
. (12.122)
where x
0
is a constant.
8. A particle having mass m is in the ground state of the potential well
V
0
(x) = (1/2) mω
2
x
2
for times t < 0 . At time t = 0 the potential
suddenly changes and becomes V
1
(x) = mgx.
a) Calculate the propagator K (x
b
, t; x
a
) from point x
a
to point x
b
in
the semiclassical limit for the case where the potential is V
1
(x) (i.e.
for the Hamiltonian after the change at t = 0).
b) Use the result of the previous section to calculate the variance
_
(∆x)
2
(t)
_
=
¸
x
2
(t)
_
−¸x(t)¸
2
of the position operator x at time t.
12.7 Solutions
1. Consider the operator
C (ǫ) = e
−ǫA
e
ǫ(A+B)
e
−ǫB
. (12.123)
Clearly, C (0) = 1. Moreover, with the help of Eq. (2.171) one ﬁnds that
dC
dǫ
= −e
−ǫA
Ae
ǫ(A+B)
e
−ǫB
+e
−ǫA
e
ǫ(A+B)
(A+B) e
−ǫB
−e
−ǫA
e
ǫ(A+B)
e
−ǫB
B ,
(12.124)
thus
dC
dǫ
¸
¸
¸
¸
ǫ=0
= −A+ (A+B) −B = 0 , (12.125)
namely
C (ǫ) = 1 +O
_
ǫ
2
_
,
and therefor
e
ǫ(A+B)
= e
ǫA
e
ǫB
+O
_
ǫ
2
_
. (12.126)
2. Consider the operator
C (ǫ) = e
−ǫB/2
e
ǫ(A+B)
e
−ǫB/2
e
−ǫA
. (12.127)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 323
Chapter 12. Path Integration
As in the previous exercise, it is straightforward (though, somewhat te
dious) to show that
C (0) = 1 , (12.128)
dC
dǫ
¸
¸
¸
¸
ǫ=0
= 0 , (12.129)
d
2
C
dǫ
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
ǫ=0
= 0 , (12.130)
thus
C (ǫ) = 1 +O
_
ǫ
3
_
, (12.131)
and therefor
e
ǫ(A+B)
= e
ǫB/2
e
ǫA
e
ǫB/2
+O
_
ǫ
3
_
. (12.132)
3. The proof is trivial using the identity
_
∞
−∞
e
−αx
′2
+βx
′
dx
′
=
_
π
α
e
β
2
/4α
. (12.133)
4. By taking the time derivative of E one has
dE
dt
= m˙ r ¨r +q∇ϕ˙ r = ˙ r (m¨r −qE) . (12.134)
However, according to the equation of motion (1.60) the term in the
brackets vanishes, and therefor dE/dt = 0.
5. Assume that the energy eigenstates of the Hamiltonian H are labeled by
[a
n
¸ and the corresponding eigenenergies by E
n
, i.e.
H[a
n
¸ = E
n
[a
n
¸ , (12.135)
where
¸a
n
′ [a
n
¸ = δ
nn
′ . (12.136)
With the help of the closure relation
1 =
n
[a
n
¸ ¸a
n
[ , (12.137)
one ﬁnds that the propagator K (x
b
, t; x
a
) can be expressed as
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) = ¸x
b
[ exp
_
−
iHt
_
[x
a
¸
=
n
¸x
b
[a
n
¸ exp
_
−
iE
n
t
_
¸a
n
[x
a
¸ .
(12.138)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 324
12.7. Solutions
Taking x
b
= x
a
and integrating over x
a
yields
_
∞
−∞
dx
a
K(x
a
, t; x
a
) =
n
exp
_
−
iE
n
t
_
. (12.139)
Thus, the partition function Z, which is given by Eq. (8.41)
Z =
n
e
−βEn
, (12.140)
where β = 1/k
B
T, can be expressed as
Z =
_
∞
−∞
dx
′
K(x
′
, −iβ; x
′
) . (12.141)
6. Using Eq. (8.42) one ﬁnds that
¸x
′′
[ ρ[x
′
¸ =
¸x
′′
[ e
−βH
[x
′
¸
Z
, (12.142)
where the partition function Z = Tr
_
e
−βH
_
can be expressed in terms
of the propagator K(x
′′
, t; x
′
) [see Eq. (12.141)]
Z =
_
∞
−∞
dx
′
K(x
′
, −iβ; x
′
) . (12.143)
Furthermore, as can be seen from the deﬁnition of the propagator [see
Eq. (12.7)]
K(x
′′
, t; x
′
) = ¸x
′′
[ e
−
iHt
[x
′
¸ , (12.144)
the following holds
¸x
′′
[ e
−βH
[x
′
¸ = K (x
′′
, −iβ; x
′
) . (12.145)
Thus, with the help of Eq. (12.114) one ﬁnds for the case of a harmonic
oscillator that (recall that sin(ix) = i sinhx and cos (ix) = coshx)
Z =
_
∞
−∞
dx
′
K(x
′
, −iβ; x
′
)
=
_
mω
2π sinh(βω)
_
∞
−∞
dx
′
exp
_
−
mω [cosh(βω) −1] x
′2
sinh(βω)
_
=
_
1
2 [cosh(βω) −1]
=
1
2 sinh
βℏω
2
,
(12.146)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 325
Chapter 12. Path Integration
and therefore one ﬁnds, in agreement with Eq. (8.263), that
¸x
′′
[ ρ [x
′
¸ =
K(x
′′
, −iβ; x
′
)
Z
= sinh
βℏω
2
_
2mω
πsinh(βω)
exp
_
−
mω
2 sinh(βω)
__
x
′2
+x
′′2
_
cosh(βω) −2x
′
x
′′
¸
_
=
e
−tanh(
β ω
2
)
_
x
′
+x
′′
2x
0
_
2
−coth(
β ω
2
)
_
x
′
−x
′′
2x
0
_
2
x
0
_
π coth
_
βω
2
_
,
(12.147)
where
x
0
=
_
mω
. (12.148)
7. Denoting the state ket vector of the system by [ψ (t)¸ and the time evo
lution operator by u(t) one has
ψ(x
′
, t) = ¸x
′
[ψ (t)¸
= ¸x
′
[ u(t) [ψ (0)¸
=
_
∞
−∞
dx
′′
¸x
′
[ u(t) [x
′′
¸ ¸x
′′
[ψ (0)¸
=
_
∞
−∞
dx
′′
K(x
′
, t; x
′′
) ψ (x
′′
, 0) ,
(12.149)
where the propagator K(x
′
, t; x
′′
) is given by Eq. (12.72)
K(x
′
, t; x
′′
) =
_
1
2πiΩtx
2
0
exp
_
i
2Ωt
(x
′
−x
′′
)
2
x
2
0
_
, (12.150)
and where
Ω =
mx
2
0
, (12.151)
thus
ψ (x
′
, t) =
1
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
_
1
2πiΩtx
2
0
_
∞
−∞
dx
′′
exp
_
−
1
2
_
1 −
i
Ωt
__
x
′′
x
0
_
2
−
i
Ωt
x
′
x
′′
x
2
0
+
i
2Ωt
_
x
′
x
0
_
2
_
.
(12.152)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 326
12.7. Solutions
With the help of the identity
1
√
π
∞
_
−∞
exp
_
−ax
2
+bx +c
_
dx =
_
1
a
e
1
4
4ca+b
2
a
, (12.153)
one ﬁnds that
ψ (x
′
, t) =
1
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
_
1
1 +iΩt
exp
_
−
1
2 (1 +iΩt)
_
x
′
x
0
_
2
_
. (12.154)
8. The Lagrangian for times t > 0 is given by
/(x, ˙ x) =
1
2
m˙ x
2
−mgx . (12.155)
The Euler Lagrange equation yields the classical equation of motion of
the system
¨ x = −g . (12.156)
The general solution reads
x = x
0
+v
0
t −
gt
2
2
, (12.157)
where the constants x
0
and v
0
are the initial values of the position and
velocity at time t = 0. Given that x = x
a
at time t = 0 and x = x
b
at
time t one ﬁnds that x
0
= x
a
and
v
0
=
x
b
−x
a
t
+
gt
2
, (12.158)
thus the classical trajectory x
c
(t
′
) is given by
x
c
(t
′
) = x
a
+
_
x
b
−x
a
t
+
g
2
t
_
t
′
−
g
2
t
′2
. (12.159)
Using the notation
x
t
= −
gt
2
2
, (12.160)
the trajectory x
c
(t
′
) is expressed as
x
c
(t
′
) = x
a
+ (x
b
−x
a
−x
t
)
t
′
t
+x
t
t
′2
t
2
, (12.161)
and the corresponding velocity ˙ x
c
(t
′
) is expressed as
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 327
Chapter 12. Path Integration
˙ x
c
(t
′
) =
x
b
−x
a
−x
t
t
+
2x
t
t
′
t
2
. (12.162)
The Lagrangian along the classical trajectory is given by
/(x
c
, ˙ x
c
) =
1
2
m˙ x
2
c
−mgx
c
=
m
_
x
b
−x
a
−x
t
t
+
2xtt
′
t
2
_
2
2
−mg
_
x
a
+ (x
b
−x
a
−x
t
)
t
′
t
+x
t
t
′2
t
2
_
,
(12.163)
and the corresponding action S
c
is given by
S
c
=
_
xc(t
′
)
dt
′
/(x, ˙ x)
= m
t
_
0
dt
′
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
x
b
−xa−xt
t
+
2x
t
t
′
t
2
_
2
2
−g
_
x
a
+ (x
b
−x
a
−x
t
)
t
′
t
+x
t
t
′2
t
2
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
= m
(x
b
−x
a
)
2
+ 2x
t
(x
b
+x
a
) −
x
2
t
3
2t
(12.164)
a) In general, the propagator in the semiclassical limit is given by Eq.
(12.117)
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) =
_
i
2π
d
2
S
c
dx
a
dx
b
exp
_
i
S
c
_
, (12.165)
where for the present case S
c
is given by Eq. (12.164) and
d
2
S
c
dx
a
dx
b
= −
m
t
, (12.166)
thus
K(x
b
, t; x
a
) =
_
m
2πit
exp
_
im
(x
b
−x
a
)
2
+ 2x
t
(x
b
+x
a
) −
x
2
t
3
2t
_
=
1
x
0
_
1
2πiωt
exp
_
i
ωt
(x
b
−x
a
)
2
+ 2x
t
(x
b
+x
a
) −
x
2
t
3
2x
2
0
_
=
1
x
0
_
1
2πiωt
exp
_
i
ωt
8
3
x
2
t
+x
2
a
+ 2 (2x
t
−x
a
) (x
b
−x
t
) + (x
b
−x
t
)
2
2x
2
0
_
,
(12.167)
where
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 328
12.7. Solutions
x
0
=
_
mω
. (12.168)
b) Initially at time t = 0 the wavefunction ψ (x
′
) is given by [see Eq.
(5.101)]
ψ (x
′′
, t = 0) =
1
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
exp
_
−
1
2
_
x
′′
x
0
_
2
_
, (12.169)
where
x
0
=
_
mω
. (12.170)
The wave function at time t is evaluated using the propagator
ψ(x
′
, t) =
_
∞
−∞
dx
′′
K (x
′
, t; x
′′
) ψ (x
′′
, 0)
=
1
x
0
_
1
2πiωt
1
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
_
∞
−∞
dx
′′
e
i
ωt
8
3
x
2
t
+(x
′′
)
2
+2(2x
t
−x
′′
)(x
′
−x
t)+(x
′
−x
t)
2
2x
2
0
−
1
2
_
x
′′
x
0
_
2
=
1
x
0
_
1
2πiωt
e
i
ωt
8
3
x
2
t
+4x
t(x
′
−x
t)+(x
′
−x
t)
2
2x
2
0
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
_
∞
−∞
dx
′′
e
−
(
1−
i
ωt
)(
x
′′
x
0
)
2
2
+
−ix
′′
(x
′
−x
t)
ωtx
2
0
.
(12.171)
With the help of the identity
1
√
π
∞
_
−∞
exp
_
−ax
2
+bx
_
dx =
_
1
a
e
b
2
4a
, (12.172)
one ﬁnds that
ψ (x
′
, t) =
e
−
1
2
1
1+iωt
_
x
′
−x
t
x
0
_
2
+
8
3
ix
2
t
+4ix
t(x
′
−x
t)
2ωtx
2
0
π
1/4
x
1/2
0
√
1 +iωt
. (12.173)
The probability density f (x
′
) = [ψ (x
′
, t)[
2
to ﬁnd the particle near
point x
′
at time t is thus given by
f (x
′
) =
e
−
1
1+(ωt)
2
_
x
′
−x
t
x
0
_
2
√
πx
0
_
1 + (ωt)
2
, (12.174)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 329
Chapter 12. Path Integration
therefore f (x
′
) has a Gaussian distribution with a mean value x
t
and
variance given by
_
(∆x)
2
(t)
_
=
x
2
0
2
_
1 + (ωt)
2
_
. (12.175)
Note that this result is in agreement with Eq. (5.245).
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 330
13. Adiabatic Approximation
The adiabatic approximation can be employed for treating systems having
slowly varying Hamiltonian. This chapter is mainly based on Ref. [5].
13.1 Momentary Diagonalization
The Schrödinger equation (4.1) is given by
i
d[α¸
dt
= H[α¸ . (13.1)
For any given value of the time t the Hamiltonian H(t) is assumed to have
a discrete spectrum
H(t) [n(t)¸ = E
n
(t) [n(t)¸ , (13.2)
where n = 1, 2, , the momentary eigenenergies E
n
(t) are real, and the set
of momentary eigenvectors is assumed to be orthonormal
¸n(t) [m(t)¸ = δ
nm
. (13.3)
The general solution can be expanded using the momentary eigenvectors as
a momentary basis
[α(t)¸ =
n
a
n
(t) e
iβ
n
(t)
[n(t)¸ . (13.4)
The phase factors β
n
(t) in the expansion (13.4) are chosen to be given by
β
n
(t) = ξ
n
(t) +γ
n
(t) , (13.5)
where the phase factors
ξ
n
(t) = −
1
_
t
dt
′
E
n
(t
′
) (13.6)
are the socalled dynamical phases, and the other phase factors
Chapter 13. Adiabatic Approximation
γ
n
(t) = i
_
t
dt
′
¸n(t
′
) [ ˙ n(t
′
)¸ (13.7)
are the socalled geometrical phases. As we will see below, choosing the phase
factor β
n
(t) to be given by Eq. (13.5) ensures that the coeﬃcients a
n
(t)
become constants in the adiabatic limit.
Exercise 13.1.1. Show that the term ¸n(t
′
) [ ˙ n(t
′
)¸ is pure imaginary.
Solution 13.1.1. Note that by taking the derivative with respect to t (de
noted by upperdot) of the normalization condition (13.3) one ﬁnds that
¸ ˙ n [m¸ +¸n [ ˙ m¸ = 0 , (13.8)
thus
¸n [ ˙ m¸ = −¸m [ ˙ n¸
∗
. (13.9)
The last result for the case n = m implies that ¸n(t
′
) [ ˙ n(t
′
)¸ is pure imagi
nary, and consequently γ
n
(t) are pure real.
Substituting Eq. (13.4) into Eq. (13.1) leads to
i
n
˙ a
n
(t) e
iβ
n
(t)
[n(t)¸
−
n
a
n
(t)
˙
β
n
(t) e
iβ
n
(t)
[n(t)¸
+i
n
a
n
(t) e
iβ
n
(t)
[ ˙ n(t)¸
=
n
a
n
(t) e
iβ
n
(t)
E
n
(t) [n(t)¸ .
(13.10)
Taking the inner product with ¸m(t)[ e
−iβ
m
(t)
yields
˙ a
m
(t)+i
˙
β
m
(t) a
m
(t)+
n
a
n
(t) e
iβ
n
(t)
e
−iβ
m
(t)
¸m(t) [ ˙ n(t)¸ =
E
m
(t)
i
a
m
(t) .
(13.11)
Since, by deﬁnition, the following holds
i
˙
β
m
(t) =
E
m
(t)
i
−¸m(t) [ ˙ m(t)¸ , (13.12)
Eq. (13.11) can be rewritten as
˙ a
m
= −
n=m
e
i(β
n
(t)−β
m
(t))
¸m(t) [ ˙ n(t)¸ a
n
. (13.13)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 332
13.3. Adiabatic Limit
Exercise 13.1.2. Show that for n ,= m the following holds
¸m(t) [ ˙ n(t)¸ =
¸m(t)[
˙
H[n(t)¸
E
n
(t) −E
m
(t)
. (13.14)
Solution 13.1.2. Taking the time derivative of Eq. (13.2)
˙
H[n¸ +H[ ˙ n¸ =
˙
E
n
[n¸ +E
n
[ ˙ n¸ , (13.15)
and the inner product with ¸m(t)[, where m ,= n, yields the desired identity.
13.2 Gauge Transformation
The momentary orthonormal basis ¦[n(t
′
)¸¦
n
, which is made of eigenvec
tors of H(t), is clearly not singly determined. Consider the following ‘gauge
transformation’ [see for comparison Eq. (12.49)]
[n(t
′
)¸ →[˜ n(t
′
)¸ = e
−iΛ(t
′
)
[n(t
′
)¸ , (13.16)
where Λ(t
′
) is arbitrary real function of time. The geometrical phase γ
n
(t),
which is given by Eq. (13.7)
γ
n
(t) = i
_
t
t0
dt
′
¸n(t
′
) [ ˙ n(t
′
)¸ , (13.17)
is transferred to
γ
n
(t) → ˜ γ
n
(t) = γ
n
(t) +Λ(t) −Λ(t
0
) . (13.18)
Thus, in general the geometrical phase is not singly determined. However, it
becomes singly determined, and thus gauge invariant, if the path is closed,
namely if H(t) = H(t
0
), since for such a case Λ(t) = Λ(t
0
).
13.3 Adiabatic Limit
In the adiabatic limit the terms ¸m(t) [ ˙ n(t)¸ are considered to be negligibly
small. As can be seen from Eq. (13.14), this limit corresponds to the case
where the rate of change in time of the Hamiltonian approaches zero. In
this limit the coeﬃcients a
n
(t) become constants [see Eq. (13.13)], and the
solution (13.4) thus becomes
[α(t)¸ =
n
a
n
e
iβ
n
(t)
[n(t)¸ . (13.19)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 333
Chapter 13. Adiabatic Approximation
13.4 The Case of Two Dimensional Hilbert Space
In this case the Hilbert space is two dimensional and the Hamiltonian can be
represented by a 2 2 matrix, which is conveniently expressed as a combina
tion of Pauli matrices
H˙ =h
0
I +h σ , (13.20)
where I is the 2 2 identity matrix, h
0
is a real scalar, h =(h
1
, h
2
, h
3
) is a
threedimensional real vector, and the components of the Pauli matrix vector
σ are given by
σ
1
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
2
=
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, σ
3
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
. (13.21)
Using the notation h = H
ˆ
h, where H =
√
h h, and where
ˆ
h is a unit vector,
given in spherical coordinates by
ˆ
h = (cos ϕsinθ, sinϕsinθ, cos θ) , (13.22)
one ﬁnds that
H˙ =h
0
I +H
_
cos θ sinθ exp(−iϕ)
sinθ exp(iϕ) −cos θ
_
. (13.23)
The orthonormal eigenvectors are chosen to be given by [see Eqs. (6.195) and
(6.196)]
[+¸ ˙ =
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
sin
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
, (13.24)
[−¸ ˙ =
_
−sin
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
, (13.25)
and the following holds ¸+[+¸ = ¸−[−¸ = 1, ¸+[−¸ = 0, and
H[±¸ = (h
0
±H) [±¸ . (13.26)
Note that the eigenstates [±¸ are independent of both h
0
and H.
The geometrical phase (13.7) can be evaluated by integration along the
path h(t)
γ
n
(t) = i
_
t
0
dt
′
¸n(t
′
) [ ˙ n(t
′
)¸ = i
_
h(t)
h(0)
dh ¸n(h)[ ∇
h
[n(h)¸ . (13.27)
Exercise 13.4.1. Show that
¸±[ ∇
h
[±¸ = ∓
iˆ ϕ
2H
ctg θ . (13.28)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 334
13.4. The Case of Two Dimensional Hilbert Space
Solution 13.4.1. Using the expression for a gradient in spherical coordi
nates (the radial coordinate r in the present case is H)
∇f =
∂f
∂r
ˆr +
1
r
∂f
∂θ
ˆ
θ +
1
r sinθ
∂f
∂ϕ
ˆ ϕ , (13.29)
one ﬁnds that
∇
h
[+¸ =
ˆ
θ
2H
_
−sin
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
+
iˆ ϕ
2H sinθ
_
−cos
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
sin
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
,
(13.30)
thus
¸+[ ∇
h
[+¸ =
iˆ ϕ
2Hsinθ
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
sin
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_ _
_
−cos
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
sin
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
= −
iˆ ϕ
2H
ctg θ .
(13.31)
The term ¸−[ ∇
h
[−¸ is calculated in a similar way.
For the case of a close path, Stock’s theorem can be used to express the
integral in terms of a surface integral over the surface bounded by the close
curve h(t)
γ
n
= i
_
dh ¸n[ ∇
h
[n¸ = i
_
S
da (∇¸n[ ∇
h
[n¸) . (13.32)
Exercise 13.4.2. Show that
∇¸±[ ∇
h
[±¸ = ±
ih
2 [h[
3
. (13.33)
Solution 13.4.2. Using the general expression for the curl operator in spher
ical coordinates (again, note that the radial coordinate r in the present case
is H)
∇A =
1
r sinθ
_
∂ (sinθA
ϕ
)
∂θ
−
∂A
θ
∂ϕ
_
ˆr
+
1
r
_
1
sinθ
∂A
r
∂ϕ
−
∂
∂r
(rA
ϕ
)
_
ˆ
θ
+
1
r
_
∂ (rA
θ
)
∂r
−
∂A
r
∂θ
_
ˆ ϕ ,
(13.34)
one ﬁnds that
∇¸±[ ∇
h
[±¸ = ∓
i
ˆ
h
2H
2
sinθ
∂ cos θ
∂θ
= ∓
ih
2 [h[
3
. (13.35)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 335
Chapter 13. Adiabatic Approximation
With the help of the last result one thus ﬁnds that
γ
±
= ∓
1
2
_
S
da
h
[h[
3
= ∓
1
2
Ω , (13.36)
where Ω is the solid angle subtended by the close path h(t) as seen from the
origin. Due to the geometrical nature of the last result, these phase factors
were given the name geometrical phases.
13.5 Transition Probability
The set of equations of motion (13.13) can be rewritten in a matrix form as
i
d
dt
[a) = H[a) , (13.37)
where
[a) =
_
_
_
a
1
a
2
.
.
.
_
_
_ (13.38)
is a column vector of the coeﬃcients a
n
∈ (, and where the matrix elements
of H are given by
H
mn
= H
∗
nm
= −ie
i(β
n
(t)−β
m
(t))
¸m(t) [ ˙ n(t)¸ (13.39)
for the case n ,= m and H
nn
= 0 otherwise.
The inner product between the vectors
[a) =
_
_
_
a
1
a
2
.
.
.
_
_
_ , [b) =
_
_
_
b
1
b
2
.
.
.
_
_
_ , (13.40)
is deﬁned by
(a [b) = (b [a)
∗
=
m
a
∗
m
b
m
. (13.41)
The set of vectors ¦[n)¦ (n = 1, 2, ), having coeﬃcients a
m
= δ
nm
, forms
an orthonormal basis for the vector space
(n
1
[n
2
) = δ
n
1
n
2
. (13.42)
Consider the case where the system is initially at time t
0
in the state [n).
What is the probability p
nn
(t) to ﬁnd it later at time t > t
0
at the same state
[n)? The adiabatic approximation is valid only when p
nn
≃ 1. Considering
the matrix H as a perturbation, the probability p
nn
can be approximated
using time dependent perturbation theory.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 336
13.5. Transition Probability
Exercise 13.5.1. Show that to lowest nonvanishing order the following
holds
p
nn
(t) = 1 −
m
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
_
t0
dt
′
H
nm
(t
′
)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
. (13.43)
Solution 13.5.1. By employing Eqs. (10.22) and (10.28) one ﬁnds that (re
call that H
nn
= 0)
p
nn
(t) = 1 −
t
_
t0
dt
′
t
_
t0
dt
′′
(n[ H (t
′
) H(t
′′
) [n) . (13.44)
Inserting the identity operator 1 =
m
[m) (m[ between H (t
′
) and H(t
′′
)
and recalling that H
mn
= H
∗
nm
lead to
p
nn
(t) = 1 −
m
p
mn
(t) , (13.45)
where
p
mn
(t) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
t
_
t0
dt
′
H
nm
(t
′
)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
. (13.46)
As can be seen from Eq. (13.39), the matrix elements H
nm
(t
′
) are pro
portional to the oscillatory dynamical phase factors
H
mn
∝ exp(i (ξ
n
(t) −ξ
m
(t))) = exp
_
−
i
_
t
dt
′
(E
n
(t
′
) −E
m
(t
′
))
_
.
(13.47)
In the adiabatic limit these terms rapidly oscillate and consequently the prob
abilities p
mn
(t) are exponentially small. From the same reason, the dominant
contribution to the integral is expected to come from regions where the en
ergy gap E
n
(t
′
)−E
m
(t
′
) is relatively small. Moreover, it is also expected that
the main contribution to the total ’survival’ probability p
nn
will come from
those states whose energy E
m
(t
′
) is close to E
n
(t
′
). Having this is mind, we
study below the transition probability for the case of a two level system. As
we will see below, the main contribution indeed comes from the region near
the point where the energy gap obtains a minimum.
13.5.1 The Case of Two Dimensional Hilbert Space
We calculate below p
−+
for the case H˙ =h σ, where h(t) is the straight line
h(t) = Ω(0, 1, γt) , (13.48)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 337
Chapter 13. Adiabatic Approximation
where Ω is a positive constant, γ is a real constant, and where the initial time
is taken to be t
0
= −∞ and the ﬁnal one is taken to be t = ∞. In spherical
coordinates h(t) is given by
h(t) = H (0, sinθ, cos θ) , (13.49)
where
H = Ω
_
1 + (γt)
2
, (13.50)
cot θ = γt , (13.51)
and where ϕ = π/2. Thus, the energy gap 2H obtains a minimum at time
t = 0. As can be seen from Eqs. (13.24) and (13.25), for any curve lying on
a plane with a constant azimuthal angle ϕ, the following holds
¸
¸ ˙
+
_
=
˙
θ
2
[−¸ , (13.52)
and therefor
¸−
¸
¸ ˙
+
_
=
˙
θ
2
, (13.53)
and
¸+
¸
¸ ˙
+
_
= ¸−
¸
¸ ˙
−
_
= 0 . (13.54)
For the present case one ﬁnds using Eq. (13.51) that
¸−
¸
¸ ˙
+
_
= −
1
2
γ
1 + (γt)
2
. (13.55)
This together with Eqs. (13.39) and (13.46) leads to
p
−+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
∞
_
−∞
dt
′
e
i(ξ
+
(t
′
)−ξ
−
(t
′
))
¸−(t
′
)
¸
¸ ˙
+(t
′
)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
γ
2
∞
_
−∞
dt
′
exp
_
i
_
−2Ω
_
t
′
0
dt
′′
_
1 + (γt
′′
)
2
__
1 + (γt
′
)
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
γ
2
∞
_
−∞
dt
′
exp
_
−
2iΩ
γ
_
γt
′
0
dτ
√
1 +τ
2
_
1 + (γt
′
)
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
2
∞
_
−∞
dτ
exp
_
−
iΩ
γ
_
τ
√
1 +τ
2
−ln
_
−τ +
√
1 +τ
2
_¸
_
1 +τ
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
.
(13.56)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 338
13.5. Transition Probability
Exercise 13.5.2. Show that if γ/Ω ≪1 then
p
−+
≃ exp
_
−π
Ω
γ
_
.
Solution 13.5.2. The variable transformation
τ = sinhz , (13.57)
and the identities
_
1 +τ
2
= coshz , (13.58)
τ
_
1 +τ
2
=
1
2
sinh(2z) , (13.59)
ln
_
−τ +
_
1 +τ
2
_
= −z , (13.60)
dτ = coshz dz , (13.61)
yield
p
−+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
2
∞
_
−∞
dz
exp
_
−
iΩ
γ
_
1
2
sinh(2z) +z
_
_
coshz
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
. (13.62)
In the limit γ/Ω ≪ the phase oscillates rapidly and consequently p
−+
→ 0.
The stationary phase points z
n
in the complex plane are found from the
condition
0 =
d
dz
_
1
2
sinh2z +z
_
= cosh2z + 1 , (13.63)
thus
z
n
= iπ
_
n +
1
2
_
, (13.64)
where n is integer. Note, however that the term 1/ coshz has poles at the same
points. Using the Cauchy’s theorem the path of integration can be deformed
to pass close to the point z
−1
= −iπ/2. Since the pole at z
−1
is a simple one,
the principle value of the integral exists. To avoid passing through the pole at
z
−1
a trajectory forming a half circle "above" the pole with radius ε is chosen
were ε →0. This section gives the dominant contribution which is iπR, where
R is the residue at the pole. Thus the probability p
−+
is approximately given
by
p
−+
≃ exp
_
−π
Ω
γ
_
. (13.65)
The last result can be used to obtain a validity condition for the adia
batic approximation. In the adiabatic limit p
−+
≪1, and thus the condition
πΩ/γ ≫1 is required to ensure the validity of the approximation.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 339
Chapter 13. Adiabatic Approximation
13.6 Problems
1. Consider the following ’gauge transformation’
[+¸ ˙ =
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
sin
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
→
¸
¸ ˜
+
_
˙ =
_
cos
θ
2
sin
θ
2
exp(iϕ)
_
, (13.66)
[−¸ ˙ =
_
−sin
θ
2
exp
_
−
iϕ
2
_
cos
θ
2
exp
_
iϕ
2
_
_
→
¸
¸ ˜
−
_
˙ =
_
−sin
θ
2
cos
θ
2
exp(iϕ)
_
. (13.67)
Find an expression for the transformed geometrical phase ˜ γ
±
(t).
2. Consider a particle having mass mconﬁned by a time dependent potential
well given by
V (x) =
_
0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ a
∞if x < 0 or x > a
. (13.68)
where the width of the well a oscillates in time according to
a(t) = a
0
_
1 −αsin
2
(ω
p
t)
_
, (13.69)
where a
0
, α and ω
p
are positive, and where α < 1.
a) Under what condition the adiabatic approximation is expected to be
valid.
b) Calculate the geometrical phases γ
n
[see Eq. (13.7)] for a cyclic evo
lution from time t = 0 to time t = π/ω
p
.
13.7 Solutions
1. The following holds
¸
¸ ˜
+
_
= exp
_
iϕ
2
_
[+¸ , (13.70)
¸
¸ ˜
−
_
= exp
_
iϕ
2
_
[−¸ , (13.71)
thus the transformed geometrical phase ˜ γ
±
(t) [see Eq. (13.18)] becomes
γ
n
(t) → ˜ γ
n
(t) = γ
n
(t) −
ϕ(t)
2
+
ϕ(t
0
)
2
. (13.72)
2. The momentary eigenenergies of the system are given by
E
n
(t) =
2
π
2
n
2
2ma
2
0
_
1 −αsin
2
(ω
p
t)
_
2
, (13.73)
where n = 1, 2, . The corresponding eigenvectors are denoted by
[n(t)¸.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 340
13.7. Solutions
a) In general, the main contribution to interstate transitions come from
time periods when the energy gap between neighboring eigenener
gies is relatively small. At any given time the smallest energy gap
between momentary eigenenergies is the one between the two lowest
states H
21
(t) = E
2
(t) −E
1
(t). Furthermore, the main contribution
to the transition probability is expected to come fromthe regions near
minima points of the energy gap H
21
(t). Near the minima point at
time t = 0 the energy gap H
21
(t) is given by
H
21
(t) =
3
2
π
2
2ma
2
0
_
1 −αsin
2
(ω
p
t)
_
2
=
3
2
π
2
2ma
2
0
_
1 + 2α(ω
p
t)
2
_
+O
_
t
3
_
=
3
2
π
2
2ma
2
0
_
1 + 4α(ω
p
t)
2
+O
_
t
3
_
.
(13.74)
The estimated transition probability for the two dimensional case
is given by Eq. (13.65). In view of the fact that all other energy
gaps between momentary eigenenergies is at least 5/3 larger than
H
21
, it is expected that this estimate is roughly valid for the present
case. The requirement that the transition probability given by Eq.
(13.65) is small is taken to be the validity condition for the adiabatic
approximation. Comparing the above expression for H
21
(t) near t =
0 with Eq. (13.50) yields the following validity condition
2ω
p
α
1/2
≪
3π
3
2ma
2
0
. (13.75)
b) In general, the term ¸n(t
′
) [ ˙ n(t
′
)¸ is pure imaginary [see Eq. (13.9)].
On the other hand, the fact that the wavefunctions of one dimensional
bound states can be chosen to be real (see exercise 7 of chapter 4),
implies that ¸n(t
′
) [ ˙ n(t
′
)¸ is pure real. Thus ¸n(t
′
) [ ˙ n(t
′
)¸ = 0 and
therefore all geometrical phases vanish.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 341
14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field
This chapter discusses the quantization of electromagnetic (EM) ﬁeld for the
relatively simple case of a free space cavity.
14.1 Classical Electromagnetic Cavity
Consider an empty volume surrounded by conductive walls having inﬁnite
conductivity. The Maxwell’s equations (in Gaussian units) are given by
∇B =
1
c
∂E
∂t
, (14.1)
∇E = −
1
c
∂B
∂t
, (14.2)
∇ E = 0 , (14.3)
∇ B = 0 , (14.4)
where c = 2.99 10
8
ms
−1
is the speed of light in vacuum. In the Coulomb
gauge the vector potential A is chosen such that
∇ A = 0 , (14.5)
and the scalar potential ϕ vanishes in the absence of sources (charge and
current). In this gauge both electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and B can be
expressed in terms of A only as [see Eqs. (1.41) and (1.42)]
E = −
1
c
∂A
∂t
, (14.6)
and
B =∇A . (14.7)
Exercise 14.1.1. Show that
∇
2
A =
1
c
2
∂
2
A
∂t
2
. (14.8)
Chapter 14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field
Solution 14.1.1. The gauge condition (14.5) and Eqs. (14.6) and (14.7)
guarantee that Maxwell’s equations (14.2), (14.3), and (14.4) are satisﬁed
∇E = −
1
c
∂ (∇A)
∂t
= −
1
c
∂B
∂t
, (14.9)
∇ E = −
1
c
∂ (∇ A)
∂t
= 0 , (14.10)
∇ B = ∇ (∇A) = 0 , (14.11)
where in the last equation the general vector identity ∇ (∇A) = 0 has
been employed. Substituting Eqs. (14.6) and (14.7) into the only remaining
nontrivial equation, namely into Eq. (14.1), leads to
∇(∇A) = −
1
c
2
∂
2
A
∂t
2
. (14.12)
Using the vector identity
∇(∇A) = ∇(∇ A) −∇
2
A , (14.13)
and the gauge condition (14.5) one ﬁnds that
∇
2
A =
1
c
2
∂
2
A
∂t
2
. (14.14)
Exercise 14.1.2. Consider a solution having the form
A = q (t) u(r) , (14.15)
where q (t) is independent on position r and u(r) is independent on time t.
Show that q (t) and u(r) must satisfy
∇
2
u+κ
2
u = 0 , (14.16)
and
d
2
q
dt
2
+ω
2
κ
q = 0 , (14.17)
where κ is a constant and where
ω
κ
= cκ . (14.18)
Solution 14.1.2. The gauge condition (14.5) leads to
∇ u = 0 . (14.19)
From Eq. (14.8) one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 344
14.1. Classical Electromagnetic Cavity
q∇
2
u =
1
c
2
u
d
2
q
dt
2
. (14.20)
Multiplying by an arbitrary unit vector ˆ n leads to
_
∇
2
u
_
ˆ n
u ˆ n
=
1
c
2
q
d
2
q
dt
2
. (14.21)
The left hand side of Eq. (14.21) is a function of r only while the right hand
side is a function of t only. Therefore, both should equal a constant, which is
denoted as −κ
2
, thus
∇
2
u+κ
2
u = 0 , (14.22)
and
d
2
q
dt
2
+ω
2
κ
q = 0 , (14.23)
where
ω
κ
= cκ . (14.24)
Exercise 14.1.3. Show that the general solution can be expanded as
A =
n
q
n
(t) u
n
(r) . (14.25)
where the set ¦u
n
¦ forms a complete orthonormal basis spanning the vector
space of all solutions of Eq. (14.16) satisfying the proper boundary conditions
on the conductive walls having inﬁnite conductivity.
Solution 14.1.3. Equation (14.16) should be solved with the boundary con
ditions of a perfectly conductive surface. Namely, on the surface S enclosing
the cavity we have B ˆs = 0 and Eˆs = 0, where ˆs is a unit vector normal
to the surface. To satisfy the boundary condition for E we require that u be
normal to the surface, namely, u =ˆs (u ˆs) on S. This condition guarantees
also that the boundary condition for B is satisﬁed. To see this we calculate
the integral of the normal component of B over some arbitrary portion S
′
of
S. Using Eq. (14.7) and Stoke’s’ theorem one ﬁnds that
_
S
′
(B ˆs) dS = q
_
S
′
[(∇u) ˆs] dS
= q
_
C
udl ,
(14.26)
where the close curve C encloses the surface S
′
. Thus, since u is normal to
the surface, one ﬁnds that the integral along the close curve C vanishes, and
therefore
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 345
Chapter 14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field
_
S
′
(B ˆs) dS = 0 . (14.27)
Since S
′
is arbitrary we conclude that B ˆs =0 on S. Each solution of Eq.
(14.16) that satisﬁes the boundary conditions is called an eigen mode. As
can be seen from Eq. (14.23), the dynamics of a mode amplitude q is the
same as the dynamics of an harmonic oscillator having angular frequency
ω
κ
= cκ. Inner product between diﬀerent solutions of Eq. (14.16) that satisfy
the boundary conditions can be deﬁned as
¸u
1
, u
2
¸ ≡
_
V
(u
1
u
2
) dV , (14.28)
where the integral is taken over the volume of the cavity. Using Eq. (14.16)
one ﬁnds that
_
κ
2
2
−κ
2
1
_
_
V
(u
1
u
2
) dV =
_
V
_
u
1
∇
2
u
2
−u
2
∇
2
u
1
_
dV . (14.29)
Using Green’s theorem one ﬁnds that
_
κ
2
2
−κ
2
1
_
_
V
(u
1
u
2
) dV =
_
S
(u
1
[(ˆs ∇) u
2
] −u
2
[(ˆs ∇) u
1
]) . (14.30)
Using Eq. (14.19), the boundary condition u =ˆs (u ˆs) on S, and writing ∇ =
ˆs (ˆs ∇) −ˆs(ˆs ∇), we ﬁnd that the right hand side of (14.30) vanishes.
Thus, solutions with diﬀerent κ
2
are orthogonal to each other. Let ¦u
n
¦ be a
complete orthonormal basis spanning the vector space of all solutions of Eq.
(14.16) satisfying the boundary conditions. For any two vectors in this basis
the orthonormality condition is
¸u
n
, u
m
¸ =
_
V
(u
n
u
m
) dV = δ
n,m
. (14.31)
Using such a basis we can expand the general solution as
A =
n
q
n
(t) u
n
(r) . (14.32)
Exercise 14.1.4. Show that the total electric energy in the cavity is given
by
U
E
=
1
8πc
2
n
˙ q
2
n
, (14.33)
and the total magnetic energy is given by
U
B
=
1
8π
n
κ
2
n
q
2
n
. (14.34)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 346
14.1. Classical Electromagnetic Cavity
Solution 14.1.4. Using Eqs. (14.6),(14.7) and (14.25) one ﬁnds that the
ﬁelds are given by
E = −
1
c
n
˙ q
n
u
n
, (14.35)
and
B =
n
q
n
∇u
n
. (14.36)
The total energy of the ﬁeld is given by U
E
+ U
B
, where U
E
(U
B
) is the
energy associated with the electric (magnetic) ﬁeld, namely,
U
E
=
1
8π
_
V
E
2
dV , (14.37)
and
U
B
=
1
8π
_
V
B
2
dV . (14.38)
Using Eqs. (14.35) and (14.31) one ﬁnds that
U
E
=
1
8πc
2
n
˙ q
2
n
, (14.39)
and using Eq. (14.36) one ﬁnds that
U
B
=
1
8π
n,m
q
n
q
m
_
V
(∇u
n
) (∇u
m
) dV . (14.40)
The last integral can be calculated by using the vector identity
∇ (F
1
F
2
) = (∇F
1
) F
2
−F
1
(∇F
2
) , (14.41)
applied to u
n
(∇u
m
), thus
(∇u
n
) (∇u
m
) = ∇ (u
n
(∇u
m
))+u
n
[∇(∇u
m
)] . (14.42)
Using the divergence theorem and the fact that u
n
and (∇u
m
) are orthog
onal to each other on S one ﬁnds that the volume integral of the ﬁrst term
vanishes. To calculate the integral of the second term it is convenient to use
the identity
∇(∇u
m
) = ∇(∇ u
m
) −∇
2
u
m
. (14.43)
This together with Eqs. (14.19), (14.16), and (14.31) lead to
U
B
=
1
8π
n
κ
2
n
q
2
n
. (14.44)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 347
Chapter 14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field
The Lagrangian of the system is given by [see Eq. (1.16)]
/ = U
E
−U
B
=
1
4πc
2
n
_
˙ q
2
n
2
−
ω
2
n
q
2
n
2
_
, (14.45)
where the symbol overdot is used for derivative with respect to time, and
where ω
n
= cκ
n
. The EulerLagrange equations, given by
d
dt
_
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
_
−
∂/
∂q
n
= 0 , (14.46)
lead to Eq. (14.23).
The variable canonically conjugate to q
n
is [see Eq. (1.20)]
p
n
=
∂/
∂ ˙ q
n
=
1
4πc
2
˙ q
n
. (14.47)
The classical Hamiltonian H
F
of the ﬁeld is given by [see Eq. (1.22)]
H
F
=
n
p
n
˙ q
n
−/ =
n
_
4πc
2
p
2
n
2
+
1
4πc
2
ω
2
n
q
2
n
2
_
. (14.48)
The HamiltonJacobi equations of motion, which are given by
˙ q
n
=
∂H
F
∂p
n
= 4πc
2
p
n
, (14.49)
˙ p
n
= −
∂H
F
∂q
n
= −
ω
2
n
4πc
2
q
n
, (14.50)
lead also to Eq. (14.23). Note that, as expected, the following holds
H
F
= U
E
+U
B
, (14.51)
namely the Hamiltonian expresses the total energy of the system.
14.2 Quantum Electromagnetic Cavity
The coordinates q
n
and their canonically conjugate variables p
n
are regarded
as Hermitian operators satisfying the following commutation relations [see
Eqs. (3.5) and (4.41)]
[q
n
, p
m
] = iδ
n,m
, (14.52)
and
[q
n
, q
m
] = [p
n
, p
m
] = 0 . (14.53)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 348
14.2. Quantum Electromagnetic Cavity
In general, the Heisenberg equation of motion (4.37) of an operator A
(H)
is
given by
dA
(H)
dt
=
1
i
_
A
(H)
, H
(H)
F
_
+
∂A
(H)
∂t
. (14.54)
Thus, with the help of Eq. (??) one ﬁnds that
˙ q
n
= 4πc
2
p
n
, (14.55)
and
˙ p
n
= −
ω
2
n
4πc
2
q
n
. (14.56)
It is useful to introduce the annihilation and creation operators
a
n
= e
iωnt
_
ω
n
8πc
2
_
q
n
+
4πic
2
p
n
ω
n
_
, (14.57)
a
†
n
= e
−iωnt
_
ω
n
8πc
2
_
q
n
−
4πic
2
p
n
ω
n
_
. (14.58)
The phase factor e
iω
n
t
in the deﬁnition of a
n
is added in order to make it
time independent. The inverse transformation is given by
q
n
=
_
2πc
2
ω
n
_
e
−iω
n
t
a
n
+e
iω
n
t
a
†
n
_
, (14.59)
p
n
= i
_
ω
n
8πc
2
_
−e
−iω
n
t
a
n
+e
iω
n
t
a
†
n
_
. (14.60)
The commutation relations for the these operators are derived directly from
Eqs. (14.52) and (14.53)
_
a
n
, a
†
m
¸
= δ
n,m
, (14.61)
[a
n
, a
m
] =
_
a
†
n
, a
†
m
¸
= 0 . (14.62)
The Hamiltonian (??) can be expressed using Eqs. (14.59) and (14.60) as
H
F
=
n
ω
n
_
a
†
n
a
n
+
1
2
_
. (14.63)
The eigenstates are the photonnumber states [s
1,
s
2
, ..., s
n
, ...¸, which satisfy
[see chapter 5]
H
F
[s
1,
s
2
, , s
n
, ¸ =
n
ω
n
_
s
n
+
1
2
_
[s
1,
s
2
, , s
n
, ¸ . (14.64)
The following holds [see Eqs. (5.28) and (5.29)]
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 349
Chapter 14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field
a
n
[s
1,
s
2
, , s
n
, ¸ =
√
s
n
[s
1,
s
2
, , s
n
−1, ¸ , (14.65)
a
†
n
[s
1,
s
2
, , s
n
, ¸ =
√
s
n
+ 1 [s
1,
s
2
, , s
n
+ 1, ¸ . (14.66)
The nonnegative integer s
n
is the number of photons occupying mode n.
The vector potential A (14.25) becomes
A(r, t) =
n
_
2πc
2
ω
n
_
e
−iωnt
a
n
+e
iωnt
a
†
n
_
u
n
(r) . (14.67)
14.3 Periodic Boundary Conditions
Consider the case where the EM ﬁeld is conﬁned to a ﬁnite volume V , which
for simplicity is taken to have a cube shape with edge L = V
−1/3
. The
eigen modes and eigen frequencies of the EM ﬁeld are found in exercise 1
of this chapter for the case where the walls of the cavity are assumed to
have inﬁnite conductance [see Eq. (14.84)]. It is however more convenient to
assume instead periodic boundary conditions, since the spatial dependence
of the resulting eigen modes [denoted by u
n
(r)], can be expressed in terms of
exponential functions, rather than trigonometric functions [see Eqs. (14.77),
(14.78) and (14.79)]. For this case Eq. (14.63) becomes
H
F
=
k,λ
ω
k
_
a
†
k,λ
a
k,λ
+
1
2
_
, (14.68)
and Eq. (14.67) becomes
A(r, t) =
k,λ
_
2πc
2
ω
k
V
_
ˆǫ
k,λ
e
i(k·r−ω
k
t)
a
k,λ
+ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
e
−i(k·r−ω
k
t)
a
†
k,λ
_
, (14.69)
where the eigen frequencies are given by ω
k
= c [k[. In the limit of large
volume the discrete sum over wave vectors k can be replaced by an integral
k
→
V
(2π)
3
_
∞
−∞
dk
x
_
∞
−∞
dk
y
_
∞
−∞
dk
z
, (14.70)
and the commutation relations between ﬁeld operators become
[a
k,λ
, a
k
′
,λ
] =
_
a
†
k,λ
, a
†
k
′
,λ
_
= 0 , (14.71)
_
a
k,λ
, a
†
k
′
,λ
′
_
= δ
λ,λ
′ δ
_
k −k
′
_
. (14.72)
The sum over λ contains two terms corresponding to two polarization
vectors ˆǫ
k,λ
, which are normalized to unity and mutually orthogonal, i,e.
ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
ˆǫ
k,λ
′ = δ
λ,λ
′ . Furthermore, the Coulomb gauge condition requires that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 350
14.5. Solutions
ˆǫ
k,λ
k =ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
k = 0, i.e. the polarization vectors are required to be orthogonal
to the wave vector k. Linear polarization can be represented by two mutually
orthogonal real vectors ˆǫ
k,1
and ˆǫ
k,2
, which satisfy ˆǫ
k,1
ˆǫ
k,2
= k/ [k[. For
the case of circular polarization the polarization vectors can be chosen to be
given by
ˆǫ
k,+
= −
1
√
2
(ˆǫ
k,1
+iˆǫ
k,2
) , (14.73)
ˆǫ
k,−
=
1
√
2
(ˆǫ
k,1
−iˆǫ
k,2
) . (14.74)
For this case of circular polarization the following holds
ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
ˆǫ
k,λ
′ = δ
λ,λ
′ , (14.75)
ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
ˆǫ
k,λ
′ = iλ
k
[k[
δ
λ,λ
′ . (14.76)
where λ ∈ ¦+, −¦.
14.4 Problems
1. Find the eigen modes and eigen frequencies of a cavity having a pizza
box shape with volume V = L
2
d.
2. Consider two perfectly conducting metallic plates placed in parallel to
each other. The gap between the plates is d and the temperature is as
sumed to be zero. Calculate the force per unit area acting between the
plates (the Casimir force).
3. Find the average energy per unit volume of the electromagnetic ﬁeld in
thermal equilibrium at temperature T.
14.5 Solutions
1. We seek solutions of Eq. (14.16) satisfying the boundary condition that
the tangential component of u vanishes on the walls. Consider a solution
having the form
u
x
(r) =
_
8
V
a
x
cos (k
x
x) sin(k
y
y) sin(k
z
z) , (14.77)
u
y
(r) =
_
8
V
a
y
sin(k
x
x) cos (k
y
y) sin(k
z
z) , (14.78)
u
z
(r) =
_
8
V
a
z
sin(k
x
x) sin(k
y
y) cos (k
z
z) . (14.79)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 351
Chapter 14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field
While the boundary condition on the walls x = 0, y = 0, and z = 0 is
guaranteed to be satisﬁed, the boundary condition on the walls x = L,
y = L, and z = d yields
k
x
=
n
x
π
L
, (14.80)
k
y
=
n
y
π
L
, (14.81)
k
z
=
n
z
π
d
, (14.82)
where n
x
, n
y
and n
z
are integers. This solution clearly satisﬁes Eq.
(14.16), where the eigen value κ is given by
κ =
_
k
2
x
+k
2
y
+k
2
z
. (14.83)
Alternatively, using the notation n = (n
x
, n
y
, n
z
) one has κ = (π/L) n,
where n =
_
n
2
x
+n
2
y
+n
2
z
. Using Eq. (14.24) one ﬁnds that the angular
frequency of a mode characterized by the vector of integers n is given by
ω
n
= cπ
_
_
n
x
L
_
2
+
_
n
y
L
_
2
+
_
n
z
d
_
2
. (14.84)
In addition to Eq. (14.16) and the boundary condition, each solution has
to satisfy also the transversality condition ∇ u = 0 (14.19), which in the
present case reads
k a = 0 , (14.85)
where k = (k
x
, k
y
, k
z
) and a = (a
x
, a
y
, a
z
). Thus, for each set of integers
¦n
x
, n
y
, n
z
¦ there are two orthogonal modes (polarizations), unless n
x
=
0 or n
y
= 0 or n
z
= 0. In the latter case, only a single solution exists.
The inner product between two solutions u
1
and u
1
having vectors of
integers n
1
= (n
x1
, n
y1
, n
z1
) and n
2
= (n
x2
, n
y2
, n
z2
), and vectors of
amplitudes a
1
= (a
x1
, a
y1
, a
z1
) and a
2
= (a
x2
, a
y2
, a
z2
), respectively, can
be calculated using Eq. (14.28)
¸u
1
, u
2
¸ =
_
V
(u
1
u
2
) dV
=
_
V
(u
x1
u
x2
+u
y1
u
y2
+u
z1
u
z2
) dV .
(14.86)
The following holds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 352
14.5. Solutions
_
V
u
x1
u
x2
dV
=
8
V
a
x1
a
x2
_
L
0
cos
_
n
x1
π
L
x
_
cos
_
n
x2
π
L
x
_
dx
_
L
0
sin
_
n
y1
π
L
y
_
sin
_
n
y2
π
L
y
_
dy
_
d
0
sin
_
n
z1
π
d
z
_
sin
_
n
z2
π
d
z
_
dz ,
=
8
V
a
x1
a
x2
L
2
d
8
δ
n
x1
,n
x2
δ
n
y1
,n
y2
δ
n
z1
,n
z2
.
(14.87)
Similar results are obtained for the contribution of the y and z compo
nents. Thus
¸u
1
, u
2
¸ = (a
1
a
2
) δ
nx1,nx2
δ
ny1,ny2
δ
nz1,nz2
, (14.88)
and therefore the vectors of amplitudes a are required to be normalized,
i.e. to satisfy a a = 1, in order to ensure that the solutions u are
normalized.
2. Employing the results of the previous exercise, the eigen frequencies ω
n
are taken to be given by Eq. (14.84), where L is assumed to be much
larger than d. As can be seen from Eq. (??), each mode contributes
energy of ω
n
/2 to the total energy of the ground state of the system,
which is denoted by E(d). Let E(∞) be the ground state energy in the
limit where d →∞and let U (d) = E(d)−E(∞) be the potential energy
of the system. Formally, both E(d) and E(∞) are inﬁnite, however, as
we will show below, the divergence can be regulated when evaluating the
diﬀerence U (d). The assumption that L is large allows substituting the
discrete sums over n
x
and n
y
by integrals when evaluating E(d) and
E(∞). Moreover the discrete sum over n
z
is substituted by an integral
in the expression for E(∞). The prime on the summation symbol over
n
z
in the expression for E(d) below implies that a factor of 1/2 should
be inserted if n
z
= 0, when only one polarization exists (see previous
exercise). Using these approximations and notation one has
U (d) = E(d) −E(∞)
= c
_
L
π
_
2 ′
nz
_
∞
0
dk
x
_
∞
0
dk
y
_
k
2
x
+k
2
y
+
_
πn
z
d
_
2
−c
_
L
π
_
2
d
π
_
∞
0
dk
x
_
∞
0
dk
y
_
∞
0
dk
z
_
k
2
x
+k
2
y
+k
2
z
.
(14.89)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 353
Chapter 14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field
In polar coordinates u =
_
k
2
x
+k
2
y
and θ = tan
−1
(k
y
/k
x
) one has
dk
x
dk
y
= ududθ, thus
U (d) = c
_
L
π
_
2
π
2
′
n
z
_
∞
0
du u
_
u
2
+
_
πn
z
d
_
2
−c
_
L
π
_
2
d
π
π
2
_
∞
0
du u
_
∞
0
dk
z
_
u
2
+k
2
z
.
(14.90)
Changing the integration variables
x =
_
ud
π
_
2
, (14.91)
N
z
=
k
z
d
π
, (14.92)
leads to
U (d) =
π
2
cL
2
4d
3
_
′
nz
F (n
z
) −
_
∞
0
dN
z
F (N
z
)
_
=
π
2
cL
2
4d
3
_
1
2
F (0) +
∞
nz=1
F (n
z
) −
_
∞
0
dN
z
F (N
z
)
_
,
(14.93)
where the function F (ξ) is given by
F (ξ) =
_
∞
0
dx
_
x +ξ
2
=
_
∞
ξ
2
dy
√
y . (14.94)
Formally, the function F (ξ) diverges. However, the following physical
argument can be employed in order to regulate this divergency. The as
sumption that the walls of the cavity perfectly conduct is applicable at
low frequencies. However, any metal becomes eﬀectively transparent in
the limit of high frequencies. Thus, the contribution to the ground state
energy of high frequency modes is expected to be eﬀectively d indepen
dent, and consequently U (d) is expected to become ﬁnite. Based on this
argument the divergency in F (ξ) is removed by introducing a cutoﬀ func
tion f (y) into the integrand in Eq. (14.94)
F (ξ) =
_
∞
ξ
2
dy
√
yf (y) . (14.95)
While near y = 0 (low frequencies) the cutoﬀ function is assumed to be
given by f (y) = 1, in the limit of large y (high frequencies) the function
f (y) is assumed to approach zero suﬃciency fast to ensure that F (ξ) is
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 354
14.5. Solutions
ﬁnite for any ξ. Moreover, it is assumed that F(∞) →0. In this case the
EulerMaclaurin summation formula, which is given by
1
2
F (0) +
∞
n=1
F (n) −
_
∞
0
dN F (N) = −
1
12
F
′
(0) +
1
720
F
′′′
(0) + ,
(14.96)
can be employed to evaluate U (d). The following holds
F
′
(ξ) = −2ξ
2
f
_
ξ
2
_
, (14.97)
thus for small ξ [where the cutoﬀ function is assumed to be given by
f (y) = 1] F
′′
(ξ) = −4ξ and F
′′′
(ξ) = −4, and therefore
U (d) = −
π
2
cL
2
720d
3
. (14.98)
The force per unit area (pressure) P (d) is found by taking the derivative
with respect to d and by dividing by the area L
2
P (d) = −
π
2
c
240d
4
. (14.99)
The minus sign indicates that the force is attractive.
3. The average energy U in thermal equilibrium is given by Eq. (8.303),
which is given by
U = −
∂ log Z
c
∂β
, (14.100)
where Z
c
= Tr
_
e
−βH
_
is the canonical partition function, H is the
Hamiltonian [see Eq. (14.64)], β = 1/k
B
T and k
B
is the Boltzmann’s
constant. The partition function is found by summing over all photon
number states [s
1,
s
2
, ...¸
Z
c
=
∞
s1,s2,...=0
¸s
1,
s
2
, ...[ e
−βH
[s
1,
s
2
, ...¸
=
∞
s1,s2,...=0
e
−β
n
ωn(sn+
1
2
)
=
n
_
∞
sn=0
e
−βωn(sn+
1
2
)
_
=
n
_
1
2 sinh
βω
n
2
_
,
(14.101)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 355
Chapter 14. The Quantized Electromagnetic Field
where n labels the cavity modes. Using the last result one ﬁnds that
U = −
∂ log Z
c
∂β
= −
n
∂ log
_
1
2 sinh
β ωn
2
_
∂β
=
n
ω
n
2
coth
βω
n
2
.
(14.102)
It is easy to see that the above sum diverges since the number of modes
in the cavity is inﬁnite. To obtain a ﬁnite result we evaluate below the
diﬀerence U
d
= U (T) − U (T = 0) between the energy at temperature
T and the energy at zero temperature, which is given by (recall that
coth(x) →1 in the limit x →∞)
U
d
=
n
ω
n
2
_
coth
βω
n
2
−1
_
=
n
ω
n
e
βωn
−1
.
(14.103)
The angular frequencies ω
n
of the modes are given by Eq. (14.84). For
simplicity a cubical cavity having volume V = L
3
is considered. For this
case U
d
is given by (the factor of 2 is due to polarization degeneracy)
U
d
= 2k
B
T
∞
nx=0
∞
ny=0
∞
nz=0
αn
e
αn
−1
. (14.104)
where n =
_
n
2
x
+n
2
y
+n
2
z
, and where the dimensionless parameter α is
given by
α =
πβc
L
. (14.105)
In the limit where α ≪ 1 (macroscopic limit) the sum can be approxi
mated by the integral
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 356
14.5. Solutions
U
d
= 2k
B
T
4π
8
∞
_
0
dn n
2
αn
e
αn
−1
=
πk
B
T
α
3
∞
_
0
x
3
dx
e
x
−1
. ¸¸ .
π
4
15
,
(14.106)
thus the energy per unit volume is given by
U
d
V
=
π
2
(k
B
T)
4
15
3
c
3
. (14.107)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 357
15. Light Matter Interaction
In this chapter the transitions between atomic states that result from inter
action with an electromagnetic (EM) ﬁeld are discussed.
15.1 Hamiltonian
Consider an atom in an EM ﬁeld. The classical Hamiltonian H
F
of the EM
ﬁeld is given by Eq. (14.48). For the case of hydrogen, and in the absent
of EM ﬁeld, the Hamiltonian of the atom is given by Eq. (7.2). In general,
the classical Hamiltonian of a point particle having charge e and mass m
e
in an EM ﬁeld having scalar potential ϕ and vector potential A is given
by Eq. (1.62). In the Coulomb gauge the vector potential A is chosen such
that ∇ A = 0, and the scalar potential ϕ vanishes provided that no sources
(charge and current) are present. The EM ﬁeld is assumed to be suﬃciently
small to allows employing the following approximation
_
p−
e
c
A
_
2
≃ p
2
−2
e
c
A p , (15.1)
where p is the momentum vector. Recall that in the Coulomb gauge the vector
operators p and A satisfy the relation p A = A p, as can be seen from
Eqs. (6.157) and (6.299). These results and approximation allow expressing
the Hamiltonian of the system as
H = H
0
+H
F
+H
p
, (15.2)
where H
0
is the Hamiltonian of the atom in the absent of EM ﬁeld, and where
H
p
, which is given by
H
p
= −
e
m
e
c
A p , (15.3)
is the coupling Hamiltonian between the atom and the EM ﬁeld.
In the quantum case The Hamiltonian H
F
of the EM ﬁeld is given by Eq.
(14.68)
H
F
=
k,λ
ω
k
_
a
†
k,λ
a
k,λ
+
1
2
_
, (15.4)
Chapter 15. Light Matter Interaction
and the vector potential A is given by Eq. (14.69)
A(r, t) =
k,λ
_
2πc
2
ω
k
V
_
ˆǫ
k,λ
e
i(k·r−ω
k
t)
a
k,λ
+ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
e
−i(k·r−ω
k
t)
a
†
k,λ
_
. (15.5)
15.2 Transition Rates
While the Hamiltonian H
p
is considered as a perturbation, the unperturbed
Hamiltonian is taken to be H
0
+ H
F
. The eigenvectors of H
0
+ H
F
are la
beled as [¦s
k,λ
¦ , η¸. While the integers s
k,λ
represent the number of photons
occupying each of the modes of the EM ﬁeld, the index η labels the atomic
energy eigenstate. The following holds
H
0
[¦s
k,λ
¦ , η¸ = E
η
[¦s
k,λ
¦ , η¸ ,
where E
η
is the energy of the atomic state, and
H
F
[¦s
k,λ
¦ , η¸ =
k,λ
ω
k
_
s
k,λ
+
1
2
_
[¦s
k,λ
¦ , η¸ . (15.6)
15.2.1 Spontaneous Emission
Consider the case where the system is initially in a state [i¸ = [¦s
k,λ
= 0¦ , η
i
¸,
for which all photon occupation numbers are zero, and the atomic state is la
beled by the index η
i
. The ﬁnal state is taken to be [f¸ = a
†
k,λ
[¦s
k,λ
= 0¦ , η
f
¸,
for which one photon in created in mode k, λ, and the atomic state is labeled
by the index η
f
. To lowest nonvanishing order in perturbation theory the
transition rate w
i,f
is given by Eq. (10.35)
w
i,f
=
2π
2
δ (ω
k
−ω
i,f
) [¸f[ H
p
[i¸[
2
, (15.7)
where ω
i,f
=
_
E
η
i
−E
η
f
_
/. With the help of Eqs. (14.69) and (15.3) w
i,f
can be rewritten as
w
i,f
=
_
e
m
e
c
_
2
4π
2
c
2
ω
k
V
δ (ω
k
−ω
i,f
)
¸
¸
¸¸f[ ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
pe
−ik·r
a
†
k,λ
[i¸
¸
¸
¸
2
. (15.8)
As can be seen from Eq. (7.2), the following holds
[H
0
, r] =
1
m
e
(−i) p , (15.9)
thus
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 360
15.2. Transition Rates
w
i,f
=
4π
2
e
2
ω
k
V
δ (ω
k
−ω
i,f
)
¸
¸
¸¸f[ ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
re
−ik·r
a
†
k,λ
[i¸
¸
¸
¸
2
=
4π
2
e
2
ω
k
V
δ (ω
k
−ω
i,f
) [M
i,f
[
2
,
(15.10)
where the atomic matrix element M
i,f
is given by
M
i,f
= ¸η
f
[ ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
re
−ik·r
[η
i
¸ . (15.11)
15.2.2 Stimulated Emission and Absorption
The process of spontaneous emission of a photon in mode k, λ can be labeled
as (i,s
k,λ
) →(f,s
k,λ
+ 1), where s
k,λ
= 0. In the case of stimulated emission,
on the other hand, the initial photon occupation is assumed to be nonzero,
i.e. s
k,λ
≥ 1. Let w
(e)
(i,s
k,λ
)→(f,s
k,λ
+1),λ
be the rate of emission of photons in
mode k, λ, given that the initial photon occupation number is s
k,λ
. With
the help of Eq. (14.66) the expression for the case of spontaneous emission
(15.10) can be easily generalized for arbitrary initial photon occupation s
k,λ
w
(e)
(i,s
k,λ
)→(f,s
k,λ
+1),λ
=
4π
2
e
2
ω
k
(s
k,λ
+ 1)
V
δ (ω
k
−ω
i,f
) [M
i,f
[
2
. (15.12)
Note that for the case of emission it is assumed that the energy of the
atomic state i is larger than the energy of the atomic state f, i.e. ω
i,f
=
_
E
η
i
−E
η
f
_
/ > 0.
Absorption is the reverse process. Let w
(a)
(i,s
k,λ
)→(f,s
k,λ
−1),λ
be the rate of
absorption of photons in mode k, λ, given that the initial photon occupation
number is s
k,λ
. With the help of Eq. (14.65) one ﬁnds using a derivation
similar to the one that was used above to obtain Eq. (15.12) that
w
(a)
(i,sk,λ)→(f,sk,λ−1),λ
=
4π
2
e
2
ω
k
s
k,λ
V
δ (ω
k
+ω
i,f
) [M
i,f
[
2
. (15.13)
Note that in this case it is assumed that ω
i,f
< 0.
The emission (15.12) and absorption (15.13) rates provide the contribu
tion of a single mode of the EMﬁeld. Let dΓ
(e)
(i,s)→(f,s+1),λ
/dΩ (dΓ
(a)
(i,s)→(f,s−1),λ
/dΩ)
be the total emitted (absorbed) rate in the inﬁnitesimal solid angle dΩ having
polarization λ. For both cases s denotes the photon occupation number of the
initial state. To calculate these rates the contributions from all modes in the
EM ﬁeld should be added. In the limit of large volume the discrete sum over
wave vectors k can be replaced by an integral according to Eq. (14.70). Note
that both the emitted and absorbed radiations are expected to be isotropic.
Thus, by using the relation ω
k
= ck, where k = [k[, one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 361
Chapter 15. Light Matter Interaction
dΓ
(e)
(i,s)→(f,s+1),λ
dΩ
=
V
(2π)
3
_
∞
0
dk k
2
w
(e)
(i,s
k,λ
)→(f,s
k,λ
+1),λ
=
e
2
(s + 1)
2πc
3
[M
i,f
[
2
_
∞
0
dx x
3
δ (x −ω
i,f
)
=
α
fs
(s + 1) ω
3
i,f
2πc
2
[M
i,f
[
2
.
(15.14)
where α
fs
= e
2
/c ≃ 1/137 is the ﬁnestructure constant. In a similar way,
one ﬁnds for the case of absorption that
dΓ
(a)
(i,s)→(f,s+1),λ
dΩ
=
α
fs
sω
3
i,f
2πc
2
[M
i,f
[
2
. (15.15)
15.2.3 Selection Rules
While the size of an atom a
atom
is on the order of the Bohr’s radius a
0
=
0.5310
−10
m (7.64), the energy diﬀerence E
η
i
−E
η
f
is expected to be on the
order of the ionization energy of hydrogen atom E
I
= 13.6 eV (7.66). Using
the relation ω
k
=
_
E
η
i
−E
η
f
_
/ = ck one ﬁnds that a
atom
k ≃ 10
−3
. Thus,
to a good approximation the term e
−ik·r
in the expression for the matrix
element M
i,f
can be replaced by unity
M
i,f
≃ ¸η
f
[ ˆǫ
∗
k,λ
r [η
i
¸ . (15.16)
This approximation is called the dipole approximation.
The atomic energy eigenstates [η¸ can be chosen to be also eigenvectors
of the angular momentum operators L
z
and L
2
. It is convenient to employ
the notation [k, l, m, σ¸ to label these states, where k, l and m are orbital
quantum numbers and where σ labels the spin state. As can be seen from
Eqs. (7.42), (7.43) and (7.44) the following holds
H
0
[k, l, m, σ¸ = E
kl
[k, l, m, σ¸ , (15.17)
L
2
[k, l, m, σ¸ = l (l + 1)
2
[k, l, m, σ¸ , (15.18)
L
z
[k, l, m, σ¸ = m [k, l, m, σ¸ . (15.19)
Since it is assumed that no magnetic ﬁeld is externally applied, the eigenen
ergies E
kl
are taken to be independent on the quantum numbers m and σ.
Radiation transitions between a pair of states [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ and [k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
¸
can occur only when the corresponding matrix element (15.16) is nonzero.
This requirement yields some conditions known as selection rules. The ﬁrst
one refers to the spin quantum number σ. Note that M
i,f
is a matrix element
of an orbital operator (15.16), and consequently it vanishes unless σ
f
= σ
i
, or
alternatively, unless ∆σ = σ
f
−σ
i
= 0. It is important to keep in mind that
this selection rule is valid only when spinorbit interaction can be neglected.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 362
15.2. Transition Rates
Exercise 15.2.1. Show that the selection rule for the magnetic quantum
number m is given by
∆m = m
f
−m
i
∈ ¦−1, 0, 1¦ . (15.20)
Solution 15.2.1. Using the relations L
z
= xp
y
− yp
x
and [x
i
, p
j
] = iδ
ij
it is easy to show that [L
z
, z] = 0 and [L
z
, x ±iy] = ±(x ±iy). The ﬁrst
relation together with Eq. (15.19) imply that
0 = ¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ [L
z
, z] [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸
= (m
f
−m
i
) ¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ z [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ ,
(15.21)
whereas the second relation together with Eq. (15.19) imply that
¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ [L
z
, x ±iy] [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸
= (m
f
−m
i
) ¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ x ±iy [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸
= ± ¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ (x ±iy) [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ ,
(15.22)
thus
(m
f
−m
i
∓1) ¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ x ±iy [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ = 0 . (15.23)
Therefore M
i,f
= 0 [see Eq. (15.16)] unless ∆m ∈ ¦−1, 0, 1¦. The transition
∆m = 0 is associated with linear polarization in the z direction, whereas
the transitions ∆m = ±1 are associated with clockwise and counterclockwise
circular polarizations respectively.
Exercise 15.2.2. Show that the selection rule for the quantum number l is
given by
∆l = l
f
−l
i
∈ ¦−1, 1¦ . (15.24)
Solution 15.2.2. Using Eq. (15.38), which is given by
_
L
2
,
_
L
2
, r
¸¸
= 2
2
_
rL
2
+L
2
r
_
, (15.25)
together with Eq. (15.18) yield
¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[
_
L
2
,
_
L
2
, r
¸¸
[k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸
= 2
4
(l
f
(l
f
+ 1) +l
i
(l
i
+ 1)) ¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ r [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸
=
4
(l
f
(l
f
+ 1) −l
i
(l
i
+ 1))
2
¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ r [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ ,
(15.26)
thus with the help of the identity
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 363
Chapter 15. Light Matter Interaction
(l
f
(l
f
+ 1) −l
i
(l
i
+ 1))
2
−2 (l
f
(l
f
+ 1) +l
i
(l
i
+ 1))
= (l
i
+l
f
) (l
i
+l
f
+ 2)
_
(l
i
−l
f
)
2
−1
_
,
(15.27)
one ﬁnds that
(l
i
+l
f
) (l
i
+l
f
+ 2)
_
(l
i
−l
f
)
2
−1
_
¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ r [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ = 0 . (15.28)
Since both l
i
and l
f
are non negative integers, and consequently l
i
+l
f
+2 > 0,
one ﬁnds that ¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ r [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ can be nonzero only when l
i
=
l
f
= 0 or [∆l[ = 1. However, for the ﬁrst possibility, for which l
i
= m
i
= l
f
=
m
f
= 0, the wavefunctions of both states [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ and [k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
¸ is a
function of the radial coordinate r only [see Eq. (6.129)], and consequently
¸k
f
, l
f
, m
f
, σ
f
[ r [k
i
, l
i
, m
i
, σ
i
¸ = 0. Therefore the selection rule is given by ∆l ∈
¦−1, 1¦.
15.3 Semiclassical Case
Consider the case where one mode of the EM ﬁeld, which has angular fre
quency ω and polarization vector ˆǫ, is externally driven to a coherent state
[α¸, where [α[ ≫ 1. In the semiclassical approximation the annihilation op
erator of the driven mode a is substituted by the complex constant α (and
the operator a
†
by α
∗
). Furthermore, all other modes are disregarded. When
ω is close to a speciﬁc transition frequency ω
a
= (E
+
−E
−
) / between two
atomic states, which are labeled by [+¸ and [−¸, the atom can be approxi
mately considered to be a two level system. In the dipole approximation the
matrix element ¸+[ H
p
[−¸ is given by [see Eqs. (15.3), (15.9) and (15.16)]
¸+[ H
p
[−¸ =
2
_
Ωe
−iωt
−Ω
∗
e
iωt
_
, (15.29)
where
Ω = −2ieω
a
_
2π
ωV
αˆǫ ¸+[ r [−¸ . (15.30)
It is convenient to express the complex frequency Ω as Ω = ω
1
e
−iθ
, where
both ω
1
and θ are real. The frequency ω
1
is called the Rabi frequency. Due
to selection rules the diagonal matrix elements of H
p
vanish.
The Schrödinger equation is given by
i
d
dt
[ψ¸ = H[ψ¸ , (15.31)
where the matrix representation in the basis ¦[+¸ , [−¸¦ of the Hamiltonian
H is given by [see Eq. (15.29)]
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 364
15.4. Problems
H˙ =
2
_
ω
a
ω
1
_
e
−i(ωt+θ)
−e
i(ωt+θ)
_
ω
1
_
e
i(ωt+θ)
−e
−i(ωt+θ)
_
−ω
a
_
. (15.32)
It is convenient to express the general solution as
[ψ (t)¸ = b
+
(t) exp
_
−
iωt
2
_
[+¸ +b
+
(t) exp
_
iωt
2
_
[−¸ . (15.33)
Substituting into the Schrödinger equation yields [see Eq. (6.226)]
i
d
dt
_
b
+
b
−
_
=
1
2
_
∆ω ω
1
_
e
−iθ
−e
i(2ωt+θ)
_
ω
1
_
e
iθ
−e
−i(2ωt+θ)
_
−∆ω
__
b
+
b
−
_
,
(15.34)
where
∆ω = ω
a
−ω . (15.35)
In the rotating wave approximation the rapidly oscillating terms e
±i(2ωt+θ)
are disregarded, since their inﬂuence in the long time limit is typically neg
ligible. This approximation is equivalent to the assumption that the second
term in Eq. (15.29) can be disregarded. Furthermore, the phase factor θ can
be eliminated by resetting the time zero point accordingly. Thus, the Hamil
tonian can be taken to be given by
H˙ =
2
_
ω
a
ω
1
e
−iωt
ω
1
e
iωt
−ω
a
_
, (15.36)
and the equation of motion in the rotating frame can be taken to be given
by
i
d
dt
_
b
+
b
−
_
=
1
2
_
∆ω ω
1
ω
1
−∆ω
__
b
+
b
−
_
. (15.37)
15.4 Problems
1. Show that
_
L
2
,
_
L
2
, r
¸¸
= 2
2
_
rL
2
+L
2
r
_
. (15.38)
2. Consider an atom having a set of orthonormal energy eigenstates ¦[η
n
¸¦.
The oscillator strength f
nm
associated with the transition between state
[η
n
¸ to state [η
m
¸ is deﬁned by
f
nm
=
2m
e
ω
n,m
3
[¸η
f
[ r [η
i
¸[
2
. (15.39)
Show that
n
′
f
n,n
′ = 1 . (15.40)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 365
Chapter 15. Light Matter Interaction
3. Calculate the lifetime of all states of hydrogen atom having principle
quantum number n = 2.
4. Consider a hydrogen atom that is initially at time t →−∞in its ground
state. An electric ﬁeld in the z direction given by
E(t) = E
0
ˆz
τ
2
τ
2
+t
2
, (15.41)
where τ is a constant having the dimension of time, is externally applied.
Calculate the probability p
2p
to ﬁnd the atom in the subshell 2p at time
t →∞.
15.5 Solutions
1. Using the relations [L
x
, z] = −iy, [L
y
, z] = ix and [L
z
, z] = 0 one ﬁnds
that
_
L
2
, z
¸
=
_
L
2
x
, z
¸
+
_
L
2
y
, z
¸
= i(−L
x
y −yL
x
+L
y
x +xL
y
)
= iV ˆz ,
(15.42)
where V = r L−L r. Thus the following holds
_
L
2
, r
¸
= iV. With
the help of the identities
[L
x
, V
z
] = −L
x
[L
x
, y] −[L
x
, y] L
x
+ [L
x
, L
y
] x +x[L
x
, L
y
] = −iV
y
,
[L
y
, V
z
] = −[L
y
, L
x
] y −y [L
y
, L
x
] +L
y
[L
y
, x] + [L
y
, x] L
y
= iV
x
,
[L
z
, V
z
] = −[L
z
, L
x
y] −[L
z
, yL
x
] + [L
z
, L
y
x] + [L
z
, xL
y
] = 0 ,
one ﬁnds that
_
L
2
,
_
L
2
, z
¸¸
= i
_
L
2
, V
z
¸
=
2
(L
x
V
y
+V
y
L
x
−L
y
V
x
−V
x
L
y
)
=
2
(L V−VL) ˆz ,
(15.43)
thus
_
L
2
,
_
L
2
, r
¸¸
=
2
(L V−VL)
=
2
(L(r L) −L(L r) −(r L) L+(L r) L)
= 2
2
_
rL
2
+L
2
r
_
.
(15.44)
2. Trivial by the ThomasReicheKuhn sum rule (4.64).
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 366
15.5. Solutions
3. The rate of spontaneous emission Γ
(se)
i→f,λ
in general is given by Eq. (15.14)
Γ
(se)
i→f,λ
= 4π
α
fs
ω
3
i,f
2πc
2
[M
i,f
[
2
. (15.45)
The transition frequency ω
i,f
between the levels n = 2 to n = 1 is given
by [see Eq. (7.66)]
ω
i,f
=
m
e
e
4
2
3
_
−
1
2
2
+
1
1
2
_
, (15.46)
thus in terms of the Bohr’s radius a
0
[see Eq. (7.64)] one has
Γ
(se)
i→f,λ
=
3
3
2
8
α
5
fs
m
e
c
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
M
i,f
a
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
.
The matrix element of z = r cos θ and of u
±
= 2
−1/2
(x ±iy) =
2
−1/2
r sinθe
±iφ
are given by [see Eq. (7.92)]
¸n
′
, l
′
, m
′
[ z [n, l, m¸
=
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
n
′
l
′ R
nl
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ cos θ
_
Y
m
′
l
′
_
∗
Y
m
l
,
(15.47)
and
¸n
′
, l
′
, m
′
[ u
±
[n, l, m¸
=
_
1
2
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
n
′
l
′ R
nl
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ sinθe
±iφ
_
Y
m
′
l
′
_
∗
Y
m
l
,
(15.48)
where n, l and m are the quantum members of hydrogen’s energy eigen
vectors. The ﬁnal state is taken to be the ground state (n, l, m) = (1, 0, 0).
In the dipole approximation the transition (2, 0, 0) →(1, 0, 0) is forbidden
due to the selection rule ∆l ∈ ¦−1, 1¦. Using the identities
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 367
Chapter 15. Light Matter Interaction
R
10
(r) = 2
_
1
a
0
_
3/2
e
−r/a0
, (15.49)
R
20
(r) = (2 −r/a
0
)
_
1
2a
0
_
3/2
e
−
r
2a
0
, (15.50)
R
21
(r) =
_
1
2a
0
_
3/2
r
√
3a
0
e
−
r
2a
0
, (15.51)
Y
0
0
(θ, φ) =
_
1
4π
, (15.52)
Y
−1
1
(θ, φ) =
1
2
_
3
2π
sinθe
−iφ
, (15.53)
Y
0
1
(θ, φ) =
1
2
_
3
π
cos θ , (15.54)
Y
1
1
(θ, φ) = −
1
2
_
3
2π
sinθe
iφ
, (15.55)
where a
0
is Bohr’s radius [see Eq. (7.64)], one ﬁnds for the radial part
that
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
10
R
21
=
2
7
√
6
3
5
a
0
, (15.56)
and for the angular part that
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ cos θ
_
Y
0
0
_
∗
Y
0
1
=
1
√
3
, (15.57)
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ cos θ
_
Y
0
0
_
∗
Y
±1
1
= 0 , (15.58)
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ sinθe
±iφ
_
Y
0
0
_
∗
Y
0
1
= 0 , (15.59)
and
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 368
15.5. Solutions
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ sinθe
−iφ
_
Y
0
0
_
∗
Y
−1
1
= 0 , (15.60)
_
1
2
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ sinθe
−iφ
_
Y
0
0
_
∗
Y
1
1
= −
_
1
3
, (15.61)
_
1
2
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ sinθe
iφ
_
Y
0
0
_
∗
Y
−1
1
=
_
1
3
, (15.62)
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ sinθe
iφ
_
Y
0
0
_
∗
Y
1
1
= 0 . (15.63)
Thus, by combining all these results one ﬁnds that the inverse lifetime of
the states (2, 1, −1), (2, 1, 0) and (2, 1, 1) is given by
Γ
(se)
=
3
3
2
8
α
5
fs
m
e
c
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
7
3
5
√
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
, (15.64)
whereas the lifetime of the state (2, 0, 0) is inﬁnite (in the dipole approx
imation).
4. The probability p
2pm
to ﬁnd the atom in the state [n = 2, l = 1, m¸ is
calculated using Eq. (10.43) together with Eq. (7.84)
p
2pm
=
e
2
E
2
0
τ
2
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
∞
_
−∞
dt
′
e
i
3E
I
4
t
′ τ
τ
2
+t
′2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
[¸2, 1, m[ z [1, 0, 0¸[
2
. (15.65)
where
E
I
=
µe
4
2
2
(15.66)
is the ionization energy. The following holds
∞
_
−∞
dt
′
e
i
3E
I
4
t
′ τ
τ
2
+t
′2
=
1
Ω
∞
_
−∞
dxe
ix
1 +
_
x
Ω
_
2
= Ω
∞
_
−∞
dxe
ix
(x −iΩ) (x +iΩ)
,
(15.67)
where
Ω =
3E
I
τ
4
, (15.68)
thus with the help of the residue theorem one ﬁnds that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 369
Chapter 15. Light Matter Interaction
∞
_
−∞
dt
′
e
i
3E
I
4
t
′ τ
τ
2
+t
′2
= πe
−Ω
. (15.69)
The matrix element ¸2, 1, m[ z [1, 0, 0¸ is calculated with the help of Eq.
(15.47)
¸2, 1, m[ z [1, 0, 0¸ =
∞
_
0
dr r
3
R
21
R
10
1
_
−1
d(cos θ)
2π
_
0
dφ cos θ (Y
m
1
)
∗
Y
0
0
=
2
7
√
2a
0
3
5
δ
m,0
,
(15.70)
where
a
0
=
2
µe
2
(15.71)
is the Bohr’s radius, thus
p
2pm
=
2
15
3
10
_
eE
0
a
0
τ
π
_
2
e
−
3E
I
τ
2
δ
m,0
. (15.72)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 370
16. Identical Particles
This chapter reviews the identical particles postulate of quantum mechanics
and second quantization formalism. It is mainly based on the ﬁrst chapter of
Ref. [6].
16.1 Basis for the Hilbert Space
Consider a system containing some integer number N of identical particles.
For the single particle case, where N = 1, the state of the system [α¸ can be
expanded using an orthonormal basis ¦[a
i
¸¦
i
that spans the single particle
Hilbert space. Based on the single particle basis ¦[a
i
¸¦
i
we wish to construct
a basis for the Hilbert space of the system for the general case, where N can
be any integer. This can be done in two diﬀerent ways, depending on whether
the identical particles are considered to be distinguishable or indistinguishable
(see example in Fig. 16.1).
Suppose that the particles can be labelled by numbers as billiard balls.
In this approach the particles are considered as distinguishable. For this case
a basis for the Hilbert space of the manyparticle system can be constructed
from all vectors having the form [1 : i
1
, 2 : i
2
, , N : i
N
¸. The ket vector
[1 : i
1
, 2 : i
2
, , N : i
N
¸ represents a state having N particles, where the
particle that is labelled by the number m (m = 1, 2, , N) is in the single
particle state [a
im
¸. Each ket vector [1 : i
1
, 2 : i
2
, , N : i
N
¸ can be char
acterized by a vector of occupation numbers ¯ n = (n
1
, n
2
, ), where n
i
is
the number of particles occupying the single particle state [a
i
¸. Let g
¯ n
be
the number of diﬀerent ketvectors having the form [1 : i
1
, 2 : i
2
, , N : i
N
¸
that are characterized by the same vector of occupation numbers ¯ n. It is easy
to show that
g
¯ n
=
N!
i
n
i
!
, (16.1)
where N =
i
n
i
is the number of particles.
Alternatively, the particles can be considered as indistinguishable. In this
approach all states having the same vector of occupation numbers ¯ n rep
resent the same physical state, and thus should be counted only once. In
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
other words, when the particles are considered as indistinguishable the sub
space corresponding to any given vector of occupation numbers ¯ n is rather
than being g
¯ n
 fold degenerate (as in the approach where the particles are
considered to be distinguishable) is taken to be nondegenerate. The identical
particle postulate of quantum mechanics states that identical particles should
be considered as indistinguishable. Consequently, a basis for the Hilbert space
of the manyparticle system can be constructed from the set of ket vectors
¦[¯ n¸¦
¯ n
. The ket vector [¯ n¸ represents a state that is characterized by a vector
of occupation numbers ¯ n = (n
1
, n
2
, ), where the integer n
i
is the number
of particles that are in the single particle state [a
i
¸. Such a basis is considered
to be both orthonormal, i.e.
¸¯ n
1
[¯ n
2
¸ = δ
¯ n1,¯ n2
, (16.2)
where δ
¯ n
1
,¯ n
2
= 1 if ¯ n
1
= ¯ n
2
and δ
¯ n
1
,¯ n
2
= 0 otherwise, and complete
¯ n
′
[¯ n
′
¸ ¸¯ n
′
[ = 1 . (16.3)
It it convenient to introduce the creation operators a
†
i
. With analogy with
the case of a harmonic oscillator [see Eq. (5.32)] and the case of EM ﬁeld [see
Eqs. (14.65) and (14.66)] the state [¯ n¸ is expressed as
[¯ n¸ =
1
√
n
1
!n
2
!
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
[0¸ , (16.4)
where [0¸ represents the state where all occupation numbers are zero. Equa
tion (16.4) suggests that the creation operators a
†
i
maps a given state to a
state having additional particle in the single particle quantum state [a
i
¸. The
operator a
†
i
is the Hermitian conjugate of the annihilation operator a
i
. The
number operator N
i
is deﬁned by
N
i
= a
†
i
a
i
. (16.5)
In addition to the above discussed principle of indistinguishability, the
identical particle postulate of quantum mechanics also states that all particles
in nature are divided into two type: Bosons and Fermions. Moreover, while
for the case of Bosons, the creation and annihilation operators satisfy the
following commutation relations
[a
i
, a
j
] =
_
a
†
i
, a
†
j
_
= 0 , (16.6)
_
a
i
, a
†
j
_
= δ
ij
, (16.7)
for the case of Fermions the following holds
[a
i
, a
j
]
+
=
_
a
†
i
, a
†
j
_
+
= 0 , (16.8)
_
a
i
, a
†
j
_
+
= δ
ij
, (16.9)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 372
16.1. Basis for the Hilbert Space
state 1
n
1
=0
1
2
3
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
3
1
2
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
2
3
1
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
(a)
(b)
state 1
n
1
=0
1
2
3
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
1
2
3
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
3
1
2
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
3
1
2
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
2
3
1
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
2
3
1
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
state 1
n
1
=0
state 2
n
2
=2
state 3
n
3
=1
…
state 4
n
4
=0
(a)
(b)
Fig. 16.1. In this example the number of particles is N =
i
ni = 3, where the
occupation numbers are given by ¯ n = (n1, n2, n3, n4, · · · ) = (0, 2, 1, 0, · · · ). When
the particles are considered as distinguishable [see panel (a)] the corresponding
subspace is g¯ n degenerate, where g¯ n = N!/
i
ni! = 3. On the other hand, when
the particles are considered as indistinguishable [see panel (b)], the corresponding
subspace is nondegenerate.
where
_
a
i
, a
†
j
_
+
denotes anticommutation, i.e.
[A, B]
+
= AB +BA (16.10)
for general operators A and B.
Exercise 16.1.1. Show that for both Bosons and Fermions
[N
i
, N
j
] = 0 . (16.11)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 373
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
Solution 16.1.1. For Bosons this result is trivial [see Eqs. (16.6) and (16.7)].
It is also trivial for Fermions when i = j. Finally, for Fermions when i ,= j
one has
N
i
N
j
= a
†
i
a
i
a
†
j
a
j
= −a
†
i
a
†
j
a
i
a
j
= a
†
i
a
†
j
a
j
a
i
= −a
†
j
a
†
i
a
j
a
i
= a
†
j
a
j
a
†
i
a
i
= N
j
N
i
.
(16.12)
16.2 Bosons
Based on Eqs. (16.2), (16.4), (16.6) and (16.7) a variety of results can be
obtained:
Exercise 16.2.1. Show that for Bosons
_
a
i
,
_
a
†
i
_
n
_
= n
_
a
†
i
_
n−1
. (16.13)
Solution 16.2.1. Trivial by Eq. (2.175), which states that for any operators
A and B
[A, B
n
] = nB
n−1
[A, B] , (16.14)
and by Eq. (16.7).
Exercise 16.2.2. Show that for Bosons
a
i
[0¸ = 0 . (16.15)
Solution 16.2.2. The norm of the vector a
i
[0¸ can be expressed with the
help of Eqs. (16.4) and (16.7)
¸0[ a
†
i
a
i
[0¸ = ¸0[
_
a
†
i
, a
i
_
+a
i
a
†
i
[0¸
= −¸0 [0¸ +¸0, 0, , n
i
= 1, 0, [0, 0, , n
i
= 1, 0, ¸ ,
(16.16)
thus with the help of the normalization condition (16.2) one ﬁnds that
¸0[ a
†
i
a
i
[0¸ = 0 and therefore a
i
[0¸ = 0.
Exercise 16.2.3. Show that for Bosons
N
i
[¯ n¸ = n
i
[¯ n¸ . (16.17)
Solution 16.2.3. With the help of Eqs. (16.4), (16.13) and (16.15) one ﬁnds
that
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 374
16.3. Fermions
N
i
[¯ n¸ = a
†
i
a
i
[¯ n¸
=
1
√
n
1
!n
2
!
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
a
†
i
a
i
_
a
†
i
_
ni
[0¸
=
1
√
n
1
!n
2
!
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
a
†
i
__
a
i
,
_
a
†
i
_
ni
_
+
_
a
†
i
_
ni
a
i
_
[0¸
=
1
√
n
1
!n
2
!
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
a
†
i
n
i
_
a
†
i
_
ni−1
[0¸
= n
i
[¯ n¸ .
(16.18)
Exercise 16.2.4. Show that for Bosons
a
i
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
, ¸ =
√
n
i
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
−1, ¸ , (16.19)
a
†
i
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
, ¸ =
√
n
i
+ 1 [n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
+ 1, ¸ . (16.20)
Solution 16.2.4. Equation (16.20) follows immediately from Eqs. (16.4) and
(16.6). Moreover, with the help of Eqs. (16.4), (16.13) and (16.15) one ﬁnds
that
a
i
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
, ¸ =
1
√
n
1
!n
2
!
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
a
i
_
a
†
i
_
ni
[0¸
=
1
√
n
1
!n
2
!
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
__
a
i
,
_
a
†
i
_
ni
_
+
_
a
†
i
_
ni
a
i
_
[0¸
=
n
i
√
n
1
!n
2
!
_
a
†
1
_
n
1
_
a
†
2
_
n
2
_
a
†
i
_
n
i
−1
[0¸
=
√
n
i
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
−1, ¸ .
16.3 Fermions
The anticommutation relations (16.8) for the case i = j yields
_
a
†
i
_
2
= 0. As
can be seen from Eq. (16.4), this implies that the only possible occupation
numbers n
i
are 0 and 1. This result is known as the Pauli’s exclusion principle,
according to which no more than one Fermion can occupy a given single
particle state. For Fermions Eq. (16.4) can be written as (recall that 0! =
1! = 1)
[¯ n¸ =
_
a
†
1
_
n
1
_
a
†
2
_
n
2
[0¸ , (16.21)
where n
i
∈ ¦0, 1¦.
Exercise 16.3.1. Show that for Fermions
a
i
[0¸ = 0 . (16.22)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 375
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
Solution 16.3.1. The norm of the vector a
i
[0¸ can be expressed with the
help of Eqs. (16.21) and (16.9)
¸0[ a
†
i
a
i
[0¸ = ¸0[
_
a
†
i
, a
i
_
+
−a
i
a
†
i
[0¸
= ¸0 [0¸ −¸0, 0, , n
i
= 1, 0, [0, 0, , n
i
= 1, 0, ¸ ,
(16.23)
thus with the help of the normalization condition (16.2) one ﬁnds that
¸0[ a
†
i
a
i
[0¸ = 0 and therefore a
i
[0¸ = 0.
Exercise 16.3.2. Show that for Fermions
N
i
[¯ n¸ = n
i
[¯ n¸ , (16.24)
where N
i
= a
†
i
a
i
.
Solution 16.3.2. Using Eqs. (16.8), (16.9) and (16.21) one ﬁnds that
N
i
[¯ n¸ = a
†
i
a
i
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
[0¸
= (−1)
2
j<i
nj
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
a
†
i
a
i
_
a
†
i
_
ni
[0¸
=
_
a
†
1
_
n1
_
a
†
2
_
n2
a
†
i
a
i
_
a
†
i
_
ni
[0¸ .
(16.25)
For the case n
i
= 0 this yields [see Eq. (16.22)] N
i
[¯ n¸ = 0, whereas for the
case n
i
= 1 one has a
i
_
a
†
i
_
n
i
=
_
a
i
, a
†
i
_
+
−a
†
i
a
i
= 1−a
†
i
a
i
, thus N
i
[¯ n¸ = [¯ n¸.
Both cases are in agreement with Eq. (16.24).
Exercise 16.3.3. Show that for Fermions
a
i
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
, ¸ = n
i
(−1)
j<i
n
j
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
−1, ¸ , (16.26)
a
†
i
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
, ¸ = (1 −n
i
) (−1)
j<i
nj
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
+ 1, ¸ . (16.27)
Solution 16.3.3. According to Eq. (16.8) a
†
i
a
†
j
= −a
†
j
a
†
i
. For i = j this
yields
_
a
†
i
_
2
= 0. These relations together with Eq. (16.21) leads to Eq.
(16.27) (note that 1 −n
i
= 1 if n
i
= 0 and 1 −n
i
= 0 if n
i
= 1). Similarly,
Eq. (16.26) is obtained by using the identity a
i
_
a
†
i
_
ni
= 1 − a
†
i
a
i
and by
considering both possibilities n
i
= 0 and n
i
= 1.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 376
16.4. Changing the Basis
16.4 Changing the Basis
In the previous section the creation a
†
i
and annihilation a
i
operators were
deﬁned based on a given single particle orthonormal basis ¦[a
i
¸¦
i
. Consider
an alternative single particle basis ¦[b
j
¸¦
j
, which is made of eigenvectors of
the single particle observable B
SP
, i.e. the following holds B
†
SP
= B
SP
and
B
SP
[b
j
¸ = β
j
[b
j
¸ , (16.28)
where β
j
is the single particle eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector
[b
j
¸. Moreover, this basis is assumed to be both orthonormal, i.e.
¸b
j
[b
j
′ ¸ = δ
j,j
′ , (16.29)
and complete, i.e.
j
[b
j
¸ ¸b
j
[ = 1 . (16.30)
Exploiting the completeness of the original single particle orthonormal basis
¦[a
i
¸¦
i
, i.e. the fact that
i
[a
i
¸ ¸a
i
[ = 1 , (16.31)
allows expressing the eigenvector [b
j
¸ as
[b
j
¸ =
i
¸a
i
[b
j
¸ [a
i
¸ . (16.32)
The single particle state [a
i
¸ can be expressed in the notation of many particle
states as a
†
i
[0¸, thus Eq. (16.32) can be rewritten as
[b
j
¸ = b
†
j
[0¸ . (16.33)
where the operator b
†
j
is given by
b
†
j
=
i
¸a
i
[b
j
¸ a
†
i
. (16.34)
The operator b
†
j
can be considered as the creation operator of the single
particle state [b
j
¸. It is the Hermitian conjugate of the annihilation operator
b
j
=
i
¸b
j
[a
i
¸ a
i
. (16.35)
An important example is the case where the single particle observable is
taken to be the position observable r. For this case Eq. (16.32) becomes
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 377
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
[r
′
¸ =
i
ψ
∗
i
(r
′
) [a
i
¸ , (16.36)
where [r
′
¸ is a single particle position eigenvector, and where ψ
i
(r
′
) = ¸r
′
[a
i
¸
is the wavefunction of the single particle state [a
i
¸. Expressing [a
i
¸ as a
†
i
[0¸
allows rewriting Eq. (16.36) as
[r
′
¸ = Ψ
†
(r
′
) [0¸ , (16.37)
where the operator Ψ
†
(r
′
), which is given by
Ψ
†
(r
′
) =
i
ψ
∗
i
(r
′
) a
†
i
, (16.38)
is the Hermitian conjugate of the quantized ﬁeld operator
Ψ (r
′
) =
i
ψ
i
(r
′
) a
i
. (16.39)
Note that while ψ
i
(r
′
) is a wave function, Ψ (r
′
) is an operator on the Hilbert
space of the many particle system.
Exercise 16.4.1. Calculate
_
Ψ (r
′
) , Ψ
†
(r
′′
)
¸
∓
, where [A, B]
∓
= AB ∓ BA
for general operators A and B, and where the minus sign is used for Bosons
and the plus sign for Fermions.
Solution 16.4.1. With he help of Eqs. (16.7) and (16.9) one ﬁnds that
_
Ψ (r
′
) , Ψ
†
(r
′′
)
¸
∓
=
i,i
′
ψ
i
(r
′
) ψ
∗
i
′ (r
′′
)
_
a
i
, a
†
i
′
_
∓
=
i
ψ
i
(r
′
) ψ
∗
i
(r
′′
)
=
i
¸r
′
[a
i
¸ ¸a
i
[r
′′
¸
= ¸r
′
[r
′′
¸ ,
(16.40)
thus [see Eq. (3.65)]
_
Ψ (r
′
) , Ψ
†
(r
′′
)
¸
∓
= δ (r
′
−r
′′
) . (16.41)
Similarly, one ﬁnds that
[Ψ (r
′
) , Ψ (r
′′
)]
∓
= 0 , (16.42)
_
Ψ
†
(r
′
) , Ψ
†
(r
′′
)
¸
∓
= 0 . (16.43)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 378
16.5. Many Particle Observables
Exercise 16.4.2. Show that
_
d
3
r
′
ρ (r
′
) = N , (16.44)
where
ρ (r
′
) = Ψ
†
(r
′
) Ψ (r
′
) , (16.45)
and where
N =
i
N
i
(16.46)
The operator ρ(r
′
) is called the number density operator, and the operator
N is called the total number of particles operator.
Solution 16.4.2. Using the deﬁnition of Ψ (r
′
) one ﬁnds that
_
d
3
r
′
Ψ
†
(r
′
) Ψ (r
′
) =
i,i
′
a
†
i
′ a
i
_
d
3
r
′
ψ
∗
i
′ (r
′
) ψ
i
(r
′
)
=
i
a
†
i
a
i
= N .
(16.47)
16.5 Many Particle Observables
Observables of a system of identical particles must be deﬁned and must be
represented by Hermitian operators in a way that is consistent with the prin
ciple of indistinguishability. Below we consider both, oneparticle observables
and twoparticle observables, and discuss their representation as operators
on the Hilbert space of the manyparticle system.
16.5.1 OneParticle Observables
Consider a single particle observable such as the observable B
SP
, which was
introduced in the previous section [see Eqs. (16.28), (16.29), (16.30)]. It is
convenient to employ the single particle basis ¦[b
j
¸¦
j
, which is made of single
particle eigenvectors of B
SP
that satisfy B
SP
[b
j
¸ = β
j
[b
j
¸ [see Eq. (16.28)],
in order to construct creation b
†
j
and annihilation b
j
operators. In the many
particle case, the same physical variable that B
SP
represents for the single
particle case is represented by the operator B, which is given by
B =
j
β
j
b
†
j
b
j
. (16.48)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 379
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
This can be seen by recalling that the operator b
†
j
b
j
represents the number
of particles in the single particle state [b
j
¸ and that β
j
is the corresponding
eigenvalue. With the help of Eqs. (16.28), (16.29), (16.30) and (16.34) (16.35)
the operator B can be expressed in terms of the operators a
†
i
and a
i
B =
i,i
′
¸a
i
′ [ B
SP
[a
i
¸ a
†
i
′ a
i
. (16.49)
16.5.2 TwoParticle Observables
Consider twobody interaction that is represented by an Hermitian operator
V
TP
on the Hilbert space of twoparticle states. A basis for this Hilbert space
can be constructed using a given orthonormal basis for the single particle
Hilbert space ¦[b
j
¸¦
j
. When the two particles are considered as distinguish
able the basis of the Hilbert space of the twoparticle states can be taken
to be ¦[j, j
′
¸¦
j,j
′
. The ket vector [j, j
′
¸ represents a state for which the ﬁrst
particle is in single particle state [b
j
¸ and the second one is in state [b
j
′ ¸.
Assume the case where the single particle basis vectors [b
j
¸ are chosen in
such a way that diagonalizes V
TP
, i.e.
V
TP
[j, j
′
¸ = v
j,j
′ [j, j
′
¸ , (16.50)
where the eigenvalue v
j,j
′ is given by
v
j,j
′ = ¸j, j
′
[ V
TP
[j, j
′
¸ . (16.51)
Furthermore, assume that v
j,j
′ = 0 for j = j
′
, i.e. selfinteraction is excluded.
In the manyparticle case, the same physical variable that V
TP
represents for
the twoparticle case is represented by the operator V , which is given by
V =
1
2
j,j
′
v
j,j
′ b
†
j
b
j
b
†
j
′ b
j
′ . (16.52)
This can be seen by noting that b
†
j
b
j
b
†
j
′ b
j
′ = N
j
N
j
′ is the observable cor
responding to the number of pairs of particles occupying the single particle
states [b
j
¸ and [b
j
′ ¸ for j ,= j
′
. The factor of 1/2 in Eq. (16.52) is needed since
each pair j, j
′
is counted twice if j ,= j
′
. For both Bosons [see Eqs. (16.6) and
(16.7)] and Fermions [see Eqs. (16.8) and (16.9)] V can be rewritten as (recall
the assumption v
j,j
= 0)
V =
1
2
j,j
′
v
j,j
′ b
†
j
b
†
j
′ b
j
′ b
j
. (16.53)
With the help of Eqs. (16.29), (16.30) and (16.34) (16.35) the operator V can
be expressed in terms of the operators a
†
i
and a
i
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 380
16.6. Hamiltonian
V =
1
2
i
′
,i
′′
,i
′′′
,i
′′′′
j,j
′
¸a
i
′ , a
i
′′ [j, j
′
¸ ¸j, j
′
[ V
TP
[j, j
′
¸ ¸j
′
, j [a
i
′′′ , a
i
′′′′ ¸ a
†
i
′ a
†
i
′′ a
i
′′′ a
i
′′′′
=
1
2
i
′
,i
′′
,i
′′′
,i
′′′′
j,j
′
¸a
i
′ , a
i
′′ [j, j
′
¸ ¸j, j
′
[ V
TP
[j, j
′
¸ ¸j, j
′
[a
i
′′′′ , a
i
′′′ ¸ a
†
i
′ a
†
i
′′ a
i
′′′ a
i
′′′′
=
1
2
i
′
,i
′′
,i
′′′
,i
′′′′
¸a
i
′ , a
i
′′ [
_
_
j,j
′
[j, j
′
¸ ¸j, j
′
[
_
_
V
TP
[a
i
′′′′ , a
i
′′′ ¸ a
†
i
′ a
†
i
′′ a
i
′′′ a
i
′′′′ ,
(16.54)
thus
V =
1
2
i
′
,i
′′
,i
′′′
,i
′′′′
¸a
i
′ , a
i
′′ [ V
TP
[a
i
′′′′ , a
i
′′′ ¸ a
†
i
′ a
†
i
′′ a
i
′′′ a
i
′′′′ . (16.55)
16.6 Hamiltonian
Consider the case where the singleparticle Hamiltonian is given by
H
SP
= T
SP
+U
SP
, (16.56)
where the operator T
SP
, which is given by
T
SP
=
p
2
SP
2m
, (16.57)
where p
SP
is the singleparticle momentum vector operator and where m is
the mass of a particle, is the singleparticle kinetic energy operator, and
where the operator U
SP
(r
′
) the the singleparticle potential energy. The
manyparticle kinetic energy operator is found using Eq. (16.49)
T =
1
2m
i,i
′
¸a
i
′ [ p
2
SP
[a
i
¸ a
†
i
′ a
i
. (16.58)
The matrix element ¸a
i
′ [ p
2
SP
[a
i
¸ can be written using the wavefunctions
ψ
i
(r
′
) = ¸r
′
[a
i
¸ [recall Eq. (3.29), according to which ¸r
′
[ p[α¸ = −i∇ψ
α
for a general state [α¸]
¸a
i
′ [ p
2
SP
[a
i
¸ =
2
2m
_
d
3
r
′
(∇ψ
∗
i
′ (r
′
)) (∇ψ
i
(r
′
)) . (16.59)
Thus, in terms of the quantized ﬁeld operator Ψ (r
′
) [see Eqs. (16.38) and
(16.39)] the operator T can be expressed as
T =
2
2m
_
d
3
r
′
∇Ψ
†
(r
′
) ∇Ψ (r
′
) . (16.60)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 381
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
Integration by parts yields an alternative expression
T = −
2
2m
_
d
3
r
′
Ψ
†
(r
′
) ∇
2
Ψ (r
′
) . (16.61)
Similarly, the manyparticle potential energy operator is found using Eq.
(16.49) [recall Eq. (3.23), according to which ¸r
′
[ f (r) [α¸ = f (r
′
) ψ
α
(r
′
) for
a general state [α¸ and for a general function f (r)]
U =
i,i
′
¸a
i
′ [ U
SP
(r
′
) [a
i
¸ a
†
i
′ a
i
=
_
d
3
r
′
U
SP
(r
′
) Ψ
†
(r
′
) Ψ (r
′
) .
(16.62)
In addition, consider the case where the particles interact with each other
via a twoparticle potential V
TP
(r
1
, r
2
). The corresponding manyparticle
interaction operator is found using Eq. (16.55). The twoparticle matrix ele
ments of V
TP
are given by
¸a
i
′ , a
i
′′ [ V
TP
[a
i
′′′′ , a
i
′′′ ¸
=
_
d
3
r
′
_
d
3
r
′′
ψ
∗
i
′ (r
′
) ψ
∗
i
′′ (r
′′
) V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
) ψ
i
′′′′ (r
′
) ψ
i
′′′ (r
′′
) ,
(16.63)
thus
V =
1
2
_
d
3
r
′
_
d
3
r
′′
V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
) Ψ
†
(r
′
) Ψ
†
(r
′′
) Ψ (r
′′
) Ψ (r
′
) . (16.64)
Combining all these results yields the total manyparticle Hamiltonian
H =
2
2m
_
d
3
r
′
∇Ψ
†
(r
′
) ∇Ψ (r
′
)
+
_
d
3
r
′
U
SP
(r
′
) Ψ
†
(r
′
) Ψ (r
′
)
+
1
2
_
d
3
r
′
_
d
3
r
′′
V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
) Ψ
†
(r
′
) Ψ
†
(r
′′
) Ψ (r
′′
) Ψ (r
′
) .
(16.65)
Exercise 16.6.1. Show that the Heisenberg equation of motion for the ﬁeld
operator Ψ (r
′
) is given by
i
d
dt
Ψ (r
′
, t)
=
_
−
2
2m
∇
2
+U
SP
(r
′
)
_
Ψ (r
′
, t)
+
_
d
3
r
′′
V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
) Ψ
†
(r
′′
, t) Ψ (r
′′
, t) Ψ (r
′
, t) .
(16.66)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 382
16.6. Hamiltonian
Note that in the absent of twoparticle interaction the above equation for
the ﬁeld operator Ψ (r
′
, t) is identical to the singleparticle Schrödinger equa
tion for the single particle wavefunction ψ (r
′
). Due to this similarity the
manyparticle formalism of quantum mechanics is sometimes called second
quantization.
Solution 16.6.1. The Heisenberg equation of motion [see Eq. (4.37)] is given
by
i
dΨ
dt
= −[H, Ψ]
−
. (16.67)
For general operators A, B and C the following holds
[AB, C]
−
= A[B, C]
±
∓[A, C]
±
B
= A[B, C]
±
−[C, A]
±
B .
(16.68)
Below we employ this relation for evaluating commutation relations. For
Fermions the upper sign (anticommutation) is chosen, whereas for Bosons
the lower one is chosen (commutation). With the help of Eqs. (16.41), (16.42)
and (16.43) one ﬁnds (for both Bosons and for Fermions) that
[T, Ψ (r
′
)]
−
= −
2
2m
_
d
3
r
′′
_
Ψ
†
(r
′′
) ∇
2
Ψ (r
′′
) , Ψ (r
′
)
¸
−
=
2
2m
_
d
3
r
′′
δ (r
′
−r
′′
) ∇
2
Ψ (r
′′
)
=
2
2m
∇
2
Ψ (r
′
) ,
(16.69)
and
[U, Ψ (r
′
)]
−
=
_
d
3
r
′′
U
SP
(r
′′
)
_
Ψ
†
(r
′′
) Ψ (r
′′
) , Ψ (r
′
)
¸
−
= −
_
d
3
r
′′
U
SP
(r
′′
) δ (r
′
−r
′′
) Ψ (r
′′
) (16.70)
= −U
SP
(r
′
) Ψ (r
′
) .
(16.71)
Similarly
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 383
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
[V, Ψ (r
′
)]
−
=
1
2
_
d
3
r
′′
_
d
3
r
′′′
V
TP
(r
′′
, r
′′′
)
_
Ψ
†
(r
′′
) Ψ
†
(r
′′′
) Ψ (r
′′′
) Ψ (r
′′
) , Ψ (r
′
)
¸
−
=
1
2
_
d
3
r
′′
_
d
3
r
′′′
V
TP
(r
′′
, r
′′′
)
_
Ψ
†
(r
′′
) Ψ
†
(r
′′′
) , Ψ (r
′
)
¸
−
Ψ (r
′′′
) Ψ (r
′′
)
= −
1
2
_
d
3
r
′′
_
d
3
r
′′′
V
TP
(r
′′
, r
′′′
) Ψ
†
(r
′′
) δ (r
′
−r
′′′
) Ψ (r
′′′
) Ψ (r
′′
)
−
1
2
_
d
3
r
′′
_
d
3
r
′′′
V
TP
(r
′′
, r
′′′
) δ (r
′
−r
′′
) Ψ
†
(r
′′′
) Ψ (r
′′′
) Ψ (r
′′
)
= −
_
d
3
r
′′
V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
) Ψ
†
(r
′′
) Ψ (r
′′
) Ψ (r
′
)
(16.72)
where in the last step it was assumed that V
TP
(r
′′
, r
′
) = V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
). Com
bining these results lead to Eq. (16.66).
16.7 Momentum Representation
In the momentum representation the Hamiltonian is constructed using a
singleparticle basis made of momentum eigenvectors [p
′
¸. The wavefunc
tions of these singleparticle states are proportional to e
ik
′
·r
′
[see Eq. (3.74)],
where
k
′
=
p
′
. (16.73)
These wavefunctions can be normalized when the volume of the system is
taken to be ﬁnite. For simplicity, consider the case where the particles are
conﬁned within a volume 1 = L
3
having a cubic shape. The normalized wave
functions are taken to be given by
¸r
′
[k
′
¸ = ψ
k
′ (r
′
) =
1
√
1
e
ik
′
·r
′
, (16.74)
where [k
′
¸ labels a momentum eigenvector having an eigenvalue k
′
. The
requirement that the wavefunctions ψ
k
′ (r
′
) satisfy periodic boundary con
ditions, i.e. ψ
k
(r
′
) = ψ
k
(r
′
+Lˆ x) = ψ
k
(r
′
+Lˆ y) = ψ
k
(r
′
+Lˆz), yields a
discrete set of allowed values of the wave vector k
k =
2π
L
(n
x
, n
y
, n
z
) , (16.75)
where n
x
, n
y
and n
z
are all integers. The orthonormality condition reads
_
V
d
3
r
′
ψ
∗
k
′′ (r
′
) ψ
k
′ (r
′
) =
1
1
_
V
d
3
r
′
e
i(k
′
−k
′′
)·r
′
= δ
k
′
,k
′′ .
(16.76)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 384
16.7. Momentum Representation
In the momentum representation the manyparticle kinetic energy T is
given by [see Eq. (16.58)]
T =
1
2m
k
′
,k
′′
¸k
′′
[ p
2
SP
[k
′
¸ a
†
k
′′ a
k
′
=
2
2m
k
′
k
′2
a
†
k
′
a
k
′ ,
(16.77)
the manyparticle potential energy U is given by [see Eq. (16.62)]
U =
k
′
,k
′′
U
k
′
−k
′′ a
†
k
′′
a
k
′ , (16.78)
where
U
k
′
−k
′′ = ¸k
′′
[ U
SP
(r
′
) [k
′
¸
=
1
1
_
V
d
3
r
′
U
SP
(r
′
) e
i(k
′
−k
′′
)·r
′
,
(16.79)
and the manyparticle interaction operator is given by [see Eq. (16.55)]
V =
1
2
k
′
,k
′′
,k
′′′
,k
′′′′
¸k
′
, k
′′
[ V
TP
[k
′′′′
, k
′′′
¸ a
†
k
′
a
†
k
′′
a
k
′′′ a
k
′′′′ , (16.80)
where
¸k
′
, k
′′
[ V
TP
[k
′′′′
, k
′′′
¸ =
1
1
2
_
V
d
3
r
′
_
V
d
3
r
′′
V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
) e
i(k
′′′′
−k
′
)·r
′
e
i(k
′′′
−k
′′
)·r
′′
.
(16.81)
The assumption that V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
) is a function of the relative coordinate r =
r
′
−r
′′
only, together with the coordinates transformation
r
0
=
r
′
+r
′′
2
, (16.82)
r = r
′
−r
′′
, (16.83)
yields (note that r
′
= r
0
+r/2 and r
′′
= r
0
−r/2)
¸k
′
, k
′′
[ V
TP
[k
′′′′
, k
′′′
¸
=
1
1
2
_
V
d
3
r
0
e
i(k
′′′′
−k
′
+k
′′′
−k
′′
)·r
0
_
V
d
3
r V
TP
(r
0
+r/2, r
0
−r/2) e
i(k
′′′′
−k
′
−k
′′′
+k
′′
)·r
2
= δ
k
′
+k
′′
,k
′′′
+k
′′′′
1
1
_
V
d
3
r v
TP
(r) e
i(k
′′′′
−k
′
−k
′′′
+k
′′
)·r
2
,
(16.84)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 385
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
where
v
TP
(r) = V
TP
(r
0
+r/2, r
0
−r/2) . (16.85)
Thus the only allowed processes for this case are those for which the total
momentum is conserved, i.e. k
′
+k
′′
= k
′′′
+k
′′′′
. Using the notation
q = k
′′
−k
′′′
= k
′′′′
−k
′
, (16.86)
one can express V as
V =
1
2
k
′
,k
′′
,q
v
q
a
†
k
′
a
†
k
′′
a
k
′′
−q
a
k
′
+q
, (16.87)
where
v
q
=
1
1
_
V
d
3
r v
TP
(r) e
iq·r
2
. (16.88)
16.8 Spin
In addition to spatial (orbital) degrees of freedom, the particles may have
spin. We demonstrate below the inclusion of spin for the case of momentum
representation. The basis for singleparticle states is taken to be ¦[k
′
, σ
′
¸¦
k
′
,σ
′ ,
where the quantum number σ indicates the spin state. The singleparticle
orthonormality condition reads
¸k
′′
, σ
′′
[k
′
, σ
′
¸ = δ
k
′
,k
′′ δ
σ
′
,σ
′′ . (16.89)
The commutation (for Bosons) and anticommutation (for Fermions) rela
tions [see Eqs. (16.6), (16.7), (16.8) and (16.9)] become
[a
k
′
,σ
′ , a
k
′′
,σ
′′ ]
±
=
_
a
†
k
′
,σ
′
, a
†
k
′′
,σ
′′
_
±
= 0 , (16.90)
_
a
k
′
,σ
′ , a
†
k
′′
,σ
′′
_
±
= δ
k
′
,k
′′ δ
σ
′
,σ
′′ , (16.91)
For the example above, the Hamiltonian becomes
H =
2
2m
k
′
,σ
′
k
′2
a
†
k
′
,σ
′ a
k
′
,σ
′ +
k
′
,k
′′
,σ
′
U
k
′
−k
′′ a
†
k
′′
,σ
′ a
k
′
,σ
′
+
1
2
k
′
,k
′′
,q,σ
′
,σ
′′
v
q
a
†
k
′
,σ
′
a
†
k
′′
,σ
′′
a
k
′′
−q,σ
′′ a
k
′
+q,σ
′ .
(16.92)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 386
16.9. Problems
16.9 Problems
1. Find the manyparticle interaction operator V for the case where the
twoparticle potential is a constant V
TP
(r
1
, r
2
) = V
0
.
2. The same for the Coulomb interaction
V
TP
(r
1
, r
2
) =
e
2
[r
1
−r
2
[
. (16.93)
3. Show that
dρ
dt
+∇J = 0 , (16.94)
where ρ (r
′
) = Ψ
†
(r
′
) Ψ (r
′
) is the the number density operator [see Eq.
(16.45)] and where the current density operator J is given by
J =(r
′
) =
2im
_
Ψ
†
(r
′
) ∇Ψ (r
′
) −
_
∇Ψ
†
(r
′
)
_
Ψ (r
′
)
¸
. (16.95)
4. Consider two identical Bosons having mass m in a one dimensional po
tential U (x) well given by
U (x) =
_
0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ L
∞ else
. (16.96)
The particles interact with each other via a twoparticle interaction given
by V
TP
= −V
0
Lδ (x
1
−x
2
), where V
0
is a constant. Calculate the ground
state energy to lowest nonvanishing order in V
0
.
5. By deﬁnition, an ideal gas is an ensemble of noninteracting identical
particles. The set of single particle eigenenergies is denoted by ¦ε
i
¦. Cal
culate the average energy ¸H¸ and the average number of particles ¸N¸ in
thermal equilibrium as a function of the temperature T and the chemical
potential µ for the case of
a) Fermions.
b) Bosons.
6. Bogoliubov transformation  Consider the transformation
b
k
= u
k
a
k
+v
k
a
†
−k
, (16.97)
where a
k
(a
†
−k
) is the annihilation (creation) operator corresponding to
the single particle state [k¸ ([−k¸), and where u
k
and v
k
are real coeﬃ
cients. The state [V
b
¸ is deﬁned by the condition
b
k
[V
b
¸ = 0 . (16.98)
a) For the case of Fermions, under what conditions the operators b
k
and b
†
k
can be considered as annihilation and creation operators?
Evaluate the expectation value ¸V
b
[ a
†
k
a
k
[V
b
¸.
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 387
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
b) The same for Bosons.
7. Find the eigenenergies of the Hamiltonian
H =
k
′
ǫ
k
′
_
a
†
k
′ a
k
′ +λ
_
a
k
′ +a
†
k
′
__
, (16.99)
where a
k
′ and a
†
k
′ are Boson annihilation and creation operators corre
sponding to the single particle state [k
′
¸, and where ǫ
k
′ and λ are real
coeﬃcients.
16.10 Solutions
1. In general V is given by Eq. (16.87) where for this case
v
q
= V
0
δ
q,0
, (16.100)
thus
V =
V
0
2
k
′
,k
′′
a
†
k
′ a
†
k
′′ a
k
′′ a
k
′
=
V
0
2
k
′
,k
′′
a
†
k
′
_
_
a
†
k
′′ a
k
′′ , a
k
′
_
−
+a
k
′ a
†
k
′′ a
k
′′
_
.
(16.101)
With the help of Eq. (16.68) one ﬁnds that [see also Eqs. (16.6), (16.7),
(16.8) and (16.9)]
_
a
†
k
′′ a
k
′′ , a
k
′
_
−
= a
†
k
′′ [a
k
′′ , a
k
′ ]
±
−
_
a
k
′ , a
†
k
′′
_
±
a
k
′′
= −δ
k
′
,k
′′ a
k
′ ,
(16.102)
[for Fermions the upper sign (anticommutation) is taken, whereas for
Bosons the lower one is taken (commutation)], thus
V = V
0
N (N −1)
2
, (16.103)
where N is the total number of particles operator. Note that N (N −1) /2
is the number of interacting pairs in the system.
2. For this case the Fourier transform f (q) of the function 1/ [r[ is needed
1
[r[
=
_
d
3
q f (q) e
iq·r
. (16.104)
Applying the Laplace operator ∇
2
and using the identity
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 388
16.10. Solutions
∇
2
1
[r[
= −4πδ (r) (16.105)
yield
−4πδ (r) = −
_
d
3
q f (q) [q[
2
e
iq·r
, (16.106)
thus with the help of the identity
∞
_
−∞
dk e
ikx
= 2πδ (x) , (16.107)
one ﬁnds that
f (q) =
1
2π
2
q
2
, (16.108)
where q = [q[, and therefore
1
[r[
=
1
2π
2
_
d
3
q
1
q
2
e
iq·r
(16.109)
With the help of this result one ﬁnds that V is given by [see Eqs. (16.87)
and (16.88)]
V =
e
2
21
k
′
,k
′′
,q
4π
q
2
a
†
k
′
a
†
k
′′
a
k
′′
−q
a
k
′
+q
. (16.110)
3. With the help of Eq. (16.66) and its Hermitian conjugate one ﬁnds that
dρ
dt
=
dΨ
†
(r
′
)
dt
Ψ (r
′
) +Ψ
†
(r
′
)
dΨ (r
′
)
dt
= −
1
i
2
2m
_
Ψ
†
(r
′
) ∇
2
Ψ (r
′
, t) −
_
∇
2
Ψ
†
(r
′
, t)
_
Ψ (r
′
)
¸
,
(16.111)
where the assumptions U
∗
SP
(r
′
) = U
SP
(r
′
) and V
∗
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
) = V
TP
(r
′
, r
′′
)
have been made, thus
dρ
dt
+∇J = 0 . (16.112)
Note the similarity between this result and the continuity equation that
is satisﬁed by a singleparticle wavefunction [see Eq. (4.67)].
4. For the unperturbed case, i.e. when V
0
= 0, the singleparticle wavefunc
tions of the normalized eigenstates are given by
ψ
j
(x) =
_
2
L
sin
jπx
L
, (16.113)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 389
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
where j = 1, 2, , and the corresponding singleparticle eigenenergies
are
ε
j
=
2
π
2
j
2
2mL
2
. (16.114)
For this case the ground state is the manyparticle state [GS¸ = [n
1
= 2, n
2
= 0, n
3
= 0, ¸,
i.e. the state for which both particles are in the j = 1 singleparticle state.
In perturbation theory to ﬁrst order in V
0
the energy of this state is given
by [see Eq. (9.32)]
E = 2ε
1
+¸GS[ V [GS¸ +O
_
V
2
0
_
, (16.115)
where the manyparticle interaction operator V is given by Eq. (16.55).
The matrix element ¸GS[ V [GS¸ is given by
¸GS[ V [GS¸ =
1
2
¸1, 1[ V
TP
[1, 1¸ ¸GS[ a
†
1
a
†
1
a
1
a
1
[GS¸
=
1
2
¸1, 1[ V
TP
[1, 1¸ ¸GS[ a
†
1
_
a
1
a
†
1
−
_
a
1
, a
†
1
__
a
1
[GS¸
= ¸1, 1[ V
TP
[1, 1¸ ¸GS[
N
1
(N
1
−1)
2
[GS¸
= ¸1, 1[ V
TP
[1, 1¸ ,
(16.116)
where the twoparticle matrix element ¸1, 1[ V
TP
[1, 1¸ is given by
¸1, 1[ V
TP
[1, 1¸ =
_
L
0
dx
1
_
L
0
dx
2
ψ
1
(x
1
) ψ
1
(x
2
) V
TP
(x
1
, x
2
) ψ
1
(x
1
) ψ
1
(x
2
)
= −V
0
L
_
L
0
dx
1
ψ
4
1
(x
1
)
= −
3
2
V
0
,
(16.117)
thus
E =
2
π
2
mL
2
−
3
2
V
0
+O
_
V
2
0
_
. (16.118)
5. The grandcanonical partition function [see Eq. (8.305)] is evaluated by
summing over all manyparticle states
Z
gc
= Tr
_
e
−βH+βµN
_
=
n
1,
n
2
,···
¸n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
, [ e
−βH+βµN
[n
1,
n
2
, , n
i
, ¸ ,
(16.119)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 390
16.10. Solutions
where
H =
i
ε
i
a
†
i
a
i
, (16.120)
N =
i
a
†
i
a
i
, (16.121)
and β = 1/k
B
T, thus one ﬁnds that
Z
gc
=
i
ni
e
−βn
i
(ε
i
−µ)
. (16.122)
and
log Z
gc
=
i
log
_
ni
e
−βni(εi−µ)
_
. (16.123)
a) In this case the summation over n
i
includes only two terms n
i
= 0
and n
i
= 1, thus
log Z
gc
=
i
log
_
1 +e
−β(εi−µ)
_
. (16.124)
The average energy is found using Eq. (8.306)
¸H¸ = −
_
∂ log Z
gc
∂β
_
µ
+
µ
β
_
∂ log Z
gc
∂µ
_
β
=
i
ε
i
e
−β(ε
i
−µ)
1 +e
−β(εi−µ)
,
(16.125)
whereas the average number of particles is found using Eq. (8.309)
¸N¸ = λ
∂ log Z
gc
∂λ
=
i
e
−β(εi−µ)
1 +e
−β(εi−µ)
, (16.126)
In terms of the FermiDirac function f
FD
(ε), which is given by
f
FD
(ε) =
1
exp[β (ε −µ)] + 1
, (16.127)
these results can be rewritten as
¸H¸ =
i
ε
i
f
FD
(ε
i
) , (16.128)
and
¸N¸ =
i
f
FD
(ε
i
) . (16.129)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 391
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
b) In this case the summation over n
i
includes all integers n
i
=
0, 1, 2, , thus
log Z
gc
=
i
log
_
1
1 −e
−β(εi−µ)
_
. (16.130)
The average energy is found using Eq. (8.306)
¸H¸ =
i
ε
i
f
BE
(ε
i
) ,
whereas the average number of particles is found using Eq. (8.309)
¸N¸ =
i
f
BE
(ε
i
) , (16.131)
where
f
BE
(ε) =
1
exp[β (ε −µ)] −1
(16.132)
is the BoseEinstein function .
6. The operators a
k
and a
†
k
satisfy [see Eqs. (16.6), (16.7), (16.8) and (16.9)]
[a
k
′ , a
k
′′ ]
±
=
_
a
†
k
′
, a
†
k
′′
_
±
= 0 , (16.133)
_
a
k
′ , a
†
k
′′
_
±
= δ
k
′
,k
′′ . (16.134)
Similarly, The operators b
k
and b
†
k
can be considered as annihilation and
creation operators provided that they satisfy
[b
k
′ , b
k
′′ ]
±
=
_
b
†
k
′ , b
†
k
′′
_
±
= 0 , (16.135)
_
b
k
′ , b
†
k
′′
_
±
= δ
k
′
,k
′′ . (16.136)
Using the deﬁnition (16.97) together with Eqs. (16.6) and (16.8) these
conditions become
v
k
′ u
k
′′
_
a
†
−k
′ , a
k
′′
_
±
+u
k
′ v
k
′′
_
a
k
′ , a
†
−k
′′
_
±
= 0 , (16.137)
v
k
′ u
k
′′
_
a
−k
′ , a
†
k
′′
_
±
+u
k
′ v
k
′′
_
a
†
k
′ , a
−k
′′
_
±
= 0 , (16.138)
u
k
′ u
k
′′
_
a
k
′ , a
†
k
′′
_
±
+v
k
′ v
k
′′
_
a
†
−k
′
, a
−k
′′
_
±
= δ
k
′
,k
′′ . (16.139)
Note that by inverting the transformation between the operators a
k
, a
−k
,
a
†
k
and a
†
−k
and the operators b
k
, b
−k
, b
†
k
and b
†
−k
, which can be expressed
in matrix form as [see Eq. (16.97)]
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 392
16.10. Solutions
_
_
_
_
b
k
b
−k
b
†
k
b
†
−k
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
u
k
0 0 v
k
0 u
−k
v
−k
0
0 v
k
u
k
0
v
−k
0 0 u
−k
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
k
a
−k
a
†
k
a
†
−k
_
_
_
_
, (16.140)
one ﬁnds that
_
_
_
_
a
k
a
−k
a
†
k
a
†
−k
_
_
_
_
=
1
u
k
u
−k
−v
k
v
−k
_
_
_
_
u
−k
0 0 −v
k
0 u
k
−v
−k
0
0 −v
k
u
−k
0
−v
−k
0 0 u
k
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
b
k
b
−k
b
†
k
b
†
−k
_
_
_
_
.
(16.141)
This result together with Eq. (16.98) imply that the expectation value
¸V
b
[ a
†
k
a
k
[V
b
¸ is given by
¸V
b
[ a
†
k
a
k
[V
b
¸ =
_
v
k
u
k
u
−k
−v
k
v
−k
_
2
¸V
b
[ b
−k
b
†
−k
[V
b
¸ , (16.142)
thus for both Bosons and Fermions [see Eq. (16.136)]
¸V
b
[ a
†
k
a
k
[V
b
¸ =
_
v
k
u
k
u
−k
−v
k
v
−k
_
2
. (16.143)
a) For the case of Fermions one ﬁnds using Eq. (16.9) that the condi
tions (16.137), (16.138) and (16.139) become (recall that [A, B]
+
=
[B, A]
+
)
(v
k
′ u
k
′′ +u
k
′ v
k
′′ ) δ
k
′
,−k
′′ = 0 , (16.144)
(v
k
′ u
k
′′ +u
k
′ v
k
′′ ) δ
k
′
,−k
′′ = 0 , (16.145)
(u
k
′ u
k
′′ +v
k
′ v
k
′′ ) δ
k
′
,k
′′ = δ
k
′
,k
′′ , (16.146)
thus
v
k
u
−k
+u
k
v
−k
= 0 , (16.147)
u
2
k
+v
2
k
= 1 . (16.148)
These conditions are guarantied to be satisﬁed provided u
k
and v
k
are expressed using a single real parameter θ
k
as
u
k
= cos θ
k
, v
k
= sinθ
k
, (16.149)
u
−k
= cos θ
k
, v
−k
= −sinθ
k
. (16.150)
For this case Eq. (16.143) thus becomes
¸V
b
[ a
†
k
a
k
[V
b
¸ = sin
2
θ
k
. (16.151)
b) For the case of Bosons one ﬁnds using Eq. (16.7) that the condi
tions (16.137), (16.138) and (16.139) become (recall that [A, B]
−
=
−[B, A]
−
)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 393
Chapter 16. Identical Particles
−v
k
u
−k
+u
k
v
−k
= 0 , (16.152)
u
2
k
−v
2
k
= 1 . (16.153)
These conditions are guarantied to be satisﬁed provided that u
k
and
v
k
are expressed using a single real parameter θ
k
as
u
k
= coshθ
k
, v
k
= sinhθ
k
, (16.154)
u
−k
= coshθ
k
, v
−k
= sinhθ
k
. (16.155)
For this case Eq. (16.143) thus becomes
¸V
b
[ a
†
k
a
k
[V
b
¸ = sinh
2
θ
k
. (16.156)
7. Consider the unitary transformation [see for comparison Eq. (9.49)]
¯
H
k
′ = e
L
k
′
H
k
′ e
−L
k
′
, (16.157)
where
H
k
′ = ǫ
k
′
_
a
†
k
′ a
k
′ +λ
_
a
k
′ +a
†
k
′
__
, (16.158)
and where
L
k
′ = −λ
_
a
k
′ −a
†
k
′
_
. (16.159)
With the help of Eq. (2.174), which is given by
e
L
Ae
−L
= A+[L, A] +
1
2!
[L, [L, A]] +
1
3!
[L, [L, [L, A]]] + , (16.160)
and the identities
_
a
k
′ , a
†
k
′ a
k
′
_
= a
k
′ , (16.161)
_
a
†
k
′
, a
†
k
′
a
k
′
_
= −a
†
k
′
, (16.162)
_
a
k
′ −a
†
k
′ , a
k
′ +a
†
k
′
_
= 2 , (16.163)
one ﬁnds that
¯
H
k
′ = H
k
′ −λǫ
k
′
_
a
k
′ +a
†
k
′
_
−2ǫ
k
′ λ
2
+ǫ
k
′ λ
2
= ǫ
k
′
_
a
†
k
′ a
k
′ −λ
2
_
.
(16.164)
Thus, the unitary transformation
¯
H = U
†
HU , (16.165)
where
U = exp
_
−
k
′
L
k
′
_
, (16.166)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 394
16.10. Solutions
which yields
¯
H =
k
′
ǫ
k
′
_
a
†
k
′ a
k
′ −λ
2
_
, (16.167)
can be employed for diagonalization of H. Let [¯ n¸ be a number state,
which satisfy
a
†
k
′ a
k
′ [¯ n¸ = n
k
′ [¯ n¸ , (16.168)
where n
k
′ is the number of particles in singleparticle state [k
′
¸. The
following holds
HU [¯ n¸ = UU
†
HU [¯ n¸
= U
¯
H[¯ n¸
=
k
′
ǫ
k
′
_
n
k
′ −λ
2
_
U [¯ n¸ ,
(16.169)
thus the eigenvectors of H are the vectors U [¯ n¸ and the corresponding
eigenenergies are given by
E
¯ n
=
k
′
ǫ
k
′
_
n
k
′ −λ
2
_
. (16.170)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 395
17. Open Quantum Systems
This chapter is mainly based on the book [7].
17.1 Classical Resonator
Consider a classical mechanical resonator having mass m and resonance fre
quency ω
0
. The resonator is driven by an external force F
ex
that is given
by
F
ex
= F
0
cos (ω
p
t) = F
0
Re
_
e
−iωpt
_
, (17.1)
where F
0
is a real constant. The equation of motion is given by
m¨ x +mω
2
0
x = F
ex
. (17.2)
In steady state we seek a solution having the form
x = Re
_
Ae
−iωpt
_
, (17.3)
where A is a complex constant. Substituting such a solution into the equation
of motion (17.2) yields
A =
1
m
F
0
ω
2
0
−ω
2
p
. (17.4)
This result is clearly nonphysical since it diverges at resonance ω
p
= ω
0
. This
can be ﬁxed by introducing a damping term in the equation of motion
m¨ x +mγ ˙ x +mω
2
0
x = F
ex
, (17.5)
where γ is the damping rate. For this case the steady state amplitude becomes
ﬁnite for any driving frequency
A =
1
m
F
0
ω
2
0
−ω
2
p
−iω
p
γ
. (17.6)
However, also (17.5) is a nonphysical equation of motion. The equipartition
theorem of classical statistical mechanics predicts that in equilibrium at tem
perature T the following holds
Chapter 17. Open Quantum Systems
¸
x
2
_
=
k
B
T
mω
2
0
. (17.7)
However, as can be seen from Eq. (17.5), when F
0
= 0 the steady state
solution is given by x(t) = 0, contradicting thus the equipartition theorem.
This can be ﬁxes by introducing yet another term f (t) in the equation of
motion representing ﬂuctuating force
m¨ x +mγ ˙ x +mω
2
0
x = f (t) +F
ex
. (17.8)
The ﬂuctuating force has vanishing mean ¸f (t)¸ = 0, however its variance
is ﬁnite
¸
f
2
(t)
_
> 0. In exercise 1 below the autocorrelation function of the
ﬂuctuating force f (t) is found to be given by (17.152)
¸f (t) f (t +t
′
)¸ = 2mγk
B
Tδ (t
′
) . (17.9)
Similarly to the classical case, also in the quantum case nonphysical be
havior is obtained when damping is disregarded. This happens not only for
the above discussed example of a driven resonator. For example, recall that
for a general quantum system driven by a periodic perturbation the time
dependent perturbation theory predicts in the long time limit constant rates
of transition between states [e.g., see Eq. (10.39)]. Such a prediction can
yield correct steady state population of quantum states only when damping
is taken into account.
Damping and ﬂuctuation in a quantum system can be taken into account
by introducing a thermal bath, which is assumed to be weakly coupled to the
system under study. Below this technique is demonstrated for two cases. In
the ﬁrst one, the system under study (also referred to as the closed system)
is a mechanical resonator, and in the second one it is taken to be a two level
system. In both cases the open system is modeled by assuming that the closed
system is coupled to a thermal bath in thermal equilibrium.
17.2 Quantum Resonator Coupled to Thermal Bath
Consider a mechanical resonator having mass m and resonance frequency ω
0
.
The resonator is coupled to a thermal bath, which is modeled as an ensemble
of harmonic oscillators.
17.2.1 The closed System
First, we consider the isolated resonator. The Hamiltonian is given by [see
Eqs. (5.9), (5.10), (5.11), (5.12), (5.13) and (5.16)]
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 398
17.2. Quantum Resonator Coupled to Thermal Bath
H
0
=
p
2
2m
+
1
2
mω
2
0
x
2
= ω
0
_
a
+
a +
1
2
_
,
(17.10)
where
a =
_
mω
0
2
_
x +
ip
mω
0
_
, (17.11)
a
†
=
_
mω
0
2
_
x −
ip
mω
0
_
, (17.12)
and where
_
a, a
†
¸
= 1 . (17.13)
The inverse transformation is
x =
_
2mω
0
_
a
†
+a
_
, (17.14)
p = i
_
mω
0
2
_
a
†
−a
_
. (17.15)
17.2.2 Coupling to Thermal Bath
Damping is taken into account using a model containing a reservoir of har
monic oscillators interacting with the resonator. The total Hamiltonian is
given by:
H
t
= H
0
+H
r
+1 , (17.16)
where H
0
is given by Eq. (17.10), H
r
is the Hamiltonian of the thermal bath,
which is assumed to be a dense ensemble of harmonic oscillators
H
r
=
k
ω
k
_
b
†
k
b
k
+
1
2
_
, (17.17)
and 1 is a coupling term
1 = a
k
λ
k
b
†
k
+a
†
k
λ
∗
k
b
k
, (17.18)
where λ
k
are coupling constants. The bath operators satisfy regular harmonic
oscillator commutation relations
[a, b
k
] =
_
a, b
†
k
_
=
_
a
†
, b
k
¸
=
_
a
†
, b
†
k
_
= 0 , (17.19)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 399
Chapter 17. Open Quantum Systems
_
b
k
, b
†
l
_
= δ
k,l
, (17.20)
and
[b
k
, b
l
] =
_
b
†
k
, b
†
l
_
= 0 . (17.21)
Exercise 17.2.1. Show that
˙ a + (iω
0
+γ) a = F (t) , (17.22)
where γ is a constant and where the ﬂuctuating term F (t) is given by
F (t) = −i
k
λ
∗
k
exp(−iω
k
t) b
k
(0) . (17.23)
Solution 17.2.1. In general, the Heisenberg equation of motion of an oper
ator O is given by Eq. (4.37)
˙
O = −
i
[O, H] +
∂O
∂t
. (17.24)
Using Eq. (17.24) one ﬁnds
˙ a = −iω
0
a −i
k
λ
∗
k
b
k
, (17.25)
˙ a
†
= iω
0
a
†
+i
k
λ
k
b
†
k
, (17.26)
˙
b
k
= −iω
k
b
k
−iλ
k
a , (17.27)
and
˙
b
†
k
= iω
k
b
†
k
+iλ
∗
k
a
†
. (17.28)
The solution of Eq. (17.27) is given by
b
k
(t) = exp[−iω
k
(t −t
0
)] b
k
(t
0
)
−iλ
k
_
t
t
0
dt
′
exp[−iω
k
(t −t
′
)] a(t
′
) .
(17.29)
Choosing the initial time to be given by t
0
= 0 and substituting Eq. (17.29)
into Eq. (17.25) yield
˙ a +iω
0
a +
_
t
0
dt
′
a (t
′
)
k
[λ
k
[
2
exp[−iω
k
(t −t
′
)]
= −i
k
λ
∗
k
exp(−iω
k
t) b
k
(0) .
(17.30)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 400
17.2. Quantum Resonator Coupled to Thermal Bath
The states of the thermal bath are assumed to be very dense, thus one can
replace the sum over k with an integral
k
[λ
k
[
2
exp[−iω
k
(t −t
′
)]
≃
_
∞
−∞
dΩ[λ(Ω)[
2
exp[−iΩ(t −t
′
)] ,
(17.31)
where λ(Ω) is the density of states. Assuming λ(Ω) is a smooth function
near Ω = ω
0
one ﬁnds that
_
t
0
dt
′
a (t
′
)
k
[λ
k
[
2
exp[−iω
k
(t −t
′
)]
⋍
_
t
0
dt
′
a (t
′
) [λ(ω
0
)[
2
_
∞
−∞
dΩexp[−iΩ(t −t
′
)]
. ¸¸ .
2πδ(t−t
′
)
= π [λ(ω
0
)[
2
a(t) .
(17.32)
Thus using the notation
γ = π [λ(ω
0
)[
2
, (17.33)
one has
˙ a + (iω
0
+γ) a = F (t) , (17.34)
˙ a
†
+ (−iω
0
+γ) a
†
= F
†
(t) , (17.35)
where
F (t) = −i
k
λ
∗
k
exp(−iω
k
t) b
k
(0) , (17.36)
F
†
(t) = i
k
λ
k
exp(iω
k
t) b
†
k
(0) . (17.37)
The ﬂuctuation terms F (t) and F
†
(t) represent noisy force acting on the
resonator.
From Eqs. (17.34), (17.35), (17.14), and (17.15) one ﬁnds that
˙ p +γp +mω
2
0
x = f (t) , (17.38)
where
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 401
Chapter 17. Open Quantum Systems
f (t) = i
_
mω
0
2
_
F
†
(t) −F (t)
¸
. (17.39)
In classical mechanics the momentum p is given by p = m˙ x. Using this
substitution the equation of motion for the quantum operator p (17.38) takes
a form analogues to the classical equation of motion of a mechanical resonator
having damping rate γ and inﬂuenced by a force f (t)
m¨ x +mγ ˙ x +mω
2
0
x = f (t) . (17.40)
17.2.3 Thermal Equilibrium
Exercise 17.2.2. Show that
¸
F
†
(t) F (t +t
′
)
_
= 2γˆ n
0
δ (t
′
) , (17.41)
¸
F (t) F
†
(t +t
′
)
_
= 2γ (ˆ n
0
+ 1) δ (t
′
) , (17.42)
and
¸F (t) F (t +t
′
)¸ =
¸
F
†
(t) F
†
(t +t
′
)
_
= 0 , (17.43)
where
ˆ n
0
=
1
e
βω
0
−1
, (17.44)
and where β = 1/k
B
T.
Solution 17.2.2. The modes of the thermal bath are assumed to be in ther
mal equilibrium. In general, thermal averaging of an operator O
k
, associated
with mode #k in the thermal bath, is given by [see Eqs. (8.8) and (8.42)]
¸O
k
¸ = Tr (ρ
k
O
k
) , (17.45)
where the density operator ρ
k
is given by
ρ
k
=
1
Z
e
−βHr,k
, (17.46)
where
Z = Tr
_
e
−βH
r,k
_
, (17.47)
H
r,k
= ω
k
_
b
†
k
b
k
+
1
2
_
, (17.48)
and β = 1/k
B
T. Using these expressions one ﬁnds that [see Eq. (8.129)]
_
b
†
k
(t) b
k
(t)
_
=
1
e
βω
k
−1
≡ ˆ n
k
. (17.49)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 402
17.2. Quantum Resonator Coupled to Thermal Bath
Using Eq. (17.20) one ﬁnds that
_
b
k
(t) b
†
k
(t)
_
= ˆ n
k
+ 1 . (17.50)
In a similar way one also ﬁnds that
¸b
k
¸ =
_
b
†
k
_
=
¸
b
2
k
_
=
_
b
†2
k
_
= 0 . (17.51)
Moreover, using the full bath Hamiltonian H
r
one can easily show that
¸b
k
b
l
¸ =
_
b
†
k
b
†
l
_
= 0 , (17.52)
_
b
†
k
(t) b
l
(t)
_
= δ
kl
ˆ n
k
, (17.53)
and
_
b
k
(t) b
†
l
(t)
_
= δ
kl
(ˆ n
k
+ 1) . (17.54)
The ﬂuctuating forces are given by Eqs. (17.36) and (17.37). We calculate
below some correlation functions of these forces. Using Eq. (17.51) one ﬁnds
¸F (t)¸ =
¸
F
†
(t)
_
= 0 . (17.55)
Using Eq. (17.53) one ﬁnds that
¸
F
†
(t) F (t +t
′
)
_
=
k
[λ
k
[
2
exp(−iω
k
t
′
) ˆ n
k
. (17.56)
Replacing the sum over k with an integral, as in Eq. (17.31), and taking into
account only modes that are nearly resonant with the cavity mode one ﬁnds
¸
F
†
(t) F (t +t
′
)
_
= 2γˆ n
0
δ (t
′
) , (17.57)
where
ˆ n
0
=
1
e
βω0
−1
. (17.58)
Similarly
¸
F (t) F
†
(t +t
′
)
_
= 2γ (ˆ n
0
+ 1) δ (t
′
) , (17.59)
and
¸F (t) F (t +t
′
)¸ =
¸
F
†
(t) F
†
(t +t
′
)
_
= 0 . (17.60)
Exercise 17.2.3. Show that the expectation value
¸
a
†
a
_
in steady state is
given by
¸
a
†
a
_
= ˆ n
0
. (17.61)
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 403
Chapter 17. Open Quantum Systems
Solution 17.2.3. Multiplying Eq. (17.34) by the integration factor e
(iω0+γ)t
yields
d
dt
_
ae
(iω
0
+γ)t
_
= F (t) e
(iω
0
+γ)t
. (17.62)
The solution is given by
a (t) = a (t
0
) e
(iω0+γ)(t0−t)
+
_
t
t0
dt
′
F (t
′
) e
(iω
0
+γ)(t
′
−t)
. (17.63)
Steady state is established when γ (t −t
0
) ≫ 1. In this limit the ﬁrst term
becomes exponentially small (recall that γ is positive), i.e. eﬀect of initial
condition on the value of a at time t
0
becomes negligible. Thus in steady
state the solution becomes
a (t) =
_
t
t0
dt
′
F (t
′
) e
(iω
0
+γ)(t
′
−t)
, (17.64)
and the Hermitian conjugate is given by
a
†
(t) =
_
t
t0
dt
′
F
†
(t
′
) e
(−iω0+γ)(t
′
−t)
. (17.65)
With the help of Eq. (17.57) one ﬁnds that
¸
a
†
a
_
=
_
t
t
0
dt
′
_
t
t
0
dt
′′
¸
F
†
(t
′′
) F (t
′
)
_
e
(−iω0+γ)(t
′′
−t)
e
(iω0+γ)(t
′
−t)
= 2γˆ n
0
_
t
t0
dt
′
e
2γ(t
′
−t)
= ˆ n
0
_
1 −e
−2γ(t−t0)
_
.
(17.66)
The assumption γ (t −t
0
) ≫1 allows writing this result as
¸
a
†
a
_
= ˆ n
0
. (17.67)
The last result
¸
a
†
a
_
= ˆ n
0
veriﬁes that the resonator reached thermal
equilibrium in steady state. Similarly, the next exercise shows that in the
classical limit the equipartition theorem of classical statistical mechanics is
satisﬁed.
Exercise 17.2.4. Calculate
¸
x
2
_
in steady state.
Solution 17.2.4. According to Eq. (17.14) and
_
a, a
†
¸
= 1 the following
holds
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 404
17.3. Two Level System Coupled to Thermal Bath
¸
x
2
_
=
2mω
0
¸_
a
†
+a
_ _
a
†
+a
__
=
2mω
0
¸
a
†2
+a
2
+a
†
a +aa
†
_
=
2mω
0
¸
a
†2
+a
2
+ 2a
†
a + 1
_
.
(17.68)
As can be seen from Eq. (17.60),
¸
a
†2
_
=
¸
a
2
_
= 0. Thus, with the help of
Eq. (17.67) one has
¸
x
2
_
=
2mω
0
(2ˆ n
0
+ 1)
=
2mω
0
coth
βω
0
2
,
(17.69)
in agreement with Eq. (8.137). In the classical limit where k
B
T ≫ ω
0
one
has
¸
x
2
_
=
k
B
T
mω
2
0
, (17.70)
in agreement with the classical equipartition theorem.
17.3 Two Level System Coupled to Thermal Bath
In this section we discuss a two level system (TLS) coupled to thermal baths,
and obtain the Bloch equations.
17.3.1 The Closed System
The Hamiltonian H
q
of the closed system can be represented by a 22 matrix
[see Eq. (15.36)], which in turn can be expressed in terms of Pauli matrices
(6.135)
H
q
˙ =
2
Ω(t) σ , (17.71)
where Ω(t) is a 3D real vector, and where the components of the Pauli matrix
vector σ are given by
σ
x
=
_
0 1
1 0
_
, σ
y
=
_
0 −i
i 0
_
, σ
z
=
_
1 0
0 −1
_
. (17.72)
Let P = ¸σ¸ be the vector of expectation values P = (¸σ
x
¸ , ¸σ
y
¸ , ¸σ
z
¸). We
refer to this vector as the polarization vector. With the help of Eq. (4.38),
which is given by
Eyal Buks Quantum Mechanics  Lecture Notes 405
Chapter 17. Open Quantum Systems
d¸A¸
dt
=
1
i
¸[A, H]¸ +
_
∂A
∂t
_
, (17.73)
and Eq. (6.136) one ﬁnds that
dP
z
dt
=
1
i
¸[σ
z
, H
q
]¸
=
1
2i
(Ω
x
¸[σ
z
, σ
x
]¸ +Ω
y
¸[σ
z
, σ
y
]¸)
= (Ω
x
¸σ
y
¸ −Ω
y
¸σ
x
¸)
= (Ω P) ˆz .
(17.74)
Similar expressions are obtained for P
x
and P
y
that together can be written
in a vector form as [see also Eq. (6.152)]
dP
dt
= Ω(t) P . (17.75)
The time varying ’eﬀective magnetic ﬁeld’ Ω(t) is taken to be given by
Ω(t) = ω
0
ˆz +ω
1
(t) . (17.76)
While ω
0
, which is related to the energy gap ∆ separating the TLS states by
ω
0
= ∆/, is assumed to be stationary, the vector ω
1
(t) is allowed to vary
in time, however, it is assumed that [ω
1
(t)[ ≪ω
0
.
17.3.2 Coupling to Thermal Baths
As we did in the previous section, damping is taken into account using a model
containing reservoirs having dense spectrum of oscillator modes interacting
with the TLS. Furthermore, since the ensembles are as