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The Sociological Perspective
Sociology starts with the notion of a "social environment" which surrounds and influences our everyday lives. Sociology sees people's behavior and self-identity as largely shaped and controlled by this environment and people's fate in life (outcomes, life chances) as largely determined by that environment. In other words, sociology starts with a cause and effect model where behavior and outcomes are effects caused by the social environment. The social environment is a complex mix of groups, organizations, networks, situations, institutions, ideas, attitudes, sanctions, power, etc. which exists "out there," i.e., pre-existing our individual lives and independent of individual control. "Out there" means this environment is an objective (vs, subjective) reality with its own properties, dynamics, and causal powers. Analytically the social environment has two aspects (dimensions): structural and cultural (material and symbolic). In reality these aspects are highly intertwined together and reciprocally shape each other but they can be separated out analytically. Structural aspects are the (more-or-less) solid forms of social life and the relations within and between these forms, e.g., the way things social life is organized into stable patterns. Structural aspects can include such things as groups, organizations, networks, status positions, demography, stratification systems, power relations, institutions, world systems, etc. Most of time sociologists mean the makeup and effects of the economy and political system (money and power) when referring to structural aspects. Cultural aspects are the symbolic systems (especially language) which provide people with the meaning of things, e.g., how to interpret the world. These symbol systems are the ways of classifying and categorizing things which shape people's perception, motives, and strategies of action. In reality the structural and cultural (material and symbolic) shape and influence each other. Symbols construct the social objects (the "things") which make up the structural dimension. Once created, these things take on a life of their own (become structural) and impact the people living in the social environment and how people experience life (interpret it). But because they're products of symbolic construction, these structures can be challenged and changed, although with great difficulty, by the people living in these structures and using these symbol systems. The social environment is structured into three level: macro, meso, and micro. It's useful to envision them as arranged in concentric circles, with the micro nested inside the meso and the meso nested inside the macro.
Macro Mes o
The micro (small) level is where you find people in face-to-face and mediated interaction, usually in small group settings. For many of these interactions the people assume limited identity and occupy a specific social position (e.g., teacher, student, customer, employee) and most interaction is governed by the rules of behavior for people in these positions. The micro is the level of everyday situations so it is the one we, as persons, experience directly and are most familiar with. At the opposite extreme is the macro (large) level of the whole society and the global system. This level is organized into institutions which provide the society with solutions to the problems of social
Sociological Approach to Social Problems organization (e. They are our images of “the good society. life expectancy. Stratification distributes societal resources unevenly (inequality) and create groups of haves and have-nots. At the meso level the "technologies of social life" carry out institutional goals and create the arenas (settings) for micro-level interaction. where the institutional goals of the society are make into concrete goals and strategies of action. The macro is the level of demography where population structures (e. and cultural systems Groups and organizations which carry out institutional goals Groups and categories created by the hierarchical stratification of resources Interaction patterns created by institutions. someone’s expectation has to be disappointed. etc. the society continues to survive and supply the necessary conditions for its members (people at the micro level) to live and interact. producing new members . Social problems. No gap. and networks which are larger than small groups (beyond the micro level) and make real and concrete the macro phenomenon of institutions and stratification. opportunity. 2 . The macro is also the level where societal-wide stratification systems (class. health.. and rules they use to guide interaction. So long as these institutions work as designed. etc. The meso level is where the "society's work" gets done. race. Institutions also create the identities which people take on when interacting. gender. sex ratio) form the long-term context for institutions and interaction. sociological analysis focuses on five "things": • Institutions • Culture • Stratification systems • Organizations • Status positions and categories Gap Model of Social Problems The notion of social problems can be pictured as a "gap" between reality and expectation.g. then.g. Problems only exist when there’s a gap. no problem. organizations. system of stratification. the objects they orient themselves around during interaction. prosperity. organizational structures. We have expectations about how the social world should work. and stratification Life chance (outcomes) determined by institutions and stratification Simplified.” Social problems emerge when social reality does not live up to these expectations about quality of life.. For a problem to exist. groups. intermediary) level of groups. thwarted.the family as an institution). age) are formed and grounded. All of this gives us a basic sociological model: • • • • • Society structured as a set of institutions. Between these two levels is the meso (in-between. security. are social conditions that have been identified as negatively impact people’s lives. age pyramid.
2. and productive life. Moral – Principles of justice. utilitarian. cheaply. Harm at the individual level is relative. The "optimal" end for society is creation and maintenance of whatever is necessary for people to enjoy a secure. value.. 3 . These approaches are not mutually exclusive but actually very complimentary. Such obligations are very relevant to a society which promises citizenship and democracy. practical. although in reality it is usually more threatening to some more than others. some groups or categories of people are negatively impacted more than others (haves vs. Dysfunctional System Imagine society as a system with each part (each institution) fitting and working together to bring about an "optimal outcome. These imply the "good society" depends upon meeting certain ethical obligations to every member of the society. etc. so is a computer. the whole population).Sociological Approach to Social Problems What constitutes "harm" (negative outcome) is distinguished on three levels: Societal level • Society is falling apart (breakdown. These imply the "good society" is one that produces abundance and comfort for the greatest number of people. structural disadvantage • Marginalization or exclusion Cultural level • Unrealized values (broken promises) • High rates of deviance Harm (negative outcomes) at the societal level are seen as threats to everyone (all citizens. efficiently. Pragmatic – Principles of efficiency. when analyzing social problems. We don’t have to choose between them but can switch back and forth to strengthen the insights of each. The "good society" is one where things are done the way they are supposed to be done so that the "optimal" outcomes can be achieved easily." A car engine is such a system. non-exploitation. i. 3.The "good society" is one where things are done the way they are supposed to be done so that the "optimal" outcomes can be achieved easily. Social Stability -. decency. and predictably. equal opportunity. sociological analysis uses three implicit criteria to define the gap: 1. Harm at the cultural level is not "real material harm" but threat to some ideal. threat to survival) • Dysfunctional side-effects of institutional processes • Lack of invest in necessary infrastructure and processes of societal reproduction Individual level • Significant decrease in life chances • Systematic. fairness. equity. or norm. or sets of questions. collapse. and predictably. productivity. cost effective. healthy. When comparing reality and the ideal.e. Sociological Analysis of Social Problems Sociology uses two approaches. moral code. even-handedness. have-nots). etc.
but from a different perspective. Project outward and explain the larger consequences of these failures for the whole society and people's lives living in that society Rather than starting from the society. To do this. sometimes severely. Identify the location(s) within the society (the institutional domains) where those things are supposed to be accomplished. and advantage. each institution or institutional practice must work properly if the whole society is going to be stable and produce an "optimal" outcome. etc. At the heart of this perspective is the recognition of the effects of stratification where some groups don’t experience "a problem" while other groups are negatively affected. health. people's life chances are diminished because they lack motivation. From this macro-level perspective. 4 . any society needs people trained in the skills and knowledge necessary to run that society's technology. optimal functioning for the "haves" often relies upon sub-optimal outcomes for the "have-nots. Start by figuring out what has to be accomplished (on a collective level) for the society to survive in its present form. Determine the success or failure of designated institutions in accomplishing their functional goals 5. housing. 2. jobs. Even more chilling. social problems occur when institutions fail and/or create outcomes that disrupt the system. How well is this institution doing its job? 4. For instance." at best. These conditions. privilege. 3. ironically. social support.) depend upon the social conditions surrounding them. Social problems occur when certain social conditions seriously impede the chances of people to live the kind of life we expect they are entitled to live. ask a series of questions: 1. government policies. income.Sociological Approach to Social Problems Although. schools. we can do the same analysis starting from the institution (this is the approach we'll be using most this semester). Again. Without enough resources and/or the right kind of resources. for others (the "have-nots") society's functioning is "sub-optimal. abilities. people's life chances are diminished and they experience adverse outcomes (social problems). eg. etc. Figure out what other institutions depend on these things being accomplished 4. Therefore." This is one way we to define exploitation. in reality some groups and types of people (the "haves") get to enjoy the "optimal" level while. Without the right kind of mental models. We can use a simple functional model to analyze social problems as dysfunctions: 1. Explain why this institution is falling short of accomplishing these goals 6. Why does this institution exist? What are its purposes? 2. this brings out the processes of exploitation and domination which are implied in social problems. What other parts of society depend on this institution? 3.. domination. What the implications for other institutions and the society as a whole if this institution malfunctions or falls short? Adverse Outcomes A basic sociological tenet is that people's chances in life for the "good things" (security. provide resources and mental models. knowledge. etc. family structure. happiness.
I'll have to give up something to make things better for them. Most people have the attitude of "I'm not suffering from this social problem so why should I care? I feel sorry for those who are suffering and I know it's not fair but I'm not affected and. income groups. the pace of change.g. etc. using moral criteria creates difficulty when analyzing social problems. adverse and otherwise. decency. talked about. then the whole system (whole society) is in trouble. We can use a simple "what/who/why" model to analyze adverse effects. regional groups.. sports. failure to live up to the culture's values and ideals. e. It's so easy to give morality lip service but difficult to live up to it.. education. equal opportunity. etc. of justice. This interpretation sees cultural values set of "promises. Second. but little or no real action or remedy is forthcoming. and economic) and equal opportunity. media. lamented. e. the complexity of modern society makes it fragile and prone to societal-wide social problems. Although powerful as an analysis. In other words. Trend analysis comparing how it is today with the situation in the past and projecting trends into the future. social. creates social problems on two levels. Closely related to this is the analysis of social problems as "failed cultural promises. fairness." For instance. This complexity is an necessary outcome of the structural differentiation that characterizes modern society. our society's culture promises such things as equality.Sociological Approach to Social Problems Often underlying this approach to social problems is an analysis in terms of moral principles. because of institutional interdependence. equal opportunity.." As a result social problems can be ignored. e. specialized institutions. When society doesn't deliver on these promises. then a problem occurs. First. When looking for "what/who/why. Then the analysis asks why certain groups are affected adversely while others are not. analyzed. or is neutral. the analysis asks for a description of the life chances experienced by different groups and an explanation of the differences between these life chances. If all institutions perform as expected. does the social environment have on people's lives and who is impacted adversely and who benefits. First. even-handedness." sociological analysis use one or both of these methods: Statistical comparison between the social outcomes of different groups. Such obligations are very relevant to a society which promises citizenship and democracy and they are closely tied to the agenda of rights (civil. etc. it's probably their fault anyway. let's look at the general conditions created by modernity that give rise to social problems. then society depends on the interconnection and interdependence between these institutional sectors." e. etc. equity.g. then great.. These imply the "good society" depends upon meeting certain ethical obligations to every member of the society. Let them solve their own problem. besides. This asks what kinds of effects. Social Problems of Modernity We live in a modern society so the social problems of our society are fundamentally shaped by the contours of modernity.g. if one or more institutions changes more rapidly 5 . racial groups. non-exploitation.. individual freedom. Differentiation occurs when areas of life. but if any sector becomes dysfunctional or breaks down. When that happens. if they carry out their specialized tasks. form themselves into semi-autonomous. With that in mind. military. Often addressing the moral issues raised by social problems demands sacrifice from the "haves" and most people are not ready to make such sacrifices unless they benefit directly (self-interest). gender. such as. etc. people with different education levels.g. an effect of institutional differentiation.
the incredible mix of ethnic groups. wages stagnate or go down. Heterogeneity makes it difficult to create and maintain cultural consensus on priorities and solutions. and species extinction. family. As a consequence. the heterogeneity of population in modern societies. racial groups. many institutions. and uncaring processes of modern life. Many of the society's social problems negatively impact the have-nots more than the haves (that is almost inherent in the very nature of stratification) and. leading to disconnect and an inability to address social problems (think climate change). It is difficult for such different groups to live peacefully together. impersonal. 6 . even more importantly. religions. unforgiving realities of the market-driven. can occur. etc. Not only does this create inequality in income. and standard of living which is the source of many social problems but creates a fundamental cleavage in what are considered to be social problems and in how to address them. limits on fossil fuels (energy crisis). So solving social problems often requires sacrifice by the haves. Think of the problems caused by the hyper-rapid developments in technology in our society and the problems that causes for media. India. At the heart of modernity are the processes of industrialization and economic growth. especially political ones. people have to deal with change." They are the only truly non-market areas of social life left in modern society. modern societies are class societies. they can adapt. As these societies come "on line.Sociological Approach to Social Problems than others. modern society tends to be very environment unfriendly. Good examples of primary groups are family. First. pollution. age groups. we use nature as our "dumping ground. modern society is increasingly faced with such potentially devastating problems as climate change (global warming). Sixth. Even with general peace there tends to be an underlying distrust and chronic tension between coexisting groups undermining attempts to define and solve social problems. something that reinforces this fundamental cleavage. Fourth. wealth. industries disappear. Finally. etc. We see nature as our "supplier" and "playground" and we give little thought to the effects on the natural environment. Fifth. and a place to escape from the rat race atmosphere of everyday life. globalization. and community. anomie. Second. then instability can occur. helplessness. as people. sexual orientation. globalization tends to depress wages in income in developed countries. education. stay national." spewing into the atmosphere and into the ground the waste products of our way of life. Third. Seventh. Jobs are lost. We depend on these groups for emotional support. Third. While globalization itself is not necessarily a problem. while the economy may go global. Additionally. friends. modern society is increasingly a global society. financial support. stressful. When it does. by necessity. stress. it tends to create several problems. something they are not inclined to do and have the power to resist. etc. contributes to social problems. Brazil) are undergoing economic development. are exposed to the constant harsh. globalization means more societies (China. If it's gradual enough. But modernity is harsh on the family and other forms primary group relations. disrupts and destroys local economies. although America has been remarkable successful on this score. but if it's very rapid and continual then anxiety. modern life tends to undermine primary groups. Both of these require the escalating use of raw materials and energy and the continual destruction of natural habitat." the environmental destruction discussed above increases exponentially. Second. many of the conditions creating social problems for the havenots actually work to the benefit of the haves. They are our "haven in a heartless world. Also population heterogeneity tends to be correlated with stratification so that the society is structured into dominant and minority groups. leading to increasing inequality. then we. Modern life makes it difficult to create and sustain these relationships..
Industrialization and economic growth. making it difficult to form and maintain families.The traditional family is rapidly being replaced by new forms of family life. With this as background. energy shortages. destroy the natural environment. both essential to modernity. the complexity of modernity accentuates these problems. and poisonous pollution are all manifestations of this kick back. Financial crime disrupt the economy.Sociological Approach to Social Problems Finally. and ironically. liberal approach to social problems also tends towards political gridlock. We are reaching the natural limits that the natural environment can sustain the modern way of life.While not unique to modern society. 7 . the radical nature and rapid nature of the change create social problems. the economic growth need for both is increasingly creating environmental crisis. and stratification creates health disparities between groups in modern society. let's do a more concrete list of social problems associated with modern societies (some of these we will study in-depth): Family . Additionally. When it was young (nineteenth and first two thirds of twentieth century).As societies become more modern. Each group is fighting for its definition of social problems but there are only finite resources to solve these problems. government action itself (public policy) often has the unintended consequence of creating new social problems. Terrorism and the threat of terrorism create fundamental insecurity and anxiety. Education . Opportunity . Modernity thrives under social peace and relative tranquility. In addition. The stress of modern life plus its effects on the natural environment make health difficult to achieve. Infinite problems championed by multiple groups struggling for finite resources often means government paralysis or inadequate responses.Nothing may be more fundamental to modernity than the promise of prosperity and opportunity but providing that prosperity and opportunity are becoming increasingly difficult. nature is kicking back. education becomes exponentially more important. food and water shortages. The very nature of democracy means more things are defined and treated as social problems. In addition. Climate change. But the Earth remains the same. Democracy allows almost all groups and sectors in the society to have access to the election and lobbying processes thus putting multiple pressures on governments to address the concerns from all of these groups and sectors. While not a problem in itself.Population growth is major side effect of modernity. the strategies and techniques to control crime and terrorism themselves become social problems. Generally modern society is rough on family life. modern societies tend towards democratic political structures. Violent and property crime and the fear of crime disrupt the everydayness of modern life. Health and Health Care . Schooling itself is a modern invention but the promises of an education and the forms we use to educate are becoming increasingly difficult to achieve. this wasn’t a problem for modernity but with maturity. Population . Overpopulation and the stress it puts on the natural environment are fundamental problems for modern societies.Long life and general good health are fundamental life chances and access to the modern science of health care is a fundamental promise. Crime and Terrorism . This naturally puts many things on the social agenda as social problems. Environment . The vast majority of the humans that have ever lived have lived in modern societies. But this broad.
to be evaluated and rewarded strictly on individual talents and achievements and not group-based identity. what social conditions are considered “social problems. suboptimal performance. all we have are messy. compare this to medicine and engineering. Like medical risk factors.” To grasp this further. compare social problems to the medical concept of disease. Constructing a “Social Problem” The gap model seems easy. inconclusive processes of labeling. structural forms of group-based inequality still operate in our society. such as race or gender. Before moving on we need to explore one other dimension of social problems. Winners in the struggle for power get to define which standards are applied and. We don’t have an “ICD” for social problems or socially-recognized experts with legitimate power to interpret when social problems occur and prescribe how to fix them. etc. a pathology resulting in identifiable symptoms. Sometimes a social condition or behavior may be labeled as a social problem because it threatens important values. think about engineering problems. rides smoothly.Sociological Approach to Social Problems Discrimination . People struggle mightily over the power to make claims about whether social conditions are “problems” and how problems should be framed. struggle. While blatant prejudice and discrimination have largely been erased. Again. A disease is something that disturbs normal. – and most would agree that car broken down on the side of the road is “a problem. Social problems can be seen as “symptoms” indicating an underlying social disease.” It’s clear what’s expected from an air conditioner – how much air at what temperature – so we can easily agree when one is broken. optimal body functioning. A social problem exists when some event or condition doesn’t live up to our expectations. e. Therefore. no consensus exists about what is or is not a social problem or how problems should be defined and framed. When is abortion a social problem? Not when a large number of abortions occur but when the very idea of abortion is proposed as socially acceptable. therefore.. or safety standards.” Unfortunately we don’t have such clear cut standards of “running properly” when it comes to social problems. when there’s a gap between expectation and reality. gas mileage or tread wear. But in medicine there is a socially-recognized group of professionals (physicians) that set standards for “optimal functioning” and “disease” (officially it’s called the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)) and we give them the social power to interpret situations as “disease” according to these professionally-established standards and apply solutions (clinical medicine) based upon these standards. Medicine talks about “health risks” as conditions that may not present symptoms right now but over the long run increase the likelihood of disease and illness. gets good gas mileage. and power. even if it doesn’t actually disrupt the social order.g. When it comes to machinery we can usually muster a consensus about “running properly” vs. 8 .Equal opportunity for all is a basic promise of modernity. As a comparison. “broken down. so that a car that’s not getting its best gas mileage or with tread wear below a defined safety standard (usually within 1/16th of an inch of the surface of the tire) would be defined as a problem. processes of power decide which of these notions carries the day. Not only do different individuals and groups have very different notions of how society should be and should work. social problems can be defined as “threat to values” even if the social order hasn’t broken down. Things would be simple if everyone agreed about what constitutes a “good society” but no such consensus exists. Most people could easily identify a “properly running” car – moves when gas pedal gets pressed. Instead. Engineering defines “optimal performance” as a machine’s full potential.
as various claims-makers seek to have their problem definition – rather than that of a competitor – accepted by the media and political decision makers.” inevitable.” For example. A select few social conditions get highlighted by public attention and become transformed from “personal trouble” to “social problem." Some are ignored. Also all are objective conditions that really exist! But we all realize that many of them draw relatively little public concern-.Why? Four conditions must be met before an objective reality in the greater society becomes elevated to the special status of "social problem." 1." Some are ignored. at least by a majority of claims-makers with power. Others are treated as “natural. People must become actively involved in discussing the problem. the entire world. law. in some cases. A select few social conditions get highlighted by public attention and become transformed from “personal trouble” to “social problem. therapy. Public attention becomes directed toward that social condition. That is. Components of the public agenda • • • What people are talking about Policy goals of organizations Allocation of resources (money and people) in organizational budgets Not all social conditions negatively impacting people’s lives become elevated to the status of "social problem. The objective condition must be perceived to be a social problem publicly. Others are treated as “natural.” Not all social conditions negatively impacting people’s lives become elevated to the status of "social problem. Notice two key terms used here: • Asserts: Social problems are constructed out of and during communication. or other intervention. This process is highly competitive. resulting from personal or moral failure.Sociological Approach to Social Problems Social problems are socially constructed when an influential group asserts (claims) that a certain social condition negatively affects a large number of people and may be remedied by some kind of policy. here are some "objective conditions" which exist today but not all of them are considered to be social problems. usually a mixture of mass communication. and political lobbying • Influential group: Social problems are constructed by people with power making claims that certain objective conditions constitute problems worthy of social attention and political remedy Constructing a social problem means controlling the public agenda and mobilizing political resources to remedy the social condition labeled (framed) as problematic. or unimportant. resulting from personal or moral failure. there must be some public outcry. Infant mortality rates Prevalence of hunger in the US CEO salaries and bonuses Alcohol use Legalized gambling Grade inflation Public swearing Gender wage gap Low number of prenatal clinics Legalization of gun ownership Income inequality Tobacco use Decline of religion ATM usage fees Pre-marital sex Each of the above represents an existing condition which threatens the well-being of the United States and. or unimportant. 9 . public relations.” inevitable.
If everyone takes the attitude that "you can't fight city hall". the chances of it being considered a social problem increase substantially. If people affected by a condition are influential. If only a small segment of the population gets involved you have an interest group pushing for the general public to do something about the condition-. or the content of the mass media. Example: Hard drug addiction had been a lower class. 4. and urban congestion-. African Americans are a much larger minority and are much more visible. Rather. there are still other factors which will determine the degree to which something comes to be perceived as a social problem. 3. At the beginning of the 20th century alcohol abuse was perceived to be a very serious social problem. the condition is more likely to be considered a social problem than if those affected are not influential. A good example is government bureaucracy-. black problem for some time before it reached the suburban white middle class. One airline crash every year is grounds for concern. 1.Sociological Approach to Social Problems 2. the condition must run counter to the values of the larger society. But. The liberal press will highlight certain issues while the conservative press will select others. A significant proportion of the population must be involved in defining the problem. but not for the definition of a social problem.not a social problem). But when it began to affect middle class kids. five crashes in one month will get the public's attention! 4. we see the emergence of a new social problem! 2. Even if certain objective reality exists and each of the above conditions is met. 10 . it is a part of life that everyone must live with. If no solution is perceived possible. accidental death at work. The mass media also plays an important role in the selection and definition of social problems. pollution. Example: The poverty of Native Americans has received much less attention than the poverty of Black Americans. abandonment of children. people will resign themselves to their fate. A condition affecting a relatively small segment of the population is less likely to be considered a social problem than if it has adverse effects on a much larger segment of society. population. The condition must involve a gap between social ideals and social reality. A rapid increase in the number of people affected by a social condition is also important-perhaps even as important as the number of people affected! Example: People become accustomed to the prevailing levels of crime. That is. responsible for family breakdown.S. Why? Native Americans are a relatively small and isolated segment of the U. When a condition begins to affect the white middle class. It gives selective attention to certain conditions. or powerful. and violence in society. 3. government bureaucracy doesn't emerge as a social problem.But a sharp increase in the intensity of any of these leads to elevated public concern. The condition must be capable of solution through collective action by people. The poverty of African Americans also has a greater impact on the middle classes than that of Native Americans. (A large proportion of the population must be concerned about the condition… It must have national attention. particularly those able to influence government policy. A "Temperance Movement" emerged that further consolidated public opinion to a point that people wanted to do something about it.
S. lack of the ability to delay gratification. they will tend to defend the system. militarism. if the public. Liberals emphasize the lack of opportunity and structural factors in the system.but they do not agree on a specific definition of the problem.Sociological Approach to Social Problems Example: A good example is the controversy over the Monica Lewinsky affair. then such things as corporate power." "national defense. will be perceived as serious social problems in the U. and other personal characteristics of those who are poor. etc. the general public seems to have sided with the liberal position if public opinion ratings of the President's job performance are to be believed." and "declining morality" will be perceived as social problems. will argue for a dismantling of the "welfare state" and a return to the free market system. as a whole. Thus. imperialism. The liberal press lamented it. Conservatives and liberals agree that America has a poverty problem-. or in the case of radical conservatives. ideology plays an important role in determining which conditions are singled out as social problems. 11 . Radical liberals will advocate overthrowing the current system of government and establishing something entirely new. lack of motivation. 5. Ideology also determines how a social problem is defined. The conservative press saw it as a basic flaw in the moral fabric of the presidency and counter to the values of the larger society. However. Example: Conservatives will perceive poverty as being caused by lack of intelligence. Finally. but maintained that the larger issue was the quality of the job that the President was doing. nor do they agree on how the problem should be solved. holds conservative values then "big government. On this issue. Example: If the general population has adopted a Marxist ideology. The system must be adjusted to open up opportunity.
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