You are on page 1of 44

()

(Driving controls and applications of SwitchedSwitchedReluctance Motors)


98.02.12-23
1

Contents
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) 2

(Motor Drive)

Rectifier or SMR Inverter + Vdc

Power stage
Isolation interface Control section

3 AC source

VVVF 3 voltage

AC motor
EC

Load
Vehicle


Command Controller

Isolation and driving Switching control

Current feedback Velocity and/or position feedback

Requirements: low cost, reliable, miniaturization, smaller volume volume and weight (modularization and integration), higher efficiency (energy (energy saving),3 low vibration and acoustic noise, etc.

(Key Issues of Motor Drives)


Rect. or SMR or DC/DC front-end converter Multiple sources? Buffer storage? DCDC-link ripples. P Te r

Motor

AC or DC sources

+
Vd

Inverter iA id

Encoder types. Resolution. Interfacing to DSP.

+ eA

~ ~ ~

EC

Load
J ,B
Match between motor and load. Load types. Load parameters. Load required performance. Motion pattern. Speed range, constant torque, constant power. power. Miniaturization. Cost effective. Reliability. EMI problems. Grounding and shielding.

Te , r

SMR, PFC and DC link voltage boosting. PAM and/or PWM controls. Dynamic braking. Inrush current. Battery sources. Battery charging. SuperSuper-capacitor buffer. Renewable or distributed sources.

Command Feedback

Controller

f s , tc , t
Motor type. Match between inverter, motor and load Voltage utilization. Harmonic effects. Driving isolation. Interfacing and sensing. Current changing rate and response. Neutral isolation or not. Reflection due to unmatched impedance. Power module, SOC promotion.

PWM control, harmonics. Random switching. Dynamic modeling and estimation. Dynamic control: (current, speed and/or position. Tuning control for specific motor. Digitization of control scheme. Common DSP for multiple power stages. Acoustic noise and vibration reduction.

Motor ripple i v A1 e A1 + v Ah A current: Z A1 h = 2 Z Ah = i A1 + i Ah

Motor current changing rate: rate

diA Vd e A , e A r dt L

Key Components and Issues of Motor Driven Plant


Motor: DC brush motor (DCM) (Least used). Induction motor (IM). PermanentPermanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). SwitchedSwitched-reluctance motor (SRM). Power electronic converter and its switching control: DC/DC converters (DCM). Inverters (Sine(Sine-wave, squaresquare-wave) (IM, PMSM). Asymmetric bridge converter (Unipolar (Unipolar squaresquare-wave) (SRM). Power sources: AC mains, battery or renewable sources. Energy management technology.
5

The motors employed in some typical HEVs


(Induction motor)

(Permanent-magnet synchronous motor)

(Switched(Switched-reluctance motor)

6 www.euripides2008.de/download/vortraege/Balle_EURIPIDES.pdf

Electric Motor Drive Selection Issues for HEV Propulsion Systems: A Comparative Study IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1756-1764.
7

Converter )) Converter--Motor Motor--Mechanical Mechanicalload load ((


() () Power Converter ()
+ V P i

() ()

()

Motor
e J Motor B Motor (developed

Mechanical load
TL (Load torque)

Motor drive
position sensor

current sensor

torque)

BLoad (Damping ratio)

J Load (Inertia constant)

Motor : Electrical power to mechanical power conversion: P = Te r Mechanical dynamic equation : Te = TL + B r + J ( d r / dt )


r
r
Te

t t t

, . ia Te ia,av : ia,rms : ia,max : ia,max, ia,av, ia,rms : r >rated : Constant power operation via
field weakening 8

P t ia t

r
t

Te
t P t ia t

- Induction motor (IM)


Tem = constant
Tem m = constant
2 = Tem m constant

10

PermanentPermanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)


SPMSM IPMSM

Key features of PMSMs: PMSMs:


Advantages: Limits: inherent narrow constantconstant-power region. Improvements: (a) the use of proper types of PMSMs. PMSMs. (b) suitable fieldfield-weakening by excitation setting. (c) fieldfield-weakening via commutation advanced shift. (d) voltage boosting.
11

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1756-1764.

TorqueTorque-speed characteristics of SPMSM and IPMSM

12

Control alternatives of IPMSM for yielding different torquetorque-speed characteristics

Maximum output via id field-weakening control and/or shift

IPMSM

Torque

Maximum TPI via id control and/or shift


id = 0

Speed
Base speed

13

Rotor design alternatives of IPMSM for yielding different torquetorque-speed characteristics


IPMSM with deeply buried magnet IPMSM with shallowly buried magnet Rotor Rotor

IPM with shallowly buried magnet having larger magnetic torque Torque IPM with deeply buried magnet having larger reluctance torque (suited for higher speed running)

Speed
Base speed

14

SwitchedSwitched-Reluctance Motor (SRM)

Key features of SRM:


Advantages: simple and rugged, faultfault-tolerant operation, simple control, good torquetorque-speed characteristic with wide constantconstant-power region. Disadvantages: Higher torque ripple, vibration and acoustic noise. Improvements: (a) fieldfield-weakening via commutation advanced shift. (b) voltage boosting.

15

-
Constant torque loads ( low-speed elevator):
TL = constant, P m
m
TL = constant
TL

Fan, blower and centrifugal 2 , P 3 pump: TL m m


m
2 TL m

TL

Constant power loads (Coiler drive): TL 1 / m

Pd 1 Pd 2

TL
16

TorqueTorque-Speed Characteristics of Transportation Drives Freight train hauled by diesel-electric locomotives Commercial road delivery vehicles. Other systems: (a) subway trains, (b) streetcars, (c) trolley buses.
m
2

max

1 Constant- power curve Constant- torque curve TL Tmax

b (Base speed)

Envelope of speed-torque characteristics.

17

Electric Vehicles

Key features of EV load and drives:


A wide speed range is critical for passenger car. Internal combustion engine needs speed transmission (gear box) box) to modify the torquetorque-speed patterns under different speed ranges, whereas the motor may possess adequate torquetorque-speed profile via fieldfield-weakening. weakening. And regenerative braking is achievable for motors.
Yamada, E. and Zhengming Zhao, Applications of electrical machine for vehicle driving system, Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2000. Proceedings. IPEMC 2000. The Third International, vol. 3, pp.1359-1364, 2000.

18

Types of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)


Definition:

Series HEV

Parallel HEV

Series/parallel Hybrid HEV

19

Toyota Hybrid System THS II www.toyota.co.jp/en/tech/environment/ths2/SpecialReports_12.pdf

Comparative evaluation of commonly used motors for EV

20

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1756-1764.

10

Key Parameters of an Inverter-Fed Motor Drive


Induction motor or AC motor
P Te r

Rectifier
Three
phase

id
+ Vd

Inverter

iA

+ eA
~ ~ ~

AC source

EC

Load
J ,B

Te , r

Control

f s ,tc ,t

Consideration Factors:
(a) Armature ripple current. (b) Switching losses. (c) Dead-time in converter transfer function. (d) DC link voltage capability and boosting.

Adverse effects of armature ripple current : (i) increase losses; (ii) cause torque ripple, vibration and acoustic noise, (iii) (iii) EMI) 21 How to reduce armature ripple current

Ripple Torque due to NonNon-ideal Current Waveforms


Ripple

DC current:

110V

Ripple

AC current:
Current
Te = Te1 + Teh

Motor
Te = Te1 + Teh

Te1 = Tav

22

11

Effect of Ripple Current on Mechanical Torque and Speed


The speed of an inverter-fed motor:

Te = Tav + Teh = TL + B r + J (d r / dt )

r = av + rh :
Teh or ( J / B ) or ( f1 ) or (m f ) rh
Effects of torque ripple (speed ripple): driving performance is degraded: the generation of vibration, acoustic noise, etc.

23

The effects of ripple current on torque and speed


Example: Six-step inverter-fed induction motor:
( i A )n i A1

Te = Te1 + Teh
i A5

Te1 = Tav
i A7
i A11 i A13
11 13 (Harmonic
order)

n
r = r1 + rh r1 = av

Producing 6th order harmonic torque

Producing 12th order harmonic torque

( J / B ) or ( f1 )

Inverter output waveform: depends on the employed switching approach.

r = r1 + rh
r1 = av

( J / B ) or ( f1 )

24

12

Classification of PWM Methods


(Six(Six-step switching) (Pulse(Pulse-Width Modulation, PWM) (a) PWM (Square(Square-wave PWM) (b) PWM (Sinusoidal PWM, SPWM) (c) SPM ( Modified SPWM) (d) PWM (Regular Sampled PWM, RSPWM) (e) PWM (Harmonic Injection PWM, HIPWM) (f) PWM (Optimum PWM) (g) PWM (Selective Harmonic Elimination PWM) (h) PWM (Current(Current-Controlled PWM) (Hysteresis control) BangBang-Bang control ON/OFF controlAdaptive Current control PWM (Fixed(Fixed-Frequency PWM control) Subharmonic PWM control Ramp Comparison PWM control PWM (Space Vector Modulated PWM, SVMPWM): (a) Current control (b) Flux and Torque control (c) Discontinuous PWM (DPWM): DPWM3, DPWMMAX, DPWMMIN, GDPWM (DPWM0, DPWM1, DPWM2) (Random switching)
25

Typical waveforms of some commonly used motors Square-wave BDCM


e1 i1

T1 = (e1 i1 ) / r

Pm = ek ik = Te r

d r Te = TL + B r + J dt

Ideal case: torque is ripple-free, speed is ripple-free. Actual case: back-EMF and current waveforms are far from ideal >> the ripple torque and hence the speed ripple exit. The back-EMF waveform depends on the winding type and 26 the permanent-magnet pole shape. Remedies: machine design and electronic approaches.

13

www.analogzone.com/grnt0605.pdf

27

Sine-wave BDCMs
u
+ Vd

iu iv
n
'

Rotor
N S

* iu iu

* iv iv

* iw iw

v w
PWM scheme

iw

r
A
U+
V

B
S
U+

U+
V

S
W

S S N
W+

S N
V+

W+

N
U

V+

N
W+

V+

N 28

14

P = ea ia + eb ib + ec ic = constant = Ter

eu
* iu iu

ev
* iv iv

ew
* iw iw

29

Switched reluctance motor


1 2 LA ( r ) T A= i A 2 r
LA ( r )

iA ( t ) LA ( r )

r
iA
on off
Actual current Current command

Switched reluctance motor: The winding excitation is applied according to the sensed rotor position. Absolute rotor position sensing is required.

T e, r

30

15

()
(Stator)(Rotor) (Field winding)(Armature winding)
Case 1: Case 2:

, . ,, .

31

(DC generator)
Electric power

(DC motor)
Electric power

Field

Armature

+
Load Electrical Field
Armature

DC source

Prime mover

Tm

m
Load Mechanical

Tm

Mechanical power = Tm m

Mechanical power = Tm m

Generator: e = B l v

Motor: f = B l i
32

16

Structure and Developed Torque of a DC Motor (with brush)


Torque generating capability of a DC Motor is the best among all motors, since the flux and armature conductor current are kept in quadrature in nature.

T = K a I a

Ia Ia
33 hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/magnetic/motdc.html

( () )
(Pumped-storage plant) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) Electric machine: motor/generator, starter/generator Example: parallel HEV:

Five possible modes:


Engine only traction Electric only traction Hybrid traction Regenerative braking Battery charging from engine
Liquid fuel Battery Engine Motor/ generator Transmission

34

17


(Permanent(Permanent-magnet, PM)

(Separately excited) (Self excited) (Shunt excited) (Series excited) (Compound)

(Long shunt) (Short shunt) (Differential compound)


(Cumulative compound)

(Under-compound)

(Flat-compound)

IM, BDCM (PMSM) SRM

(Over-compound) 35

(Synchronous machine)

:
(Induction motor)

(Wound-rotor or slip-ring) (Squirrel-cage) (Split-phase motor) (Capacitor motor): Capacitor-start Capacitor-run Capacitor-start capacitor-run (Shaded-pole motor) ()(Universal motor) ()

()

36

18

: :

(Stepping motor) (Switched-reluctance motor (SRM): ( ) () (Brushless DC motor, BDCM) () () (Direct drive (DD) motor) Possess high and smooth torque at low speed, no gears are required. required. (Linear motor) (Ultrasonic motor)

37

Applications of motors
: without rotor position sensing
Excitation type: Integral-hp drives, traction drives, steel machinery, paper machinery. PM-type: (Lower ratings) Automotive auxiliaries, aircraft auxiliaries, small position servos, speed servos.

(Scalar control): without rotor speed sensing


Three-phase squirrel-cage: Pumps, fans, compressors, general industrial speed drives, traction, electric vehicles, elevators. Three-phase wound-rotor type: High-power industrial drives with limited speed range and/or high starting torque requirement. Single-phase squirrel-cage: Low-cost industrial and domestic appliances.

(Vector control): with rotor speed sensing (incremental type):


vector control is necessary for highhigh-performance speed drives and position servo drives.

: : without rotor position sensing


High-power industrial drives, fans, compressors, tractions.

(PM(PM-type PMSMs with absolute rotor position sensing) (lower ratings)


Square-wave: computer peripherals, office machinery, small fan, potable tools, air conditioners, domestic appliances, electric vehicles, elevators. Sine-wave: Servo drives, motion control devices, advanced home appliances.

: without rotor position sensing to perform positioning control


Low-power computer peripherals, motion control devices.

: with absolute rotor position sensing


Low-cost wide speed drives, domestic appliances, aerospace applications.

38

19

Unified Operation Principles of Electric Motors


An elementally rotating electromagnetic device: One phase winding on stator and one winding on rotor

Wf =

1 1 Lss is2 + Lrr ir2 + Lsr i s ir 2 2


m

is

ir

Salient pole rotor

39

The electromagnetic developed torque


T= L 1 2 Lss 1 2 Lrr + ir + i s ir sr is 2 2

Reluctance torques due to the variations of self-inductances with rotor position

Torques due to the variation of mutual inductance with rotor position (excitation torque)
40

20

The stator and rotor currents can be DC or AC. For single-phase motor, there is no starting torque and the pulsating torque exists. If the rotor is not equipped with winding, i.e., i = 0 , then
r

T=

1 2 Lss i 2 s

The rotor should have saliency. The synchronous reluctance motor, variable reluctance stepping motor and switchedreluctance motor belong to this type. To obtain better torque generating capability, the winding current waveform switching control should be made in accordance with the pattern of Lss , which is nonlinear function of rotor position, current level and frequency.
41

If the rotor is non-salient or cylindrical type: T = is ir

Lsr

Thus the doubly-excited operation should be adopted. The slip rings and brushes are used for AC motors, and the commutators and brushes are used for DC motors. The winding currents for various types of motors are: DC motor: motor: is and ir are all DC currents. AC excited synchronous motor: motor: is is AC and ir is DC. AC permanent synchronous motor: motor: is is AC, rotor is equipped with permanent magnet. BDCM is basically a PMSM with inverter commutation being made according to the sensed rotor position. AC induction motor: motor: is is AC, ir is induced AC current with frequency smaller than those of is . SwitchedSwitched-reluctance motor: a kind of synchronous motor with singly excited unipolar square-wave winding currents.
Each type of motor possesses its key parameters affecting the motor motor driving performance, and they can be properly tuned to yield better performance performance. 42

21

() (DC Motors)
Two basic equations:
Generator : Generated voltage E a = K a m Motor : Back emf (Lenz' s law)

Motor : Generated torque T = Ka I a Generator: Retarding torque (Lenz's law)

Torque generating capabilityis excellent


Ia Ra

E a I a = T m ( Neglecting losses)

+ Ea

m T Forward driving and regenerating braking Backward driving and regenerating braking

43

Structure and Developed Torque of a DC Motor (with brush)


Torque generating capability of a DC Motor is the best among all motors, since the flux and armature conductor current are kept in quadrature in nature.

T = K a I a

Ia Ia
44 hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/magnetic/motdc.html

22

Series Motor
Universal motor: AC and DC are all okay. Large developed torque (large starting torque):

T =K t I a2
Speed will be dangerously large at light load.

m =

Vt Ksr T

Ra + Rsr + Rae , Ka = Ksr I a Ksr

m 1 / T , T = 0 ( No load ) m
45

AC Motors
Squirrel-cage induction motor (IM IM) ) Non-salient-pole synchronous motor (SM SM) ) Salient-pole synchronous motor (SM SM) )

46

23

Traditional synchronous motor (SM SM) vs. BDCM) brushless DC motor (BDCM

BDCM: A permanent magnet synchronous motor with its stator windings being excited according to the sensed rotor position. Absolute rotor position sensing or estimation (i.e., sensorless control) is required.

SM
< 90o
N

BDCM
= 90o
N

S
Rotor

N
S
S
Rotor Stator
47

Stator

Structures of Synchronous Motors (sine wave type)


Armature windings: sinusoidaly distributed Winding currents: Three-phase armature currents (sinusoidal balance set)

Rotating filed produced by stator armature windings:


ns = 120 f ( rpm ), f = frequency , P = pole number P

Rotor is equipped with field, and it will run at the same speed. The poles of stator and rotor are displaced by a power angle ( < 90 degrees)
48

nr = n s

24

Structures of Brushless DC Motors (BDCMs ) (BDCMs) (Square wave type synchronous motors) ThreeThree-phase HallHall-effect sensor BDCM

TwoTwo-phase 44-pole HallHall-effect sensor fan motor (BDCM)

49

Induction motor: scalar control vs. vector control (field-orientation control)


Vector control (Predictive control with proper slip angular speed being determined)
= 90o
N

Scalar control
< 90o
N

S
Rotor

S
N S
Rotor Stator

Stator

50

25

Rotor bars (slightly skewed)

()
End ring

51

Structures of Induction Motors (IMs ) (IMs)


Stator (two-phase) Stator (three-phase)

SquirrelSquirrel-cage rotor (brushless)


(a) Embedded squirrel cage; (b) Conductive cage removed from rotor.
52

26

Typical operating points in motoring mode

Torque

(Tmax , smax )

(Tstart , sstart = 1)

(Trated, srated) srated 3 ~ 5%


No load synchronous speed

s =1

s=0

Speed or slip

53

Operating capabilities of induction motor

Scalar control: proper V/f ratio, voltage boosting in low speed. Vector control: suitable fieldfield-orientation control with compensation. Suitable fieldfield-weakening control in highhigh-speed range. 54 DCDC-link voltage boosting.

27

()
IM, SynRM, SPMSM, IPMSM Cogging torque (i) (Cogging torque)IPMSMSPMSMCogging torqueIPMSM(Saliency) Cogging torque ; (ii) IPMSM SPMSM SynRM IM2~3% (iii) SynRM1.0IMIPMSMSPMSM 1.131.421.5 IPMSM SynRMIM

55

Loss Comparison of Some Commonly Used Motors Loss comparison Loss (W)
IM Sy nR M SP M SM IP M SM

www.irf.com/technical-info/whitepaper/imotionapmotorpcimchina06.pdf

56

28

Classification of synchronous motors


PMSM >> PMSM + RM >> SynRM

PMASynRM: Permanent magnet torque assisted SynRM SynRM: Synchronous Rluctance Motor
Shigeo Morimoto, Trend of permanent magnet synchronous machines, IEEJ Trans., 2007; 2: pp. 101-108. 57

PM-Assisted SynRM rotor

SynRM rotor

58

29

Some typical stator structures


(a) (a)salient pole (Concentrated winding) end turns coupling (b) (b)slot (Slot-less) (Cogging torque) PC (c) (c) (Distributed winding) shoes Cogging torque
59

IPMSM

Te =

3P r 2 [m I as cos ( Ld Lq ) I as sin cos ] 22 Lq Ld 2 3P r = [m I as cos + I as sin 2 ] 22 2

Torque Te

Composite torque Magnetic torque Reluctance torque

0o

45 o
0 o ~ 45 o

90 o

r ( )
60

30


(Back-EMF is reduced as the commutation instant is shifted forward) (Maximum torque point, maximum TPI)

Back-EMF

Current phase

Current phase

Maximum torque control: The required current is minimum under a particular load.

Field-weakening control Maximum torque control

61


max


(Performance index)

20o

( shift )
0o

rpm
3000
6000

9000

62

31

a
+ Vd -

ias ibs ics


L asbs + + vcs rs rs v bs L bsbs L asas L bscs n'
-

b c

Rotor N S

L csas L cscs rs

PWM scheme

vas
+

r
bs-axis Sensor 1 q- axis

q axis
r
bs
as-axis

as axis
* ias i* as ibs ibs * ics ics

as' cs

S
bs'
2 Sensor cs-axis

N
as

cs'
3 Sensor d- axis

r
= r
63

PMSM
AC or DC sources

PB

iB

Front end converter

P d id

Voltage source inverter

P i , Qi
PMSM

Pm
E
H

P L RL
PMSG

vB
d Voltage controller

vd (d) )
* vd vd

ias ibs ics

r Te
Encoder Hall signals signals

Voltage boosting

Other information

PWM control scheme

* r r

Speed control scheme

iqs
dq / abc conversion

vcont, abc
Current control scheme

ids
Excitation control scheme

Feedbacks and other indices

ias Commutation ibs tuning ics scheme ( Nos )


Rotor position det ection (or estimation)

Feedbacks and other indices

Commutation tuning
Hall signals Encoder signals ( Termin al voltage)

Excitation tuning

64

32

Voltages of Electric Vehicles


Transition of voltages in electric vehicles

Background of highhigh-voltage in HEV

Trend of high voltage harness technology that supports Hybrid Electric Vehicles. ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/4239117/4239118/04239329.pdf?tp=&isnumber=&arnumber=4239329

65

Features of some electric vehicles

Recent Trends of Electric Vehicle Technology mizugaki.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/staff/hori/paperPDF/JCTrip.pdf

66

33

THSTHS-II Specifications (Motors and voltages)

THS II

DC bus voltage 500V/650V

ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4510492

67

Voltage boosting 202V >> 500V (or higher)

68

www.tytlabs.co.jp/english/review/rev394epdf/e394_001ishiko.pdf

34

650V

Progresses for a Last Decade and Perspectives in Applications Specific Electric Motors and Drives in Japan, Matsui, Nobuyuki; Power Conversion Conference - Nagoya, 2007. PCC '07, 2-5 April 2007 Page(s):K-17 - K-24.

69

Possible voltage boosting approach: boosted DCDC-link voltage using frontfront-end converters: Series connected voltage boosting circuits
Fixed voltage
VB1
Vd = VB1 + VB 2 = fixed

VB 2

Adjustable voltage two batteries

Adjustable voltage single battery

VB1

Vd 1
Vd = VB 2 + Vd 1 > VB 2

VB

Vd 1

Vd = VB + Vd 1 VB

VB 2

d
70

35

Single-stage voltage boosting circuits


Isolated or non-isolated converter Id Isolated or non-isolated converter Id

V B

V d

Two-quadrant One-quadrant

V 0, I 0 d d d V = or V d 1 d 1 d B
(a)

(i) V 0, I 0 or I 0 d d d (ii) I 0, V 0 or V 0 d d d Four-quadrant

VB

V 0 or V 0, I 0 or I 0 d d d d
(b)
71

PWM modulation strategies (fixed DCDC-link voltage)


Maximum torque control

Maximum torque control

Field-weakening control

Boosted DCDC-link voltages

The operation range can be extended to higher speeds. The ratings of inverter and motor should be properly considered.

72

36

Example: THS (Toyota Hybrid System)System)-II

Voltage boosting 202V >> 500V (or higher)


73

Home air conditioner trends

Trends: Motor: Induction motor >> PermanentPermanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) Vector control >> Sensorless control. SquareSquare-wave type >> sinewave type. FrontFront-end switchswitch-mode rectifier (SMR)>> provide boostable and wellwell-regulated DCDC-link voltage with good line drawn power quality. Common digital control environment for: Outdoor compressor PMSM, PMSM, outdoor condenser fan motor, frontfront-end switchswitch-mode rectifier (SMR). DSP or ASIC + microcontroller, or FPGA + microcontroller. 74
www.irf.com/technical-info/whitepaper/mce_digitalpfc_ac.pdf

37

SMR (PFC rectifier) + AC motor drive (Common DSP)

Indirect Power Factor. Correction for 3-Phase AC. Motor Control with V/Hz. Speed Open Loop. Application Using a 56F80x. Device. 75 www.freescale.com/files/product/doc/AN1918.pdf

Example PMSM drive (Hitachi)

Features:

Sensorless control. Sinewave PMSM current. Integrated power stages: Boost SMR + PMSM inverter. DCDC-link current sensing Common DSP.

Sensorless Control and PMSM Drive System for Compressor Applications Dongsheng Li; Takahiro Suzuki; Kiyoshi Sakamoto; Yasuo Notohara; Tsunehiro Endo; Chikara Tanaka; Tatsuo Ando; Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2006. IPEMC '06. CES/IEEE 5th International volume 2, Aug. 2006, Page(s):1-5

76

38

Mitsubishi Power Modules

www.mitsubishichips.com/Global/ catalogue/pdf/power/general_e/e_05.pdf

77

Intelligent Power Module PS21245PS21245-E

78

39

Intelligent Power Module PS21245-E

79

Toshiba Products

80

40

Variable reluctance stepping motor vs. Switched reluctance motor Variable reluctance stepping motor

81

SRM Governing Equations By neglecting the mutual coupling and assuming the linear magnetic circuit, the per-phase winding voltage equation of a SRM can be written as:
v = Ri + L( r , i) di ( r , i) di + r = Ri + L ( r , i ) + e( r , i, r ) dt r dt

The composite generating torque of a SRM drive can be obtained by summing all per-phase developed torques, and then the motor drive torque equation is:
Te = Tei = TL + B r + J
i =1 n

d r 1 L( r , ii ) 2 , Tei = ii dt 2 r
82

41

Variable reluctance stepping motor vs. Switched reluctance motor


1 2 LA ( r ) T A= i A 2 r
LA ( r )

iA ( t ) LA ( r )

r
iA
on off
Actual current Current command

Switched reluctance motor: The winding excitation is applied according to the sensed rotor position. Absolute rotor position sensing is required.

T e, r

83

Commutation Instant Tuning


LA ( r )
LA ( r )
Dwell

iA iB
iC iD

r
Without advancing
Actual current Current command

iA
on off

With advancing

iA
on off

T=

1 2 Lss i 2 s

84

42

Typical converter circuit


Classical bridge converter circuit
Q1 D1
Q3 D3 Q5 D5 Q7
D7

Vdc

L1
D2

L2
D4

L3
D6

L4
D8

Q2

Q4

Q6

Q8

(a)

Operation modes
Vdc
L1
D2

Q1

D1

Q1

D1

Q1

D1

Vdc

L1
D2

Vdc

L1
D2

Q2

Q2

Q2

85
(b)

(c)

(d)

PWM switching with varying frequency


Linearly varying switching frequency Fixed switching frequency Varying switching frequency

2A

2A

2.5 kHz

2.5 kHz

86

43

Switched reluctance generator


1 2 LA ( r ) T A= i A 2 r
L( r )
La

iA ( t ) LA ( r )

Lu 0 1 2 3 4

Generator mode

T e, r

r
87

Motoring and generating mode of a switched-reluctance machine


LA ( r )

Motoring
T A= 1 2 L A ( r ) i 2 A r = positive
iA
on off
Actual current Current command

r r
iA( t ) LA ( r )

Generating
T A= 1 2 L A ( r ) LA ( r ) i 2 A r = negative
iA
on off

r
Actual current Current command

r88

44