You are on page 1of 86

www.projectspals.

com

09271412204

1) STREET LIGHT THAT GLOWS ON DETECTING VEHICLE MOVEMENT The project is designed to detect vehicle movement on highways to switch ON only a block of street lights ahead of it (vehicle), and to switch OFF the trailing lights to save energy. During night all the lights on the highway remain ON for the vehicles, but lots of energy is wasted when there is no vehicle movement. This proposed system provides a solution for energy saving. This is achieved by sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ON a block of street lights ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing lights switch OFF automatically. Thus, we save a lot of energy. So when there are no vehicles on the highway, then all the lights remain OFF. However, there is another mode of operation where instead of switching OFF the lights completely, they remain ON with 10% of the maximum intensity of the light. As the vehicle approaches, the block of street lights switch to 100% intensity and then as the vehicle passes by, the trailing lights revert back to 10% intensity again. High intensity discharge lamp (HID) presently used for urban street light are based on principle of gas discharge, thus the intensity is not controllable by any voltage reduction. White Light Emitting Diode (LED) based lamps are soon replacing the HID lamps in street light. Intensity control is also possible by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) generated by the microcontroller. Sensors used on either side of the road senses vehicle movement and sends logic commands to microcontroller to switch ON/OFF the LEDs. Thus this way of dynamically changing intensity ON/OFF helps in saving a lot of energy. The project uses an 8051 series microcontroller.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Further the project can be enhanced by using appropriate sensors for detecting the failed street light and then sending an SMS to the control department via GSM modem for appropriate action. 2) GSM BASED ENERGY METER READING WITH LOAD CONTROL The main objective of the project is to develop a GSM based energy meter reading system and load control through SMS. Electricity department sends employees to take meter reading every month, which is an expensive and time consuming job. The proposed project provides a convenient and efficient method to avoid this problem. The electricity department and the user can get the readings of the energy meter of consumers via SMS. The loads can also be controlled by the user of this system via SMS using this project. A microcontroller input is effectively interfaced to a digital energy meter that takes the reading from the energy meter and displays the same on an LCD. The reading of the energy meter is also sent to the control room by an SMS via SIM loaded GSM modem. This GSM modem can also receive commands from the cell phone to control the owners electrical loads. It uses a standard digital energy meter that delivers output pulses to the microcontroller to perform counting for necessary action. On receiving command it can switch ON/OFF the loads. Further this project can be interfaced with a non volatile memory IC like EEPROM along with a keypad so that the user the change the mobile number as per the requirement. 3) LIFE CYCLE TESTING OF ELECTRICAL LOADS BY DOWN COUNTER

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

desired

number

is

entered

through

keypad

interfaced

to

microcontroller of 8051 family. Upon activation, the system counts down one in each second till the set number reaches zero. A relay switches the load ON & OFF for every count thus testing the life cycle of the product. The working life of many products such as lamps depends on the number of ON/OFF cycles it encounters. This project is designed to be used in industries for testing the life cycle of such electrical loads (lamps, motors etc) using a down counter. This proposed system uses microcontroller of 8051 family with a keypad interfaced to it to enter a required number.7-segment displays are used for displaying the number /count. Once the circuit is powered, the counter is set using the keypad to count down anywhere from 999 to 0. The counter starts decrementing from the set number to 0 per each count and simultaneously making the load (i.e. bulb in this circuit) turn ON and OFF by a relay. Reaching the zero count it finally remains OFF. The project can be further enhanced by using mono stable triggering device to stop the counter in the event of failure of the load before reaching the zero. Thus the exact life cycle of the load can be estimated.

4) AUTOMATIC DIALING TO ANY TELEPHONE USING I2C PROTOCOL ON DETECTING BURGLARY The main objective of this project is to intimate the concerned authorities about an unauthorized access of secured areas such as museums, residential houses, banks etc. As crime rate is on the rise and burglars are getting

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

smarter, the security system for banks, shops and houses needs to be full proof. This proposed system ensures that at any moment if any unauthorized person tries to open the bank locker; a telephone number will be dialed through the telephone line connected to it.

This project uses a microcontroller from 8051 family. An external memory EEPROM is interfaced to the microcontroller to store the contact number to which the call is to be made. The arrangement is made in such a way that when someone tries to open the door forcefully even when it is locked the microcontroller gets an interrupt through a hidden switch mechanism interfaced to it. Microcontroller will automatically dial to the number which is stored in the EEPROM through DTMF encoder interfaced to it. Microcontroller fetches information from external memory like EEPROM using I2C (Inter IC communication) protocol.

Further this project can be enhanced to use a cell phone or GSM modem with a serial camera connected to it. The camera will take photographs and sends it over MMS/ email attachment to the concerned authorities. 5) NETWORKING OF MULTIPLE MICROCONTROLLERS The project is designed to demonstrate how multiple microcontrollers can be connected in a network to achieve the desired output. This technology is widely used in modern automobiles. More and more microcontrollers are embedded in different kinds of products from industrial environment to domestic area; a good example is the automobile sector. A modern day car has number of microcontrollers integrated within its system. As this number

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

increases, the networking and communication between them becomes necessary. The importance of having multiple microcontrollers against a single one is if one of the microcontrollers goes bad only the function related to that particular microcontroller will be affected. The project demonstrates a command based monitoring tool using the RS232 protocol. A network of three microcontrollers is used in this project. The first one is connected to a keypad for input action while the second one is connected to an LCD display and the third one to drive a relay for controlling any load (LAMP). Input takes a password on the first MC to display it on the second MC while the third one executes the output only if the password is right. Wrong password if entered will generate a buzzer sound. Though this task can be performed by a single microcontroller, the project uses multiple microcontrollers to explain the concept of networking. It is practically impossible by a single microcontroller to handle input action, display and output which are located way apart. For example, a display unit requiring 15 connections from the microcontroller needs to be managed using a multi core cable, similarly for a keypad using 7 connections. Thus, for large number of inputs and displays it would require multi core data cable to be connected to the MC running over kilometers, whereas this project uses a pair of wire only thereby reducing the complications in wiring and cost as well.

Further this project being based on serial communication can be enhanced by using wireless communication among the controllers by avoiding costly cabling.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

6) LINE FOLLOWING ROBOTIC VEHICLE USING MICROCONTROLLER The project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle that follows a specific path. This project uses a microcontroller of 8051 family for its operation. A pair of photo sensors comprising IR transmitter and photo diode is interfaced to the controller to detect the specified path for its movement. Line follower robot is a useful robot that is used in ware houses, industries, and stores etc, where it follows a dedicated path. This proposed system of a line following robot fulfils the desired functionality and demonstrates the working of it. It uses a pair of photo sensors, comprising of one IR transmitter and a photo diode in each. It guides the robot to follow a specified path by giving appropriate signal to the microcontroller. Two DC motors are used interfaced to the microcontroller through a motor driver IC. Input signals given to the microcontroller from the sensors and then the controller takes the appropriate action according to the program written in it and drives motors as desired.

Further the project can be enhanced by adding more advanced sensors to it. This will add more features to the existing project. For example, we can use ultrasonic sensors for detect any obstacle in front of the robot and to take appropriate action. 7) RFID BASED ATTENDANCE SYSTEM

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The main objective of this project is to record the attendance of students using RFID tags. Each student is provided with his/her authorized tag to swipe over the reader to record their attendance.

In classrooms, time is wasted in roll calls as it is done manually. In this proposed system, authorized student is given an RFID tag. This tag contains an integrated in built circuit that is used for storing, processing information through modulating and demodulating of the radio frequency signal that is being transmitted. Thus, the data stored in this card is referred as the identification/attendance of the person. Once the student places the card in front of the RFID card reader, it reads the data and verifies it with the data stored in the microcontroller from 8051 family. If the data matches, then it displays a message on the LCD confirming the entry of that student else displays a message denying the attendance. The status of a students attendance can be retrieved from this system by pressing the status button interfaced to the microcontroller. Hence, a lot of time is saved as all the students attendance is directly stored in the data base. The project can be further enhanced by adding features like sending an SMS of the daily attendance of students to their parents. It can also be enhanced by using a finger print module in place of RFID module that has certain drawbacks of tags be misused. 8) DETECTING POWER GRID SYNCHRONISATION FAILURE ON SENSING FREQUENCY OR VOLTAGE BEYOND ACCEPTABLE RANGE

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project is designed to develop a system to detect the synchronization failure of any external supply source to the power grid on sensing the abnormalities in frequency and voltage.

There are several power generation units connected to the grid such as hydel, thermal, solar etc to supply power to the load. These generating units need to supply power according to the rules of the grid. These rules involve maintaining a voltage variation within limits and also the frequency. If any deviation from the acceptable limit of the grid it is mandatory that the same feeder should automatically get disconnected from the grid which by effect is termed as islanding. This prevents in large scale brown out or black out of the grid power. So it is preferable to have a system which can warn the grid in advance so that alternate arrangements are kept on standby to avoid complete grid failure. This system is based on a microcontroller of 8051 family. The

microcontroller monitors the under/over voltage being derived from a set of comparators. As the frequency of the mains supply cannot be changed, the project uses a variable frequency generator (555-timer) for changing the frequency, while a standard variac is used to vary the input voltage to test the functioning of the project. A lamp load (indicating a predictable blackout, brownout) being driven from the microcontroller in case of voltage/frequency going out of acceptable range. Further the project can be enhanced by using power electronic devices to isolate the grid from the erring supply source by sensing cycle by cycle deviation for more sophisticated means of detection.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com
9) NON CONTACT TECHOMETER

09271412204

The aim of the project is to design a contactless speed sensing device (tachometer) for a Brushless DC (BLDC) motor. Traditional tachometers require a physical contact to the shaft of the motor to measure the speed. In certain applications, where it is not feasible to measure the speed for safety and technical reasons, it is possible for a contactless tachometer to take the readings from a certain distance. This proposed system uses the IR transmitting and receiving technique. This is achieved by receiving IR rays from a reflecting spot on the shaft of the motor. Such arrangements can measure the rate at which the IR rays are getting reflected back. The project uses a microcontroller of 8051 family. A pair of sensors (Transmitter and receiver) is used to develop a pulse for each reflection that sends an interrupt to the microcontroller. The timer of the controller calculates the speed by each pulse received in a particular time interval and displays the same. The microcontroller is interfaced with an LCD to display the speed. The concept of the contact-less tachometer can be enhanced and

implemented in the bikes, cars for speed measurement, avoiding the use of traditional analog speedometer. 10) DISPLAY OF DIALED TELEPHONE NUMBERS ON SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAYS The main objective of this project is to display the dialed telephone number on seven segment display for better visibility. This project is based on the concept of DTMF (dual tone multi frequency). Every button on the key pad of

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

a telephone generates a unique frequency when pressed. These frequencies are decoded by a DTMF decoder and the digital signals are fed to the microcontroller through buffer circuits. While the program is executed, the output of the microcontroller delivers the same data to parallel connected seven segment displays. The parallel connected seven segment displays operate in the multiplexing mode fed from the microcontroller through driving switches to generate exact display of the numbers dialed. In actual operation only one seven segment display shows the number at any given time out of the ten used. Owing to persistence of vision, all the numbers appear glowing at the same time as they are in high speed multiplexing mode. The project uses an 8051 family microcontroller, and a cell phone duly connected from its ear phone socket to the DTMF decoder for receiving the data. This data is transmitted to the microcontroller for processing. The processed data is then given to the parallel connected seven segment displays. Further the project can be enhanced to displaying the time, cost, day and date parameters on the digital display. 11) UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT DISTANCE LOCATOR The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable fault from base station in kilometers. The underground cable system is a common practice followed in many urban areas. While a fault occurs for some reason, at that time the repairing process related to that particular cable is difficult due to not knowing the exact location of the cable fault. The proposed system is to find the exact location of the fault.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project uses the standard concept of Ohms law i.e., when a low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series resistor (Cable lines), then current would vary depending upon the location of fault in the cable. In case there is a short circuit (Line to Ground), the voltage across series resistors changes accordingly, which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data which the programmed microcontroller of 8051 family would display in kilometers. The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KMs and fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of the same. The fault occurring at a particular distance and the respective phase is displayed on a LCD interfaced to the microcontroller. Further this project can be enhanced by using capacitor in an ac circuit to measure the impedance which can even locate the open circuited cable, unlike the short circuited fault only using resistors in DC circuit as followed in the above proposed project. 12) CELL PHONE BASED DTMF CONTROLLED GARAGE DOOR OPENING SYSTEM The main objective of this project is to unlock a garage door by a mobile phone using a unique password entered through the keypad of the phone. Opening and closing of garage doors involves human labor. In this proposed system, the opening and closing of a garage door is achieved by using a mobile phone. The owner can call to a mobile phone interfaced to the system

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

which in turn is connected to the garage door that can open/close the door by entering the password. This method is very convenient as one doesnt have to get down of his car to open/close the door physically.

This project is based on the concept of DTMF (dual tone multi - frequency). Every numeric button on the keypad of a mobile phone generates a unique frequency when pressed. These frequencies are decoded by the DTMF decoder IC at the receiving end which is fed to the microcontroller. If this decoded values (password entered by the user) matches with the password stored in the microcontroller, then the microcontroller initiates a mechanism to open the door through a motor driver interface.

Further this project can be incorporated with an EEPROM i.e., a non-volatile memory so that the password can be changed by the owner. 13) BLDC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL WITH RPM DISPLAY The main objective of this project is controlling speed of BLDC motor and displays its speed using an IR method of speed sensor mechanism. The DC motor has various application used in industries like in drilling, lathes, spinning, elevators and etc. The speed control of the DC motors is very essential. This proposed system provides a very precise and effective speed control system. The user can increase or decrease the speed as per the requirement and the motor will run at that exact speed.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project is divided into three stages: input, processing and output stage. The input stage consists of entering the required speed through switches. The processing stage provides RPM reference of the motor, by a shaft mounted IR sensor interfaced to the microcontroller in the circuit. The microcontroller develops PWM pulses which are varied with switches to regulate the DC power to the motor such that the desired speed is achieved. The output stage uses a MOSFET being driven by the microcontroller output. An 8051 family microcontroller is used with a set of switches to increase or decrease the speed of the BLDC motor. This speed is sensed by the sensors and is given to microcontroller which in turn displays it on a LCD display. The above operation is carried out by using one opto-isolator and a MOSFET for driving the BLDC motor. IR sensing is used for getting the speed reference to the microcontroller. 14) PREDEFINED SPEED CONTROL OF BLDC MOTOR The main objective of this project is to force the BLDC motor in electric vehicles to run exactly at stored speed in EEPROM (non volatile memory). The BLDC motor has various application used in industries like in drilling, lathes, spinning, electric vehicles, elevators and etc. The speed control of BLDC motors is very essential. The present system speed control is not very effective. This proposed system provides a very precise and effective control system. The user can enter the desired speed (predefined speed) which is stored in an EEPROM and the motor will run at that speed. If the power supply is off, the EEPROM retains the last speed entered. When the supply is resumed, the motor will run at the last entered speed.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Based on the principle of PWM speed can be controlled. This is achieved by keeping BLDC motor on closed loop feedback and giving RPM reference of the motor by a shaft mounted IR sensing arrangement which is fed to the microcontroller in the circuit. A display unit displays the full speed and one can enter the desired percentage with help of switches to vary the speed. The pulse width would be automatically adjusted to maintain the DC power to the motor such that the entered speed percentage matches the present RPM. The above operation is carried out by using one opto-isolator and a MOSFET for driving the BLDC motor and IR sensing is used for getting the speed reference to the microcontroller.

An EEPROM is interfaced to the microcontroller. EEPROM being a non volatile memory stores the speed reference to feed to the control circuit that forces the motor to always run at the same speed. Two switches are used as input to the MC for increasing or decreasing the speed of the BLDC motor. 15) STAMP VALUE CALCULATOR FOR POSTAGE NEEDS The aim of this project is to develop a stamp value calculator for the postal operations that is carried out in a post office. These postal letters are tariffed at the post offices depending on the weight of the postal letter measured on a weighing scale. Normal weight checking instruments used in the shops like the grocery stores are not applicable in post offices, where the weights range from kilograms and above, but in post offices the weights are considered in the order of grams and the tariff rate is imposed accordingly. Hence, there is a need of a precise weighing scale that can measure the weights in grams and display it. This concept can be achieved by an electronically weighing machine. This proposed system can fulfill the desired

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

functionality and it is exact in its precise weight measurement and price of the stamp required. This system is built upon using an 8051 microcontroller, which uses weight sensor by a spring loaded variable resistor to determine the weight of the particular letter placed on it. This data is processed through an ADC which is interfaced to the microcontroller to generate an appropriate display on the LCD, both in terms of weight and its corresponding stamp value required. This project can be enhanced by integrating a mini printer with this system, which can be used for printing the value of stamp for franking machines. It can also be interfaced with a keypad and an EEPROM to store the price details corresponding to its weight. 16) TAMPERED ENERGY METER INFORMATION CONVEYED TO CONCERNED AUTHORITY BY WIRELESS COMMUNICATION The main objective of this project is to send a message in the event of energy meter being tampered. The alert message is sent via GSM modem to the concerned authority. As electricity consumption is increasing, so is the attempt for tampering the energy meter. Identifying a tampered meter is only possible when the electricity boards authority manually checks it, which is a time consuming and costly method. This proposed system is a possible solution to detect meter tampering. Energy meter is integrated with the system in such a way that if anybody opens the cover of the meter, an IR sensing arrangement sends a command to the microcontroller (8051 family). Microcontroller then senses a change in the logical input from IR sensor and gives command to the GSM modem to

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

send an SMS to the designated mobile phone number stored in the controllers memory. This information also gets displayed on an LCD.

The project in future can be enhanced by having an added feature of disconnecting the supply to the load by electricity department through SMS in case of any tampering of energy meter. 17) CYCLO CONVERTER USING THYRISTORS The project is designed to control the speed of a single phase induction motor in three steps by using cyclo convertor technique by thyristors. A.C. motors have the great advantages of being relatively inexpensive and very reliable. Induction motors in particular are very robust and therefore used in many domestic appliances such as washing machines, vacuum cleaners, water pumps, and used in industries as well. The induction motor is known as a constant-speed machine, the difficulty of varying its speed by a cost effective device is one of its main disadvantages. As the AC supply frequency cannot be changed, so this project uses a thyristor controlled cyclo converter which enables the control of speed in steps for an induction motor. The microcontroller used in this project is from 8051 family, a pair of slide switches is provided to select the desired speed range (F, F/2 and F/3) of operation of the induction motor. These switches are interfaced to the microcontroller. The status of the switches enables the microcontroller to deliver the pulses to trigger the SCRs in a dual bridge. Thus, the speed of the induction motor can be achieved in three steps i.e. (F, F/2 and F/3).

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

This very concept can be further enhanced and implemented to control the speed of a three phase induction motor. It can also be coupled with firing angle control for any desired speed. Note: An induction motor is used to observe the output of the project. Motor is not supplied along with the kit. However, it can be purchased on extra cost. 18) DISTANCE MEASUREMENT BY ULTRASONIC SENSOR The project is designed to measure the distance of any object by using an ultrasonic transducer. Ultrasonic means of distance measurement is a convenient method compared to traditional one using measurement scales. This kind of measurement is particularly applicable to inaccessible areas where traditional means cannot be implemented such as high temperature, pressure zones etc. This proposed system uses an ultrasonic module interfaced to a

microcontroller of 8051 family. An ultrasonic transducer comprising of a transmitter and receiver are used for the project. The transmitted waves are reflected back from the object and received by the transducer again. The total time taken from sending the waves to receiving it is calculated by taking into consideration the velocity of sound. Then the distance is calculated by a program running on the microcontroller and displayed on an LCD screen interfaced to the microcontroller. The ultrasonic sensor produces 40 kHz sound waves.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Further the project can be enhanced by using high frequency transducers to make is fit for medical applications like ultrasound machine. 19) PORTABLE PROGRAMMABLE MEDICATION REMINDER The aim of this project is to remind people who forget to take their medicines on time. Elderly people because of their age usually forget to take their medicines. This project will help to remind the patient to take his/her medicine at prescribed time. The proposed system is best suited for elderly people and people who are very busy, as this device will not only remind them of their medicines with a buzzer sound but also displays the name of the medicine to be taken at that time. The patient can store the respective time of the particular medicine through a matrix keypad. Based on an RTC (Real Time Clock) interfaced to the microcontroller, the programmed time for medicine is displayed on the LCD along with a buzzer sound to alert the patient about taking the appropriate medicine. The microcontroller used in this project is of 8051 family. RTC used maintains an accurate time as it is supported by a crystal. This project in future can be enhanced by integrating it with GSM technology, so that the patient receives a reminder about the medicine he has to take via SMS on his/her cell phone. Also a provision to change the name of the medicine can be incorporated by interfacing the device with a PC or EEPROM (non-volatile memory). 20) IR OBSTACLE DETECTION TO ACTUATE LOAD

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project is designed to actuate a load when IR rays are interrupted by any object. his is helpful in industries for sensing movement of material in a conveyor belt for any action to be taken. The project uses 38 KHz IR signal generated feeding an IR diode which is received by tuned IR receiver. These IR sensors are interfaced to a microcontroller of 8051. The IR transmitter continuously transmits rays over the receiver and when these rays are blocked by any object an interrupt is sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller according to program written performs the desired action. A lamp is used as load in this project for demonstration purpose. This lamp is actuated by a relay which is interfaced to the microcontroller output. So when the interrupt is sent to the controller, it in turn switches ON the relay to actuate the load. Further the project can be enhanced by using a counting arrangement with a display. This arrangement will be helpful in manufacturing industries where keeping a total count of production is required. 21) PROGRAMABLE ENERGY METER FOR ELECTRICAL LOAD SURVEY The project is designed to evaluate consumption of any load in units and cost in rupees as per the energy tariff and the number of hours the load is going to be used. The evaluation is almost instantaneous thus assisting the user to save hours of waiting time for the load survey.

An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy consumption with possible conservation in domestic sector or industrial environment etc. As unit cost of electricity is very high these days it is essential to know if a

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

particular device or instrument is energy efficient or not. This system proposes an energy auditing system for the instruments where the microcontroller calculates the units that will be consumed by the loads and the rupees that will be spent on it. The input data i.e. energy tariff and number of hours the load is likely to be used, is given by the user through push button switches. The relevant information is displayed on an LCD interfaced with the microcontroller. The microcontroller used in the project is of 8051 family. Further the project can be enhanced by using a GSM modem interfaced to the device for remote monitoring of these data over GSM network via SMS. Even load control can also be achieved over SMS.

22) WIRELESS ELECTRONIC NOTICE BOARD USING GSM Notice Board is primary thing in any institution / organization or public utility places like bus stations, railway stations and parks. But sticking various notices day-to-day is a difficult process. This project deals with an advanced wireless notice board. The main objective of this project is to develop a wireless notice board that displays messages sent from the users mobile. When a user sends a message from his mobile phone, it is received by a SIM loaded GSM modem at the receiver unit. The GSM modem is duly interfaced through level shifter IC for establishing RS232 communication protocol to the microcontroller. The message so received is thus sent to the microcontroller that further displays it on electronic notice board which is equipped with a LCD display

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

interfaced to a microcontroller from 8051 family duly powered by a regulated power supply from mains supply of 230 volt ac. Further development to this project can be done by providing message storage facility by non-volatile memory i.e. EEPROM attached to the microcontroller for retrieval of old messages if required. It can also be expanded to a bigger LCD screen. 23) SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL The project uses a solar panel coupled to a stepper motor to track the Sun so that maximum sun light is incident upon the panel at any given time of the day. This is better compared to light sensing method that may not be accurate always for example during cloudy days. With the impending scarcity of nonrenewable resources, people are considering to use alternate sources of energy. From all other available resources sun energy is the most abundant and its comparatively easy to convert it to electrical energy. Use of solar panel to convert suns energy to electrical is very popular, but due to transition of the Sun from east to west the fixed solar panel may be able to generate optimum energy. The proposed system solves the problem by an arrangement for the solar panel to track the Sun.

This tracking movement is achieved by coupling a stepper motor to the solar panel such that the panel maintains its face always perpendicular to the Sun to generate maximum energy. This is achieved by using a programmed microcontroller to deliver stepped pulses in periodical time intervals for the

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

stepper motor to rotate the mounted panel as desired. The microcontroller used in this project is from 8051 family. The stepper motor is driven by an interfacing IC as the controller is not capable of handling the power requirements of the stepper motor. The project is provided with a dummy solar panel which can be used for demonstration purpose only. Further the project can be enhanced by using RTC (Real Time Clock) to follow the Sun. This helps in maintaining the required position of the panel even if the power is interrupted for some time. 24) RAILWAY TRACK SECURITY SYSTEM The project is designed to detect a crack, if any, on the railway track and alert the respective railway department. This is to avoid rail accidents by using latest communication technologies. In this project GSM communication protocols are used to convey the message of crack detection via SMS. This project uses a microcontroller from 8051 family. The primary objective of this project is to detect the crack in the railway track and alert the nearby station through effective and highly reliable communication mode. To demonstrate this project, two rails forming the part of a track are made using a pair of wire which is connected with a detachable jumper in between each wire/track. Removing the detachable jumper creates a fault in the respective track; otherwise it is generally shorted by the jumper wire to simulate healthy track condition. Removing the jumpers result in driving transistors delivering a different logic to the controller. The program thereafter takes over to send an SMS through GSM modem interfaced through a level shifter IC to the microcontroller. An LCD is also interfaced to the MC to display the status of GSM and track condition.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Thus the proposed model is designed to recognize the cracks in the railway tracks and provides instant information to the concerned railway authorities. The power supply consists of a step down transformer 230/12V, which steps down the voltage to 12V AC. This is converted to DC using a Bridge rectifier. The ripples are removed using a capacitive filter and it is then regulated to +5V using a voltage regulator 7805 which is required for the operation of the microcontroller and other components. 25) SECURITY SYSTEM WITH USER CHANGEABLE PASSWORD The main objective of this project is to provide a security system having the provision to change the password by the authority only. The security of any organization or house is of prime importance always. The concern is for the physical property and also for the intellectual property in case of any organization. This proposed system provides a user friendly security system for organizations and homes. This system is password based and allows only authorized person to access it with a password. It also has the provision of changing the password.

The system is fully controlled by the 8 bit microcontroller of 8051 family. The password is stored in an EEPROM, interfaced to the microcontroller and the password can be changed any time unlike a fixed one burnt permanently on to the microcontroller. A keypad is used to enter the password and a relay to lock or unlock the electric door, which is indicated by a lamp. Any wrong attempt to open the door (by entering the wrong password) an alert will be actuated, indicated by another lamp.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Further this project can be enhanced by interfacing a GSM modem to the device so that when a wrong password is entered, an alert SMS will be sent to the concerned authority. 26) DISH POSITIONING CONTROL BY IR REMOTE The project is designed to develop a dish positioning system which can be operated by using a conventional TV remote. The main application of using a dish is to receive signal from satellites and other broadcasting sources. In order to position the dish to the exact angle to receive the maximum signal of a particular frequency, it needs to be adjusted manually. In order to overcome the difficulty of adjusting manually, this proposed system helps in adjusting the position of the dish through a simple TV Remote. This system consists of two motors that enable the dish to move both in horizontal and vertical direction. The TV remote acts as a transmitter whose data is received by an IR receiver which is interfaced to a microcontroller of 8051 family. The TV remote sends coded data to the receiver whose output is then sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller sends control signals to the motors through an interface IC also known as motor driver IC. The code followed by the TV remote is a standard RC5 code. This code is used in the program to recognize the input code from the TV remote for the controller to develop appropriate output signal for the motor driver IC. Further the project can be enhanced by using RF control instead of IR which has got line of sight communication restrictions.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

27) SOLAR POWERERD LED STREET LIGHT WITH AUTO INTENSITY CONTROL The project is designed for LED based street lights with auto intensity control using solar power from photovoltaic cells. As awareness for solar energy is increasing, more and more individuals and institutions are opting for solar energy. Photovoltaic panels are used for charging batteries by converting the sunlight into electricity. A charge controller circuit is used to control the charging. Intensity of street lights is required to be kept high during the peak hours. As the traffic on the roads tends to decrease slowly in late nights, the intensity can be reduced progressively till morning to save energy. Thus, the street lights switch ON at the dusk and then switch OFF at the dawn automatically. The process repeats every day. High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID) used for urban street light are based on principle of gas discharge, thus the intensity is not controllable by any voltage reduction method as the discharge path is broken. LED lights are the future of lighting, because of their low energy consumption and long life they are fast replacing conventional lights world over. White Light Emitting Diode (LED) can replace the HID lamps where intensity control is possible by pulse width modulation. The intensity control helps in saving energy during late nights while traffic density on the streets is low. A programmable microcontroller of 8051 family is engaged to provide different intensities at the different times of night using PWM technique, for energy saving for solar based system, using a charge controller for battery charging, overload and deep discharge protection.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Further the project can be enhanced by using time programmed dusk to dawn switching based on latitude and longitude of a specific place. It can also be interfaced to a LDR to follow the switching operation precisely. 28) INTEGRATED ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON GSM PROTOCOL WITH ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FEATURE The main objective of this project is to develop a device that controls the home appliances through SMS with integrated acknowledgement feature. Unlike the conventional system present in houses, where one has to manually switch on and off the appliances. The proposed system allows the owner of the house to control the appliances by just sending an SMS to the device and then also receiving the status of the same via return SMS. This is extremely convenient for users as they can control their house loads any time and from any place in the world. An example of how this technology can make our lives better is that when a person is travelling and wishes that the moment he enters his room, it should be cool enough to make him comfortable. In such a case, with the help of this system, he can switch on the AC while he is travelling. An SMS is sent to the GSM modem which is interfaced to the microcontroller. The modem receives the message and sends the command to the microcontroller which processes this and initiates a mechanism that activates a relay to control the corresponding home appliance. An added feature of this system is that the owner can get the status of all the loads (whether on or off) in the house by sending a status query SMS to the base station. All the status can also be seen on an LCD display interfaced to the microcontroller.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

29) RFID SECURITY ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM The main objective of this project is to provide security in an organization by allowing only the authorized personnel to access the secure area. The security of any organization is a priority for the authorities. The concern is for the physical property and also for the intellectual property. For this reason only the authorized person with a valid RFID tag is allowed into the secured premises. This tag contains an integrated circuit that is used for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating the radio frequency signal that is being transmitted. Thus, once the person shows the RFID tag to the card reader it scans the data present in the tag and compares it with the data present in the microcontroller. When the data matches with that in the microcontroller, the load will be turned ON which is operated by a relay being driven from the output of the microcontroller. If a valid tag is swiped then the system displays the a message AUTHORIZED LCD else it states UNAUTHORIZED and doesnt allow access. A lamp is used as an indication besides display. This project can be further enhanced by interfacing it with GSM technology. Any attempt for unauthorized access can be intimated to the security personnel through an SMS. It can also be interfaced with a finger print module to reduce the drawback of RFID system i.e. exchanging RFID tags. 30) THEFT INTIMATION OF VEHICLE OVER SMS TO OWNER WHO CAN STOP THE ENGINE REMOTELY

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The aim of this project is to use wireless technology to intimate the owner of the vehicle about any unauthorized entry. This is done by sending an autogenerated SMS to the owner. An added advantage of this project is that the owner can send back the SMS which will disable the ignition of the vehicle. As the crime rate is going up, security system for vehicles is extremely essential. In this proposed system if someone tries to steal the car, the microcontroller gets an interrupt through a switch mechanism connected to the system and commands the GSM modem to send an SMS. The owner receives the SMS that his car is stolen. He can then send back an SMS to the GSM modem to stop the engine. The GSM modem interfaced to the microcontroller, receives the message, the output of which activates a mechanism that disables the ignition of the vehicle resulting in stopping the vehicle. The project uses a lamp to indicate the engine ON/OFF condition. Thus, owner of the vehicle from anywhere can switch off ignition of his car. This project can be further enhanced by integrating a GPS system, which will give exact position of the vehicle in terms of its latitude and longitude. Further this data can be sent to the owner via SMS who can enter this value on Google maps to get the exact location of the vehicle 31) SINE PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (SPWM) Sinusoidal PWM has been a very popular technique used in AC motor control. This is a method that employs a triangular carrier wave modulated by a sine wave and the points of intersection determine the switching points of the power devices in the inverter. Though this method is unable to make full use of the inverters supply voltage and the asymmetrical nature of the PWM

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

switching characteristics produces relatively high harmonic distortion in the supply it is still popular for its simplicity. This abstract describes the theory of SPWM and the project shall be made using a programmed microcontroller of 8051 family duly interfaced to 3 phase inverter with 6 nos MOSFET from DC derived from a single phase or 3 phase ,50 Hz supply. The load shall be a three phase 50Hz motor, 440volt, 0.5 to 1 HP motor. Alternatively a star lamp load can be used to view the waveform only. This project uses an 8051 family microcontroller duly interfaced to the opto-isolators for feeding to the bridge drivers. 3 nos of dual bridge drivers are used to feed 3 phase bridge inverter with the DC supply developed from single phase AC after rectification. Powering the circuit is achieved by a pair of control transformers with bridge rectifier and filter capacitors. One set of this power is used for the microcontroller and the other one is used for driving circuits of the three phase bridge. Further this project can be enhanced by following Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique for higher efficiency and low harmonic distortion for motors.

NOTE: A 3 phase induction motor of 0.5HP or 1HP is required to see the output. Motor is not supplied along with the kit. However, it can be purchased at extra cost. 32) WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER The main objective of this project is to develop a device for wireless power transfer. The concept of wireless power transfer was realized by Nikolas

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

tesla. Wireless power transfer can make a remarkable change in the field of the electrical engineering which eliminates the use conventional copper cables and current carrying wires. Based on this concept, the project is developed to transfer power within a small range. This project can be used for charging batteries those are physically not possible to be connected electrically such as pace makers (An electronic device that works in place of a defective heart valve) implanted in the body that runs on a battery. The patient is required to be operated every year to replace the battery. This project is designed to charge a rechargeable battery wirelessly for the purpose. Since charging of the battery is not possible to be demonstrated, we are providing a DC fan that runs through wireless power. This project is built upon using an electronic circuit which converts AC 230V 50Hz to AC 12V, High frequency. The output is fed to a tuned coil forming as primary of an air core transformer. The secondary coil develops a voltage of HF 12volt. Thus the transfer of power is done by the primary(transmitter) to the secondary that is separated with a considerable distance(say 3cm). Therefore the transfer could be seen as the primary transmits and the secondary receives the power to run load.

Moreover this technique can be used in number of applications, like to charge a mobile phone, iPod, laptop battery, propeller clock wirelessly. And also this kind of charging provides a far lower risk of electrical shock as it would be galvanically isolated. This concept is an Emerging Technology, and in future the distance of power transfer can be enhanced as the research across the world is still going on. 33) SPEED CHECKER TO DETECT RASH DRIVING ON HIGHWAYS

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The aim of this project is to develop a device to detect rash driving on highways and to alert the traffic authorities in case of any speed violation. Accidents due to rash driving on highways are on the rise and people are losing their lives because of others mistakes. In the present system, to detect rash driving the police has to use a handheld radar gun and aim at the vehicle to record its speed. If the speed of the vehicle exceeds the speed limit, nearest police station is informed to stop the speeding vehicle. This is an ineffective process as after detecting one has to inform the same and a lot of time is wasted. The proposed system will check on rash driving by calculating the speed of a vehicle using the time taken to travel between the two set points at a fixed distance. A set point consists of a pair of sensors comprising of an IR transmitter and an IR receiver, each of which are installed on either sides of the road. The speed limit is set by the police who uses the system depending upon the traffic at the very location. The time taken by the vehicle to travel from one set point to the other is calculated by a microcontroller program. Based on that time it then calculates the speed and displays that on an LCD. Moreover if the vehicle crosses the speed limit, a buzzer sounds alerting the police. This concept can be extended in future by integrating a camera with the system which could capture the image of the number plate of the vehicle to sends that to the traffic authorities. 34) REMOTE JAMMING DEVICE

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project develops a remote jamming device which can jam the TV remote rays. It develops IR rays of 38 KHz usually emitted by a standard TV remote. The rays developed are powerful enough to overshadow the IR receiver in TV. This system is built by using a 555 Timer in the astable mode which is made to produce the higher power pulses in the range of 38 KHZ emitted by an IR diode. These rays while aimed at TV receiver disables the IR sensor built in the TV. Thus, while any number is pressed on the TV remote, the IR rays sent will not have any effect on TV. Further the project can be enhanced by using powerful IR diodes such that it can be operated from a long distance. 35) USING TV REMOTE AS A CORDLESS MOUSE FOR THE COMPUTER USING PIC MICROCONTROLLER The project is designed to use a TV remote as a cordless mouse for the computer. A conventional PC/laptop uses a mouse to operate and control all its applications. As a PC mouse is wired to the system, one has to sit near the PC to operate it. This becomes very tedious when the PC is used for presentation purposes (when using a projector). In this proposed system TV remote can be used as a cordless mouse, and the user need not operate the PC sitting near it. A typical TV remote sends coded infrared data that is read by an IR sensor interfaced to an 8051 family microcontroller. This data so received by the microcontroller sends it to the COM port of a PC through a level shifter IC. This IR code is traditionally RC5 code as followed by some manufacturers.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Software named PC remote is used on the PC that recognizes data received from the microcontroller through the COM port and performs the required operation. Designated numbers on the TV remote are used to perform up down, right - left cursor movement. Features like left click and right click of the mouse can also be performed with the TV remote. Further this project can be enhanced using Bluetooth/ RF technology to overcome the traditional line of sight communication drawbacks of the infrared type. 36) PRE STAMPEDE MONITORING AND ALARM SYSTEM USING PIC MICROCONTROLLER The main objective of this project is to develop a pre warning system to avoid stampede in places where large gathering of people take place. In many religious places, political rallies and places where large public gathering takes place there are chances for stampede to occur due to various reasons. This proposed system warns in advance to authorities about gathering of a large number of people in a particular place before any stampede occurs. This project will help us develop a turbulent pedestrian flow prediction and risk management system in most of pilgrimage places, where stampede is often encountered owing to mass movement. This is achieved when a large number of pressure switches are actuated as the people start gathering in one place. The switches are interfaced to a microcontroller of PIC16F8 family, when a certain number of switches are pressed which exceeds the predefined number then microcontroller generates an output to switch on a buzzer alerting the authorities about a

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

possible stampede. The status is also displayed on the LCD which is duly interfaced to the microcontroller. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing a GSM modem to the microcontroller so that a warning message is sent to the concerned authorities via SMS. 37) PORTABLE PROGRAMMABLE MEDICATION REMINDER USING PIC MICROCONTROLLER The aim of this project is to remind people who forget to take their medicines on time. Elderly people because of their age usually forget to take their medicines. This project will help to remind the patient to take his/her medicine at prescribed time. The proposed system is best suited for elderly people and people who are very busy, as this device will not only remind them of their medicines with a buzzer sound but also displays the name of the medicine to be taken at that time. The patient can store the respective time of the particular medicine through a matrix keypad. Based on an RTC (Real Time Clock) interfaced to the microcontroller, the programmed time for the medicine is displayed on the LCD along with a buzzer sound to alert the patient about taking the appropriate medicine. The microcontroller used in this project is of PIC16F8 family. RTC used maintains an accurate time as it is supported by a crystal. This project in future can be enhanced by integrating it with GSM technology, so that the patient receives a reminder about the medicine he has to take via SMS on his/her cell phone. Also a provision to change the

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

name of the medicine can be incorporated by interfacing the device with a PC or EEPROM (non-volatile memory). 38) SPEED SYNCHRONISATION OF MULTIPLE MOTORS IN INDUSTRIES USING PIC MICRO CONTROLLER The aim of this project is synchronization of multiple motors using wireless technology. This project uses radio frequency to synchronize motor speeds. This is applicable to many industries like textile mills, steel plants, and paper plants wherein all the motors used on conveyor are desired to be synchronized. For example, in textile mills where multiple motors work simultaneously on a conveyor belt to draw clothes, it is essential that all the motors there should run at same speed, so that balanced tension is achieved to avoid clothes getting damaged. In this project motors are wirelessly synchronized to make the differential speed error among multiple motors to zero. One motor acts as transmitter and all the rest as receivers. Thus, if a particular speed is set in the transmitter then all other motors speed would be matched to the same speed of the main motor. The mode of communication is radio frequency. BLDC motors used operate on the basis of PWM control. Each motor has a closed loop feedback mechanism providing RPM reference by a shaft mounted IR sensor arrangement whose output is fed to the controller in the circuit. A display unit displays the full speed and one can enter the desired percentage with help of a keypad to obtain the required speed for all the motors. The pulse width output from the microcontroller would be automatically adjusted to maintain the DC power to the motor such that the entered speed percentage matches the running RPM. The above operation is carried out by using one opto isolator and a MOSFET for driving the BLDC

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com
motor duly interfaced from the

09271412204
microcontroller.

In various stages of operations motors have to rotate at different speeds, so if we change the speed in transmitting motor then rest of the motors are adjusted accordingly. The whole operation is made simple by using this technology. Manpower and time is also saved in this system. The future works include giving intelligence to the whole system like if any of the motor senses any fault, the whole system will shutdown. 39) SYNCHRONIZED TRAFFIC SIGNALS AT VARIOUS JUNCTIONS USING PIC MICROCONTROLLER The objective of this project is to synchronize traffic lights at each junction in such a way that the traffic moving at a specific speed always gets a green light, so that it never stops. Due to rapid urbanization and increase in population, the traffic congestion has also increased in all major cities. This has become a major problem affecting everybody. Due to unplanned traffic management and sticking to outdated methods, problem has only deteriorated. In this proposed with system each multiple other microcontrollers via serial are used. They Three

communicate

communication.

microcontrollers are used to synchronize the traffic lights at three junctions. Each microcontroller is responsible for one particular junction. If the vehicles are assumed to travel at a particular speed, then the traffic signals change in such a way, that the vehicle gets green signal which results in less traffic congestion. This kind of technology is used in modern automobiles where multiple

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

microcontrollers are used, as the number of microcontrollers increase, the communication between them becomes essential for collective decision. For communication among themselves serial communication is preferred and a lot of serial buses and protocols were developed optimizing different parameters of the communication. The major advantage of adopting this technology is that, there is no need for any centralized body to monitor the direction of traffic flow. As human involvement is negligible, there will be little scope of human error. Hence, this approach is boon for government and local authorities facing financial constraints as they cant spend money on costly cameras and software. 40) PASSWORD BASED CIRCUIT BREAKER The project is designed to control a circuit breaker with help of a password only. A keypad is connected to the project to enter the password. Fatal electrical accidents to the line man are increasing during the electric line repair due to the lack of communication and co-ordination between the maintenance staff and the electric substation staff. This proposed system provides a solution, which can ensure the safety of the maintenance staff e.g. line man. The control to turn ON/OFF the line lies with the line man only. This system has an arrangement such that a password is required to operate the circuit breaker (ON/OFF). Line man can turn off the supply and comfortably repair it, and return to the substation, then turn on the line by entering the correct password.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The system is fully controlled by a microcontroller from 8051 family. A matrix keypad is interfaced to the microcontroller to enter the password. The entered password is compared with the password stored in the ROM of the microcontroller. If the password entered is correct, then only the line can be turned ON/OFF. Activation / deactivation of the circuit breaker is indicated by a lamp (ON/OFF). Further the project can be enhanced by using an EEPROM for user to change the password for a more secured system. It can also be interfaced with a GSM modem for remotely controlling the circuit breaker via SMS. 41) THEFT INTIMATION OF THE VEHICLE OVER SMS TO OWNER WHO CAN STOP THE ENGINE REMOTELY The aim of this project is to use wireless technology to intimate the owner of the vehicle about any unauthorized entry. This is done by sending an autogenerated SMS to the owner. An added advantage of this project is that the owner can send back the SMS which will disable the ignition of the vehicle. As the crime rate is going up, security system for vehicles is extremely essential. In this proposed system if someone tries to steal the car, the microcontroller gets an interrupt through a switch mechanism connected to the system and commands the GSM modem to send an SMS. The owner receives the SMS that his car is stolen. He can then send back an SMS to the GSM modem to stop the engine. The GSM modem interfaced to the microcontroller, receives the message, the output of which activates a mechanism that disables the ignition of the vehicle resulting in stopping the vehicle. The project uses a lamp to indicate the engine ON/OFF condition.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Thus, owner of the vehicle from anywhere can switch off ignition of his car. This project can be further enhanced by integrating a GPS system, which will give exact position of the vehicle in terms of its latitude and longitude. Further this data can be sent to the owner via SMS who can enter this value on Google maps to get the exact location of the vehicle. 42) WAR FIELD SPYING ROBOT WITH NIGHT VISION WIRELESS CAMERA The project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle using RF technology for remote operation attached with wireless camera for monitoring purpose. The robot along with camera can wirelessly transmit real time video with night vision capabilities. This is kind of robot can be helpful for spying purpose in war fields. An 8051 series of microcontroller is used for the desired operation. At the transmitting end using push buttons, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end two motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where they are used for the movement of the vehicle. The RF transmitter acts as a RF remote control that has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters) with proper antenna, while the receiver decodes before feeding it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors via motor driver IC for necessary work. A wireless camera is mounted on the robot body for spying purpose even in complete darkness by using infrared lighting. Further the project can be enhanced using DTMF technology. Using this technology we can control the robotic vehicle by using cell phone. This

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

technology has an advantage over long communication range as compared to RF technology. 43) FIRE FIGHTING ROBOTIC VEHICLE The project is designed to develop a fire fighting robot using RF technology for remote operation. The robotic vehicle is loaded with water tanker and a pump which is controlled over wireless communication to throw water. An 8051 series of microcontroller is used for the desired operation. At the transmitting end using push buttons, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end three motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where two of them are used for the movement of the vehicle and the remaining one to position the arm of the robot. The RF transmitter acts as a RF remote control that has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters) with proper antenna, while the receiver decodes before feeding it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors via motor driver IC for necessary work. A water tank along with water pump is mounted on the robot body and its operation is carried out from the microcontroller output through appropriate signal from the transmitting end. The whole operation is controlled by an 8051 series microcontroller. A motor driver IC is interfaced to the microcontroller through which the controller drives the motors. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing it with a wireless camera so that the person controlling it can view operation of the robot remotely on a screen. 44) FLASH FLOOD INTIMATION OVER GSM NETWORK

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The main objective of this project is to detect rising water level in a river at a reasonable distance from the rail track/ roadways and intimate that to the respective authorities through SMS, to take appropriate action. For example, railways face major challenges in prior detection of possible flash flood along the track, which might cause accidents. In this proposed system, water level rise is sensed at a considerable distance from the tracks and necessary action is initiated. Thus, many lives and properties can be saved by this warning system. In this project a water sensing arrangement is made which is interfaced to a programmable microcontroller. During flash flood conditions if the device senses a rise in water level beyond a danger mark at a considerable distance from railway tracks, it will alert the station master via SMS. Hence, train services of that route can be detained to prevent accidents. An LCD display is also attached to indicate the status.

This project in future can be enhanced by adding a feature of changing the stored phone number by the user as per his requirement. This can be achieved by interfacing an EEPROM along with a keypad to the microcontroller for storing the desired contact number. 45) SCADA (SUPERVISORY CONTROL & DATA ACQUISITION) FOR REMOTE INDUSTRIAL PLANT The main aim of the project is to process the real time data acquisition under supervisory control for large scale remote industrial environment.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

In large industrial establishments many processes go on, therefore it is essential to monitor all the processes and control the factors affecting them. Adapting a technology like SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) one can achieve the above mentioned objective effectively, and thus saving a lot of manpower. For achieving this real-time scenario, a temperature logging system for a remote plant operation is taken. Here temperature sensors are duly interfaced to the 8051 microcontroller. Data collected from the temperature sensors are constantly sent to the microcontroller which is in turn connected to a PC. At the front end, DAQ System (software) is loaded on the computer which takes these values and displays them on its front panel, and also logs them in the database. One can set parameters like set point, low limit and high limit on the computer screen. When the temperature of a sensor goes beyond set point the microcontroller sends a command to the corresponding relay. The heaters (shown as lamps) connected through relay contacts (corresponding to their sensors) are turned OFF (or ON in vice versa). High limit and low limit features are available for generating an AV alarm on the PC in the event of system failure. Hence, processes at hazardous areas can be controlled with more accuracy and better safety using SCADA. Adapting such a technology will save both money and time. NOTE: This project works only on Windows XP operating system. The computer must have a serial port (RS232) in it. 46) AUTOMATIC SURVELLIANCE CAMERA PANNING SYSTEM FROM PC

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project is designed for using surveillance camera on a panning platform i.e. moving the camera, mounted on a DC motor in clockwise and anticlockwise direction in periodic intervals. For security reasons, surveillance cameras are used everywhere like roads, shops, colleges and offices. Surveillance cameras are basically stationary devices therefore 360 degree coverage is not possible. However, 270 degree coverage is possible if this proposed system is interfaced with the camera along with power to control the panning speed. One can follow a moving object. This system is interfaced with a PC where the input is given from keyboard using hyper terminal. The functionality of this circuit is, that once the PC sends a command to the microcontroller (of 8051 family) through level shifter IC (used to convert the voltage level from PC to that of the microcontroller), the microcontroller analyses this signal and activates the motor driver to drive it at the desired speed. The program on the microcontroller is executed based on the input signal from the PC to develop output to drive the motor through motor driver IC. Further this project can be enhanced by interfacing it to a tilt arrangement for up and down movement besides 270 degree pan movement. It can also be wirelessly controlled (using RF technology) to manually adjust the camera movement or the stop the panning movement if desired with a RF remote. NOTE: The project works only on operating systems having hyper terminal (E.g. Windows XP). The computer must have a RS232 serial port. 47) CLOSED LOOP CONTROL FOR A BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR TO RUN AT THE EXACTLY ENTERED SPEED

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project is designed to control the speed of a BLDC motor using closed loop control technique. BLDC motor has various application used in industries like in drilling, lathes, spinning, elevators, electric bikes etc. The speed control of the DC motors is very essential. This proposed system provides a very precise and effective speed control system. The user can enter the desired speed and the motor will run at that exact speed. Based on the principle of PWM speed can be controlled. This is achieved by keeping BLDC motor on closed loop feedback by giving RPM reference to the microcontroller upon a shaft mounted IR reflection arrangement. An LCD duly interfaced to the microcontroller to display the running speed. The desired speed in percentage of full speed is fed with the help of keypad. The controller delivers desired pulse width to automatically adjust the DC power to the motor for required speed. The above operation is carried out by using one opto-isolator and a MOSFET for driving the BLDC motor with IR sensing for getting the speed reference to the microcontroller. Further the project can be enhanced to a fully fledged fuzzy logic control of a BLDC motor for industrial applications. It can also be developed for an intelligent cruise control used in modern automobiles these days. 48) USING TV REMOTE AS A CORDLESS MOUSE FOR THE COMPUTER The project is designed to use a TV remote as a cordless mouse for the computer. A conventional PC/laptop uses a mouse to operate and control all its applications. As a PC mouse is wired to the system, one has to sit near the PC to operate it. This becomes very tedious when the PC is used for presentation purposes (when using a projector). In this proposed system TV

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

remote can be used as a cordless mouse, and the user need not operate the PC sitting near it. A typical TV remote sends coded infrared data that is read by an IR sensor interfaced to an 8051 family microcontroller. This data so received by the microcontroller sends it to the COM port of a PC through a level shifter IC. This IR code is traditionally RC5 code as followed by some manufacturers. Software named PC remote is used on the PC that recognizes data received from the microcontroller through the COM port and performs the required operation. Designated numbers on the TV remote are used to perform up down, right - left cursor movement. Features like left click and right click of the mouse can also be performed with of the TV remote. Further this project can be enhanced using Bluetooth/ RF technology to overcome the traditional line of sight communication drawbacks of the infrared type. NOTE: The project works only on operating systems having hyper terminal (E.g. Windows XP). The computer must have a RS232 serial port. 49) MOVEMENT SENSED AUTOMATIC DOOR OPENING SYSTEM The project is designed for automatic door opening system using PIR sensor. Opening and closing of doors is always a tedious job, especially in places like shopping malls, hotels and theatres where a person is always required to open the door for visitors. This project proposes a system of automatic opening and closing of door by sensing any body movement near the door.This is achieved with help of a PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor. A live body generally emits infrared energy

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

which is sensed by the PIR sensor from a considerable distance. This sensing signal is fed to a microcontroller to operate a door motor through motor driver IC. When a body approaches within the operating range of the sensor, it sends a logical command to open the door. The door automatically closes with a fixed time delay. If there is no further movement within the PIR operating range. Interrupt signals are used through limit switches to avoid locked rotor condition of the motor. Further this project can be enhanced interfacing a counting arrangement for keeping a record of entry and exit of people at particular place. This can be achieved by interfacing the system with an EEPROM (non-volatile memory) to avoid loss of stored data even if the power fails. 50) RAILWAY LEVEL CROSSING GATE CONTROL THROUGH SMS BY THE STATION MASTER OR THE DRIVER The project is designed to achieve control over the railway level crossing gate through SMS sent by the station master or driver. Opening and closing of railway level crossing involves manpower, which could be often erroneous leading to accidents. The proposed system rules out the need of any human involvement at the railway level crossing. This system involves opening and closing of the level crossing gate with help of an SMS. A GSM modem is interfaced with the system. When the driver or station master sends an SMS close (when the train is approaching at the level crossing) to the modem then the microcontroller interfaced to the modem sends an output signal which activates a mechanism to switch on the motor to close the gate. To open the gate, another SMS open needs to be sent for the microcontroller to open the gate with help of motor driver IC. In this

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

project we use a microcontroller of 8051 family, and the input to it is a GSM modem which receives the SMS from the user. The output to microcontroller is given to a motor through a motor driver IC for required operation. The status, whether the gate is open / close is displayed on an LCD display interfaced to the microcontroller. Further the project can be enhanced by sending an acknowledgement to the sender about the status of the gate via SMS. 51) DTMF BASED LOAD CONTROL SYSTEM The project works on the principle of DTMF tone command so received from any phone to remotely switch any electrical load such as agricultural pump, domestic and industrial loads etc. In industries, the loads are spread over a large area and thus, operating these loads is a very tiresome and difficult task. In agricultural fields also, pumps and other loads are connected over a large area and hence it is difficult for the farmer to operate all the loads and similarly for house hold loads. Keeping these problems in mind, the proposed system has been designed which uses DTMF technology to control the loads remotely. A cell phone is interfaced to a DTMF decoder in the system from its audio output socket for receiving tone commands. The receiving cell phone codes are converted into digital commands by using a DTMF Decoder which will identify the frequency of the key and convert that frequency to its equivalent digital code which is then fed to a microcontroller (8051 family). As per the commands sent from the senders mobile, the microcontroller will send signals through a buffer to actuate the respective loads by turning the relays ON/OFF. These relays are actuated by a relay driver IC interfaced to the microcontroller.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Further this project can be enhanced by using a GSM modem, where the loads can be controlled by sending an SMS. This will eliminate the need of answering the call for the system to work. 52) SYNCHRONIZED TRAFFIC SIGNALS The objective of this project is to synchronize traffic lights at each consecutive junction in such a way that the traffic moving at a specific speed gets a green signal, so that it never stops. Due to rapid urbanization and increase in population, the traffic congestion has also increased in all major cities. This has become a major problem affecting everybody. Due to unplanned traffic management and sticking to outdated methods, problem has only deteriorated. In this proposed system multiple microcontrollers are used. They communicate with each other via serial communication. Three microcontrollers are used to synchronize the traffic lights at three junctions as a model. Each microcontroller is responsible for one particular junction. If the vehicles are assumed to travel at a particular speed, then the traffic signals change in such a way, that the vehicle gets green signal all through the junctions. This kind of technology is used in modern automobiles where multiple microcontrollers are used, as the number of microcontrollers increase, the communication between them becomes essential for collective decision. For communication among themselves serial communication is preferred and a lot of serial buses and protocols were developed optimizing different parameters of the communication. The major advantage of adopting this technology is that, there is no need for any centralized body to monitor the

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

direction of traffic flow. As human involvement is negligible, there will be little scope of human error. Hence, this approach is boon for government and local authorities facing financial constraints as they cant spend money on costly cameras and software. 53) PICK N PLACE WITH SOFT CATCHING GRIPPER The project is designed to develop a pick n place robotic vehicle with a soft catching gripper. For example, it can safely handle a bomb very carefully to avoid explosion while catching. The robotic vehicle is RF controlled for remote operation. At the transmitting end using push buttons, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end four motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where two for them are used for arm and gripper movement of the robot while the other two are for the body movement. The RF transmitter acts as a RF remote control that has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters) with proper antenna, while the receiver decodes before feeding it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors via motor driver IC for necessary work. The main advantage of this robot is its soft catching arm that is designed to avoid extra pressure on the suspected object for safety reasons. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing it with a wireless camera so that the person controlling it can view operation of the arm and gripper remotely.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

54) PARALLEL TELEPHONE LINES WITH SECURITY SYSTEM The project is designed to maintain secrecy among four parallel telephones connected to a single telephone line. When more than one phone is connected to a single telephone line, anyone can lift a phone to hear the conversation on the other one. The proposed system provides a solution for the secrecy among the telephones connected. In order to meet this requirement we are using 4 telephones connected in parallel through a single telephone line with each telephone connected through a relay in the system. When any one of the telephone is lifted all other phones are disconnected by the relays through an arrangement of opto-couplers, the output of which is fed to a programmable microcontroller of 8051 family. The microcontroller sends a signal to a 7 Segment display to display which telephone is lifted, while other telephones are disconnected by the respective relays with help of a Relay Driver IC interfaced to the microcontroller. This Project can be used in houses and offices where more than one telephone is connected in parallel through a single telephone line. The project is suitable for both incoming and outgoing calls. Further the project can be enhanced by adding more number of phones with an intercom facility. An incoming caller id facility can also be added to it. Note: The project needs 4 telephone instruments to be connected to the board for the functioning of the project. Telephone instruments are not provided with the kit.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com
55) OBJECT DETECTION BY ULTRASONIC MEANS

09271412204

The project is designed to demonstrate detection of any object ahead of the ultrasonic transducer. It can be used for applications like security area monitoring and wild life photography etc. This ultrasonic detector consists of two parts: an emitter, which produces a 40 kHz sound wave; and a detector, which detects this 40 kHz sound wave and sends the signal back to the microcontroller. The ultrasonic module is interfaced to the microcontroller of 8051 family. Whenever any object approaches near the ultrasonic module, the signal transmitted the transmitter is reflected by this object and is received by the module. When the microcontroller receives the signal from ultrasonic receiver it actuates the output to take the appropriate action. An LCD is interfaced to the microcontroller for displaying the status of the module like whether the object is detected or not.

Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing a GSM modem to the project so that, when the object is detected then the controller sends an SMS to the user. 56) AUTO INTENSITY CONTROL OF STREET LIGHTS White Light Emitting Diodes (LED) replaces HID lamps in street lighting system to include dimming feature. A microcontroller of 8051 family is used to control the intensity by developing pulse width modulated signals that drives a MOSFET to switch the LEDs according to achieve desired operation.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

In the present system, mostly the lightning up of highways is done through High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID), whose energy consumption is high. Its intensity cannot be controlled according to the requirement so there is a need to switch on to an alternative method of lightning system i.e., by using LEDs. This system is build to overcome the present day drawbacks of HID lamps. This system demonstrates the usage of the LEDs (light emitting diodes) as the light source and its variable intensity control, according to the requirement. LEDs consume less power and its life time is more, as compared to the conventional HID lamps. The more important and interesting feature is its intensity can be controlled according to the requirement during non peak hours which is not feasible in HID lamps. A cluster of LEDs are used to form a street light. The microcontroller contains programmable instructions which controls the intensity of lights based on the PWM (Pulse width modulation) signals generated. The intensity of lights are kept high during the peak hours, as the traffic on the roads tend to decrease slowly in the late nights, the intensity also again resumes at 6pm in the evening. The process is repeated. This concept in future can be enhanced by integrating it with the solar panel, which converts the solar intensity into corresponding voltage, and this energy is used to feed up the highway lights. 57) AUTOMATIC WIRELESS HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM IN HOSPITALS FOR PATIENTS decreases progressively till morning. Final it completely shuts down at morning 6, and

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

In this project, a wireless communication system is designed and developed for remote patient monitoring. The primary function of this system is to monitor the temperature of a patients body, and display the same to the doctor through RF communication. In hospitals, where patients body temperature needs to be constantly monitored, is usually done by a doctor or other paramedical staff by constantly observing the temperature and maintaining a record of it. It is a very tedious method. In this proposed system transmitting module continuously reads patients body temperature through a digital temperature sensor, displays it on the LCD screen and sends it to the microcontroller which transmits the encoded serial data over the air by RF (radio frequency) through an RF module. At the receiving end, a receiver is used to receive the data, decode it and feed it to another microcontroller which is then displayed on an LCD screen. The receiver module is kept in the doctors chamber to continuously display the patients body temperature wirelessly.

This project can be further enhanced by sensing and displaying other vital statistics of a patient like blood pressure, pulse rate etc. Another feature can be added where a warning signal is generated if the parameters cross the safe limit. 58) PRECISE DIGITAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL The project uses a digital temperature sensor for precise control of temperature in medical applications or industries. This system is better than analog/thermostat system, which has poor accuracy. For example, it can

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

used for temperature control of an incubator where maintaining a precise temperature is very important. An incubator is an apparatus used to maintain temperature conditions suitable for a neonate (newborn baby) and used particularly for preterm births of babies. This proposed control system provides the temperature information on a display and, when the temperature exceeds the set point, then the load (i.e. heater) switches OFF. In this project a lamp is provided as a load for demonstration purpose. The system is using a microcontroller of 8051 family. Display unit consists of four nos of seven A segment digital display, and are interfaced interfaced to to the the microcontroller. temperature sensor

microcontroller for sensing the temperature conditions. This system also provides four push button switches for adjusting the temperature settings. Then the microcontroller continuously polls the temperature information through a digital temperature sensor and displays over the 7_segment display unit and automatically switches OFF the lamp, when the corresponding temperature exceeds the set point. 59) OPTIMUM ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The project is designed to monitor the number of persons entering as well as exiting a room. Electrical loads are switched ON as the first person enters and switches OFF when the last person leaves. IR sensors used in combination with microcontroller to monitor all the operations. This helps in saving lot of energy. There are two pair sensors, each kept at certain distance from the other. One pair of sensor consists of a transmitter and a receiver, kept exactly

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

opposite to each other. The transmitting part emits modulated IR light which is received at the receiver end and fed to a microcontroller of 8051 family. When a person enters the room then microcontroller senses it (with the help of IR sensors) and increments the count and displays it on 7 segment displays and also switches ON the load. In the same way when a person exits the room, the count gets decremented. When the last person exits from the room, the lamp is switched OFF. The load operation is handled by a relay interfaced to the microcontroller. Further the project can be enhanced by using timer arrangement in the project so that if the load switching doesnt take place for some reason as desired, then timer would complete the task after prefixed time. 60) FOUR QUADRANT DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL WITH MICROCONTROLLER The project is designed to develop a four quadrant speed control system for a DC motor. The motor is operated in four quadrants i.e. clockwise; counter clock-wise, forward brake and reverse brake. It also has a feature of speed control. The four quadrant operation of the dc motor is best suited for industries where motors are used and as per requirement as they can rotate in clockwise, counter-clockwise and also apply brakes immediately in both the directions. In case of a specific operation in industrial environment, the motor needs to be stopped immediately. In such scenario, this proposed system is very apt as forward brake and reverse brake are its integral features.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Instantaneous brake in both the directions happens as a result of applying a reverse voltage across the running motor for a brief period and the speed control of the motor can be achieved with the PWM pulses generated by the microcontroller. The microcontroller used in this project is from 8051 family. Push buttons are provided for the operation of the motor which are interfaced to the microcontroller that provides an input signal to it and in turn controls the speed of the motor through a motor driver IC. Speed control feature by push button operation is also available in this project. This project can be enhanced by using higher power electronic devices to operate high capacity DC motors. Regenerative braking for optimizing the power consumption can also be incorporated. 61) SECURITY SYSTEM USING SMART CARD TECHNOLOGY This project is designed to gain access to an area or control a device by using a valid smart card only. The security of any organization is the top most priority for the concerned authorities. For this reason only, the authorized person with a valid smart card is allowed to operate the device/ to access a secure area. Earlier, human supervision was required to monitor all these parameters, but with this proposed system no supervision is required as only authorized persons are provided with valid smart cards to operate devices. A smart card reader is provided to read data from the card assigned to the authorized personnel. The smart card reader is interfaced to an 8051 family microcontroller. Whenever the data read by the smart card matches with the data on the microcontroller then LCD would display that the card is authorized and a relay is used simultaneously to switch ON a lamp

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

(indicating a device or access to secure area). If an invalid card is inserted in the smart card reader, it displays that the card is not authorized and the load (i.e. lamp) remains OFF indicating that the user is not authorized to access the particular area/device. This project can be enhanced further by integrating GSM modem such that any attempt of unauthorized access is made, then an alert SMS is sent to the concerned department. Further it can be upgraded to RFID / Thumb / IRIS identification system for higher degree of security system. 62) SPEED SYNCHRONISATION OF MULTIPLE MOTORS IN INDUSTRIES The aim of this project is synchronization of multiple motors using wireless technology. This project uses radio frequency to synchronize motor speeds. This is applicable to many industries like textile mills, steel plants, paper plants wherein all the motors used on conveyor are desired to be synchronized. For example, in textile mills where multiple motors work simultaneously on a conveyor belt to draw clothes, it is essential that all the motors there should run at same speed, so that balanced tension is achieved to avoid clothes getting damaged. In this project motors are wirelessly synchronized to make the differential speed error among multiple motors to zero. One motor acts as transmitter and all the rest as receivers. Thus, if a particular speed is set in the transmitter then all other motors speed would be matched to the same speed of the main motor. The mode of communication is radio frequency. BLDC motors used operate on the basis of PWM control. Each motor has a closed loop feedback mechanism providing RPM reference by a shaft mounted IR sensor arrangement whose output is fed to the controller

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

in the circuit. A display unit displays the full speed and one can enter the desired percentage with help of a keypad to obtain the required speed for all the motors. The pulse width output from the microcontroller would be automatically adjusted to maintain the DC power to the motor such that the entered speed percentage matches the running RPM. The above operation is carried out by using one opto isolator and a MOSFET for driving the BLDC motor duly interfaced from the microcontroller. In various stages of operations motors have to rotate at different speeds, so if we change the speed in transmitting motor then rest of the motors are adjusted accordingly. The whole operation is made simple by using this technology. Manpower and time is also saved in this system. The future works include giving intelligence to the whole system like if any of the motor senses any fault, the whole system will shutdown. 63) PRE STAMPEDE MONITORING AND ALARM SYSTEM The main objective of this project is to develop a pre warning system to avoid stampede in places where large gathering of people take place. In many religious places, political rallies and places where large public gathering takes place there are chances for stampede to occur due to various reasons. This proposed system warns in advance to authorities about gathering of a large number of people in a particular place before any stampede occurs. This project will help us develop a turbulent pedestrian flow prediction and risk management system in most of pilgrimage places, where stampede is often encountered owing to mass movement. This is achieved when a large number of pressure switches are actuated as the people start gathering in one place. The switches are interfaced to a

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

microcontroller of 8051 family, when a certain number of switches are pressed which exceeds the predefined number then microcontroller generates an output to switch on a buzzer alerting the authorities about a possible stampede. The status is also displayed on the LCD which is duly interfaced to the microcontroller. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing a GSM modem to the microcontroller so that a warning message is sent to the concerned authorities via SMS. 64) PC BASED ELECTRICAL LOAD CONTROL The aim of this project is to control the electrical appliances through a personal computer (PC). For example, theatre lighting can be centrally controlled form the PC for better stage management. Presently, they are manually managed which makes it difficult to coordinate the lighting with the respective scene. With this system, one can control the electrical appliances ON/OFF by just being seated at one place using a PC. This system is integrated with the electrical loads and also connected to the PC where centralized control takes place. It uses an RS-232 protocol from the microcontroller to communicate with the PC. To turn on/off the appliances, we use Hyper Terminal on PC. Once the connection is established with the PC, then the system starts working. The microcontroller used in this project belongs to 8051 family. This project can be further enhanced by implementing a GUI based control panel on the PC with appropriate embedded software. The intensity control can also be incorporated using power electronics devices. Note: The project

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

works only on operating systems having hyper terminal (E.g. Windows XP). The computer must have a RS232 serial port. 65) UNIQUE OFFICE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM USING RF This project is a PC based communication tool in office for data(text) transmission to a individual or multiple users using radio frequency technology. In most of the offices, if an employer has to convey a message to a particular employee or a group of employees, he has to call them personally or send the message through a middleman. But there is a possibility of message to be misinterpreted and there is wastage of time. In this proposed system, employer in an office will have a transmission module while the employees will have one receiver module each. If the employer wants to convey any message to employees or any particular employee, he can send it through the transmitting module which is connected to the PC. Receiver section consists of a module which receives the data and feeds to the microcontroller that displays the message on an LCD. A buzzer is also interfaced to the microcontroller on the receiver side, which gives intimation that data is received. Adapting this technique one can eliminate the need of a third person for communication, so that the exact message is delivered to the desired person. This project in future can be enhanced, by adding a feature of two way communication between the employer and the employee(s).

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

NOTE: The project works only on operating systems having hyper terminal (E.g. Windows XP). The computer must have a RS232 serial port. 65) BIDIRECTIONAL ROTATION OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR WITH A REMOTE CONTROL DEVICE The project is designed to drive an induction motor for the required application in forward and reverse directions using wireless technology. For an example, an exhaust fan can be used in both the directions to fresh air in and throw hot air out. This can be used in case of conventional exhaust a fan that rotates in one direction only. This proposed system demonstrates a technology to rotate a squril cage induction motor in both clockwise and counter clockwise direction. It also has the provision to control the direction of the motor using a TV remote. When a TV remote button is pressed, it sends an IR signal in RC5 code which is received by a IR receiver called TSOP-1738. Output from the TSOP is fed to a microcontroller of 8051 family which is interfaced to a relay driver IC. Thereafter, the relay switching is done in by-stable mode for an split-phase induction motor to rotate in forward and reverse directions. In future, it can further be enhanced by controlling the operation of induction motor using thyristors in place of relays for noise free operation. Note: An induction motor is used to observe the output of the project. Motor is not supplied along with the kit. However, it can be purchased on extra cost. 66) PRECISE ILLUMINATION CONTROL OF LAMP

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project is designed to maintain precise illumination of a lamp. A microcontroller of 8051 family is used along with thyristor controlled lamp for maintaining the illumination. Illumination of a lamp varies depending on the voltage applied to it. In certain specific applications it is necessary to have controlled illumination as per requirement. This system overcomes the faults in the present system and provides a solution for light illumination control mechanism of the lamp. This system is built by using an 8051 microcontroller and based on the principle of firing angle control of thyristors, which in turn can control the illumination of lamp. An LCD display unit is used, which displays entered percentage of the illumination through a matrix keypad. The firing angle control of thyristors is done by the microcontroller, according to the desired percentage entered by the user. Based on this input the microcontroller will automatically adjust the power delivered to the lamp through a solid state switching mechanism. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing the current system with a GSM modem. The user can send an SMS with the desired percentage of illumination entered in it through his cell phone. The GSM modem accepts this message and thus controls the illumination of the lamp through microcontroller. 67) SPEED CONTROL UNIT DESIGNED FOR A DC MOTOR The project is designed to control the speed of a DC motor using an 8051 series microcontroller. The speed of DC motor is directly proportional to the

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

voltage applied across its terminals. Hence, if voltage across motor terminal is varied, then speed can also be varied. This project uses the above principle to control the speed of the motor by varying the duty cycle of the pulse applied to it (popularly known as PWM control). The project uses two input buttons interfaced to the microcontroller, which are used to control the speed of motor. PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) is generated at the output by the microcontroller as per the program. The program can be written in Assembly language or in Embedded C. The average voltage given or the average current flowing through the motor will change depending on the duty cycle (ON and OFF time of the pulses), so the speed of the motor will change. A motor driver IC is interfaced to the microcontroller for receiving PWM signals and delivering desired output for speed control of a small DC motor. Further the project can be enhanced by using power electronic devices such as IGBTs to achieve speed control higher capacity industrial motors. 68) THYRISTOR POWER CONTROL BY IR REMOTE The project is designed to control the speed of an induction motor such as fans, by using a standard TV remote. In home automation application, convenience of remotely controlling the speed of the fan is achieved. A standard TV remote sends coded infrared data to the control board, which is then received by an IR sensor (at the receiver end) interfaced to a microcontroller of 8051 family. Each time a button is pressed it sends a specific coded data in infrared range. This coded data is executed by the microcontroller to deliver delayed firing pulses to the thyristor through optical isolation. The power to the load connected in series with the thyristor

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

is controlled based on the received signal. Also the firing angle is displayed on a 7-segment display. A lamp load shall be provided in place of a motor whose varying intensity demonstrates the varying power to the motor for speed control. A lamp is provided in place of an induction motor for demonstration purpose. Further the project can be enhanced by adding more outputs from the microcontroller feeding relay drivers to switch ON/OFF the domestic loads together with the speed control of fan. 69) THREE PHASE SOLID STATE RELAY WITH ZVS The project is designed for a three phase solid state relay system. It incorporates three single phase units where each phase is controlled individually by a power triac with RC snubber network for zero voltage switching.

Opto-isolators are used for each phase to receive switching signals from a microcontroller of 8051 family. Loads are connected in series with a set of triacs being driven by the opto-isolator. The microcontroller is designed to generate output pulses after zero voltage pulse to ensure that the load is getting switched on at zero cross of the supply waveform. The zero crossing feature of the TRIAC driver, (an opto-isolator) ensures low noise generation thus avoiding sudden inrush of current on resistive and inductive loads. Here in this project we are using two push buttons for generating output pulses from the microcontroller randomly, not coinciding with zero voltage supply voltage of the waveform. Using a CRO or a DSO we can see the waveform of

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

the voltage supplied to the load for verifying the switching of the load at the zero voltage point. Further the project can be enhanced by using 2 back to back SCRs ,in each phase for heavy load switching as used in industries. Over load and short circuit protection can also be incorporated for higher reliability. 70) AUTO POWER SUPPLY CONTROL FROM 4 DIFFERENT SOURCES: SOLAR, MAINS, GENERATOR & INVERTER TO ENSURE NO BREAK POWER The main objective of this project is to provide uninterrupted power supply to a load, by selecting the supply from any source out of 4 such as mains, generator, and inverter and solar automatically in the absence of any of the source. The demand for electricity is increasing every day and frequent power cuts is causing many problems in various areas like industries, hospitals and houses. An alternative arrangement for power source is a must. In this project uses four switches to demonstrate the respective failure of that power supply. When any of the switches is pressed it shows the absence of that particular source, switches are connected to microcontroller as input signals. A microcontroller of 8051 family is used. The output of microcontroller is given to the relay driver IC, which switches appropriate relay to maintain uninterrupted supply to the load. The output shall be observed using a lamp drawing power supply from mains initially. On failure of the mains supply (which is actuated by pressing the appropriate switch) the load gets supply from the next available source, say an inverter. If the inverter also fails it switches over to the next available source and so on.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The current status, as to which source supplies the load is also displayed on an LCD. As it is not feasible to provide all 4 different sources of supply, one source with alternate switches are provided to get the same function. The project can be further enhanced by using other sources like wind power also and then taking into consideration for using the best possible power whose tariff remains lowest at that moment. 71) THYRISTOR CONTROLLED POWER FOR INDUCTION MOTOR The project is designed to control AC power to a load by using firing angle control of thyristor. Efficiency of such power control is very high compared to any other method. The project uses zero crossing point of the waveform which is detected by a comparator whose output is then fed to the microcontroller. The microcontroller provides required delayed triggering control to a pair of SCRs through opto isolator interface. Finally the power is applied to the load through the SCRs in series. This project uses a microcontroller from 8051 family which is interfaced through a push button switch for increasing or decreasing the AC power to the load. A lamp is used in place of an induction motor whose varying intensity demonstrates the varying power to the motor. The varying power results in variation in speed of the motor. The project can be further enhanced by using direct 230 volt supply instead of 12 volt AC to the bridge rectifier for achieving higher voltage control for charging number of batteries in series. 72) LAMP LIFE EXTENDER BY ZVS (ZERO VOLTAGE SWITCHING)

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project is designed to develop a device to increase the life of incandescent lamps. Incandescent lamps exhibit very low resistance in cold condition due to which it draws high current while switched ON, resulting in fast failure. Random switching of lamps may switch the load at peak supply voltage. When such switching occurs while the lamp is having low resistance (cold condition) then the current further shoots up (at the time of peak supply voltage switch ON) leading to premature failure of the lamp. The proposed project provides a solution by engaging a TRIAC in such a way that the switch ON time is precisely controlled by exactly firing it after detecting the zero cross point of the waveform of supply voltage. This would result in current waveform rising from zero at the time of switch to full value, thereby increasing the life of the lamp. The project is having comparator which is used for ZVS output. The ZVS (zero voltage switching) is given as reference interrupt to the microcontroller of 8051 family. A push button is used for switching ON the lamp at zero voltage of the supply voltage so the lamp draws current gradually from zero to full value. Further the project can be enhanced by using three TRIACS, one in each phase for three phase load switching. 73) INDUSTRIAL POWER CONTROL BY INTEGRAL CYCLE SWITCHING WITHOUT GENERATING HARMONICS The project is designed to achieve integral cycle switching, a method to remove whole cycle, cycles or portions of cycles of an AC signal. It is a wellknown and old method of controlling AC power, especially across linear loads such as heaters used in electric furnace. However the concept of achieving

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

the cycle stealing of voltage waveform by use of microcontroller can be very precise as per the program written in assembly / C language so that the actual time-average voltage or current experienced at the load is proportionately lower than the whole signal if applied to the load. In place of a linear load to be used in the output, a series motor or lamp can be used to verify the output. One side effect of utilizing this scheme is an imbalance in the input current or voltage waveform as the cycles are switched on and off across the load. In this project we are using comparator for zero crossing detection which is fed as an interrupt to microcontroller of 8051 family. Here the microcontroller delivers the output based on the interrupt received as the reference for generating triggering pulses. Using these pulses, we drive the opto-isolators for triggering the TRIAC to achieve integral cycle control as per the input switches interfaced to the microcontroller. A lamp is provided in this project in place of a motor for demonstration purpose. Further this project can be enhanced by using feedback mechanism to automatically maintain desired output to the load by appropriate cycle stealing. 74) INDUSTRIAL BATTERY CHARGER BY THYRISTOR FIRING ANGLE CONTROL The project is designed for charging batteries by DC from AC power supply. DC power for a battery charger is derived from a thyristor controlled rectifier system. AC power is applied to a bridge rectifier comprising of diodes and a triac getting desired control from microcontroller.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project uses zero crossing point of the waveform which is detected by a comparator whose output is then fed to the microcontroller. The microcontroller provides required delayed triggering control to a triac through opto isolator interface. Finally the power is applied to the load through the triac in series with the bridge rectifier. The rectified and controlled DC output is given to the load i.e., a resistor used in our project in place of a battery. The output DC voltage is measured using a multimeter. This project uses a microcontroller from 8051 family which is interfaced through push button switches used for increasing or decreasing the DC voltage for proper charging purposes. The project can be further enhanced by using direct 230 volt supply instead of 12 volt AC to the bridge rectifier for achieving higher voltage control for charging number of batteries in series. 75) OBJECT COUNTER WITH 7 SEGMENT DISPLAY The project is designed to monitor the counting operations in industries. For example, products moving on a conveyor belt are counted by IR interruption concept and displayed on a seven segment display. There are two pair sensors, each kept at certain distance from the other. One pair of sensor consists of a transmitter and a receiver, kept exactly opposite to each other. The transmitting part emits modulated IR light which is received at the receiver end and fed to a microcontroller of 8051 family. When an object passes through the sensors then microcontroller gets interrupt signal (from IR sensors) and increments the count to displays it on 7 segments displays. Count down is also achieved if the object moves in

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

reverse direction. This project can also be used in any public transport/trains to count the number of passengers for monitoring purpose. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing it with a warning system so that if total number of occupants in the vehicle exceeds the passenger carrying capacity then an alarm is generated by the device. 76) ULTRA FAST ACTING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BREAKER The project is designed to shut down the power supply when it is overloaded. Conventional circuit breaker like MCB based is on thermal bimetal lever trip mechanism. It is very slow and the trip time is dependent upon the percentage of overload. This project senses the current passing through a series element and the corresponding voltage drop is compared against the preset voltage proportional to the current by a level comparator to generate an output for the load to trip. The concept of electronic circuit breaker came into focus realizing that conventional circuit breakers such as MCBs take longer time to trip. Therefore, for sensitive loads it is very important to activate the tripping mechanism at the shortest possible time, preferably instantaneously. This project is demonstrates fast tripping mechanism as against the slow one like MCB. Electronic circuit breaker is based on the voltage drop across a series element proportional to the load current, typically a low value resistor. This voltage is sensed and rectified to DC which is and then compared with a preset voltage by a level comparator to generate an output that drives a relay through a MOSFET to trip the load. The unit is extremely fast and overcomes the drawback of the thermal type. It uses a microcontroller from 8051 family.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

Further the project can be enhanced by using a CT for galvanic isolation between mains and control circuit. Power electronic devices such as thyristors / IGBTs can be used for ultra fast operation compared to all the methods. 77) AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM ON SENSING SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT The project is designed to develop an automatic irrigation system which switches the pump motor ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content of the soil. In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important. The advantage of using this method is to reduce human intervention and still ensure proper irrigation.

The project uses an 8051 series microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input signal of varying moisture condition of the soil through the sensing arrangement. This is achieved by using an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface between the sensing arrangement and the microcontroller. Once the controller receives this signal, it generates an output that drives a relay for operating the water pump. An LCD display is also interfaced to the microcontroller to display status of the soil and water pump. The sensing arrangement is made by using two stiff metallic rods inserted into the field at a distance. Connections from the metallic rods are interfaced to the control unit. The concept in future can be enhanced by integrating GSM technology, such that whenever the water pump switches ON/OFF, an SMS is delivered to the

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

concerned person regarding the status of the pump. We can also control the pump through SMS. 78) TOUCH SCREEN BASED INDUSTRIAL LOAD SWITCHING The objective of this project is electrical load control in hazardous industrial environment with touch screen based switching system. Conventional switches produce sparks which is potentially dangerous for industries where inflammable gases are present. In such a scenario it is always advisable to go for a control system involving touch screen based switches. Owners familiar with the icon system appreciate touch screens that make industrial load control user friendly. This kind of system makes operations simpler and thus reduces errors.

In order to achieve this, a touch screen panel is interfaced to the microcontroller. By touching a specific portion of this module the loads can be turned ON/OFF. The microcontroller used here is of 8051 family. This kind of technology gives control over various loads thus providing comfort, security and efficiency for the users. Further the project can be enhanced by using RF technology. A touch panel is connected to a RF transmitter. So, instead of using a standalone control unit, by using RF technology the switching of the loads can be done wirelessly. 79) DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC SIGNAL SYSTEM

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The project is designed to develop a density based dynamic traffic signal system. The signal timing changes automatically on sensing the traffic density at the junction. Traffic congestion is a severe problem in many major cities across the world and it has become a nightmare for the commuters in these cities. Conventional traffic light system is based on fixed time concept allotted to each side of the junction which cannot be varied as per varying traffic density. Junction timings allotted are fixed. Sometimes higher traffic density at one side of the junction demands longer green time as compared to standard allotted time. The proposed system using a microcontroller of 8051 family duly interfaced with sensors, changes the junction timing automatically to accommodate movement of vehicles smoothly avoiding unnecessary waiting time at the junction. The sensors used in this project are IR and photodiodes are in line of sight configuration across the loads to detect the density at the traffic signal. The density of the vehicles is measured in three zones i.e., low, medium, high based on which timings are allotted accordingly. Further the project can be enhanced by synchronizing all the traffic junctions in the city by establishing a network among them. The network can be wired or wireless. This synchronization will greatly help in reducing traffic congestion. 80) TOUCH SCREEN BASED HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM The main objective of this project is to develop a home automation system with a touch screen based control panel.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

As technology is advancing so houses are also getting smarter. Modern houses are gradually shifting from conventional switches to centralized control system, involving touch screen switches. Presently, conventional wall switches located in different parts of the house makes it difficult for the user to go near them to operate. Even more it becomes more difficult for the elderly or physically handicapped people to do so. Remote controlled home automation system provides a simpler solution with touch screen technology. Touch screen control panels are also designed for commercial, industrial and medical systems. In order to achieve this, a touch panel is interfaced to the microcontroller on transmitter side which sends ON/OFF commands to the receiver where loads are connected. By touching the specified portion on the touch screen panel, the loads can be turned ON/OFF remotely through wireless technology. The microcontroller used here is of 8051 family. The loads are interfaced to the microcontroller using opto-isolators and triacs. Further the project can be enhanced by using GSM modem interfaced to the control unit. Using GSM modem, the user can control home appliances by sending an SMS. Advantage of using this technology is that there is not range limitation when compared to RF technology. 81) IR CONTROLLED ROBOTIC VEHICLE The project is designed to control a robotic vehicle using a standard TV remote. IR sensor is interfaced to the control unit on the robot for sensing the IR signals transmitted by the remote. This data is conveyed to the

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com
control unit which moves the robot as desired. An

09271412204
8051 series

microcontroller is used in this project as control device. Transmitting end uses a TV remote through which IR commands are transmitted. At the receiver end, these commands are used for controlling the robot in all directions such as forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end the movement is achieved by two motors that are interfaced to the microcontroller. RC5 based coded data sent from the TV remote is received by an IR receiver interfaced to the microcontroller. The program on the microcontroller refers to the RC5 code to generate respective output based on the input data to operate the motors through a motor driver IC. The motors are interfaced to the control unit through motor driver IC. Further the project can be enhanced by DTMF technology. With this technology we can control the robotic vehicle by a cell phone. This technology has an advantage over long communication range as compared to line of sight communication in IR technology. 82) AUTOMATIC BELL SYSTEM FOR INSTITUTIONS The project is designed to operate an electric bell number of times as required in an institution. It overcomes the difficulties of switching the bell ON/OFF manually. This proposed has an inbuilt real time clock (RTC) to keep tracking the time and thus to switch ON/OFF the load accordingly. The project uses a real time clock (RTC) interfaced to a microcontroller of 8051 family. While the set time equals to the real time, then microcontroller gives command to the corresponding relay to turn ON the bell and then

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

another command to switch OFF as per the program. Multiple ON/OFF time entry is the biggest advantage with this project. A matrix keypad helps entering the time. A 7-sement display is interfaced to the microcontroller to display time. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing a GSM modem to the existing project so that the complete control of the bell can be done by sending an SMS to the control unit. 83) CELL PHONE CONTROLLED ROBOTIC VEHICLE The project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle that is controlled by a cell phone. DTMF commands from a phone are sent to another cell phone which is mounted on the robot. These commands are fed to a microcontroller of 8051 family to operate the vehicle movement through motor interface. The main scope of project is to send commands from one cell phone to be received by another cell phone mounted on the robot to receive the DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) mode commands which are then decoded by a DTMF decoder. The corresponding codes are then fed to a microcontroller, programmed to recognize those codes to operate 2nos DC motors through motor driver IC for any direction movement as per the sent commands from senders mobile. The motors are controlled using motor driver IC which is interfaced to the microcontroller. It uses microcontroller from 8051 family and a battery for power source. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing it with additional motors

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

for multipurpose activity. For example, it can be developed into pick n place robot or fire fighting robot with water pump etc. 84) METAL DETECTOR ROBOTIC VEHICLE The project is designed to develop a robotic vehicle that can sense metals ahead of it on its path similar to sensing land mines. The robot is controlled by a remote using RF technology. It consists of a metal detector circuit interfaced to the control unit that alarms the user behind it about a suspected land mine ahead. An 8051 series of microcontroller is used for the desired operation. At the transmitting end using push buttons, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end two motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where they are used for the movement of the vehicle. The RF transmitter acts as a RF remote control that has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters) with proper antenna, while the receiver decodes before feeding it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors via motor driver IC for necessary work. A metal detector circuit is mounted on the robot body and its operation is carried out automatically on sensing a any metal underneath. As soon as the robot senses this metal it generates an alarm sound. This is to alert the operator of a possible metal (eg: land mine) ahead on its path. Further the project can be enhanced by mounting a wireless camera on the robot so that the operator can control the movement of the robot remotely by watching it on a screen.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com
85) RFID BASED PASSPORT DETAILS

09271412204

The main functionality of this project is to access the passport details of a passport holder through RFID technology. For this purpose the authorized person is given an RFID card. This card contains an integrated circuit that is used for storing, processing information through modulating and demodulating of the radio frequency signal that is being transmitted. Thus, the data stored in this card is referred as the passport details of the person. Passport verification and checking is a very time consuming process. This proposed system simplifies the process by giving the authorized person an RFID tag containing all the passport details like name, passport number and nationality etc. Once, the person places the card in front of the RFID card reader, it reads the data and verifies it with that data present in the system and if it matches then it displays the details of the passport holder. Here we use microcontroller from 8051 family. For display a 16X2 LCD is used. The status also can be retrieved from this system by pressing the status button interfaced to a microcontroller.

Further the project can be enhanced by using finger printer module. This overcomes the drawbacks of RFID and provides high level of security in the system. 86) RFID BASED DEVICE CONTROL AND AUTHENTICATION USING PIC MICROCONTROLLER The main objective of this project is to provide security in an organization by allowing only the authorized personnel to access the secure area.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The security of any organization is a priority for the authorities. The concern is for the physical property and also for the intellectual property. For this reason only the authorized person with a valid RFID tag is allowed into the secured premises. This tag contains an integrated circuit that is used for storing and processing information and modulating, demodulating the radio frequency signal that is being transmitted. Thus, once the person shows the RFID tag to the card reader it scans the data present in the tag and compares it with the data present in the system. When the data matches with that in the microcontroller, the load will be turned ON which is driven by a relay and it displays a message as AUTHORIZED else states UNAUTHORIZED and doesnt allow access. This project can be further enhanced by interfacing it with GSM technology. Any attempt for unauthorized access can be intimated to the security personnel through an SMS. 87) STREET LIGHT THAT GLOWS ON DETECTING VEHICLE MOVEMENT The project is designed to detect vehicle movement on highways to switch ON only a block of street lights ahead of it (vehicle), and to switch OFF the trailing lights to save energy. During night all the lights on the highway remain ON for the vehicles, but lots of energy is wasted when there is no vehicle movement. This proposed system provides a solution for energy saving. This is achieved

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

by sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ON a block of street lights ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing lights switch OFF automatically. Thus, we save a lot of energy. So when there are no vehicles on the highway, then all the lights remain OFF. However, there is another mode of operation where instead of switching OFF the lights completely, they remain ON with 10% of the maximum intensity of the light. As the vehicle approaches, the block of street lights switch to 100% intensity and then as the vehicle passes by, the trailing lights revert back to 10% intensity again. High intensity discharge lamp (HID) presently used for urban street light are based on principle of gas discharge, thus the intensity is not controllable by any voltage reduction. White Light Emitting Diode (LED) based lamps are soon replacing the HID lamps in street light. Intensity control is also possible by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) generated by the microcontroller. Sensors used on either side of the road senses vehicle movement and sends logic commands to microcontroller to switch ON/OFF the LEDs. Thus this way of dynamically changing intensity ON/OFF helps in saving a lot of energy. The project uses a PIC series microcontroller. Further the project can be enhanced by using appropriate sensors for detecting the failed street light and then sending an SMS to the control department via GSM modem for appropriate action. 88) DENSITY BASED TRAFFIC SIGNAL SYSTEM USING PIC MICROCONTROLLER The project is designed to develop a density based dynamic traffic signal system. The signal timing changes automatically on sensing the traffic density at the junction. Traffic congestion is a severe problem in many major

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

cities across the world and it has become a nightmare for the commuters in these cities. Conventional traffic light system is based on fixed time concept allotted to each side of the junction which cannot be varied as per varying traffic density. Junction timings allotted are fixed. Sometimes higher traffic density at one side of the junction demands longer green time as compared to standard allotted time. The proposed system using a microcontroller of PIC16F8 series duly interfaced with sensors, changes the junction timing automatically to accommodate movement of vehicles smoothly avoiding unnecessary waiting time at the junction. The sensors used in this project are IR and photodiodes are in line of sight configuration across the loads to detect the density at the traffic signal. The density of the vehicles is measured in three zones i.e., low, medium, high based on which timings are allotted accordingly. Further the project can be enhanced by synchronizing all the traffic junctions in the city by establishing a network among them. The network can be wired or wireless. This synchronization will greatly help in reducing traffic congestion. 89) SOLAR ENERGY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM The aim of this project is to measure solar cell parameters through multiple sensor data acquisition. In this project a solar panel is used which keeps monitoring the sunlight. Here different parameters of the solar panel like the light intensity, voltage, current and the temperature are monitored. The microcontroller used here is PIC16F8 family.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

The light intensity is monitored using an LDR sensor, voltage by voltage divider principle, current by current sensor and temperature by temperature sensor. All these data are displayed on a 16X2 LCD interfaced to PIC micro controller. The power supply consists of a step down transformer 230/12V, which steps down the voltage to 12V AC. This is converted to DC using a bridge rectifier. The ripples are removed using a capacitive filter and it is then regulated to +5V using a voltage regulator 7805 which is required for the operation of microcontroller and other circuits. 90) GSM BASED ENERGY METER READING WITH LOAD CONTROL USING PIC MICROCONTROLLER The main objective of the project is to develop a GSM based energy meter reading system and load control through SMS. Electricity department sends employees to take meter reading every month, which is an expensive and time consuming job. The proposed project provides a convenient and efficient method to avoid this problem. The electricity department and the user can get the readings of the energy meter of consumers via SMS. The loads can also be controlled by the user of this system via SMS using this project. A microcontroller input is effectively interfaced to a digital energy meter that takes the reading from the energy meter and displays the same on an LCD. The reading of the energy meter is also sent to the control room by an SMS via SIM loaded GSM modem. This GSM modem can also receive commands from the cell phone to control the owners electrical loads. It uses a st andard

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

digital energy meter that delivers output pulses to the microcontroller to perform counting for necessary action. On receiving command it can switch ON/OFF the loads. Further this project can be interfaced with a non volatile memory IC like EEPROM along with a keypad so that the user the change the mobile number as per the requirement. 91) TV REMOTE OPERATED DOMESTIC APPLIANCES CONTROL The project is designed to operate electrical loads using a TV remote. The remote transmits coded infrared data which is then received by a sensor interfaced to the control unit. The system operates electrical loads depending on the data transmitted from the TV remote. Operating conventional wall switches is difficult for elderly or physically handicapped people. This proposed system solves the problem by integrating house hold appliances to a control unit that can be operated by a TV remote. RC5 based coded data sent from the TV remote is received by an IR receiver interfaced to the microcontroller of 8051 family. The program on the microcontroller refers to the RC5 code to generate respective output based on the input data to operate a set of relays through a relay driver IC. The loads are interfaced to the control unit through the relays. The system can be used in existing domestic area for either operating the loads through conventional switches or with the TV remote. The project can be enhanced by using radio frequency technology where the operational range shall be independent of line of sight distance as often encountered with IR type of remote control.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

92) DISCOTHEQUE LIGHT STROBOSCOPIC FLASHER Stroboscopic lighting effects for discotheques are achieved by using conventional white LEDs replacing the discharge lamps for higher efficiency at low cost. This control is possible by instantly switching the LEDs on & off at higher voltages for less time period. This fast control of intensity from full glow to full off helps in developing a stroboscopic effect which is generally used in disco dance floors for better effects. A programmable microcontroller from 8051 family is engaged to provide such effect being driven by a MOSFET for cluster of LEDs. The controller according to the program generates ON/OFF commands at high rate thus giving the effect of stroboscopic lights. As the controller gives only 5v drive, it is not possible for the MOSFET to be reliably switched ON at that voltage. An interfacing transistor is used between the controller output and the MOSFET for driving the same. The power supply consists of a step down transformer 230/12V, which steps down the voltage to 12V AC. This is converted to DC using a Bridge rectifier. The ripples are removed using a capacitive filter and it is then regulated to +5V using a voltage regulator 7805 which is required for the operation of the microcontroller and other components. 93) BEACON FLASHER USING MICROCONTROLLER This project is designed to provide flashing lamp simulating a beacon light generally used in shipyards, sea shores etc. It is also used in middle of the sea to warn ships about the hidden rocks.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

A programmable microcontroller from 8051 family is engaged to provide flashing light at periodical intervals as per the practice followed at sea shores, shipyards etc. A low voltage lamp of 12V is driven by a power MOSFET in PWM mode which is derived from a microcontroller. The duty cycle of the PWM has to be changed depending on the type of application. As the controller gives only 5v drive, it is not possible for the MOSFET to be reliably switched ON at that voltage. An interfacing transistor is used between the controller output and the MOSFET for driving the same. Further the project can be enhanced by using a high power 230V lamp in combination with solid state switching for better visibility. 94) TOUCH SCREEN BASED REMOTE CONTROLLED ROBOTIC VEHICLE FOR STORES MANAGEMENT The project is designed to control a robotic vehicle with a touch screen display unit for remote operation. The touch screen remote control is used at the transmitting side to transmit RF control signals. At the receiving end, a pick n place robotic vehicle is used to respond to those signals and perform the task. An 8051 series of microcontroller is used for the desired operation. At the transmitting end using a touch screen control unit, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end four motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where two for them are used for arm and gripper movement of the robot while the other two are for the body movement. The RF transmitter acts as a RF remote control that has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters) with proper antenna, while

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

www.projectspals.com

09271412204

the receiver decodes before feeding it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors via motor driver IC for necessary work. The main advantage of this robot is its soft catching arm that is designed to avoid extra pressure to be applied on the object. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing it with a wireless camera so that the person controlling it can view operation of the arm and gripper remotely.

www.projectspals.com

09271412204