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Sidney’s view on the origin and social utility of poetry. Contemporary Shakespeare Discusses poetry as: o For being the cradle of civilization o For being a channel of divine power o For teaching and delighting o For combining and surpassing the virtues of history and philosophy Main arguments against poetry o Is unprofitable o Full of lies o Entices us to sin o Banishment of poets in Plato’s Republic Flourished in the Elizabethan Age or English Renaissance. (Golden Age of English Literature) Renaissance Man – poet, critic, soldier, courtier Many mediocre poets that’s why Stephen Gosson – The Abuse of Poetry – rebukes poets and liars and identifying them with low sectors of society, that’s why Sidney defended poetry. Sidney’s “idol” -> Plato Apology – more synthetic than original. Ideas from Aristotle, Horace, Longinus o More persuasive = rhetorical strategy Christian Critic – answers both Platonic philosophy and biblical civilization. Apolochia = defense Time of the Renaissance o Magellan’s Arrival : Height of Renaissance in Europe o Renaissance = renasco – rebirth or rediscovery of Roman and Greek civilization and culture o Versalius = medicine o The individual can now question the status quo o Shakespeare to Renaissance = Hamlet Scene 2 Act 2 o Heart of Renaissance = Florence o Medieval Painting = flat ; Renaissance = 3d by the use of shading o Baroque (Rome) – Intense, heavy, energetic, has symmetry ; Renaissance – space and perspective o Lope De Vega – Baroque writer o Leonardo de Vinci – Last Supper in Milan. Image of the Renaissance. Symmetry of the apostles The same model for Christ and Judas o St. Augustine, disappointment in Rome. o Renaissance -> Reformation – Martin Luther vs. Henry VIII (awarded by the pope, Defender of the Faith), he wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon because of Anne Boleyn o In England, the church = The Church IN England -> The church OF England -> Break of England in Rome = Anglican Church o When the Renaissance was in full bloom in Italy, it was still Medieval in England because of Rome o It entered England through the universities (Oxford and Cambridge) John Colet Thomas Linakre William Grocyn They visited Rome and was shocked how things is so changed and spread it in England through the University
Paul = the first words uttered are poetry -> Genesis The poet is a maker whereas all other arts take their cues and foundation from nature The poet alone transcends and even improves upon the natural world -> Aristotelian The mimesis of the poet is a higher kind of imitation. The best English – Shakespeare o The purpose of poetry is to teach and delight. expressed the majesty and beauty of God When you are getting closer to the Divine. the cradle of civilization Defense of the divine origin of poetry The first law-givers. bronze -> gold Poetry is meant to be spoken or read aloud Poetry is auditory not visual. Prepares the mind to receive other learning Those who attack poetry are ungrateful children who rise up against their parents Because we are nurtured by poetry o The power and craft of poetry are of the same essence as the divine Poets were seers (Vates) because poets has the ability to see things that others cannot Verse was the language of prophecy. thus it is useful to society. but as they should be. beasts -> Cyclopes. etc.o o o o o Petrarch Sonnet -> Shakespeare’s Sonnet The practice before is to write a Sonnet Sequence -> dedicated to an inspiration Penelope De Vereux (inspiration) daughter of Lord Essex Astrophel and Stella – Sonnet Sequence (108 Sonnets) Lord Rich (husband) Penelope does not feel the same way Sydney married Frances Walsingham Sydney died in the Battle of Zuttphen – task of the queen to Sydney ( 32 or 33 ) At the later years of his life he wrote his Apology for Poetry Lecture 16 Sidney Martin Luther -> German Translation of the Bible King James Version -> English Translation of the Bible “Curtain Raisers” -> Sir Philip Sidney -> Shakespeare Sidney’s arguments in defense of poetry o Poetry is the great light-giver. men -> heroes.) have a way of impressing themselves in our memory . Poetry inspires the soul both to scorn the vices of villains and admire the virtues of heroes Philosophy is too serious to delight o Poetry unites the universal truths of philosophy with concrete example of history Concrete Universals (Fables. historians were all poets. In the Psalms. The imitation of poetry can delight and teach. for they do not merely copy virtues and vices as they are. there is no language to use but the language of poetry (Verse) St. If it doesn’t sound good even if it is written beautifully. philosophers. Highest rank of being human Plato himself is the greatest of poets Poetry makes the mind receptive to learning. David.
o Reign of Queen Anne - - . which leads to sin. Compiled stories and turned them into epics St. not poetry itself. o Puritans went to the US -> Neo-classicism is alien to the American mind From 1660 to the end of 18th century. Sidney’s favorite example is the parable of the ewe lamb that Nathan used to convict David (2 Samuel 12) Lecture 17 Sidney - - Four arguments thrown against poetry o Poetry is unprofitable or is useless Poetry is the most fruitful of all knowledge. but only imitated them. The poets did not invent the scandalous stories. Paul affirms in Act 17. o Art is revived during the restoration. (1660) o During the restoration. like the stage. now what is. Inspire people to do virtuous action o Poetry is the mother of lies Poets never lie because in the first place. The poet is free to alter the particular so as to embody more fully the universal. they never claim their poems to be the truth Poetry. It has the power to move hearers to virtuous action. (Virgil) Poets speak via divine inspiration = (Plato) bad regardless if it’s the divine or evil because you surrender your logical faculties. England experiences Neoclassical Period aka Age of Reason or Enlightenment o England’s version of the Augustan Age o Modeled their writing to Rome. Lecture 18 Dryden 2 greatest proponents of Neo-classicism: o John Dryden o Alexander Pope John Dryden -> An essay of Dramatic Poesy o Notion of the three unities Art experiences a disruption during the Puritan rule under Cromwell. poets and poetry turn toward high society and aristocracy. (Aristotle) it’s fine. at least it’s not the devil “Curse” on all poet-haters: May they never win love for want of a sonnet. only fools confuse illusions with reality o Poetry entices and leads to sinful behavior Poetry is neutral It is the abuse of poetry. may they be forgotten for want of an epitaph. it was the pagan poets who came closest to foreseeing the truths of Christ. offers an illusion: an account of what should or should not be. Many cities strove for the honor of being Homer’s birthplace while Athens killed Socrates Poets are loved. o Plato’s banishment of the poets from his Republic It was the poets who taught and guided the philosophers.
France was also in the middle of Neoclassical Age. but if they lead us to abuse nature. English plays do not. while they had only nature. Guide. but a guide to keep us in the right track. . Two lines of poetry each line having ten syllables each with an end stop. o First Issue Should the Ancients (Greek) be imitated closely or can they be surpassed? We are nothing but copiers of the Ancients: our merits are their merits. o Takes place on the eve of great battle (1665) concerns four men discussing issues of the day. Alexander Pope’s view of the proper role and nature of the critic and his insistence that nature is the final source and test of art In his essay. Racine and Boileau. According to the unity of Action -> there should be one main plot that is not complicated by subplots o The four men compare and contrast the French and English Theatre. The Dryden persona concludes that English plays are better because it is not afraid to depart from them when necessary.nature When the ancient rules on decorum are in sync with nature they should be followed. o Three unities Time. French plays are more decorous.- - o Extended to 1784 because of Samuel Johnson Meanwhile. French plays follow the unities. Decorum is not a straightjacket. -> Because the Ancients are perfect Another says that we have progressed and improved art because we have both nature and the Ancients to imitate. Pope embodies the spirit of neoclassicism o Written in heroic couplets. o Great age of conversation -> Neoclassical period o Although the four disagree on particular issues they all agree That art is a form of mimesis (Aristotle) That it should teach and delight (Horace) That it should follow the laws of decorum or restraint. but our faults are ours alone. British more lively. According to the unity of Time -> stage time must mimic real time as closely as possible According to the unity of Place -> action onstage should be confined to a single place. o British culture had an air of French in it. Lecture 19 Pope Essay on criticism o A verse epistle in the tradition of Horace British Horace Stricter than Dryden because he lived in the very heart of the neoclassical age. o French -> neoclassicism German -> romanticism Essay of Dramatic Poesy o Not an essay o Written in Platonic dialogue form. they must be changed or abandoned altogether. place and action -> from Aristotle and Horace But codified by Corneille .
a colon or a comma True rhyme vs slant rhymes Pope’s heroic couplets read like mathematical proofs that move logically from proposition to proposition to conclusion. harder than the novel Pope spends time defining the proper role of the critic The true taste in a critic is almost as vital as that of the poet But poets are still supreme over the critics (Pope) The function of the critic is almost as vital as that poet of the poet. they elevate themselves at finding faults The true critic must learn humility. genial study of poet’s age.o o End stop – period. they destroy what they cannot do. a bad critic is more dangerous to art than a bad poet Bad poetry you can dismiss but bad criticism can corrupt Many critics write not out of love of poetry or out of a fine sense of judgment.He was Irish - . poets are the ones that make it presentable to the audience. We must never loose ourselves in poetic frenzy. Lecture 20 A Burke Louis XVI -> insensitivity to the less privileged led to the Storming in Bastille o Guillotine Reflections of the Revolution in France o Change must be incremental o Apostle of conservatism o Believed in gradual change o The French must bow down to the wisdom of the British tradition Proponent of English Conservatism . Comparing yourself to other great writers. Pope can’t be read quickly. The true critic must judge art not on the basis of his own prejudices but via a close. We follow the Ancients because in following them. but of envy and spite. his poetry is decorum set to meter Petrarchan sonnet Octave and sestet The poet is the hardest to write. in nature. this is best learned by exposing oneself to the sacred fire of literature. end and test of art. ready-made. Genial Criticism – judge poetry based on its own merits not on post-modern fault. Because critics are frustrated poets Too many critics are like half-breed mules that lack both the genius of the poet and the taste of the true critic. The Ancients did not so much invent the rules of decorum as find them. next is the short story. he demands intense concentration and a sense of proportion. a semicolon. Pope says that we should adopt this. rather than accept the limits of their gifts. The best poets and critics look to nature as the source. we follow nature. Discovery. we must never forget a poet’s most prized guide-word: restraint. It’s not creating.
o Subject/Object Subject is a conscious self that perceives Object is an unconscious thing that does not perceive but is perceived. o Imagination and Judgment He lays the groundwork of all perception and thought is the senses. What is a poem: does it possess its own essence (Aristotle) or is it just a shadow (Plato) Debating over the ontological status of a poem. Sugar as sweet and ampalaya bitter. If we do not agree it means that we are mad or our senses are impaired. Not creation or revelation Whatever affects our imagination powerfully. Solipsism -> The world exists because it is in my mind Subjective becomes a standard to refer to those who would define group standards of aesthetic taste as aesthetician. All people perceive external objects in the same way. Hence a work of art is an object.- German Epistemological Roots of Romanticism Burke’s Philosophical Inquiry into the origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful o Shift from a mimetic-ontological (objective) to a pragmatic-epistemological (subjective) approach o Ontology is the study of being Determining the essence of things or what things are made of Aristotle’s goal is to define the proper nature and essence of a well-constructed plot. . but exists wholly in the mind of the subject. It is concerned with how we perceive that thingness or how we know Study of mental processes Modes of thought The way our brain perceives objects Beauty does not so much define a quality that is inherent in a poem as it describes a kind of mental response that occurs in the mind of the person experiencing it. The experience has nothing to do with the poetic object per se. judgment is a higher critical faculty that is closely linked to reason. o Burke’s approach to the sublime is epistemological o Epistemology is the study of knowing. Mental response to the painting not the thing itself. whatever brings it pleasure or pain must have a similar effect on all human beings.” It is universal to arrive at a universal principle of judgment. Imagination and judgment are shaped by the senses. Whereas imagination is linked primarily to immediate perceptions and has about it an almost childlike quality. Judgment is gained through an increase in understanding and is common to all men. All normal persons have equal access and because the senses are the “great originals of all our ideas. Never the other way around. The rules of decorum laid down by Horace are less concerned with reader response than with what a poem should be. Imagination (or sensibility) takes the raw material offered it by sense perceptions and recombines that material in a new way.
o Some whose natures are blunt and cold are deficient in sensibility. Rational – mathematical David Hume – great advocate of empiricism Tabula Rasa -> blank slate o All human knowledge are gained through experience Critique of Pure Reason o Refuting of Hume’s empiricism o Kant shifted his focus from the external world to the mind that comes to know it “Turn the subject” o Solipsism - . o Phenomenon = image Kant is the epistemological version of Aristotle (the ontologist). have a fuller. Empirical or Rational o Empirical – whatever we know about the world from the world . o It is common to all men. Both elitist and democratic. Astonishment is when all motion is suspended and our minds are filled totally by an object or thought. o Beauty -> inspires in us sentiments of tenderness and affection. they will suffer from bad taste. They will suffer from a lack of taste. not in kind but degree. Relax -> Beauty o Both are perceived by all the senses. even creates unity in the midst of differences. but faculties of perception that can be categorized. o The only information we have is obtained by phenomena that our mind constructs and interprets from sensed data. more refined taste. o Tension -> Sublime. Genial Criticism -> you don’t judge according to taste but according to its truthfulness Imagination tends toward synthesis (unites). Due to some keener sensibility or greater knowledge and discernment. - Lecture 21 A Kant Immanuel Kant revolutionized Philosophy o Things will change after his writing Originated Phenomenology o Movement that turned the eye of philosophy from the world we seek to know towards the mind that seeks to know the world. o Sublime -> those that inspires in us feelings of terror. o If they are deficient in judgment. judgment discerns subtle distinctions.Lecture 20 B Burke Taste is the mental product of imagination and judgment with preference on the latter. Sublime and Beautiful o Beauty and sublimity are not qualities of the object. Terror but there is no danger. Judgment in analysis (differences) Imagination discovers. o Taste differs from person to person. Terror produces in us a mental-emotional response called astonishment.
so its judgments must be a priori. The Bachelor is unhappy. thanks to the pure awareness of our faculty of sensibility. o Geometry is not about the empirical world. To resolve this we appeal to sense experience or to something outside it. Gottfried Leibniz -> denied that space was real and said that all that existed was the spatial relations between the physical bodies. Our task is not to understand the world as such. Synthetic A priori and geometry o Metaphysics is possible by appealing to metaphysics o Mathematics is possible. We see this world solely through our senses and that we have no sense that allows us to see beyond this world. space.- - - - The mind receives only raw sensory data. o Senses are tied to physical things and can reveal the physical. (Euclidian Geometry) Create a triangle Lengthen the base of the triangle o o . are built into it. The mind is structured in such a way that certain categories of knowing. Contradiction in terms Synthetic a posteriori -> nontrivial judgment about the world of sense experience. Two avenues for knowing: reason and senses o Reason is interpretative Humans can have no rational insight into metaphysical realities. Synthetic a priori -> judgments of metaphysics must be synthetic a priori. Hume denied that there was causality in the world Kant’s Prolegomena o Immanuel Kant believed that all events follow determined laws. or ways of handling the data. o Geometry comes from our pure intuition of space. but to understand our experience of the world. Phenomenology breaks through the conflict between empiricism and rationalism. Metaphysics deals with those questions about reality that exceed any particular science. but that we have no extrasensory capacity. o The judgments of geometry are synthetic = that the sum of the angles of a triangle is two right angles. A posteriori judgment -> are those we gain from sense experience A priori judgment -> truths we know independently of sense experience Analytic a priori -> judgment that is true by definition Analytic a posteriori -> does not exist. Synthetic Judgment -> truth cannot be determined just by analyzing. and not a posteriori. and time is its province. o The most important property of metaphysical questions is that they are not investigated by the methods of empirical science. and geometry. o Preparatory exercises that investigates propositions that transcend any particular experience could exist o He focuses on judgment. A judgment is a statement of the form A is B Analytic Judgment -> truth is determined just by analyzing the terms in it The Bachelor is unmarried. o Metaphysics must consist of synthetic a priori judgment.
o Traced back to Aristotle’s plot over character. It exists in our minds. o Imagination -> spontaneous. it seeks nothing from the object and makes no demands on it (agape) The good seeks beauty as a means to some higher end. The less we know. . Postmodernist everything is relative o A poem’s form may be studied as an end in itself. o Pure Beauty and Dependent Beauty Pure -> presumes no concepts of what the object ought to be. M and PM denies this Modernist everything is political. We can imagine a space without objects but we cannot imagine objects without space. the more we are certain.o o o o o o Divide the newly formed exterior angle and create a line through the corner parallel to the opposite side. Content -> World of Becoming o Beauty resides solely in the subject. For Kant. the beautiful accepts it. Judgments of beauty are not cognitive (logical) but aesthetic Judgments of beauty are possible not because the object is beautiful per se but because the minds of all human beings have the same structure. it is universally felt. What allows the aesthetic to be felt universally is the very fact that it is purely subjective. a priori intuition of the intellect. they are nevertheless felt equally by all people at all times. the beautiful is purely disinterested. untainted by any ulterior interests or inclinations. o Though such judgments are purely subjective. Lecture 21 B Kant Critique of Judgment o Aesthetic judgments constitute subjective universality. Dependent -> presumes a concept of perfection against which to measure the object. form over content The content changes but the form is permanent Form -> World of Being . The structure = a feature which we make not on paper but in space Space can’t be sensed because it is not empirical. There cannot be any certainty in anything in the world. Good is inferior to beautiful o Though the judgment of beauty is purely subjective. independent mental power that is set free by aesthetic ideas The power to recombine sense data to form new associations. Space is the form of all possible perceptions Space is a pure. o On the Beautiful Purely subjective Dependent on how it is perceived by a subject. Purposeless purpose o Beautiful and pleasurable The pleasurable is an interested emotion that seeks gratification from the object (eros). unique. as a finished thing in itself. As such it lies in the realm of the aesthetic judgment.
Similarities with Kant o He expands on the epistemological theories of Kant o Beauty remains a subjective experience that is free and indifferent. We are not only rational but spiritual creatures endued with purpose and an ability to endure and transcend pain and terror Kathian Catharsis Lecture 23 Schiller 2nd most important playwright in Germany (2008) o 1 -> Gurthy Author of Maid of Orleans. o We live divided lives. the play drive. seeks a kind of perfection. Nietzsche term these two sides Dionysiac (wild. Mary Queen of Scots and William Tell. o The Ancient Greeks had a natural humanity that we have lost. chaotic objects that cannot be absorbed. In the Letters. You are not tied to earth but to reason. o The privileging of aesthetic form over didactic content. o The Greeks possessed a fullness that could fuse imagination and reason. Their greatness surpasses the power of our intuition and imagination is forced to turn to reason for support. Qualitative Sublime occurs when we feel awe or fear before an object of overwhelming power. too.o o Kant is in favor of Pure Beauty Sublime Qualitative and Quantitative Quantitative -> occurs when we come into the presence of wild. It. Schiller looks back with admiration on the Classical Age (Grecian Age) but not for the same reason the neoclassicists did. Subjective Experience Beauty -> a feeling of harmony in the free play of imagination and understanding Sublimity -> manifests itself in terms of a disharmony between imagination and reason There is pleasure in disharmony and leads to turn to reason because now we know that there is something greater than nature. Nature is not merely the dead object. irrational) and Apollonian (rational) T. Romantic Project -> don’t privilege the one over the other Schiller preferred both synthesis and harmony The idea for Schiller is fusion (or incarnation) of subject and object. Poems Ode to Joy Follower of Kant o Socrates: Plato :: Kant: Schiller Schiller romanticized Kant’s reason over imagination To bring back into unity the Dionysiac (emotional) and the Apollonian (rational) sides of our being Links these two facets of our nature to the sensuous drive and the formal drive and then uniting these to a third drive. Our imagination is inadequate to stand up against such mind and it turns to the higher faculty of reason for help.s Eliot call it Dissociation of sensibility - - . Our imaginative side is cut off from our rational side.
naïve unity that we lost. o 19th century-> great era of the philosophy of history. Lecture 24 Hegel History unfolds dialectically. the universal Mind or divine spirit o New Historical Consciousness -> History has a philosophical importance. creates a living form o The end product of a play drive is not an abstract. a perfect wholeness. o It provides us instead with a totality. The form of a work of art is actually the more timeless. causing the personality to be suspended. o Education in beauty is best able to lead us back to that original. a state of suspension o Through beauty we are empowered to give form to that which is formless in nature. Out of the fusion of these two drives emerges the play drive. -> play drive o To experience that wholeness is to enter into a pure aesthetic mood. Seeks higher. Man. Hegel’s project was to show the rational basis of all of history. Preservation of personality. (material) o The formal drive is more rational. integrated citizens who will know justice and live justly. that is according to a logic in which everyone conflict is subsumed in a higher unity. an autobiography of a civilization. Play makes us fuller beings. o Formal Drive= Apollonian. The World of Becoming. o This unfolding is the process of Geist. The realm of the formal drive is the world of general law. - . o It teaches us nothing and supplies us with no particular knowledge. Poetry is beauty. He treats the two distinct but equally valid and vital modes of thought that need to be synthesized.- - - The role of education. the object. Leads us to be swept along by sensation. o Poetry can balance 2 sides. The greatest task of culture and education is to reintegrate feeling and reason. dynamic life. Schiller’s Drives o The sensuous drive is linked to material life. culture. by uncovering the logic that produced it. more abstract harmony free from restraints of time o The realm of the sensuous drive is the world of the concrete. and beauty is to achieve this reintegration. o The play drive is equivalent to beauty: both are purely aesthetic. he says. Geist -> both mind and spirit Like Plotinus’ Nous or divine intellect. abstract elements: It can be studied coolly and rationally Schiller is a formalist o From as an aesthetic end in itself. the review of form must not be cut off from life o Beauty proves to us that feeling and thought can occur together. o We need the play drive to be mentally healthy The play drive sets us free from both the physical restraints of nature and the moral restraints of reason o The play drive. who are best qualified to form whole. o Schiller is careful to hold on to physical reality. within that whole we find all the faculties existing in a higher harmony. Beauty is indifferent: it is neither didactic nor useful. o It is the poets. bodiless idea but a general timeless form imbued with a particular. the subject. is only fully human when he plays. World of Being (spiritual) o Our sensuous drive is Dionysiac.
Synthesis) Geist is untranslatable and refers to that collective subjectivity Idea means essence. o Philosophical knowledge is Geist as subject coming to know itself as object (Hegel calls this absolute knowledge) Professor Darren Staloff sums up Hegel’s philosophy of history in four tightly packed sentences. o The means of this realization is the passions of the individual as both subject and object of history. The job of the philosopher of history is to search for that rational explanation of history. o The basic movement of history is triadic: an original position is negated. the philosophical expression of Geist. Antithesis. separate from the visible. History is meant as the sum of human experience as understood under a rational conception. The Dialectic of History o The real is the rational. while Hegel’s Geist acquires its content only by getting involved in history – by becoming a Zeitgeist. Hegel’s Geist in in motion. If you looked at the world rationally. The individual as object is the victim of history. Forms -> Becoming Phenomenology -> meaning study of phenomena. o The owl of Minerva spreads its wings only with the falling of the dusk. his book is the study of how Geist makes its appearance in the phenomena of history o History has a rational shape. the rational is the real. History is the externalization of Geist. There is opposition between the two sides is subsumed in an agreement at a higher level. the visible world is the external aspect of the substance of God o Except that. and Synthesis Through Negation to Unity o Through the triadic process. Thesis. Subsumption means literally “picking up” but this can be in the sense of removing or rising to a higher level. Great Man sacrifices his happiness to his passions. o Dialectic -> logical process of Geist unfolding in history (Hegel) For Plato and Aristotle -> word for a logical argument or debate. The State is the culture of a people and the principles that integrate the individual with the larger hole.- - - - - The difference is that Nous is unchanging. o For Hegel. all the oppositions are subsumed in the unity of Geist o The dialectic is also a process of overcoming division. a spirit of age. and its form is the State Passion -> self-interested action The individual as subject refers to the Great Man. Geist is the synthesis of Reason and nature Freedom here is meant independence in the Kantian sense. o History is the dialectical process whereby Geist comes to know itself and realizes its Idea. o . Reason is abstract rationality. Then both the original position and the negation are subsumed in a higher unity. the world looks back at you rationally. Dialectical refers to the inter-relating triad (Thesis. o Freedom is the idea of Geist and Geist is reason in and for itself. From self-identity to self-alienation to reconciliation. o Like Spinoza. history is like an argument. Antithesis. History is moved by Great People.
it is not ultimately other than the human mind o Hegel sets Geist in motion in history o The Revealed Religion Key of the RR is incarnation (God becomes man) lowest that we can go in the Plotinian cosmology The Principle of Incarnation means that Geist enters the world of history. Undifferentiated unity (thesis) o Refers to the unity of the family which is bound by love and affection for one another. Differentiated Unity (synthesis) o Refers to the state which keeps us differentiated but creates laws for the benefit of all.- - - Minerva -> Goddess of Wisdom Atheneum -> temple of wisdom That comes only when something is done. division. with all its alienation. and suffering. . Difference between God and Geist o Geist is not ultimately other than the World. o It is undifferentiated because that unity is not broken down into distinct individuals with their own selfish interests and agenda Differentiated Disunity (antithesis) o Refers to the economic market where each individual has his own agenda which comes in conflict with another’s.
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