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ERIC EVANGELISTA Chapter 16 ONCOLOGY NURSING CONCEPTS Pages 93,94, 95 I. interpretation, completion, and comparrison Multiple choice 1. B.

Second 2. A. African Americans 3. D. All of the above 4. D. Race 5. D. all of the above 6. C. ham and bacon 7. A. excisional biopsy 8. D. Counsel the patient about the possibility of losing her breast. 9. B. Cryosurgery 10. C. Prophylactic surgery 11. B. Cordotomy 12. C. disrupts mitosis by slowing dividing cells. 13. D. accomplish all of the above 14. B. Maintain as much distance as possible from the patient while in the room 15. D. targets normal body cells as well as cancer cells. 16. B. Nervous system 17. A. apply warm compresses to the phlebitic area. 18. A. encourage fluid intake to dilute urine 19. D. Lower serum and uric acid levels 20. D. all of the above 21. A. Bladder 22. D. doing all of the above 23. D. Staphylococcus 24. D. thrombocytopenia Page 96

SHORT ANSWER 1. Men: Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Colorectal Cancer Female: Lung Cancer, Breast Cancer, Colorectal Cancer 2. The causes of cancer includes genetic factors, lifestyle such as use of tobacco, diet, physical activity, certain types of infection, and environmental exposure to different types of chemical and radiation. 3. Carcinoembryonic antigen and prostate-specific antigen

4. Lymph and blood 5. 75% 6. Tobacco smoke 7. Premenopausal breast cancer and ovarian cancer syndrome 8. Fats, alcohol, salt-cured or smoked meats, and foods containing nitrates or nitrites. 9. Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower (reduce risk); long term ingestion of carcinogens, co-carcinogens, chronic absence of proactive substances in diet, high caloric dietary intake (increase risk) 10. Macrophages, T lymphocytes, lymphokines, interferon, and natural killer cells 11. Skin: alopecia, erythema, shedding of skin (desquamation) Oral mucosa: stomatitis, xerostomia (dryness of the mouth), change and loss of taste Stomach or colon: anorexia, vomiting, nausea Bone marrow-producing sites: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia 12. Absence of blood return from the intravenous catheter, resistance to flow of intravenous fluid, swelling, pain in the site, redness at the site 13. Nausea and vomiting 14. Myelosuppression results: Decreased production of blood cells, decreases the number of WBCs (leukopenia), RBCs (anemia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia) Increased risk in: infection and bleeding 15. Cisplatin, methotrexate, and mitomycin. PAGE 97 Matching Match the term listed in the column with associated definition 1. A. Angiogenesis 2. B. Apoptosis 3. F. Radiofrequency ablation 4. E. Nadir 5. D. Monoclonal Antibodies 6. G.Vesican

7. H. Xerostomia 8. C Cytokines Match the neoplasm 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Malignant Benign Benign Malignant Malignant

Match the Drug Category 1. A. Alkylating agent- cisplatin- bone marrow suppression, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia 2. C. Antimetabolites- 5 fluorouracil (5-FU) Nausea, Vomiting, diarrhea 3. F. Hormonal Agent- Estrogen- Hypercalcemia, jaundice, increased appetite 4. A. Alkylating agent- Thiotepa- renal toxicity, Stomatitis 5. B. Nitrosourea- Lumostine (CCNU)- delayed cumulative myelo-suppression 6. D. Antitumor antibiotics- Doxorubicen bone marrow suppression, cardiac toxicity 7. A. Alkylating agent- ifosfamide- bone marrow suppression, cystitis, stomatitis 8. C. antimetabolites- methotrexate- nausea, vomiting, renal and hepatotoxicity 9. E. Plant alkaloid/ mitotic spindle Vincristine- Neuropathy 10. H. Topoisomerase 1 inhibitors Irinotecan- bone marrow suppression 11. G. Miscellaneous agent- asparginase- anorexia, anaphylaxis, hypotension Page 98 1. To provide individualized education and recommendation for continued surveillance and care in high risk population. 2. Grading: refers to the classification of the tumor cells 3. Incisional biopsy 4. palliative surgery 5. from an identical twin 6. lymphokines: Interleukins 7. alopecia: hair loss 8. cachexia: loss of body weight 9. Escherichia Coli : Gram negative 10. mylotarg: Leukemia Page 99 Part A.

1. B. genetics 2. D. attitudes and values regarding all of the above. 3. A. denial 4. A. tissue manipulation during surgery 5. A. her lungs may possibly produce more mucus. 6. C. use of heat lamp once daily directed at the site. 7. D. Leukopenia 8. D. All of the above. 9. C. hematemesis Part B. 1. C. Lymphocytes count of 20% 2. impaired nutritional status may contribute to disease progression, immune incompetence, increased incidence of infection, delayed tissue repair, diminished functional ability, and decrease capacity to continue antineoplastic therapy. 3. Fear, apprehension, fatigue, anger, and social isolation. 4. C. Denial 5. assist in framing questions and concerns, identifying resources and support people, and communicating their concerns with each other. 6. INFECTION 7. Escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, candida albicans 8. B. Hypertension