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The integumentary system includes the skin and the skin derivatives hair, nails, and glands. The integument is the body‟s largest organ and accounts for 15% of body weight.
The derivatives of the integument: Hair: functions include protection & sensing light touch.
Hair is composed of columns of dead, keratinized cells bound together by extracellular proteins. Hair has two main sections: The shaft- superficial portion that extends out of the skin and the root- portion that penetrates into the dermis. Surrounding the root of the hair is the hair follicle. At the base of the hair follicle is an onion-shaped structure called the bulb Papilla of the hair and the matrix within the bulb produce new hair.
.Sensations like touch. The nail consists of: nail root: -the portion of the nail under the skin. and secrete sebum. the white crescent at the base of the nail is the lunula. the hyponychium secures the nail to the finger.Sweat glands. main function is regulation of body temperature by evaporation. Vitamin D production .UV sunlight & precursor molecule in skin make vitamin D.Responsible for “cold sweat” associated with stress. the cuticle or eponychium is a narrow band around the proximal edge of the nail and free edge: -the white end that may extend past the finger.Most common.Evaporation of sweat & Regulation of blood flow to the dermis. Sudoriferous . pain. pressure. Functions of the skin: Thermoregulation . Nails are plates of tightly packed. warmth or coolness. Glands: participate in regulating body temperature. Located in the dermis. secrete cerumen (ear wax) into ear canal or sebaceous glands. Cutaneous sensation . hard. and Apocrine . There are three main types of glands associated with the integument: Sebaceous . o Ceruminous – Lie in subcutaneous tissue below the dermis. Protection – The sin acts as a physical barrier.Oil glands. Divided into two main types: o Eccrine . nail body: -the visible pink portion of the nail. vibration. keratinized epidermal cells.Nails: participate in the grasp & handling of small things.
& soles of feet. granulation tissue fills the wound and intense growth of epithelial cells beneath the scab.participates in the sense of touch. The Two Layers of Skin: Epidermis – The Epidermis is the thinner more superficial layer of the skin. They migrate as a sheet. In deep wound healing .produces the brown pigment melanin (C) Langerhan Cells – participate in immune response and (D) Merkel cells . There are five distinct sub-layers of the Epidermis: 1. Stratum granulosum: made up of 3-5 layers of keratinocytes.When a minor burn or abrasion occurs basal cells of the epidermis break away from the basement membrane and migrate across the wound. made of 25-30 layers of dead flat keratinocytes. The scab falls off and the skin returns to normal thickness. The epidermis is made up of 4 cell types: (A) Keratinocytes – Produce keratin protein a fibrous protein that helps protect the epidermis (B) Melanocytes .A clot forms in the wound. Absorption & secretion – The skin is involved in the absorption of water-soluble molecules and excretion of water and sweat. site of keratin formation. 2. blood flow increases and many cells move to the wound. keratohyalin gives the granular appearance. palms of hands. The clot becomes a scab. 3. Stratum lucidum: Only found in the fingertips. Stratum corneum: the outermost layer. This layer is made up of 3-5 layers of flat dead keratinocytes. . when the sides meet the growth stops and this is called „contact inhibition‟. Lamellar granules provide water repellent action and are continuously shed & replaced. Wound healing .
Reticular region of the Dermis – Made up of dense irregular connective & adipose tissue. The epidermis contains 3 cell types: o o o Adipocytes. blood vessels. There are two main divisions of the dermal layer: o Papillary region .The superficial layer of the dermis. Cells produced here are constantly divide & move up to apical surface.4. o Dermal papillae . .Fingerlike structures invade the epidermis. made up of loose areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers. glands and hair follicles. sebaceous (oil) glands. Macrophages and Fibroblasts. provide strength & flexibility to the skin. Stratum basale: The deepest layer. contain capillaries or Meissner corpuscles which respond to touch. & blood vessels. Stratum spinosum: appears covered in thornlike spikes. thicker layer composed of connective tissue. contains sweat lands. nerves. Dermis: is the deeper. made up of a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells. 5.
burning. As it develops. It causes peeling. locker rooms. itching. blisters. the skin may thicken and crack. It is most common in the summer and in warm. or softening and breaking down of the skin Itching. toenails. The fungus grows best in a warm. swimming pools. There are at least four kinds of fungus that can cause athlete's foot. and the floors of public showers. or both Types of Athlete's Foot Interdigital: Also called toe web infection. and sometimes blisters and sores. Moccasin: A moccasin-type infection of athlete's foot can begin with a minor irritation. redness. Athlete's foot is a very common infection. also called tinea pedis. common symptoms include: Peeling. and scaling and the infection can spread to the sole of the foot. or scaly skin. Causes Athlete's foot is caused by a microscopic fungus that lives on dead tissue of the hair. burning. and scaling of the feet Redness. this is the most common kind of athlete's foot. moist environment such as shoes. It usually occurs between the two smallest toes. dryness. cracking. burning. The most common of these fungi is trichophyton rubrum. However. itching. This form of athlete's foot can cause itching. This infection can involve the entire sole of the foot and extend onto the sides of the foot. and outer skin layers. Sign & Symptoms Signs and symptoms of athlete's foot vary from person to person. socks.Athlete's Foot Athlete's foot. is a fungal infection of the foot. . humid climates. It occurs more often in people who wear tight shoes and who use community baths and pools.
However. The condition usually begins with a sudden outbreak of fluid-filled blisters under the skin. is a common skin infection that is caused by a type of fungus called tinea. wet climates. infection can affect the genitals. the blisters develop on the underside of the foot. Diagnosis Not all itchy. also called tinea cruris. Infections occur more frequently in the summer or in warm. Most often. or on the top of the foot. and daily washing of the feet with soap and water. and buttocks. . Jock Itch Jock itch. The fungus thrives in warm. wearing shoes that allow the feet to breathe. inner thighs. scaly feet have athlete's foot. Drying the feet thoroughly and using a quality foot powder can also help prevent athlete's foot. they also can appear between the toes. Prevention Steps to prevent athlete's foot include wearing shower sandals in public showering areas. Vesicular: This is the least common kind of athlete's foot. Treatment Athlete's foot is treated with topical antifungal medication (a drug placed directly on the skin) in most cases. Jock itch appears as a red. The feet must be kept clean and dry since the fungus thrives in moist environments. The best way to diagnose the infection is to have your doctor scrape the skin and examine the scales under a microscope for evidence of fungus. itchy rash that is often ring-shaped. Severe cases may require oral drugs (those taken by mouth). on the heel. moist areas of the body and as a result.
It is often accompanied by scaly skin. jock itch can be diagnosed based on the appearance and location of the rash. red. or burning in the groin or thigh A circular. powder. or spray as directed Change clothes -. However. Treatment In most cases. treatment of jock itch involves keeping the affected area clean and dry and applying topical antifungal medications. and will perform a physical exam. prescription antifungal creams are sometimes necessary. The outer part of the sore can be raised while the skin in . be sure to: Wash and dry the affected area with a clean towel Apply the antifungal cream. It can appear anywhere on the body and it looks like a circular. Sign & Symptoms Itching. peeling. contact your doctor. A microscopic exam of the scales of skin can confirm the diagnosis. The condition can be spread from person to person through direct contact or indirectly from objects carrying the fungus. raised rash with elevated edges Redness in the groin or thigh Flaking. The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. but a fungal infection of the skin. Jock itch usually responds to over-thecounter antifungal creams and sprays. flat sore. If you are not certain that the condition is jock itch.Jock itch is only mildly contagious. chafing. also called tinea corporis. red.especially underwear – everyday Ringworm Ringworm. During treatment of jock itch. is not a worm. or cracking skin Diagnosis In most cases.
the middle appears normal. scaling. There may be more than one patch of ringworm on the skin. and patches or red rings of rash may overlap. Diagnosis A doctor can diagnose ringworm based on the appearance of the rash or reported symptoms. Sign & Symptoms Ringworm appears as a red. Heat and humidity may help to spread the infection. Monistat-Derm Lotrimin. He or she will ask about possible exposure to people or animals with ringworm. but it is usually not a serious condition. It is possible to have ringworm without having the common red ring of rash. Yeast Infections Yeast infections of the skin are called cutaneous candidiasis and are caused by yeast-like fungi called candida. . circular. Treatment Treatment for ringworm usually consists of antifungal medications that are applied to the skin. Ringworm can spread by direct contact with infected people or animals. itchy rash on the skin. Mycelex Prescription topical or oral drugs can be prescribed for more severe cases of ringworm. including: Lamisil Micatin. Many ringworm infections respond well to over-the-counter creams. They occur when yeast on the skin grows more actively and causes a red. Ringworm can be unsightly. flat sore that is sometimes accompanied by scaly skin. Yeast infections are not contagious. The doctor may take skin scrapings or samples from the infected area and look at them under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis. It also may be spread on clothing or furniture.
but are most likely to occur in warm. moist. Candida infection is especially common among people who are obese or who have diabetes. Sign & Symtoms Signs of yeast infection in skin folds include: Rash Patches that ooze clear fluid Pimple-like bumps Itching or burning Signs of yeast infection in the nail beds include: Swelling Pain Pus White or yellow nail that separates from the nail bed Signs of thrush (yeast infection of the mouth) include: White patches on tongue and inside of the cheeks Pain Signs of vaginal yeast infection include: White or yellow discharge from the vagina Itching . People taking antibiotics are also at risk. creased areas including the armpits and the groin. Candida also causes vaginal yeast infections.Yeast infections may affect nearly any skin surface on the body. Oral thrush is a form of candida infection that is found in the mouth. Candida can cause diaper rash in infants and can cause infections of the nail.
Your doctor may scrape the skin to confirm the diagnosis under a microscope. Severe infections or infections in someone with a compromised immune system may be treated with oral anti-yeast medications. . your doctor will need to take a medical history and do a physical exam. Thrush may be treated with a medicated mouthwash or lozenges that dissolve in the mouth. Treatment Yeast infection treatment depends on the specific kind of infection that is being treated. Medicated suppositories may be used to treat yeast infections in the vagina. Skin yeast infections are highly treatable with medicated creams. Redness in the external area of the vagina Burning Diagnosis In diagnosing a yeast infection.
GROUP 4 Jasmin Bayao Franklin Bero Diane Rose Borromeo Jahyson Canabuan Cristine Caparida Mishael Casim Jemima Comora Rhodora Damasco Filjen Deypuyart Hamdy Dimaporo .
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