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Archimedes Principle

Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) Any body immersed in a fluid is subjected to an upward force called buoyant force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.

Where = buoyant force = unit weight of fluid = volume of fluid displaced by the body Buoyant force acting on a body submerged in fluid is merely the resultant of two vertical hydrostatic forces. Consider the cylindrical body shown below to have some length perpendicular to the drawing. The horizontal components of hydrostatic force acting on the body are in equilibrium because the vertical projection of the body in opposite sides is the same.

The upward force is the total force exerted by the fluid on the under surface of the body; the downward force is the total force exerted by the fluid on the upper surface of the body. Since liquid pressure increases by depth, is greater than . The difference is therefore upward, and this difference is the buoyant force. For homogeneous body of volume displaced is "floating" in a homogeneous liquid at rest, the volume

For a floating body of height and constant cross-sectional area parallel to the liquid surface, the submerged length is given by

For a floating body whose cross-sectional area liquid surface, the area submerged is given by

is perpendicular to the

01 Force required to hold a submerged wood in position Problem 01 A piece of wood 305 mm (1 ft) square and 3 m (10 ft) long, weighing 6288.46 N/m3 (40 lb/ft3), is submerged vertically in a body of water, its upper end being flush with the water surface. What vertical force is required to hold it in position? Solution for SI units


Solution for English units


Stability of Floating Bodies

Any floating body is subjected by two opposing vertical forces. One is the body's weight W which is downward, and the other is the buoyant force BF which is upward. The weight is acting at the center of gravity G and the buoyant force is acting at the center of buoyancy BO. W and BF are always equal and if these forces are collinear, the body will be in upright position as shown below.

The body may tilt from many causes like wind or wave action causing the center of buoyancy to shift to a new position as shown below.

Point is the intersection of the axis of the body and the line of action of the buoyant force, it is called metacenter. If M is above G, BF and W will produce a righting moment RM which causes the body to return to its neutral position, thus the body is stable. If M is below G, the body becomes unstable because of the overturning moment OM made by W and BF. If M coincides with G, the body is said to be just stable which simply means critical. The value of righting moment or overturning moment is given by

The distance

is called metacentric height. Metacentric height,

Use (-) if G is above BO and (+) if G is below BO. Note that M is always above BO. Value of MBO Assume that the body is rectangular at the top view and measures B by L at the waterline when in upright position. The moment due to the shifting of the buoyant force is equal to the moment due to shifting of wedge.

For small value of , tan sin and note that 1/12 LB3 = I, thus,

The formula above can be applied to any section. Where W = weight of the body BF = buoyant force M = metacenter G = center of gravity of the body BO = center of buoyancy in upright position BO' = center of buoyancy in tilted position

MG = metacentric height or the distance from M to G MBO = distance from M to BO GO = distance from G to BO v = volume of the wedge either immersion or emersion s = horizontal distance between the center of gravity of the wedges = angle of tilting I = moment of inertia of the waterline section of the body RM = righting moment OM = overturning moment For rectangular section

elative Equilibrium of Liquids Relative equilibrium of liquid is a condition where the whole mass of liquid including the vessel in which the liquid is contained, is moving at uniform accelerated motion with respect to the earth, but every particle of liquid have no relative motion between each other. There are two cases of relative equilibrium that will be discussed in this section: linear translation and rotation. Note that if a mass of liquid is moving with constant speed, the conditions are the same as static liquid in the previous sections. Formulas For details of the following formulas see the translation and rotation pages. Horizontal Motion

Inclined Motion

Vertical Motion

Rotation and

Rectilinear Translation | Moving Vessel Horizontal Motion If a mass of fluid moves horizontally along a straight line at constant acceleration a, the liquid surface assume an angle with the horizontal, see figure below.

For any value of a, the angle can be found by considering a fluid particle of mass m on the surface. The forces acting on the particle are the weight W = mg, inertia force or reverse effective force REF = ma, and the normal force N which is the perpendicular reaction at the surface. These three forces are in equilibrium with their force polygon shown to the right. From the force triangle

Inclined Motion Consider a mass of fluid being accelerated up an incline from horizontal. The horizontal and vertical components of inertia force REF would be respectively, x = mah and y = mav.

From the force triangle above

but a cos = ah and a sin = av, hence

Use (+) sign for upward motion and (-) sign for downward motion. Vertical Motion The figure shown to the right is a mass of liquid moving vertically upward with a constant acceleration a. The forces acting to a liquid column of depth h from the surface are weight of the liquid W = V, the inertia force REF = ma, and the pressure F = pA at the bottom of the column.

Use (+) sign for upward motion and (-) sign for downward motion. Also note that a is positive for acceleration and negative for deceleration. Rotation | Rotating Vessel When at rest, the surface of mass of liquid is horizontal at PQ as shown in the figure. When this mass of liquid is rotated about a vertical axis at constant angular velocity radian per second, it will assume the surface ABC which is parabolic. Every particle is subjected to centripetal force or centrifugal force CF = m2x which produces centripetal acceleration towards the center of rotation. Other forces that acts are gravity force W = mg and normal force N.

Where tan is the slope at the surface of paraboloid at any distance x from the axis of rotation. From Calculus, y = slope, thus

For cylindrical vessel of radius r revolved about its vertical axis, the height h of paraboloid is

Other Formulas By squared-property of parabola, the relationship of y, x, h and r is defined by

Volume of paraboloid of revolution

Important conversion factor

01 - Minimum and maximum base pressure of rotating closed cylindrical vessel Tags: closed cylindrical vessel pressure tank rotation rotating vessel maximum pressure minimum pressure Problem 1 A closed cylindrical vessel 3 m. in diameter and 6 m high is filled with water to a height of 4.5 m. The rest is filled with air, the pressure of which is 105 kPa. If the vessel is rotated at 191 rpm about its axis, determine the maximum and minimum inside pressure at the base. Solution 1 HideClick here to show or hide the solution Speed of rotation

When x = r = 1.5 m and y = h

Determine the position of the vortex: (Note: The height of paraboloid is equal to H2/2D when the vortex touches the bottom of the tank.)

Since h > H2/2D, the vortex is below the vessel. See figure below.

At x = x1, y = y1

At x = x2, y = y1 + 6

Volume of air

Final volume of air = initial volume of air

The minimum pressure at the base occurs at all point within the circle of radius x1 and is equal to the original air pressure. answer The maximum pressure will occur anywhere along the circumference of the base. answer