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FUMIE NAKAOKA and NOBUYUKI ODA

(Received 16 January 2001)

Abstract. We characterize minimal open sets in topological spaces. We show that any nonempty subset of a minimal open set is pre-open. As an application of a theory of minimal open sets, we obtain a sucient condition for a locally nite space to be a preHausdor space. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classication. 54A05, 54D99.

1. Introduction. Let X be a topological space. We call a nonempty open set U of X a minimal open set when the only open subsets of U are U and . In this paper, we study fundamental properties of minimal open sets and apply them to obtain some results on pre-open sets (cf. [2]) and pre-Hausdor spaces. In Section 2, we characterize minimal open sets, that is, we show that a nonempty open set U is a minimal open set if and only if Cl(U) = Cl(S) for any nonempty subset S of U . This result implies that any nonempty subset S of a minimal open set U is a pre-open set. In Section 3, we study minimal open sets in locally nite spaces. The results of this section are closely related to the work of James [1], and these results will be used in the next scetion. In Section 4, we apply the theory of minimal open sets to study pre-open sets. Our rst main result of this section is a property of the set of all minimal open sets in any nonempty nite open set which is not a minimal open set. This result enables us to prove a generalization of Theorem 2.5, when U is a nonempty nite open set, in Theorem 4.4. Theorem 4.5 shows that our theory of minimal open set is useful to study pre-open sets. Finally, we show that some conditions on minimal open sets implies pre-Hausdorness of a space, that is, if any minimal open set of a locally nite space X has two elements at least, then X is a pre-Hausdor space. 2. Minimal open sets. Let (X, ) be a topological space. Denition 2.1. A nonempty open set U of X is said to be a minimal open set if and only if any open set which is contained in U is or U . Lemma 2.2. (1) Let U be a minimal open set and W an open set. Then U W = or U W. (2) Let U and V be minimal open sets. Then U V = or U = V .

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Proof. (1) Let W be an open set such that U W . Since U is a minimal open set and U W U , we have U W = U . Therefore U W . (2) If U V , then we see that U V and V U by (1). Therefore U = V . Proposition 2.3. Let U be a minimal open set. If x is an element of U , then U W for any open neighborhood W of x . Proof. Let W be an open neighborhood of x such that U W . Then U W is an open set such that U W U and U W . This contradicts our assumption that U is a minimal open set. Proposition 2.4. Let U be a minimal open set. Then U = {W | W is an open neighborhood of x } for any element x of U . Proof. By Proposition 2.3 and the fact that U is an open neighborhood of x , we have U {W | W is an open neighborhood of x } U . Therefore we have the result. Theorem 2.5. Let U be a nonempty open set. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) U is a minimal open set. (2) U Cl(S) for any nonempty subset S of U . (3) Cl(U ) = Cl(S) for any nonempty subset S of U . Proof. (1)(2). Let S be any nonempty subset of U . By Proposition 2.3, for any element x of U and any open neighborhood W of x , we have S = U S W S. (2.2) (2.1)

Then, we have W S and hence x is an element of Cl(S). It follows that U Cl(S). (2)(3). For any nonempty subset S of U , we have Cl(S) Cl(U). On the other hand, by (2), we see Cl(U ) Cl(Cl(S)) = Cl(S). Therefore we have Cl(U) = Cl(S) for any nonempty subset S of U . (3)(1). Suppose that U is not a minimal open set. Then there exists a nonempty open set V such that V U and hence there exists an element a U such that a V . Then we have Cl({a}) V c , the complement of V . It follows that Cl({a}) Cl(U). A subset M of a space (X, ) is called a pre-open set if M Int Cl(M). The family of all pre-open sets in (X, ) will be denoted by PO(X, ), (cf. [2]). A space (X, ) is called pre-Hausdor if for each x , y X , x y there exist subsets U , V PO(X, ) such that x U , y V , and U V = . Theorem 2.6. Let U be a minimal open set. Then any nonempty subset S of U is a pre-open set. Proof. By Theorem 2.5(2), we have Int U Int Cl(S). Since U is an open set, we have S U = Int(U ) Int Cl(S).

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Theorem 2.7. Let U be a minimal open set and M a nonempty subset of X . If there exists an open neighborhood W of M such that W Cl(M U), then M S is a pre-open set for any nonempty subset S of U . Proof. By Theorem 2.5(3), we have Cl(M S) = Cl(M) Cl(S) = Cl(M) Cl(U) = Cl(M U ). Since W Cl(M U ) = Cl(M S) by assumption, we have Int(W ) Int Cl(M S). Since W is an open neighborhood of M , namely W is an open set such that M W , we have M W = Int(W ) Int Cl(M S). Moreover we have Int(U) Int Cl(M U ), for Int(U ) = U Cl(U ) Cl(M) Cl(U ) = Cl(M U). Since U is an open set, we have S U = Int U Int Cl(M U ) = Int Cl(M S). Therefore M S Int Cl(M S). Corollary 2.8. Let U be a minimal open set and M a nonempty subset of X . If there exists an open neighborhood W of M such that W Cl(U), then M S is a pre-open set for any nonempty subset S of U . Proof. By assumption, we have W Cl(M) Cl(U) = Cl(M U). So by Theorem 2.7, we see that M S is a pre-open set. The condition of Theorem 2.7, namely W Cl(M S), does not necessarily imply the condition of Corollary 2.8, namely W Cl(S). We have the following example. Example 2.9. Let X = {a, b, c, d} with topology = {, {d}, {a, b}, {a, b, c }, {a, b, d}, X }, U = {a, b} and M = W = {d}. Then W = {d} Cl({a, b} {d}) = Cl(M U) and W = {d} Cl({a, b}) = Cl(U ). Theorem 2.10. Let U be a minimal open set and x an element of X U . Then W U = or U W for any open neighborhood W of x . Proof. Since W is an open set, we have the result by Lemma 2.2. Corollary 2.11. Let U be a minimal open set and x an element of X U . Dene Ux {W | W is an open neighborhood of x }. Then Ux U = or U Ux . Proof. If U W for any open neighborhood W of x , then U {W | W is an open neighborhood of x }. Therefore U Ux . Otherwise there exists an open neighborhood W of x such that W U = . Then we have U Ux = . 3. Finite open sets. In this section, we study some properties of minimal open sets in nite open sets and locally nite spaces. Theorem 3.1. Let V be a nonempty nite open set. Then there exists at least one (nite) minimal open set U such that U V . Proof. If V is a minimal open set, we may set U = V . If V is not a minimal open set, then there exists an (nite) open set V1 such that V1 V . If V1 is a minimal open set, we may set U = V1 . If V1 is not a minimal open set, then there exists an (nite) open set V2 such that V2 V1 V . Continuing this process, we have a sequence of open sets V V1 V2 Vk . (3.1)

474

Since V is a nite set, this process repeats only nitely. Then, nally we get a minimal open set U = Vn for some positive integer n. A topological space is said to be a locally nite space if each of its elements is contained in a nite open set. Corollary 3.2. Let X be a locally nite space and V a nonempty open set. Then there exists at least one (nite) minimal open set U such that U V . Proof. Since V is a nonempty set, there exists an element x of V . Since X is a locally nite space, we have a nite open set Vx such that x Vx . Since V Vx is a nite open set, we get a minimal open set U such that U V Vx V by Theorem 3.1. Theorem 3.3. Let V be an open set for any and W a nonempty nite open set. Then W ( V ) is a nite open set. Proof. We see that there exists an integer n such that W ( V ) = W ( n i=1 Vi ) and hence we have the result. Theorem 3.4. Let V be an open set for any and W a nonempty nite open set for any . Let S = W . Then S ( V ) is an open set. Proof. Since W is a nite open set, by Theorem 3.3, we have W ( V ) is a nite open set for any . Since S V = W V = W V we have the result. Corollary 3.5 (see [1]). Any locally nite space is an Alexandro space. 4. Applications. Let U be a nonempty nite open set. We see, by Lemma 2.2 and Corollary 3.2, that there exists a positive integer k such that {U1 , U2 , . . . , Uk } is the set of all minimal open sets in U . Then it satises the following two conditions: (a) Ui Uj = for any i, j with 1 i, j k, and i j . (b) If U is a minimal open set in U , then there exists i with 1 i k such that U = Ui . Theorem 4.1. Let U be a nonempty nite open set which is not a minimal open set. Let {U1 , U2 , . . . , Un } be the set of all minimal open sets in U and x an element of U (U1 U2 Un ). Dene Ux {W | W is an open neighborhood of x }. Then there exists a positive integer i of {1, . . . , n} such that Ui Ux . Proof. Assume that Ui Ux for any positive integer i of {1, . . . , n}. Then we have Ui Ux = for any minimal open set Ui in U by Corollary 2.11. Since Ux is a nonempty nite open set by Theorem 3.3, there exists a minimal open set U such that U Ux by Theorem 3.1. Since U Ux U , we have U is a minimal open set in U . By assumption, we have Ui U Ui Ux = for any minimal open set Ui . Therefore U Ui for any positive integer i of {1, 2, . . . , n}. This contradicts our assumption. , (3.2)

475

Proposition 4.2. Let U be a nonempty nite open set which is not a minimal open set. Let {U1 , U2 , . . . , Un } be the set of all minimal open sets in U and x an element of U (U1 U2 Un ). Then there exists a positive integer i of {1, . . . , n} such that Ui Wx for any open neighborhood Wx of x . Proof. Since Wx {W | W is an open neighborhood of x }, we have the result by Theorem 4.1. Theorem 4.3. Let U be a nonempty nite open set which is not a minimal open set. Let {U1 , U2 , . . . , Un } be the set of all minimal open sets in U and x an element of U (U1 U2 Un ). Then there exists a positive integer i of {1, . . . , n} such that x is an element of Cl(Ui ). Proof. By Proposition 4.2, there exists a positive integer i of {1, . . . , n} such that Ui W for any open neighborhood W of x . Therefore Ui W Ui Ui for any open neighborhood W of x . Therefore we have the result. The following result is a generalization of Theorem 2.5, when U is a nonempty nite open set. Theorem 4.4. Let U be a nonempty nite open set and Ui a minimal open set in U for each i {1, 2, . . . , n}. Then the following three conditions are equivalent: (1) {U1 , U2 , . . . , Un } is the set of all minimal open sets in U . (2) U Cl(S1 S2 Sn ) for any nonempty subsets Si of Ui for i {1, 2, . . . , n}. (3) Cl(U ) = Cl(S1 S2 Sn ) for any nonempty subsets Si of Ui for i {1, 2, . . . , n}. Proof. (1)(2). If U is a minimal open set, then this is the result of Theorem 2.5(2). Otherwise U is not a minimal open set. If x is any element of U (U1 U2 Un ), we have x Cl(U1 ) Cl(U2 ) Cl(Un ) by Theorem 4.3. Therefore U Cl U1 Cl U2 Cl Un = Cl S1 Cl S2 Cl Sn = Cl S1 S2 Sn (4.1)

by Theorem 2.5(3). (2)(3). For any nonempty subset Si of Ui with i {1, 2, . . . , n}, we have Cl(S1 S2 Sn ) Cl(U ). On the other hand, by (2), we see Cl(U ) Cl Cl S1 S2 Sn = Cl S1 S2 Sn . (4.2)

Therefore we have Cl(U ) = Cl(S1 S2 Sn ) for any nonempty subset Si of Ui with i {1, 2, . . . , n}. (3)(1). Suppose that V is a minimal open set in U and V Ui for i {1, 2, . . . , n}. Then we have V Cl(Ui ) = for each i {1, 2, . . . , n}. It follows that any element of V is not contained in Cl(U1 U2 Un ). This contradicts the condition (3) because V U Cl(U ) = Cl(S1 S2 Sn ). Let U be a nonempty nite open set, {U1 , U2 , . . . , Un } the set of all minimal open sets in U and xi an element of Ui for each i {1, 2, . . . , n}. Then we see that the set {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } is a pre-open set by Theorem 4.4. Moreover, we have the following result.

476

Theorem 4.5. Let U be a nonempty nite open set and {U1 , U2 , . . . , Un } the set of all minimal open sets in U . Let S be any subset of U (U1 U2 Un ) and Si be any nonempty subset of Ui for each i {1, 2, . . . , n}. Then S S1 S2 Sn is a pre-open set. Proof. By Theorem 4.4(2), we have U Cl S1 S2 Sn Cl S S1 S2 Sn . Since U is an open set, then we have S S1 S2 Sn U = Int(U ) Int Cl S S1 S2 Sn . Then we have the result. Theorem 4.6. Let X be a locally nite space. If any minimal open set of X has two elements at least, then X is a pre-Hausdor space. Proof. Let x , y be elements of X such that x y . Since X is a locally nite space, there exists nite open sets U and V such that x U and y V . By Theorem 3.1, there exists the set {U1 , U2 , . . . , Un } of all minimal open sets in U and the set {V1 , V2 , . . . , Vm } of all minimal open sets in V . Case 1. If there exists i of {1, 2, . . . , n} and j of {1, 2, . . . , m} such that x Ui and y Vj , then, by Theorem 2.6, {x } and {y } are disjoint pre-open sets which contains x and y , respectively. Case 2. If there exists i of {1, 2, . . . , n} such that x Ui and y Vj for any j of {1, 2, . . . , m}, then we nd an element yj of Vj for each j such that {x } and {y, y1 , y2 , . . . , ym } are pre-open sets and {x } {y, y1 , y2 , . . . , yn } = by Theorems 2.6, 4.5 and the assumption. Case 3. If x Ui for any i of {1, 2, . . . , n} and y Vj for any j of {1, 2, . . . , m}, then we nd elements xi of Ui and yj of Vj for each i, j such that {x, x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } and {y, y1 , y2 , . . . , ym } are pre-open sets and {x, x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } {y, y1 , y2 , . . . , ym } = by Theorem 4.5 and the assumption. We remark that we use the assumption that any minimal open set of X has at least two elements for the case Ui = Vj for some i and j in the argument of cases (2) and (3). Therefore X is a pre-Hausdor space. (4.4) (4.3)

References

[1] I. M. James, Alexandro spaces, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo (2) Suppl. (1992), no. 29, 475 481, International Meeting on Topology in Italy (Italian) (Lecce, 1990/Otranto, 1990). MR 94g:54020. Zbl 793.54006. A. S. Mashhour, M. E. Abd El-Monsef, and S. N. El-Deep, On precontinuous and weak precontinuous mappings, Proc. Math. Phys. Soc. Egypt (1982), no. 53, 4753. MR 87c:54002. Zbl 571.54011.

[2]

Fumie Nakaoka: Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan E-mail address : fumie@fukuoka-u.ac.jp Nobuyuki Oda: Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan E-mail address : odanobu@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp

Call for Papers

The study of dynamic equations on a time scale goes back to its founder Stefan Hilger (1988), and is a new area of still fairly theoretical exploration in mathematics. Motivating the subject is the notion that dynamic equations on time scales can build bridges between continuous and discrete mathematics; moreover, it often revels the reasons for the discrepancies between two theories. In recent years, the study of dynamic equations has led to several important applications, for example, in the study of insect population models, neural network, heat transfer, and epidemic models. This special issue will contain new researches and survey articles on Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales. In particular, it will focus on the following topics:

Lead Guest Editor Alberto Cabada, Departamento de Anlise Matemtica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; alberto.cabada@usc.es Guest Editor Victoria Otero-Espinar, Departamento de Anlise Matemtica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain; mvictoria.otero@usc.es

Existence, uniqueness, and multiplicity of solutions Comparison principles Variational methods Mathematical models Biological and medical applications Numerical and simulation applications

Before submission authors should carefully read over the journals Author Guidelines, which are located at http://www .hindawi.com/journals/ade/guidelines.html. Authors should follow the Advances in Dierence Equations manuscript format described at the journal site http://www.hindawi .com/journals/ade/. Articles published in this Special Issue shall be subject to a reduced Article Processing Charge of C200 per article. Prospective authors should submit an electronic copy of their complete manuscript through the journal Manuscript Tracking System at http://mts.hindawi.com/ according to the following timetable: Manuscript Due First Round of Reviews Publication Date April 1, 2009 July 1, 2009 October 1, 2009

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