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ME 6280: Design and Optimization of Energy Systems Assignment No 1

(Problems in modeling and optimization) Submit on 17th August 2011 Modelling: (1) Mathematically model the growth of a population with limited resources. (2) In the design of a hot water storage system, it is given that a steady flow of hot of the 100 kg/hr, enters a long circular pipe water at 82oC and mass flow rate m of diameter 2.5 cm, with a convective heat loss at the outer surface of the pipe of the ambient medium at 30oC with a heat transfer coefficient of 11 W/m2K. The properties of water are = 1000 kg/m3, k = 0.6 W/mK and Cp = 4182 J/kg K. Develop a simple mathematical model for this process and calculate the water temperature after the flow has traversed 10 m of pipe.

(3) A chemical industry needs hot water at temperature Tc Tc for a chemical process. For this purpose, a storage tank of volume V and surface area A is employed. Whenever hot water is withdrawn from the tank, cold water at temperature T, where T is the ambient temperature, flows into the tank. A heater supplying energy at the rate of Q turns on whenever the temperature reaches Tc - Tc. The heater is submerged in the water contained in the tank. Assuming uniform temperature in the tank and a convective loss to the environment at the surface, with a heat transfer coefficient h, obtain a mathematical model for this system. Sketch the expected temperature T of water of hot water and in the tank as a function of time for a given mass flow rate m m also for the case when there is no outflow, = 0. Optimization: For solving the problems given below, you may use any method known to you including enumerating the solution with the help of a computer or calculus or common sense! (4) Find the maximum value of the function

y(x)= 4 cos (4x-1.4 + 5 cos (2x+0.6) where x is in radians. (5) There are 2 cities A and B on opposite sides of a river with a constant width w. As shown in the figure, the city A is at a distance a from the river, B is at distance b and the lateral separation of the two cities is d. Where should we build a bridge over the river (perpendicular to the rivers banks) so as to make the journey between A and B as short as possible? Stated simply, what is x? Solve this problem with and without using calculus. w b

w x a d A

river

(6) A man is initially at point A on a beach with a perfect right angle bend as shown in the figure. The man wishes to travel from A to E in the minimum possible time T; at any point B, as he walks along the first section of the beach towards C, he can enter the water and swim to D, where he exits the water and continues to walk on the second section of the beach to E. The lengths of the two sections of the beach are a and b, as shown in the figure. If v1 is the swimming speed and v2 is the walking speed, determine the values of x and y that minimizes the total time T in terms of a, b, v1 and v2.

For a =0.5 km and b=1.2 km, for some assumed values of the walking and swimming speeds, draw contour plots (showing x,y) of the feasible region and see whether these give some additional insights.

V2 (walking) land g water b V1 (swimming) V2 (walking) b d land

x f