Margins, Spruing

&

Investing
C&B
Stage 3

The Margin
Topics
1. 2. 3. 4. The Preparation Types of Margins Contouring the margin Sealing the margin

The Preparation
2mm reduction on Incisal and Occlussal 1.5mm reduction on, facial, lingual, mesial and distal

The Preparation

Temporary Filling

Root Canal

The Preparation

Amalgam Filling

Preparation for Crown

The Preparation
Impression of the Preparation

Types of Margins
• The margin is the outline of the preparation where the prepared tooth surface and unprepared tooth surface meet.

• It is also the junction between the tooth preparation and the artificial restoration.

Types of Margins
• • • • • Bevel Feather Chamfer Shoulder Chamfer shoulder

Types of Margins
Bevel
Uses
• Mandibular anterior teeth a • restorations with metal margins

Advantages
• Easily defined because of ½ shoulder

Disadvantages
• Thin feather edge - possible distortion

Types of Margins
Feather
Uses
• Full gold crown posterior teeth • VMK with 360° fine metal margin

Advantages
• Good marginal seal • Good escape of cement

Disadvantages
• Hard to define margin/finish line • May distort after casting • Over contouring problems

Types of Margins
Chamfer
Uses
• Full gold crowns • Popular design for posterior teeth

Advantages
• Defined margins • Strength due to bulk of gold at margin area

Disadvantages
• None

Types of Margins
Shoulder
Uses
• Maxillary anterior teeth. • Mainly used for all ceramic crowns • Resin / acrylic crowns

Advantages
• Easily defined • Allows correct contouring • Supports porcelain

Disadvantages
• During cementation the crown may not seat properly

Types of Margins
Shoulder Chamfer
Uses
• All ceramic restorations

Advantages
• Easily defined • Allows correct contouring • Supports porcelain

Disadvantages
• None

Contouring the Margin
Wax margin finishing Check carefully for these conditions
• • • • • Over-waxed margins Short margins Rippled margins Open margins Thick margins

Contouring the Margin
Over-waxed Margins
Wax has been carried past the finish line and may break off when the pattern is removed from the die resulting in a short margin. If the over-waxed area does not break during withdrawal of the pattern, it may spring back. When cast in metal this area will no longer bend as it once did and the casting maybe prevented from seating all the way down.

Contouring the Margin
Short Margins
A wax margin that is not waxed all the way to the tooth preparation margin will not provide an adequate seal for the finished restoration.

Contouring the Margin
Ripples
Any roughness in the wax near the margin will be duplicated in the casting. Do not count on being able to remove these irregularities once the casting has been made, since their elimination usually entails an unwanted change in contour.

Contouring the Margin
Open Margins
It can be the result of any of the above-mentioned problems or the contraction of wax during cooling. A gap will be seen. A poor seal for the finished restoration will occur. Remove the wax pattern from the die

Contouring the Margin
Thick Margins
A thick, rounded margin will result in poor sealing of the restoration and poor contours. The margin of the wax must come to a fine edge.

Contouring the Margin
Correct
This is how the margin should look in the finished state. That is your polished crown, ready to send to the client.

Spruing & Investing

Spruing and Investing
Topics
1. Preparing to Sprue
• • • • • • Resealing the wax margin Adding wax to contact areas Items required The correct technique and dimension Ring liners Steps when Investing (demo in prac lesson)

2. Spruing Technique

3. Investing

Preparing to Sprue
Resealing The Wax Margin
Steps
1. Freshly lubricate the die with separator 2. Place the wax pattern back on the die 3. Make certain you can see the margin on the die 4. Margin is remelted with hot instrument 5. A depression remains near the margin (see arrows) 6. Wax is added to the margin with hot instrument 7. Excess wax is lightly removed and margin re-contoured

Preparing to Sprue
Adding wax to contact areas
Extra wax is added to the contact area to allow for polishing.

Only for full crowns

Spruing Technique
Items required for spruing and investing

Ring liner Sprue wax

Sprue Former

Casting ring

Investment

Spruing Technique
The correct technique and dimension
A Successful casting depends on the correct spruing technique The sprue creates a passage way for molten alloy to pass through into the heated mold

Sprues are made from wax or
plastic that burn completely out of the mold

Spruing Technique
• Wax Pattern should be a minimum thickness of

0.5mm

• Sprue thickness (diameter) should be wider than the thickest cross-section of the wax pattern. • Sprue Placement - on the thickest part of the wax pattern, at an angle allowing for the best flow of the molten alloy

Spruing Technique
A sprue former is a cone-shaped base made
of plastic to which the sprue is attached. It forms a crucible in the investment material, that allows the dental alloy to pass into the sprue and wax pattern. It is also called crucible former.

Spruing Technique
When placing the wax pattern and sprue on to the sprue former, consider the flow of the molten alloy into the hot mold and the angles the molten alloy must pass.

Spruing Technique
Distance between top of ring & wax pattern Ring Wax pattern Ring liner Ring liner short of ring 3mm

5mm

Sprue Length

Contact area extra wax

5mm

Sprue Former

Investing
Ring liners
Ring liner is placed inside the casting ring and should be 3mm short of the metal ring at both ends

Investing
Steps when investing
Investing will be demonstrated in class today

A finished Gold Crown

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