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Prof. Dr. Halime Paksoy ukurova University Faculty of Fine Arts Department of Textiles, Turkey Instr. Sema Yaln ukurova University Faculty of Fine Arts Department of Textiles, Turkey

starting from the educational period. The internet and the new technologies in education play an important role in getting to know different cultures. Television is also a visual culture. It is necessary for the designer to follow the new trends and the changes in fashion since it is a retroactive design process. All kinds of media are important in understanding and interpreting the visual perception of the designers. Here is an example how media- internet- and communication technologiesnewspapers, magazines, cable televisions- affect the designer students. A group of fashion design students in Fine Arts Faculty in Cukurova University designed unique garments inspired by architecture. They started by looking through architectural magazines and interactive media to select a building. Once they have decided what kind of architecture might inspire them, they selected the building and studied its form and details by drawing sketches. They focused on several details of the building: the windows, doors, roofs, stairways, decoration, colors and textures as well as the overall form. They also took the surroundings of the building into consideration. The sketches that they have drawn guided them in deciding which details are to be used and which are to be eliminated. Finally they have combined the basic elements into their fashion designs. In these student designs inspired from architecture you can discover interesting textures, glamorous colors and strong design features which reflect their source and are also concepts in their own style. In the following paper, the examples from these designs will be given and architectural interactions will be discussed. Architecture & Fashion Design Architecture can be an inspiration for a fashion design. It may seem a little surprising to use an architectural building as an inspiration for fashion design, but all examples of architecture, whether traditional or contemporary, can cause a creative spark to the designer. Whether it is in the overall theme of a building or just a detail, useful ideas in the architecture can be found as inspiration to create a garment Architecture and fashion may seem far from each other; in architecture, designing monumental buildings are meant for a long visual life, whereas

Introduction: Todays one of the most rewarding professions is the designer working in art business. A design process involves a series of creative activities including research, analysis and decision making. The designer creates designs that are attractive and functional and uniquely suited to the human needs. A good designer needs to be a constant observer and creative thinker as well as a good listener, a careful interpreter and a skilled crafts person. Ultimately the designer must be an artist! He must understand style, composition, balance, aesthetics and human emotions and also understand the vision and the psychology of perception. Using these tools the designer must learn to think, feel and create with his heart. The designer needs a new, fresh, innovative spark for creating. It is wondered where all these design ideas come from! Inspiration for design themes can be found everywhere. With an enquiring mind the further extremes should be explored to find an inspiration and almost everything can be a creative spark to the designer. A designer should always be aware of the environment as well as the changing time; music trends, street culture, films, and fine art movements. Todays interactive world provides innumerable opportunities for the designer. The designer gets to know media

fashion in clothes changes every season. However, both forms are three dimensional and contain space; both are structured; both are related to fine arts and visual. Three dimensional form and space is the basis of architecture and so are the most designed objects in art. In evaluating a designed object different perspectives should be considered. Three dimensional designs as in architecture, sculpture, and fashion occupy a space which affects the overall form of the design. Fashion designers, who have to have a spatial way of thinking like architects, translate a two dimensional material (cloth) into a three dimensional form (body-shaped garment). Fabric is a two dimensional shape but when it is constructed as a garment surrounding the human body, it becomes a three dimensional form which has its own space as well. Fashion designer needs to experiment with form and shape, while designing and constructing a garment that is appropriate to human body. Riegelman gives a very poetic description of the similarities between architecture and fashion with her following words [1]: Draping is like architecture: the body is the armature, the internal structure, and the fabric, like skin, glides over this frame. Fabric falls and twists, forms knots, bends and curves, like a river it ebbs and flows over the contours of the body. Designed garments have to be conceived in relation to function as well as the contours of the human body that will use the object. Fashion designer is also expected to be extremely creative and eager to explore his or her future environment. Fashion designer must have some idea of the development and origins of fashion and trends that come and go in art and design. The designer must produce unique and innovative designs which will present new challenges, new obstacles and new human dynamics. Kunii and Wachi consider fashion to be an influential medium which leads the social trends internationally. Topological model in fashion is mentioned to allow several varieties of dress designs. This is described as a three layers model: topological, geometrical,

visual. Topological layer specifies the fashion mode, geometrical layer produces varieties of shapes and visual layer implements the real dress in various media like TV, publications, etc. [2]. This topological approach is also valid in architectural design. The inspiration for garment silhouettes and details can be found in almost any architectural source. The inspiring architecture may be a very familiar traditional building as well as an artifact somewhere in the world which may be very far away. Here interactive media is very important for the designer in getting to know the architecture as well as its different aspects. When the architecture is investigated by the designer an unexpected detail of a building may become one of the magnificent features of the garment design. Examples From Student Designs SYDNEY OPERA HOUSE Surrounded by water on three sides, Sydney Opera House is one of the most magnificent buildings, constructed by Danish architect Jorn Utzon, on one of the most beautiful harbors in the world (Picture 1). Rising in the Sydney Harbor, Sydney Opera House is meant to look like a giant sailing ship. The Opera House is 197 feet high and famous with its overlapping shell roof structure [3]. zezen [5] constructed costumes inspired by Sydney Opera House (Figure 1). She used the structure of the Opera House to form the main parts of the garments. In Figure 1a, the roof of the Opera House, looking like segments of an orange, has been used in forming the sheer and overlapping sleeves of the blouse and the mini skirt. In this example the form has been dominating element of the design. The blue water of the harbor gave its color to the fabric. As seen in these examples architecture can surround a human body as well as Sydney Harbor!

Picture 1. Sydney Opera House, Section Drawing on the right and photograph on the left [4]

Figure 1a.

Figure 1b.

Figure 1c.

Figure 1d.

Figure 1. zezens costume designs inspired by Sydney Opera House [5]]

LA BOCA-BUENOS AIRES Perhaps the most colorful area in Buenos Aires is La Boca (Picture 2), which sits along the port, is often perceived as the birthplace of tango. The main street in La Boca is full of brightly painted houses made of wood and metal where fairs for artisans and painters, and open air tango shows are held [6]. The vibrant, bright colors and typical wooden structure of the houses in La Boca (Picture 2) have inspired imek [8] and as a result flamboyant garments are designed. The structure of horizontal

wooden tiled houses has been used in forming the texture of the fabric of the garment. The horizontal accordion pleats of the narrow dress reflect La Bocas blue painted houses (Figure 2a). Roof of the houses has become long and flared skirt details (Figure 2c). The colors of the designed garments are the most outstanding element of the designs that also reflects La Bocas cheerful and dynamic atmosphere. This work by imek shows that in Adana, far away from Buenos Aires, the architectural inspirations can lead a fashion designer to reflect the nostalgia of tango!
Figure 2b.

Picture 2 La Boca [7]

Figure 2c.

Figure 2a. Figure 2. imeks costume designs inspired by La Boca [8]

Figure 2d.

GALATA TOWER One of the most striking landmarks of Istanbul, Galata Tower (Picture 3) has dominated Beyolus skyline since 1348 and still offers the best panoramic views of the city. It is a huge stone tower with its cone-capped cylinder top. Originally known as Tower of Christ, it was built by Genoese colony to defend themselves [9]. The massive and stable stone form of the tower has inspired the fashion designer Horuzolu [11]. The tower of Christ (Picture 3) has become a real authentic garment. The folding skirt with its hard,

stone texture reflects the form of the tower. The effective use of minimal coloring like the pale tones of grey, black and brown also reflects the original colors in the architectural source (Figure 3a). The conical top of the tower has become a fascinating dress with beads hanging on the hemline (Figure 3b). In figure 3c the arcaded columns adorning the tower have also become the skirt details of a sheath dress. The hard stone texture has been shaped into a drape; sliding over the hip to the knee curving under the bust (Figure3d). The form, structure and texture of the fashion designs all remind Galata Tower.
Figure 3b.

Picture 3. Galata Tower [10]

Figure 3c.

Figure 3a. Figure 3. Horuzolus costume designs inspired by Galata Tower [11]

Figure 3d.

SAFRANBOLU HOUSES Safranbolu houses (Picture 4) are constructed in the style of the traditional Turkish architecture at the beginning of 18th and 19th century, and are located at different regions of Safranbolu district. There are approximately 2000 traditional houses with very specific urban structures and architecture styles. The houses are constructed from stones, sun- dried brick, wood and tile. Long and narrow bay windows of Safranbolu houses are very typical [12]. These Turkish houses have also become an inspiration for contemporary garment designs of

designer, daye [14]. The wooden structure of the houses is the texture of the dress as well as the form of the skirt (Figure 4a). It is over the edge! The windows, which add a special appearance to the facades of the houses, are used as body of the costume (Figure 4b). You can see the small details of the architecture as becoming big accessories of the dresses. The stone structure covering the entrance of the houses has become the texture of the hat with its small brim as the accessory of the costume (Figure 4b). The wooden handles at the windows have also become striking buttons of the coats (Figure 4d).
Figure 4a.

Picture 4. Safranbolu House [13]

Figure 4d.

Figure 4b. Figure 4c. Figure 4. dayes costume designs inspired by Safranbolu Houses [14]

TAJ MAHAL Taj Mahal (Picture 5), meaning Crown Palace, is regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and was built by Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his dear wife and Queen Mumtaz Mahal at Agra, India. As a tribute to a beautiful woman and as a monument for enduring love it impresses feminine feelings. It is the sum of Islamic architecture and Hindu architecture of pre-Islamic India. It is entirely a white marble tomb with its thick walls, corbelled arches, and heavy lintels. The color changes at different hours of the day and during different seasons. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset [15]. The garment designs inspired from Taj Mahal(Picture 5) reflect the dreamlike appearance of the

architecture at sunset! The four minarets existing at the corners of Taj Mahal have become a narrow, midi dress with its geometric and symmetric architectural elements as being the outstanding elements of fashion design. It has a focus on waist (Figure 5a). The curving and gently swelling dome has become a bulbous skirt with a curved hemline and its upper details being a bustier (Figure 5c). The arches of the entrance gate have become striking skirt details(Figure 5d). The rigid and at the same time ethereal form of the tomb is reflected in the pattern, texture and form of the garments. Shah Jahan has built the tomb in the memory of his beloved wife so the architecture impresses feminine feelings. Maruldal [17] has also impressed by these feminine feelings in using accessories in the garments (Figure 5d).

Picture 5. Taj Mahal [16]

Figure 5c.

Figure 5d.

Figure 5a.

Figure 5b. Figure 5. Maruldals costume designs inspired by Taj Mahal [17]

KONGRESSHALLE The Congress Hall (Picture 6) is a timeless, modern architecture and ideal spatial configuration located in the center of Berlin. This unique building, designed by the architect Hugh Stubbins, is striking for its clear and arching forms and many interesting architectural details. The shiny aluminum dome can be seen from far away. Despite the suspended appearance of the arching form of the roof, it is mounted on two external

supports [18]. Yksek [19] has designed high fashion garments inspired by Kongresshalle (Picture 6). Its arching roof has become an arching and stiff mini skirt which also reflects the architectures modern and unique structure (Figure 6a). In this example Yksek adapted the most interesting part of the architecture to the garment designs. The form of the architecture leads the designer to create ultra modern fashion!
Figure 6b.

Picture 6. Kongresshalle [20]

Figure 6c.

Figure 6d. Figure 6a. Figure 6. Ykseks costume designs inspired by Kongresshalle [19]

References 1. Riegelman, N., (2003), 9 Heads- A Guide to Drawing Fashion,(Third Eddition ), 9 Heads Media in assosiation with Art Center College of Design,Pasadena,California,USA, 104. 2. Kunii, T. And Wachi T., Topological Dress Making as Fashion Media Modeling, 1998 MultiMedia Modeling, October 12-15, 1998 Lousanne,Switzerland, =722993 3. Opera House. 4. Sydney Opera House-Jorn Utson-Great Buildings Online. era.html 5. zezen, N.,(2004), Costume designs inspired by architecture, Project for Apparel Design Course at ukurova University Faculty of Fine Arts Textiles Department, 35x50 cm.colored pencil 6. Boenos Aires-Explorations. xploring.htm 7. Dan Hellers photos of Buenos Aires, Argentina. 8. imek, Z.,(2004), Costume designs inspired by architecture, Project for Apparel Design Course at ukurova University Faculty of Fine Arts Textiles Department, 35x50 cm.water color 9. stanbul Galata Tower Information. the_city/towers/galata_tower.htm 10. Galata Tower,stanbul,Turkey. 11. Horuzolu, R.,(2004), Costume designs inspired by architecture, Project for Apparel Design Course at ukurova University Faculty of Fine Arts Textiles Department, 35x50 cm.colored pencil and water color

12. Republic of Turkey,Ministry of CultureSafranbolu Houses destinasyon_en.asp?belgeno=10272&belgekod=961 5&baslik=Karab_k 13. Safranbolu Houses. 14. daye, R,.(2004), Costume designs inspired by architecture, Project for Apparel Design Course at ukurova University Faculty of Fine Arts Textiles Department, 35x50 cm.colored pencil and water color 15. Taj Mahal-A Tribute To Beauty 16. Taj Mahal-Emperor Shah Jahan-Great Buildinds Online tml 17. Maruldal, R,.(2004), Costume designs inspired by architecture, Project for Apparel Design Course at ukurova University Faculty of Fine Arts Textiles Department, 35x50 cm.colored pencil and water color 18. bbc Berliner Congress Center 19. Yksek, .,(2004), Costume designs inspired by architecture, Project for Apparel Design Course at ukurova University Faculty of Fine Arts Textiles Department, 35x50 cm.colored pencil 20. Kongresshalle erlin/theater/kongress.html