Lecture notes for Chemistry

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Lecture notes for Chemistry

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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CHEM 107 ! T. Hughbanks !

You Some

should be reading Chapter 10.! of this material is quite challenging, be sure to read ahead in order to keep up in class.!

Spontaneity

Spontaneous:

of Thermodynamics

Occurring without outside intervention.! A reaction or change of state is said to be spontaneous if it is thermodynamically allowed.! For a chemist, prediction of spontaneity is a major goal of thermodynamics.!

Energy:

Entropy

Entropy

E or H!

Not a good predictor. Both endothermic and exothermic reactions can occur.!

Temperature!

(S) is a thermodynamic state function which can be described qualitatively as a measure of the amount of disorder present in a system.! a chemical perspective, we usually mean molecular disorder.!

Concentrations,

From

pressures, etc.!

Entropy

In many spontaneous processes, entropy of a system increases. (S > 0)! Examples:!

expansion of a gas into vacuum!

Entropy

of a substance depends on physical state. Sgas >> Sliquid > Ssolid! depends on temperature. Increasing T will increase entropy due to increase in molecular motion.!

Entropy

Expansion of a Gas

Probability that both molecules will be on left hand side: (1/2)2 = 1/4.

This

process obviously has a preferred direction, but why?! Once the valve is open, the probability that all molecules will return to one side is astronomically small.! S > 0 for this spontaneous change!

Probability that both molecules will be on left hand side: (1/2)4 = 1/16.

= A very small number when N is Avogadros number!

Extra Details

Number of ways of having N 2 molecules on each side: N N! = N 2 [ ( N 2)!]2

Distribution of Probabilities

Pmax P(N) N

1 e

N N 2 N e, as N ; 2.709 for N = 200) N 2 N / 2

N

Pmax

N/2

!Once the valve is open, the probability that N molecules will return to one side is (1/2) N. If we had started with 2N molecules, the probability would have been (1/2) 2N.!

Once the valve is open, the probability that N molecules will return to the left side is (VA/(VA+ VB)) N = (Vi/Vf) N For 2N molecules, the probability would be (Vi/Vf) 2N.!

For

Entropy: S = S + k ln (probability)! S = k {ln (prob.)nal - ln (prob.)initial}! ln (prob.)nal = ln( 1) 0! ln (prob.)initial = ln (Vi/Vf) N << 0 ! S = -Nk ln (Vi/Vf) > 0 (what is k?)!

systems with equal energy content, those that are most disordered also turn out to be most statistically likely (most probable).! Entropy increases as the statistical likelihood increases. ! The entropy of the universe tends to increase: (S)universe > 0 in all changes!

Popular Misconceptions

Sometimes

Generation of a Gas

Frozen

you see it said that in principle, a system could show a decrease in entropy, it is just highly unlikely that usually means highly unlikely EVER!! The entropy of system can decrease, if the entropy of the universe increases. (The order we see on earth is the direct result of a massive increase in the entropy of the sun.)!

Beaker reaction :

reactants solid, liquid, & gas in products! Ssystem >> 0!

Solid

In

The

some spontaneous processes, the entropy of a system decreases. (S < 0)! Examples:!

freezing of a liquid! condensation of a gas! formation of a solid product from gas or liquid reactants!

These

conversion of 2 moles of gas into one mole of gas decreases the entropy of the system.!

Entropy

Simplest

change of the system does not correctly predict spontaneity.! One correct statement of the second law of thermodynamics is: The entropy of the universe is always increasing.!

In

equation form, this is: Suniverse > 0. where Suniverse = Ssystem + Ssurroundings

case is a process which occurs at constant T. Phase changes are good examples. ! For the case of constant T, ! ! !S = qT/T! qT is heat at constant T, signs as usual! From this equation, S has units of J/K!

Problem

Dry

Spontaneity

Second

ice is solid CO2. At T = 195 K, dry ice sublimes (is converted directly from a solid into a gas). Hsublim. = 25.2 kJ/mol! Suppose 27.5 g of dry ice are allowed to sublime in a room with Troom = 26.5 C.! Without doing calculations, predict the signs of SCO2, Sroom, and Suniverse.!

Calculate

law says that a process is spontaneous if Suniverse > 0.! From problem, realize that the phase change will be spontaneous as long as the temperature of the room is above the sublimation temperature.! At Tsublim, Suniverse = 0, so both phases can exist in any ratio. EQUILIBRIUM!

Absolute Entropy

We

The

said earlier that the entropy of any material will increase as T increases, due to increased molecular motion.! Molecular motion, and entropy, decrease as T is lowered.! T = 0 K is the (theoretical) limit to how far we can lower the temperature.! Thus minimum entropy is at 0 K.!

third law of thermodynamics says: The entropy of a pure, perfect crystal at 0 K is zero.! Applies to a crystal of any substance.! Note that this is a fairly hypothetical limit: pure, perfect, and 0 K are all ideals.! Third law means that we can nd absolute entropy. (unlike E, H)!

S and S

Thermo.

Tables (Appendix E) give S for many substances. (Units of J mol-1K-1)! is absolute entropy at 25 C, 1 atm.!

118 J/molK!

This

Notice

that S is never equal to zero, but approaches zero as the temperature approaches zero. S is never less than zero (but Ssystem can be less than zero).!

22 J/molK!

S and S

Easy

Problem

The

to nd S from the tabulated Ss: S = Sproducts - Sreactants.! form is: Srxn = nSproducts nSreactants! in appearance to Hesss law.!

Useful

Similar But

Mond Process is used commercially to produce pure nickel.! Ni(s) + 4 CO(g) Ni(CO)4(g) ! First, try to predict the signs of S and H.

Then use data on next slide to calculate values.!

Ni(s) + 4 CO(g) Ni(CO)4(g) ! S, H = ??! ! ! !Ni(s)! ! CO(g) !Ni(CO)4(g)! Hf

0

110.52

602.9

S298

29.87

197.56

410.6

Hf

in kJ mol-1, S298 in J K-1 mol-1.! Watch units!!

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