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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006


Chapter 3 - Dynamics of Marine Vessels
3.1 Rigid-Body Dynamics
3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments
3.3 6 DOF Equations of Motion
3.4 Model Transformations Using Matlab
3.5 Standard Models for Marine Vessels
M C D g g
o
w
M - system inertia matrix (including added mass)
C - Coriolis-centripetal matrix (including added mass)
D - damping matrix
g - vector of gravitational/buoyancy forces and moments
- vector of control inputs
g
o
- vector used for pretrimming (ballast control)
w - vector of environmental disturbances (wind, waves and currents)
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Coordinate free vector: A vector defined by its magnitude and direction but
without reference to a coordinate frame.
Coordinate vector: A vector decomposed in the inertial reference frame is
denoted as v
i
Newton-Euler Formulation
Newton's Second Law relates mass m, acceleration and force according to:
where the subscript c denotes the center of gravity (CG).
Euler's First and Second Axioms
Euler suggested to express Newton's Second Law in terms of conservation of both
linear momentum and angular momentum according to:
and are forces/moments about CG
is the angular velocity of frame b relative frame i
I
c
is the inertia dyadic about the body's CG
3.1 Rigid-Body Dynamics
v

c
f

c
mv

c
f

c
p

c h

c
p

c
f

c
p

c
mv

c
h

c
m

c
h

c
I
c
o

ib
m

c
o

ib
f

c
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
When deriving the equations of motion it will be assumed that:
(1) the vessel is rigid
(2) the NED frame is inertial
The first assumption eliminates the consideration of forces acting between
individual elements of mass while the second eliminates forces due to the
Earth's motion relative to a star-fixed inertial reference system.
For guidance and navigation applications in space it is usual to use a star-fixed
reference frame or a reference frame rotating with the Earth. Marine vessels
are, on the other hand, usually related to the NED reference frame. This is a
good assumption since forces on marine craft due to the Earth's rotation:
are quite small compared to the hydrodynamic forces.
o
ie
7. 2921 10
5
(rad/s)
3.1 Rigid-Body Dynamics
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.1.1Translational Motion
Mass of a rigid body:
CG is defined as:
The position of the volume element dV is:
is constant over the volume
O
CG
inertial frame
r
o
r
c
r
g
r
r'
m :
V

m
dV
r
c
:
1
m

V

m
dV
r

r

c
r

V
r

m
dV

V
r

m
dV

V
r

m
dV
mr

c
r

c
V

m
dV 0

r
c
Body-fixed reference frame
is fixed in the point O and
rotating with respect to the
inertial frame.
is the vector from O to CG r

g
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
For marine vessels it is desirable to derive the equations of motion for an arbitrary
origin O in the b-frame to take advantage of the vessel's geometric properties.
Since the hydrodynamic and kinematic forces and moments are given in the b-
frame, Newton's laws will be formulated in the b-frame as well. The b-frame
coordinate system is rotating with respect to the i-frame (inertial system).
The velocities of CG and O must satisfy:
It is common to assume that the NED frame is an approximate inertial frame by
neglecting the Earth rotation and the angular velocity due to slow
variations in longitude and latitude:
3.1.1Translational Motion
v

c
v

o
o

ib
r

g
o

ib
o

ie
o

en
o

nb
o

nb
o

ie
o

en
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Decomposing:
into the b-frame under the assumption that , yields:
Hence, n-frame coordinates are obtained by using the rotation matrix :
Time differentiation, yields the acceleration of the CG in NED coordinates:
3.1.1Translational Motion
o

ib
o

nb
v

c
v

o
o

ib
r

g
v
c
b
v
o
b

nb
b
r
g
b
v
c
n
R
b
n
v
c
b
R
b
n
v
o
b

nb
b
r
g
b

R
b
n
v
c
n
R
b
n
v
o
b

nb
b
r
g
b

nb
b
r

g
b
R

b
n
v
o
b

nb
b
r
g
b

R
b
n
v
o
b

nb
b
r
g
b
R
b
n
S
nb
b
v
o
b

nb
b
r
g
b

R
b
n
v
o
b
S
nb
b
r
g
b
S
nb
b
v
o
b
S
2

nb
b
r
g
b

b
n
R
b
n
S
nb
b

r
g
b
0
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Euler's first axiom:
decomposed in the i-frame becomes:
assumes that NED is the inertial frame
The acceleration decomposed in the n-frame was shown to be:
This gives Newtons law formulated with respect to the point O:
If the origin O of is chosen to coincide with the CG, we have:
r
g
b
= [0,0,0]
T
f
o
b
= f
c
b
and v
o
b
= v
c
b
.
This gives Newtons law formulated with respect to CG:
mv

c
f

c
3.1.1Translational Motion
mv
c
i
f
c
i
v
c
n
R
b
n
v
o
b
S
nb
b
r
g
b
S
nb
b
v
o
b
S
2

nb
b
r
g
b

mv
o
b
S
nb
b
r
g
b
S
nb
b
v
o
b
S
2

nb
b
r
g
b
f
o
b
mv
c
b
S
nb
b
v
c
b
f
c
b
mv
c
n
f
c
n
R
b
n
f
c
b
coordinate free representation
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
The derivation starts with the Eulers second axiom:
and the main result when decomposed in the i-frame under the previous assumptions is:
where I
o
is the inertia matrix:
where I
x
, I
y
, and I
z
are the moments of inertia about the b-frame xyz-axes, and I
xy
=I
yx
,
I
xz
=I
zx
and I
yz
=I
zy
are the products of inertia defined as:
3.1.2 Rotational Motion (Attitude Dynamics)
h

c
m

c
h

c
I
c
o

ib
I
o

nb
b
S
nb
b
I
o

nb
b
mSr
g
b
v
o
b
mSr
g
b
S
nb
b
v
o
b
m
o
b
I
o
:
I
x
I
xy
I
xz
I
yx
I
y
I
yz
I
zx
I
zy
I
z
, I
o
I
o

0
I
x

V
y
2
z
2

m
dV; I
xy

V
xy
m
dV
V
yx
m
dV I
yx
I
y

V
x
2
z
2

m
dV; I
xz

V
xz
m
dV
V
zx
m
dV I
zx
I
z

V
x
2
y
2

m
dV; I
yz

V
yz
m
dV
V
zy
m
dV I
zy
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Euler's equations: if
the attitude dynamics becomes:
Parallel Axes Theorem:
The inertia matrix about an arbitrary origin O is given by:
where is the inertia matrix about the body's CG.
Proof: see Fossen (2002).
r
g
b
0, 0, 0

I
c

nb
b
S
nb
b
I
c

nb
b
m
c
b
I
o
I
c
mS
2
r
g
b
I
c
mrr

r I
33

3.1.2 Rotational Motion (Attitude Dynamics)


I
o
I
o


33
I
c
I
c


33
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
mu vr wq x
g
q
2
r
2
y
g
pq r z
g
pr q X
mv wp ur y
g
r
2
p
2
z
g
qr p x
g
qp r Y
mw uq vp z
g
p
2
q
2
x
g
rp q y
g
rq p Z
I
x
p I
z
I
y
qr r pqI
xz
r
2
q
2
I
yz
pr q I
xy
my
g
w uq vp z
g
v wp ur K
I
y
q I
x
I
z
rp p qrI
xy
p
2
r
2
I
zx
qp r I
yz
mz
g
u vr wq x
g
w uq vp M
I
z
r I
y
I
x
pq q rpI
yz
q
2
p
2
I
xy
rq p I
zx
mx
g
v wp ur y
g
u vr wq N
I
o

nb
b
S
nb
b
I
o

nb
b
mSr
g
b
v
o
b
mSr
g
b
S
nb
b
v
o
b
m
o
b
mv
o
b
S
nb
b
r
g
b
S
nb
b
v
o
b
S
2

nb
b
r
g
b
f
o
b
Component form (SNAME 1950):
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
Matrix-Vector Form (Fossen 1991):
Property (Rigid-Body System Inertia Matrix):
M
RB
C
RB

RB
u, v, w, p, q, r

M
RB

mI
33
mSr
g
b

mSr
g
b
I
o

m 0 0 0 mz
g
my
g
0 m 0 mz
g
0 mx
g
0 0 m my
g
mx
g
0
0 mz
g
my
g
I
x
I
xy
I
xz
mz
g
0 mx
g
I
yx
I
y
I
yz
my
g
mx
g
0 I
zx
I
zy
I
z

M
RB
M
RB

0,

M
RB
0
66
I
o
I
o

0
I
33 is the identity matrix
is the inertia
matrix about O
is the matrix cross
product operator
Sr
g
b

generalized velocity
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Theorem (Coriolis-Centripetal Matrix from System Inertia Matrix)
Let Mbe a 66 system inertia matrix defined as:
where M
21
=M
12
T
. Then the Coriolis-centripetal matrix can always be parameterized
such that by choosing:
where
Proof: see Sagatun and Fossen (1991) or Fossen (2002).
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
M M


M
11
M
12
M
21
M
22
0
C C

C
0
33
SM
11

1
M
12

SM
11

1
M
12

2
SM
21

1
M
22

1
u, v, w

,
2
p, q, r

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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Property (Rigid-Body Coriolis and Centripetal Matrix)
The rigid-body Coriolis and centripetal matrix can always be represented
such that is skew-symmetric, that is:
Application of the Theorem with M=M
RB
yields the following expression for
for which it is noticed that .
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
C
RB

C
RB

C
RB
C
RB

,
6
C
RB

C
RB

0
33
mS
1
mSS
2
r
g
b

mS
1
mSS
2
r
g
b
mSS
1
r
g
b
SI
o

S
1

1
0
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Three other useful skew-symmetric representations were derived by
Fossen and Fjellstad (1995):
Proof: see Fossen and Fjellstad (1995).
Notice that the there are no unique parametrization for the product
such that becomes skew-symmetrix.
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
C
RB

0
33
mS
1
mS
2
Sr
g
b

mS
1
mSr
g
b
S
2
SI
o

C
RB

mS
2
mS
2
Sr
g
b

mSr
g
b
S
2
SI
o

C
RB

mS
2
mSS
2
r
g
b

mSS
2
r
g
b
mSS
1
r
g
b
SI
o

C
RB

C
RB

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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
(1) Origin O coincides with the CG:
This implies that such that:
A further simplification is obtained when the body axes (x
b
,y
b,
z
b
) coincide with the
principal axes of inertia. This implies that:
r
g
b
0, 0, 0

, I
c
I
o
M
RB

mI
33
0
33
0
33
I
c
I
c
I
o
diagI
x
, I
y
, I
z

O
CG
inertial frame
r
o
r
c
r
g
r
r'
I
o
:
I
x
I
xy
I
xz
I
yx
I
y
I
yz
I
zx
I
zy
I
z
Simplified 6 DOF Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
(2) Rotation of the body axes such that I
o
becomes diagonal: The body-fixed frame
(x
b
,y
b,
z
b
) can be rotated about its axes to obtain a diagonal inertia matrix.
Principal axis transformation: The eigenvalues of I
o
are found from:
The modal matrix H=[h
1
,h
2
,h
3
] is obtained from the right eigenvectors h
i
:
the coordinate system (x
b
,y
b,
z
b
) is then rotated about its axes to form a new
coordinate system (x
b
,y
b,
z
b
) with unit vectors:
The new inertia matrix I
o
will be diagonal, that is:
detzI
33
I
o
z
3
a
2
z
2
a
1
z a
0
0
z
i
(i 1, 2, 3)
z
i
I
33
I
o
h
i
0; i 1, 2, 3
I
o

diagI
x

, I
y
, I
z

diagz
1
, z
2
, z
3

e
x

He
x
; e
y

He
y
; e
z

He
z
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
Simplified 6 DOF Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
The disadvantage with Approach (2) is that the new coordinate system will differ
from the longitudinal, lateral, and normal symmetry axes of the vessel.
The resulting model is:
It is, however, possible to let the body axes coincide with the principal axes of inertia,
that is the longitudinal, lateral, and normal symmetry axes of the vessel, and still
obtain a diagonal inertia matrix I
o
.
Approach (3)
mu vr wq X; I
x
p I
z
I
y
qr K
mv wp ur Y; I
y
q I
x
I
z
rp M
mw uq vp Z; I
z
r I
y
I
x
pq N
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
Simplified 6 DOF Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
(3) Translation of the origin O such that I
o
becomes diagonal:The origin of the
body-fixed coordinate system can be chosen such that the inertia matrix of the
body-fixed coordinate system will be diagonal. Let:
From the parallel axes theorem:
the diagonal must satisfy:
where x
g
, y
g
and z
g
must be chosen such that
the remaing cross terms satisfy:
I
o
diagI
x
, I
y
, I
z

I
c
I
o
mS
2
r
g
b

I
x
Ix
cg
my
g
2
z
g
2

I
y
I
y
cg
mx
g
2
z
g
2

I
z
I
z
cg
mx
g
2
y
g
2

I
c

Ix
cg
Ixy
cg
Ixz
cg
I
xy
cg
I
y
cg
I
yz
cg
I
xz
cg
I
yz
cg
I
z
cg
mIyz
cg
x
g
2
Ixy
cg
Ixz
cg
mI
xz
cg
y
g
2
I
xy
cg
I
yz
cg
mI
xy
cg
z
g
2
I
xz
cg
I
yz
cg
3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
Simplified 6 DOF Rigid-Body Equations of Motion
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Radiation-Induced Forces (Zero-Frequency Approach)
Forces on the body when the body is forced to oscillate with the wave excitation
frequency and there are no incident waves (Faltinsen 1990):
(1) Added mass due to the inertia of the surrounding fluid
(2) Radiation-induced (linear) potential damping due to the energy carried
away by generated surface waves
(3) Restoring forces due to Archimedes (weight and buoyancy)
Faltinsen, O. (1991). Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures, Cambridge.
3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments

R
M
A
C
A

added mass
D
P

potential damping
g g
o
restoring forces
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
In addition to potential damping we have to include other damping effects like
skin friction, wave drift damping, and damping due to vortex shedding:
Total hydrodynamic damping matrix:
The hydrodynamic forces and moments can be now be written as the sum
of :
3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments

D
D
S

skin
friction
D
W

wave drift
damping
D
M

damping due to
vortex shedding
D : D
P
D
S
D
W
D
M

R
and
D

H
M
A
C
A
D g g
o
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Environmental Disturbances
In addition to the hydrodynamic forces and moments, the vessel will be exposed to
environmental forces like:
9 wind
9 Waves (Froude-Krylov/diffraction and wave drift)
9 currents
The resulting environmental force and moment vector is denoted as w.
Resulting Model (Zero-Frequency/Low-Frequency Model)
3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments
M
RB
C
RB

RB

RB

H
w
M C D g g
o
w
M M
RB
M
A
C C
RB
C
A

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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia
Alternative approach to the Newton-Euler formulation: Lagrangian mechanics
Euler-Lagranges Equation (only for generalized coordinates):
Kirchhoff's Equations in Vector Form (uses only kinetic energy / velocity)
L T V
d
dt
L


L

n, e, d, , 0,

d
dt
T

1
S
2

1

1
d
dt
T

2
S
2

2
S
1

1

2
T
1
2

1
u, v, w

2
p, q, r

1
X, Y, Z

2
K, M, N

kinetic energy
difference between kinetic
and potential energy
generalized coordinates = 6 DOF
quaternions are not generalized coordinates
n, e, d, p, c
1
, c
2
, c
3

body velocities are not generalized coordinates


u, v, w, p, q, r

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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Fluid Kinetic Energy (Zero-Frequency):
The concept of fluid kinetic energy can be
used to derive the added mass terms.
Any motion of the vessel will induce a
motion in the otherwise stationary fluid.
In order to allow the vessel to pass
through the fluid, it must move aside and
then close behind the vessel.
Consequently, the fluid motion possesses
kinetic energy that it would lack
otherwise (Lamb 1932).
T
M
RB
RB
=1/2

T
Kinetic energy of fluid: T M
A A
=1/2
T
T
A

1
2

M
A

3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia


M
A

X
u
X
v
X
w
X
p
X
q
X
r
Y
u
Y
v
Y
w
Y
p
Y
q
Y
r
Z
u
Z
v
Z
w
Z
p
Z
q
Z
r
K
u
K
v
K
w
K
p
K
q
K
r
M
u
M
v
M
w
M
p
M
q
M
r
N
u
N
v
N
w
N
p
N
q
N
r
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
d
dt
T
A
u
r
T
A
v
q
T
A
w
X
A
d
dt
T
A
v
p
T
A
w
r
T
A
u
Y
A
d
dt
T
A
w
q
T
A
u
p
T
A
v
Z
A
d
dt
T
A
p
w
T
A
v
v
T
A
w
r
T
A
q
q
T
A
r
e K
A
d
dt
T
A
q
u
T
A
w
w
T
A
u
p
T
A
r
r
T
A
p
M
A
d
dt
T
A
r
v
T
A
u
u
T
A
v
q
T
A
p
p
T
A
q
N
A
d
dt
T

1
S
2

1

1
d
dt
T

2
S
2

2
S
1

1

2
3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia
Kirchhoff's Equations
T
A

1
2

M
A

M
A

X
u
X
v
X
w
X
p
X
q
X
r
Y
u
Y
v
Y
w
Y
p
Y
q
Y
r
Z
u
Z
v
Z
w
Z
p
Z
q
Z
r
K
u
K
v
K
w
K
p
K
q
K
r
M
u
M
v
M
w
M
p
M
q
M
r
N
u
N
v
N
w
N
p
N
q
N
r
Property (Hydrodynamic System
Inertia Matrix) For a rigid-body at rest
(U0), and under the assumption of an
ideal fluid, no incident waves, no sea
currents, and zero frequency, the
hydrodynamic system inertia matrix is
positive definite:
M
A
M
A

0
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Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
X
A
X
u u X
w w uq X
q q Z
w wq Z
q q
2
X
v
v X
p p X
r r Y
v
vr Y
p rp Y
r r
2
X
v
ur Y
w
wr
Y
w vq Z
p pq Y
q Z
r qr
Y
A
X
v u Y
w w Y
q q
Y
v v Y
p p Y
r r X
v vr Y
w vp X
r r
2
X
p Z
r rp Z
p p
2
X
w up wr X
u ur Z
w wp
Z
q
pq X
q
qr
Z
A
Xw u wq Zw w Zq q Xu uq Xq q
2
Yw v Zp p Zr r Yv vp Yr rp Yp p
2
X
v up Y
w wp
X
v
vq X
p
Y
q
pq X
r
qr
K
A
X
p
u Z
p
w K
q
q X
v
wu X
r
uq Y
w
w
2
Y
q
Z
r
wq M
r
q
2
Y
p
v K
p
p K
r
r Y
w
v
2
Y
q
Z
r
vr Z
p
vp M
r
r
2
K
q
rp
Xw uv Yv Zw vw Yr Zq wr Yp wp Xq ur
Y
r Z
q vq K
r pq M
q N
r qr
M
A
X
q u wq Z
q w uq M
q q X
w u
2
w
2
Z
w X
u wu
Y
q v K
q p M
r r Y
p vr Y
r vp K
r p
2
r
2
K
p N
r rp
Y
w uv X
v vw X
r Z
p up wr X
p Z
r wp ur
M
r pq K
q qr
N
A
X
r u Z
r w M
r q X
v
u
2
Y
w
wu X
p Y
q uq Z
p wq K
q q
2
Y
r v K
r p N
r r X
v
v
2
X
r vr X
p Y
q vp M
r rp K
q p
2
X
u
Y
v
uv X
w
vw X
q Y
p up Y
r ur Z
q wp
X
q
Y
p
vq K
p
M
q
pq K
r
qr
3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia
Hydrodynamic added mass forces and
moments in 6 DOF
The expressions are complicated and not to
suited for control design
Hydrodynamic software programs like
WAMIT, VERES, and SEAWAY can
be used to compute the added mass
terms
The model can be more compactly written
using the added mass system inertia
matrix and the added mass
Coriolis and centripetal matrix
(Fossen 1991)
M
A
C
A

26
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
The added mass Coriolis and centripetal matrix is found by collecting all terms
that are not functions of body accelerations (Sagatun and Fossen 1991)
Property (Hydrodynamic Coriolis and centripetal matrix) For a rigid-body
moving through an ideal fluid the hydrodynamic Coriolis and centripetal
matrix can always be parameterized such that it is skew-symmetric:
by defining:
Example (Fossen 1991):
3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia
C
A
C
A

,
6
C
A

0
33
SA
11

1
A
12

SA
11

1
A
12

2
SA
21

1
A
22

2
C
A

0 0 0 0 a
3
a
2
0 0 0 a
3
0 a
1
0 0 0 a
2
a
1
0
0 a
3
a
2
0 b
3
b
2
a
3
0 a
1
b
3
0 b
1
a
2
a
1
0 b
2
b
1
0
a
1
X
u
u X
v
v X
w
w X
p
p X
q
q X
r
r
a
2
Y
u
u Y
v
v Y
w
w Y
p
p Y
q
q Y
r
r
a
3
Z
u
u Z
v
v Z
w
w Z
p
p Z
q
q Z
r
r
b
1
K
u
u K
v
v K
w
w K
p
p K
q
q K
r
r
b
2
M
u
u M
v
v M
w
w M
p
p M
q
q M
r
r
b
3
N
u
u N
v
v N
w
w N
p
p N
q
q N
r
r
27
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping
Hydrodynamic damping for marine vessels is mainly caused by:
9 Potential Damping: Radiation-induced damping .The contribution from the
potential damping terms compared to other dissipative terms like viscous
damping are usually negligible.
9 Viscous damping: Linear skin friction due to laminar boundary layer theory
and pressure variations are important when considering the low-frequency
motion of the vessel. Hence, this effect should be considered when designing
the control system.
In addition to linear skin friction, there will be a high-frequency contribution
due to a turbulent boundary layer (quadratic or nonlinear skin friction).
Ref. Faltinsen and Sortland (1987)
9 Wave Drift Damping: Wave drift damping can be interpreted as added
resistance for surface vessels advancing in waves. This type of damping is
derived from 2nd-order wave theory.
28
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
9 Damping Due to Vortex Shedding: D'Alambert's paradox states that no
hydrodynamic forces act on a solid moving completely submerged with
constant velocity in a non-viscous fluid. In a viscous fluid, frictional forces are
present such that the system is not conservative with respect to energy.
The viscous damping force due to vortex shedding can be modeled as:
R
n

UD
v
3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping
fU
1
2
C
D
R
n
A|U|U
where U is the speed, A is the projected cross-sectional area
under water, C
d
is the drag-coefficient based, and is the water density.
Reynolds number:
C
D
R
n

v 1. 56 10
6
Kinematic viscosity
coefficient
10
5
10
6
10
7
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
R
n
C
d
k/D=900E-5
k/D=450E-5
k/D=110E-5
29
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping
For low-speed applications like DP, quadratic damping can be modeled using the
ITTC drag formalism in surge, and cross-flow drag in sway and yaw:
dx xr v xr v x C A N
dx xr v xr v x C A Y
u u SC X
r
L
r
D
d w d
r
L
r
D
d w d
r r
ITTC
d w d
pp
pp
+ + =
+ + =
=

) )( (
2
1
) )( (
2
1
2
1
2
2

2D drag coefficients C
d
(x) 3D correction factors
Ref. Faltinsen (1990)
Relative velocities:
current r
current r
v v v
u u u
=
=
30
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
6 DOF representation of MIMO quadratic drag:
D
n

||

D
n1

||

D
n2

||

D
n3

||

D
n4

||

D
n5

||

D
n6

3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping


|| |u|, |v|, |w|, |p|, |q|, |r|

D
ni
(i 1, , 6) are 6 6 matrices depending on , C
D
and A
Total hydrodynamic damping:
D D D
n

31
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Property (Hydrodynamic Damping Matrix)
For a rigid-body moving through an ideal fluid the hydrodynamic damping
matrix will be real, non-symmetric and strictly positive:
D 0
6
3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping
Example: For ships with xz-symmetry the surge mode can be decoupled from the
steering modes (sway and yaw). Hence, the linearized damping forces and
moments (neglecting heave, roll, and pitch) can be written (zero-frequency):
For low speed applications it can also be assumed that N
v
=Y
r
such that D=D
T
.
D
X
u
0 0
0 Y
v
Y
r
0 N
v
N
r
32
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
u (m/s)
station-keeping
|u| <2 m/s
linear damping: 0.5 u
quadratic damping: 0.05 |u|u
linear +quadratic damping
The figure illustrates the significance of linear and quadratic
damping for low-speed and high-speed applications.
3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping
Dynamic positioning (station-
keeping and low-speed
maneuvering):
Linear damping dominates
Maneuvering (high-speed):
Nonlinear damping dominates
33
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Example: Nonlinear Damping Model for Maneuvering at Moderate Speed
In Blanke (1981) a more detailed model including nonlinear coupling terms is proposed.
This is a simplification of Norrbin's nonlinear model (Norrbin 1970). Motivated by this
a more general expression (assuming that surge is decoupled) is:
Example: Damping Model for Low-Speed Underwater Vehicles
In general, the damping of an underwater vehicle moving in 6 DOF at high speed will be
highly nonlinear and coupled. Nevertheless, one rough approximation could be to
assume that the vehicle is performing a non-coupled motion. This suggests a diagonal
structure of D with only linear and quadratic damping terms on the diagonal:
As for ships quadratic damping can be neglected during station-keeping but not in high
speed maneuvering situation
3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping
D
n

X
|u|u
|u| 0 0
0 Y
|v|v
|v|Y
|r|v
|r| Y
|v|r
|v|Y
|r|r
|r|
0 N
|v|v
|v|N
|r|v
|r| N
|v|r
|v|N
|r|r
|r|
D diagX
u
, Y
v
, Z
w
, K
p
, M
q
, N
r

diagX
|u|u
|u|, Y
|vv|
|v|, Z
|w|w
|w|, K
|p|p
|p|, M
|q|q
|q|, N
|r|r
|r|
34
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
In addition to the mass and damping forces, underwater vehicles and floating
vessels will also be affected by gravity and buoyancy forces.
In hydrodynamic terminology, the gravitational and buoyancy forces are called
restoring forces, and they are equivalent to the spring forces in a mass-
damper-spring system.
In the derivation of the restoring forces and moments:
9 underwater vehicles (ROV, AUV, submarines)
9 surface vessels (ships, semi-submersibles, and high-speed craft)
will be treated separately.
35
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Underwater Vehicles:
According to the SNAME
(1950) notation, the
submerged weight of the
body and buoyancy force
are defined as:
= water density
= volume of fluid displaced
by the vehicle
m = mass of the vessel
including water in free
floating space
g = acceleration of gravity
z
f
g
CG
CB
f
b
n
n
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
W mg, B g
f
g
n

0
0
W
f
b
n

0
0
B
The weight and buoyancy force can be transformed
from NED to the body-fixed coordinate system by:
f
g
b
R
b
n

1
f
g
n
, f
b
b
R
b
n

1
f
b
n

36
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
The sign of the restoring forces and moments and must be changed
when moving these terms to the left-hand side of:
that is, the vector .
Consequently, the restoring force and moment vector in the b-frame takes the form:
where
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
g
f
g
b
f
b
b
r
g
b
f
g
b
r
b
b
f
b
b

R
b
n

1
f
g
n
f
b
n

r
g
b
R
b
n

1
f
g
n
r
b
b
R
b
n

1
f
b
n
m
i
b
r
i
b
f
i
b
f
i
b
M C D g g
o
w
g
r
b
b
x
b
, y
b
, z
b

center of buoyancy
center of gravity r
g
b
x
g
, y
g
, z
g

37
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Main Result: Underwater Vehicles:
6 DOF gravity and buoyancy forces and moments:
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
g
W B sin0
W B cos0 sin
W B cos0 cos
y
g
W y
b
B cos 0cos z
g
W z
b
B cos0 sin
z
g
W z
b
B sin0 x
g
W x
b
B cos0 cos
x
g
W x
b
B cos 0sin y
g
W y
b
B sin0
z
f
g
CG
CB
f
b
n
n
38
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Example: Neutrally Buoyant Underwater Vehicles:
Let the distance between the center of gravity CG and the center of buoyancy
CB be defined by the vector:
For neutrally buoyant vehicles W=B, and this simplifies to:
An even simpler representation is obtained for vehicles where the CG and CB
are located vertically on the z-axis, that is x
b
=x
g
and y
g
=y
b
. This yields:
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
BG BG
x
, BG
y
, BG
z

x
g
x
b
, y
g
y
b
, z
g
z
b

g
0
0
0
BG
y
W cos0 cos BG
z
W cos0 sin
BG
z
W sin0 BG
x
W cos0 cos
BG
x
W cos 0sin BG
y
W sin0
g 0, 0, 0, BG
z
W cos0sin, BG
z
W sin0, 0

39
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Surface Vessels (Ships and Semi-Submersibles):
For surface vessels, the restoring forces will depend on the vessel's metacentric
height, the location of the CG and the CB as well as the shape and size of the
water plane. Let A
wp
denote the water plane area and:
GM
T
= transverse metacentric height (m)
GM
L
= longitudinal metacentric height (m)
The metacentric height GM
i
, where i={T,L}, is the distance between the
metacenter M
i
and center of gravity CG
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
Definition (Metacenter):
The theoretical point at which an imaginary vertical line through the CB
intersects another imaginary vertical line through a new CB created when the
body is displaced, or tilted, in the water.
40
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
is the water plane
area of the vessel as a
function of the heave position
For a floating vessel at rest,
buoyancy and weight are in
balance:
z = displacement in heave
z=0 is the equilibrium position
The hydrostatic force in heave will
be the difference between the
gravitational and buoyancy
forces:
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
B B
1
K
G
M
T
GM sin
T

GM
T
y
z
g

mg
g
mg g
Z mg g oz
goz
where the change
in displaced water is:
oz
0
z
A
wp
d
A
wp

41
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
For conventional rigs and ships, however, it can be assumed that:
is constant for small perturbations in z.
Hence, the restoring force Z will be linear in z, that is:
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
Z gA
wp
0
Z
z
z
A
wp
A
wp
0
Z
z
A
wp
z
This is physically equivalent to a spring with stiffness Z
z
gA
wp
0 and position z.
of
r
b
R
b
n

1
0
0
g
0
z
A
wp
d
The restoring forces and moments
decomposed in the b-frame:
42
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
The moment arms in roll and pitch can be related to the moment arms
and in roll and pitch, and a z-direction force pair with magnitude
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
GM
T
sin
GM
L
sin0
W B g
r
r
b

GM
L
sin0
GM
T
sin
0
f
r
b
R
b
n

1
0
0
g
g
sin0
cos 0sin
cos 0cos
Neglecting the moment contribution due to of
r
b
(only considering f
r
b

implies that the restoring moment becomes:


m
r
b
r
r
b
f
r
b
g
GM
T
sincos 0cos
GM
L
sin0 cos0 cos
GM
L
cos 0 GM
T
sinsin0

g
of
r
b
m
r
b
43
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
g
g
0
z
A
wp
d sin0
g
0
z
A
wp
d cos 0sin
g
0
z
A
wp
d cos 0cos
gGM
T
sincos 0cos
gGM
L
sin0 cos0 cos
gGM
L
cos 0 GM
T
sinsin0
Main Result: Surface Vessels:
6 DOF gravity and buoyancy forces and moments:
44
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Linear (Small Angle) Theory for Boxed Shaped Vessels
Assumes that are small such that:
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
g G
g
gA
wp
0 z0
gA
wp
0 z
gA
wp
0 z
gGM
T

gGM
L
0
gGM
L
GM
T
0

0
0
gA
wp
0z
gGM
T

gGM
L
0
0
sin0 0, cos 0 1
sin , cos 1

0
z
A
wp
d A
wp
0z
, 0, z
G diag0, 0, gA
wp
0, gGM
T
, gGM
L
, 0
M N G g
o
w
Linear dynamics:
45
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
The diagonal G matrix is based on the assumption of yz-symmetry. In the
asymmetrical case G takes the form:
where:
G G

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 Z
z
0 Z
0
0
0 0 0 K

0 0
0 0 M
z
0 M
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0
Z
z
gA
wp
0
Z
0
g

A
wp
xdA
M
z
Z
0
K

gz
g
z
g
g

A
wp
y
2
dA gGM
T
M
0
gz
g
z
b
g

A
wp
x
2
dA gGM
L
46
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
M
B
G
K
Floating
vessel
Submerged
vessel
Diving
BG
BM
GM=BG
GM
height above
keel line
Surfacing
KB
Metacenter M, center of gravity G and center of buoyancy B for a submerged
and a floating vessel. K is the keel line.
47
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
The metacenter height can be computed by using basic hydrostatics:
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments
GM
T
BM
T
BG, GM
L
BM
L
BG
K
M
B
G
For small roll and pitch angles the transverse and longitudinal
radius of curvature can be approximated by:
where the moments of area about the water planes are defined as:
BM
T

I
T

, BM
L

I
L

I
L

A
wp
x
2
dA, I
T

A
wp
y
2
dA
For conventional ships an upper bound on these integrals can be found by
considering a rectangular water plane area A
wp
=BL where B and L are the
beam and length of the hull:
I
L

1
12
L
3
B, I
T

1
12
B
3
L
48
Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006
Definition (Metacenter Stability):
A floating vessel is said to be:
Transverse metacentrically stable if: GM
T
GM
T,min
> 0
Longitudinal metacentrically stable if: GM
L
GM
L,min
> 0
The longitudinal stability requirement is easy to satisfy for ships since
the pitching motion is quite limited.
The lateral requirement, however, is an important design criterion used to
predescribe sufficient stability in roll to avoid that the vessel does not roll
around. For instance, for large ferries carrying passengers and cars, the lateral
stability requirement can be as high as GM
T,min
= 0.8 (m) to guarantee a proper
stability margin in roll.
A trade-off between stability and comfort should be made since a large stability
margin will result in large restoring forces which can be quite uncomfortable
for passengers.
3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments