35 views

Uploaded by necatiygt

- AN AXISYMMETRIC, TURBULENT FLOW ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT INFILTRATION INTO A PRESSURIZED STRUCTURE WITH A FABRIC ENDCAP
- Field Development Concepts
- Module 12 Mechanical Properties of Matter
- Exp2 Stability
- Sample Thematic Unit
- Chapter - 8_Simple Harmonic Motion
- STAT CH2 Confidential Interval
- 4. Archimedes' Principle
- Aeroacoustic analysis of wind turbine blades: Turbulent boundary layer trailing edge noise
- chapter 2
- Determination and Analysis of the Stability of Floating Bodies
- CC
- 3D Boundary Layer Study on a Rotating Wind Turbine Blade
- Hydraulics Objective Type Questions - Set 24 _ Engineering, Competitive Exams and Jobs.pdf
- chapter_7
- Calculation of the Heat Transfer Coefficient 1
- class ix chapter - floatation gravitation solve board questions
- Toppers copy
- Unsteady Thermal Radiation Mixed Convection Flow From Amoving
- abschn23

You are on page 1of 48

Chapter 3 - Dynamics of Marine Vessels

3.1 Rigid-Body Dynamics

3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments

3.3 6 DOF Equations of Motion

3.4 Model Transformations Using Matlab

3.5 Standard Models for Marine Vessels

M C D g g

o

w

M - system inertia matrix (including added mass)

C - Coriolis-centripetal matrix (including added mass)

D - damping matrix

g - vector of gravitational/buoyancy forces and moments

- vector of control inputs

g

o

- vector used for pretrimming (ballast control)

w - vector of environmental disturbances (wind, waves and currents)

2

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Coordinate free vector: A vector defined by its magnitude and direction but

without reference to a coordinate frame.

Coordinate vector: A vector decomposed in the inertial reference frame is

denoted as v

i

Newton-Euler Formulation

Newton's Second Law relates mass m, acceleration and force according to:

where the subscript c denotes the center of gravity (CG).

Euler's First and Second Axioms

Euler suggested to express Newton's Second Law in terms of conservation of both

linear momentum and angular momentum according to:

and are forces/moments about CG

is the angular velocity of frame b relative frame i

I

c

is the inertia dyadic about the body's CG

3.1 Rigid-Body Dynamics

v

c

f

c

mv

c

f

c

p

c h

c

p

c

f

c

p

c

mv

c

h

c

m

c

h

c

I

c

o

ib

m

c

o

ib

f

c

3

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

When deriving the equations of motion it will be assumed that:

(1) the vessel is rigid

(2) the NED frame is inertial

The first assumption eliminates the consideration of forces acting between

individual elements of mass while the second eliminates forces due to the

Earth's motion relative to a star-fixed inertial reference system.

For guidance and navigation applications in space it is usual to use a star-fixed

reference frame or a reference frame rotating with the Earth. Marine vessels

are, on the other hand, usually related to the NED reference frame. This is a

good assumption since forces on marine craft due to the Earth's rotation:

are quite small compared to the hydrodynamic forces.

o

ie

7. 2921 10

5

(rad/s)

3.1 Rigid-Body Dynamics

4

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.1.1Translational Motion

Mass of a rigid body:

CG is defined as:

The position of the volume element dV is:

is constant over the volume

O

CG

inertial frame

r

o

r

c

r

g

r

r'

m :

V

m

dV

r

c

:

1

m

V

m

dV

r

r

c

r

V

r

m

dV

V

r

m

dV

V

r

m

dV

mr

c

r

c

V

m

dV 0

r

c

Body-fixed reference frame

is fixed in the point O and

rotating with respect to the

inertial frame.

is the vector from O to CG r

g

5

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

For marine vessels it is desirable to derive the equations of motion for an arbitrary

origin O in the b-frame to take advantage of the vessel's geometric properties.

Since the hydrodynamic and kinematic forces and moments are given in the b-

frame, Newton's laws will be formulated in the b-frame as well. The b-frame

coordinate system is rotating with respect to the i-frame (inertial system).

The velocities of CG and O must satisfy:

It is common to assume that the NED frame is an approximate inertial frame by

neglecting the Earth rotation and the angular velocity due to slow

variations in longitude and latitude:

3.1.1Translational Motion

v

c

v

o

o

ib

r

g

o

ib

o

ie

o

en

o

nb

o

nb

o

ie

o

en

6

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Decomposing:

into the b-frame under the assumption that , yields:

Hence, n-frame coordinates are obtained by using the rotation matrix :

Time differentiation, yields the acceleration of the CG in NED coordinates:

3.1.1Translational Motion

o

ib

o

nb

v

c

v

o

o

ib

r

g

v

c

b

v

o

b

nb

b

r

g

b

v

c

n

R

b

n

v

c

b

R

b

n

v

o

b

nb

b

r

g

b

R

b

n

v

c

n

R

b

n

v

o

b

nb

b

r

g

b

nb

b

r

g

b

R

b

n

v

o

b

nb

b

r

g

b

R

b

n

v

o

b

nb

b

r

g

b

R

b

n

S

nb

b

v

o

b

nb

b

r

g

b

R

b

n

v

o

b

S

nb

b

r

g

b

S

nb

b

v

o

b

S

2

nb

b

r

g

b

b

n

R

b

n

S

nb

b

r

g

b

0

7

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Euler's first axiom:

decomposed in the i-frame becomes:

assumes that NED is the inertial frame

The acceleration decomposed in the n-frame was shown to be:

This gives Newtons law formulated with respect to the point O:

If the origin O of is chosen to coincide with the CG, we have:

r

g

b

= [0,0,0]

T

f

o

b

= f

c

b

and v

o

b

= v

c

b

.

This gives Newtons law formulated with respect to CG:

mv

c

f

c

3.1.1Translational Motion

mv

c

i

f

c

i

v

c

n

R

b

n

v

o

b

S

nb

b

r

g

b

S

nb

b

v

o

b

S

2

nb

b

r

g

b

mv

o

b

S

nb

b

r

g

b

S

nb

b

v

o

b

S

2

nb

b

r

g

b

f

o

b

mv

c

b

S

nb

b

v

c

b

f

c

b

mv

c

n

f

c

n

R

b

n

f

c

b

coordinate free representation

8

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

The derivation starts with the Eulers second axiom:

and the main result when decomposed in the i-frame under the previous assumptions is:

where I

o

is the inertia matrix:

where I

x

, I

y

, and I

z

are the moments of inertia about the b-frame xyz-axes, and I

xy

=I

yx

,

I

xz

=I

zx

and I

yz

=I

zy

are the products of inertia defined as:

3.1.2 Rotational Motion (Attitude Dynamics)

h

c

m

c

h

c

I

c

o

ib

I

o

nb

b

S

nb

b

I

o

nb

b

mSr

g

b

v

o

b

mSr

g

b

S

nb

b

v

o

b

m

o

b

I

o

:

I

x

I

xy

I

xz

I

yx

I

y

I

yz

I

zx

I

zy

I

z

, I

o

I

o

0

I

x

V

y

2

z

2

m

dV; I

xy

V

xy

m

dV

V

yx

m

dV I

yx

I

y

V

x

2

z

2

m

dV; I

xz

V

xz

m

dV

V

zx

m

dV I

zx

I

z

V

x

2

y

2

m

dV; I

yz

V

yz

m

dV

V

zy

m

dV I

zy

9

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Euler's equations: if

the attitude dynamics becomes:

Parallel Axes Theorem:

The inertia matrix about an arbitrary origin O is given by:

where is the inertia matrix about the body's CG.

Proof: see Fossen (2002).

r

g

b

0, 0, 0

I

c

nb

b

S

nb

b

I

c

nb

b

m

c

b

I

o

I

c

mS

2

r

g

b

I

c

mrr

r I

33

I

o

I

o

33

I

c

I

c

33

10

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

mu vr wq x

g

q

2

r

2

y

g

pq r z

g

pr q X

mv wp ur y

g

r

2

p

2

z

g

qr p x

g

qp r Y

mw uq vp z

g

p

2

q

2

x

g

rp q y

g

rq p Z

I

x

p I

z

I

y

qr r pqI

xz

r

2

q

2

I

yz

pr q I

xy

my

g

w uq vp z

g

v wp ur K

I

y

q I

x

I

z

rp p qrI

xy

p

2

r

2

I

zx

qp r I

yz

mz

g

u vr wq x

g

w uq vp M

I

z

r I

y

I

x

pq q rpI

yz

q

2

p

2

I

xy

rq p I

zx

mx

g

v wp ur y

g

u vr wq N

I

o

nb

b

S

nb

b

I

o

nb

b

mSr

g

b

v

o

b

mSr

g

b

S

nb

b

v

o

b

m

o

b

mv

o

b

S

nb

b

r

g

b

S

nb

b

v

o

b

S

2

nb

b

r

g

b

f

o

b

Component form (SNAME 1950):

11

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

Matrix-Vector Form (Fossen 1991):

Property (Rigid-Body System Inertia Matrix):

M

RB

C

RB

RB

u, v, w, p, q, r

M

RB

mI

33

mSr

g

b

mSr

g

b

I

o

m 0 0 0 mz

g

my

g

0 m 0 mz

g

0 mx

g

0 0 m my

g

mx

g

0

0 mz

g

my

g

I

x

I

xy

I

xz

mz

g

0 mx

g

I

yx

I

y

I

yz

my

g

mx

g

0 I

zx

I

zy

I

z

M

RB

M

RB

0,

M

RB

0

66

I

o

I

o

0

I

33 is the identity matrix

is the inertia

matrix about O

is the matrix cross

product operator

Sr

g

b

generalized velocity

12

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Theorem (Coriolis-Centripetal Matrix from System Inertia Matrix)

Let Mbe a 66 system inertia matrix defined as:

where M

21

=M

12

T

. Then the Coriolis-centripetal matrix can always be parameterized

such that by choosing:

where

Proof: see Sagatun and Fossen (1991) or Fossen (2002).

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

M M

M

11

M

12

M

21

M

22

0

C C

C

0

33

SM

11

1

M

12

SM

11

1

M

12

2

SM

21

1

M

22

1

u, v, w

,

2

p, q, r

13

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Property (Rigid-Body Coriolis and Centripetal Matrix)

The rigid-body Coriolis and centripetal matrix can always be represented

such that is skew-symmetric, that is:

Application of the Theorem with M=M

RB

yields the following expression for

for which it is noticed that .

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

C

RB

C

RB

C

RB

C

RB

,

6

C

RB

C

RB

0

33

mS

1

mSS

2

r

g

b

mS

1

mSS

2

r

g

b

mSS

1

r

g

b

SI

o

S

1

1

0

14

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Three other useful skew-symmetric representations were derived by

Fossen and Fjellstad (1995):

Proof: see Fossen and Fjellstad (1995).

Notice that the there are no unique parametrization for the product

such that becomes skew-symmetrix.

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

C

RB

0

33

mS

1

mS

2

Sr

g

b

mS

1

mSr

g

b

S

2

SI

o

C

RB

mS

2

mS

2

Sr

g

b

mSr

g

b

S

2

SI

o

C

RB

mS

2

mSS

2

r

g

b

mSS

2

r

g

b

mSS

1

r

g

b

SI

o

C

RB

C

RB

15

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

(1) Origin O coincides with the CG:

This implies that such that:

A further simplification is obtained when the body axes (x

b

,y

b,

z

b

) coincide with the

principal axes of inertia. This implies that:

r

g

b

0, 0, 0

, I

c

I

o

M

RB

mI

33

0

33

0

33

I

c

I

c

I

o

diagI

x

, I

y

, I

z

O

CG

inertial frame

r

o

r

c

r

g

r

r'

I

o

:

I

x

I

xy

I

xz

I

yx

I

y

I

yz

I

zx

I

zy

I

z

Simplified 6 DOF Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

16

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

(2) Rotation of the body axes such that I

o

becomes diagonal: The body-fixed frame

(x

b

,y

b,

z

b

) can be rotated about its axes to obtain a diagonal inertia matrix.

Principal axis transformation: The eigenvalues of I

o

are found from:

The modal matrix H=[h

1

,h

2

,h

3

] is obtained from the right eigenvectors h

i

:

the coordinate system (x

b

,y

b,

z

b

) is then rotated about its axes to form a new

coordinate system (x

b

,y

b,

z

b

) with unit vectors:

The new inertia matrix I

o

will be diagonal, that is:

detzI

33

I

o

z

3

a

2

z

2

a

1

z a

0

0

z

i

(i 1, 2, 3)

z

i

I

33

I

o

h

i

0; i 1, 2, 3

I

o

diagI

x

, I

y

, I

z

diagz

1

, z

2

, z

3

e

x

He

x

; e

y

He

y

; e

z

He

z

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

Simplified 6 DOF Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

17

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

The disadvantage with Approach (2) is that the new coordinate system will differ

from the longitudinal, lateral, and normal symmetry axes of the vessel.

The resulting model is:

It is, however, possible to let the body axes coincide with the principal axes of inertia,

that is the longitudinal, lateral, and normal symmetry axes of the vessel, and still

obtain a diagonal inertia matrix I

o

.

Approach (3)

mu vr wq X; I

x

p I

z

I

y

qr K

mv wp ur Y; I

y

q I

x

I

z

rp M

mw uq vp Z; I

z

r I

y

I

x

pq N

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

Simplified 6 DOF Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

18

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

(3) Translation of the origin O such that I

o

becomes diagonal:The origin of the

body-fixed coordinate system can be chosen such that the inertia matrix of the

body-fixed coordinate system will be diagonal. Let:

From the parallel axes theorem:

the diagonal must satisfy:

where x

g

, y

g

and z

g

must be chosen such that

the remaing cross terms satisfy:

I

o

diagI

x

, I

y

, I

z

I

c

I

o

mS

2

r

g

b

I

x

Ix

cg

my

g

2

z

g

2

I

y

I

y

cg

mx

g

2

z

g

2

I

z

I

z

cg

mx

g

2

y

g

2

I

c

Ix

cg

Ixy

cg

Ixz

cg

I

xy

cg

I

y

cg

I

yz

cg

I

xz

cg

I

yz

cg

I

z

cg

mIyz

cg

x

g

2

Ixy

cg

Ixz

cg

mI

xz

cg

y

g

2

I

xy

cg

I

yz

cg

mI

xy

cg

z

g

2

I

xz

cg

I

yz

cg

3.1.3 Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

Simplified 6 DOF Rigid-Body Equations of Motion

19

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Radiation-Induced Forces (Zero-Frequency Approach)

Forces on the body when the body is forced to oscillate with the wave excitation

frequency and there are no incident waves (Faltinsen 1990):

(1) Added mass due to the inertia of the surrounding fluid

(2) Radiation-induced (linear) potential damping due to the energy carried

away by generated surface waves

(3) Restoring forces due to Archimedes (weight and buoyancy)

Faltinsen, O. (1991). Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures, Cambridge.

3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments

R

M

A

C

A

added mass

D

P

potential damping

g g

o

restoring forces

20

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

In addition to potential damping we have to include other damping effects like

skin friction, wave drift damping, and damping due to vortex shedding:

Total hydrodynamic damping matrix:

The hydrodynamic forces and moments can be now be written as the sum

of :

3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments

D

D

S

skin

friction

D

W

wave drift

damping

D

M

damping due to

vortex shedding

D : D

P

D

S

D

W

D

M

R

and

D

H

M

A

C

A

D g g

o

21

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Environmental Disturbances

In addition to the hydrodynamic forces and moments, the vessel will be exposed to

environmental forces like:

9 wind

9 Waves (Froude-Krylov/diffraction and wave drift)

9 currents

The resulting environmental force and moment vector is denoted as w.

Resulting Model (Zero-Frequency/Low-Frequency Model)

3.2 Hydrodynamic Forces and Moments

M

RB

C

RB

RB

RB

H

w

M C D g g

o

w

M M

RB

M

A

C C

RB

C

A

22

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia

Alternative approach to the Newton-Euler formulation: Lagrangian mechanics

Euler-Lagranges Equation (only for generalized coordinates):

Kirchhoff's Equations in Vector Form (uses only kinetic energy / velocity)

L T V

d

dt

L

L

n, e, d, , 0,

d

dt

T

1

S

2

1

1

d

dt

T

2

S

2

2

S

1

1

2

T

1

2

1

u, v, w

2

p, q, r

1

X, Y, Z

2

K, M, N

kinetic energy

difference between kinetic

and potential energy

generalized coordinates = 6 DOF

quaternions are not generalized coordinates

n, e, d, p, c

1

, c

2

, c

3

u, v, w, p, q, r

23

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Fluid Kinetic Energy (Zero-Frequency):

The concept of fluid kinetic energy can be

used to derive the added mass terms.

Any motion of the vessel will induce a

motion in the otherwise stationary fluid.

In order to allow the vessel to pass

through the fluid, it must move aside and

then close behind the vessel.

Consequently, the fluid motion possesses

kinetic energy that it would lack

otherwise (Lamb 1932).

T

M

RB

RB

=1/2

T

Kinetic energy of fluid: T M

A A

=1/2

T

T

A

1

2

M

A

M

A

X

u

X

v

X

w

X

p

X

q

X

r

Y

u

Y

v

Y

w

Y

p

Y

q

Y

r

Z

u

Z

v

Z

w

Z

p

Z

q

Z

r

K

u

K

v

K

w

K

p

K

q

K

r

M

u

M

v

M

w

M

p

M

q

M

r

N

u

N

v

N

w

N

p

N

q

N

r

24

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

d

dt

T

A

u

r

T

A

v

q

T

A

w

X

A

d

dt

T

A

v

p

T

A

w

r

T

A

u

Y

A

d

dt

T

A

w

q

T

A

u

p

T

A

v

Z

A

d

dt

T

A

p

w

T

A

v

v

T

A

w

r

T

A

q

q

T

A

r

e K

A

d

dt

T

A

q

u

T

A

w

w

T

A

u

p

T

A

r

r

T

A

p

M

A

d

dt

T

A

r

v

T

A

u

u

T

A

v

q

T

A

p

p

T

A

q

N

A

d

dt

T

1

S

2

1

1

d

dt

T

2

S

2

2

S

1

1

2

3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia

Kirchhoff's Equations

T

A

1

2

M

A

M

A

X

u

X

v

X

w

X

p

X

q

X

r

Y

u

Y

v

Y

w

Y

p

Y

q

Y

r

Z

u

Z

v

Z

w

Z

p

Z

q

Z

r

K

u

K

v

K

w

K

p

K

q

K

r

M

u

M

v

M

w

M

p

M

q

M

r

N

u

N

v

N

w

N

p

N

q

N

r

Property (Hydrodynamic System

Inertia Matrix) For a rigid-body at rest

(U0), and under the assumption of an

ideal fluid, no incident waves, no sea

currents, and zero frequency, the

hydrodynamic system inertia matrix is

positive definite:

M

A

M

A

0

25

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

X

A

X

u u X

w w uq X

q q Z

w wq Z

q q

2

X

v

v X

p p X

r r Y

v

vr Y

p rp Y

r r

2

X

v

ur Y

w

wr

Y

w vq Z

p pq Y

q Z

r qr

Y

A

X

v u Y

w w Y

q q

Y

v v Y

p p Y

r r X

v vr Y

w vp X

r r

2

X

p Z

r rp Z

p p

2

X

w up wr X

u ur Z

w wp

Z

q

pq X

q

qr

Z

A

Xw u wq Zw w Zq q Xu uq Xq q

2

Yw v Zp p Zr r Yv vp Yr rp Yp p

2

X

v up Y

w wp

X

v

vq X

p

Y

q

pq X

r

qr

K

A

X

p

u Z

p

w K

q

q X

v

wu X

r

uq Y

w

w

2

Y

q

Z

r

wq M

r

q

2

Y

p

v K

p

p K

r

r Y

w

v

2

Y

q

Z

r

vr Z

p

vp M

r

r

2

K

q

rp

Xw uv Yv Zw vw Yr Zq wr Yp wp Xq ur

Y

r Z

q vq K

r pq M

q N

r qr

M

A

X

q u wq Z

q w uq M

q q X

w u

2

w

2

Z

w X

u wu

Y

q v K

q p M

r r Y

p vr Y

r vp K

r p

2

r

2

K

p N

r rp

Y

w uv X

v vw X

r Z

p up wr X

p Z

r wp ur

M

r pq K

q qr

N

A

X

r u Z

r w M

r q X

v

u

2

Y

w

wu X

p Y

q uq Z

p wq K

q q

2

Y

r v K

r p N

r r X

v

v

2

X

r vr X

p Y

q vp M

r rp K

q p

2

X

u

Y

v

uv X

w

vw X

q Y

p up Y

r ur Z

q wp

X

q

Y

p

vq K

p

M

q

pq K

r

qr

3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia

Hydrodynamic added mass forces and

moments in 6 DOF

The expressions are complicated and not to

suited for control design

Hydrodynamic software programs like

WAMIT, VERES, and SEAWAY can

be used to compute the added mass

terms

The model can be more compactly written

using the added mass system inertia

matrix and the added mass

Coriolis and centripetal matrix

(Fossen 1991)

M

A

C

A

26

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

The added mass Coriolis and centripetal matrix is found by collecting all terms

that are not functions of body accelerations (Sagatun and Fossen 1991)

Property (Hydrodynamic Coriolis and centripetal matrix) For a rigid-body

moving through an ideal fluid the hydrodynamic Coriolis and centripetal

matrix can always be parameterized such that it is skew-symmetric:

by defining:

Example (Fossen 1991):

3.2.1 Added Mass and Inertia

C

A

C

A

,

6

C

A

0

33

SA

11

1

A

12

SA

11

1

A

12

2

SA

21

1

A

22

2

C

A

0 0 0 0 a

3

a

2

0 0 0 a

3

0 a

1

0 0 0 a

2

a

1

0

0 a

3

a

2

0 b

3

b

2

a

3

0 a

1

b

3

0 b

1

a

2

a

1

0 b

2

b

1

0

a

1

X

u

u X

v

v X

w

w X

p

p X

q

q X

r

r

a

2

Y

u

u Y

v

v Y

w

w Y

p

p Y

q

q Y

r

r

a

3

Z

u

u Z

v

v Z

w

w Z

p

p Z

q

q Z

r

r

b

1

K

u

u K

v

v K

w

w K

p

p K

q

q K

r

r

b

2

M

u

u M

v

v M

w

w M

p

p M

q

q M

r

r

b

3

N

u

u N

v

v N

w

w N

p

p N

q

q N

r

r

27

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping

Hydrodynamic damping for marine vessels is mainly caused by:

9 Potential Damping: Radiation-induced damping .The contribution from the

potential damping terms compared to other dissipative terms like viscous

damping are usually negligible.

9 Viscous damping: Linear skin friction due to laminar boundary layer theory

and pressure variations are important when considering the low-frequency

motion of the vessel. Hence, this effect should be considered when designing

the control system.

In addition to linear skin friction, there will be a high-frequency contribution

due to a turbulent boundary layer (quadratic or nonlinear skin friction).

Ref. Faltinsen and Sortland (1987)

9 Wave Drift Damping: Wave drift damping can be interpreted as added

resistance for surface vessels advancing in waves. This type of damping is

derived from 2nd-order wave theory.

28

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

9 Damping Due to Vortex Shedding: D'Alambert's paradox states that no

hydrodynamic forces act on a solid moving completely submerged with

constant velocity in a non-viscous fluid. In a viscous fluid, frictional forces are

present such that the system is not conservative with respect to energy.

The viscous damping force due to vortex shedding can be modeled as:

R

n

UD

v

3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping

fU

1

2

C

D

R

n

A|U|U

where U is the speed, A is the projected cross-sectional area

under water, C

d

is the drag-coefficient based, and is the water density.

Reynolds number:

C

D

R

n

v 1. 56 10

6

Kinematic viscosity

coefficient

10

5

10

6

10

7

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

R

n

C

d

k/D=900E-5

k/D=450E-5

k/D=110E-5

29

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping

For low-speed applications like DP, quadratic damping can be modeled using the

ITTC drag formalism in surge, and cross-flow drag in sway and yaw:

dx xr v xr v x C A N

dx xr v xr v x C A Y

u u SC X

r

L

r

D

d w d

r

L

r

D

d w d

r r

ITTC

d w d

pp

pp

+ + =

+ + =

=

) )( (

2

1

) )( (

2

1

2

1

2

2

2D drag coefficients C

d

(x) 3D correction factors

Ref. Faltinsen (1990)

Relative velocities:

current r

current r

v v v

u u u

=

=

30

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

6 DOF representation of MIMO quadratic drag:

D

n

||

D

n1

||

D

n2

||

D

n3

||

D

n4

||

D

n5

||

D

n6

|| |u|, |v|, |w|, |p|, |q|, |r|

D

ni

(i 1, , 6) are 6 6 matrices depending on , C

D

and A

Total hydrodynamic damping:

D D D

n

31

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Property (Hydrodynamic Damping Matrix)

For a rigid-body moving through an ideal fluid the hydrodynamic damping

matrix will be real, non-symmetric and strictly positive:

D 0

6

3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping

Example: For ships with xz-symmetry the surge mode can be decoupled from the

steering modes (sway and yaw). Hence, the linearized damping forces and

moments (neglecting heave, roll, and pitch) can be written (zero-frequency):

For low speed applications it can also be assumed that N

v

=Y

r

such that D=D

T

.

D

X

u

0 0

0 Y

v

Y

r

0 N

v

N

r

32

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

u (m/s)

station-keeping

|u| <2 m/s

linear damping: 0.5 u

quadratic damping: 0.05 |u|u

linear +quadratic damping

The figure illustrates the significance of linear and quadratic

damping for low-speed and high-speed applications.

3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping

Dynamic positioning (station-

keeping and low-speed

maneuvering):

Linear damping dominates

Maneuvering (high-speed):

Nonlinear damping dominates

33

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Example: Nonlinear Damping Model for Maneuvering at Moderate Speed

In Blanke (1981) a more detailed model including nonlinear coupling terms is proposed.

This is a simplification of Norrbin's nonlinear model (Norrbin 1970). Motivated by this

a more general expression (assuming that surge is decoupled) is:

Example: Damping Model for Low-Speed Underwater Vehicles

In general, the damping of an underwater vehicle moving in 6 DOF at high speed will be

highly nonlinear and coupled. Nevertheless, one rough approximation could be to

assume that the vehicle is performing a non-coupled motion. This suggests a diagonal

structure of D with only linear and quadratic damping terms on the diagonal:

As for ships quadratic damping can be neglected during station-keeping but not in high

speed maneuvering situation

3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Damping

D

n

X

|u|u

|u| 0 0

0 Y

|v|v

|v|Y

|r|v

|r| Y

|v|r

|v|Y

|r|r

|r|

0 N

|v|v

|v|N

|r|v

|r| N

|v|r

|v|N

|r|r

|r|

D diagX

u

, Y

v

, Z

w

, K

p

, M

q

, N

r

diagX

|u|u

|u|, Y

|vv|

|v|, Z

|w|w

|w|, K

|p|p

|p|, M

|q|q

|q|, N

|r|r

|r|

34

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

In addition to the mass and damping forces, underwater vehicles and floating

vessels will also be affected by gravity and buoyancy forces.

In hydrodynamic terminology, the gravitational and buoyancy forces are called

restoring forces, and they are equivalent to the spring forces in a mass-

damper-spring system.

In the derivation of the restoring forces and moments:

9 underwater vehicles (ROV, AUV, submarines)

9 surface vessels (ships, semi-submersibles, and high-speed craft)

will be treated separately.

35

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Underwater Vehicles:

According to the SNAME

(1950) notation, the

submerged weight of the

body and buoyancy force

are defined as:

= water density

= volume of fluid displaced

by the vehicle

m = mass of the vessel

including water in free

floating space

g = acceleration of gravity

z

f

g

CG

CB

f

b

n

n

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

W mg, B g

f

g

n

0

0

W

f

b

n

0

0

B

The weight and buoyancy force can be transformed

from NED to the body-fixed coordinate system by:

f

g

b

R

b

n

1

f

g

n

, f

b

b

R

b

n

1

f

b

n

36

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

The sign of the restoring forces and moments and must be changed

when moving these terms to the left-hand side of:

that is, the vector .

Consequently, the restoring force and moment vector in the b-frame takes the form:

where

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

g

f

g

b

f

b

b

r

g

b

f

g

b

r

b

b

f

b

b

R

b

n

1

f

g

n

f

b

n

r

g

b

R

b

n

1

f

g

n

r

b

b

R

b

n

1

f

b

n

m

i

b

r

i

b

f

i

b

f

i

b

M C D g g

o

w

g

r

b

b

x

b

, y

b

, z

b

center of buoyancy

center of gravity r

g

b

x

g

, y

g

, z

g

37

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Main Result: Underwater Vehicles:

6 DOF gravity and buoyancy forces and moments:

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

g

W B sin0

W B cos0 sin

W B cos0 cos

y

g

W y

b

B cos 0cos z

g

W z

b

B cos0 sin

z

g

W z

b

B sin0 x

g

W x

b

B cos0 cos

x

g

W x

b

B cos 0sin y

g

W y

b

B sin0

z

f

g

CG

CB

f

b

n

n

38

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Example: Neutrally Buoyant Underwater Vehicles:

Let the distance between the center of gravity CG and the center of buoyancy

CB be defined by the vector:

For neutrally buoyant vehicles W=B, and this simplifies to:

An even simpler representation is obtained for vehicles where the CG and CB

are located vertically on the z-axis, that is x

b

=x

g

and y

g

=y

b

. This yields:

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

BG BG

x

, BG

y

, BG

z

x

g

x

b

, y

g

y

b

, z

g

z

b

g

0

0

0

BG

y

W cos0 cos BG

z

W cos0 sin

BG

z

W sin0 BG

x

W cos0 cos

BG

x

W cos 0sin BG

y

W sin0

g 0, 0, 0, BG

z

W cos0sin, BG

z

W sin0, 0

39

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Surface Vessels (Ships and Semi-Submersibles):

For surface vessels, the restoring forces will depend on the vessel's metacentric

height, the location of the CG and the CB as well as the shape and size of the

water plane. Let A

wp

denote the water plane area and:

GM

T

= transverse metacentric height (m)

GM

L

= longitudinal metacentric height (m)

The metacentric height GM

i

, where i={T,L}, is the distance between the

metacenter M

i

and center of gravity CG

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

Definition (Metacenter):

The theoretical point at which an imaginary vertical line through the CB

intersects another imaginary vertical line through a new CB created when the

body is displaced, or tilted, in the water.

40

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

is the water plane

area of the vessel as a

function of the heave position

For a floating vessel at rest,

buoyancy and weight are in

balance:

z = displacement in heave

z=0 is the equilibrium position

The hydrostatic force in heave will

be the difference between the

gravitational and buoyancy

forces:

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

B B

1

K

G

M

T

GM sin

T

GM

T

y

z

g

mg

g

mg g

Z mg g oz

goz

where the change

in displaced water is:

oz

0

z

A

wp

d

A

wp

41

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

For conventional rigs and ships, however, it can be assumed that:

is constant for small perturbations in z.

Hence, the restoring force Z will be linear in z, that is:

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

Z gA

wp

0

Z

z

z

A

wp

A

wp

0

Z

z

A

wp

z

This is physically equivalent to a spring with stiffness Z

z

gA

wp

0 and position z.

of

r

b

R

b

n

1

0

0

g

0

z

A

wp

d

The restoring forces and moments

decomposed in the b-frame:

42

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

The moment arms in roll and pitch can be related to the moment arms

and in roll and pitch, and a z-direction force pair with magnitude

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

GM

T

sin

GM

L

sin0

W B g

r

r

b

GM

L

sin0

GM

T

sin

0

f

r

b

R

b

n

1

0

0

g

g

sin0

cos 0sin

cos 0cos

Neglecting the moment contribution due to of

r

b

(only considering f

r

b

m

r

b

r

r

b

f

r

b

g

GM

T

sincos 0cos

GM

L

sin0 cos0 cos

GM

L

cos 0 GM

T

sinsin0

g

of

r

b

m

r

b

43

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

g

g

0

z

A

wp

d sin0

g

0

z

A

wp

d cos 0sin

g

0

z

A

wp

d cos 0cos

gGM

T

sincos 0cos

gGM

L

sin0 cos0 cos

gGM

L

cos 0 GM

T

sinsin0

Main Result: Surface Vessels:

6 DOF gravity and buoyancy forces and moments:

44

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Linear (Small Angle) Theory for Boxed Shaped Vessels

Assumes that are small such that:

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

g G

g

gA

wp

0 z0

gA

wp

0 z

gA

wp

0 z

gGM

T

gGM

L

0

gGM

L

GM

T

0

0

0

gA

wp

0z

gGM

T

gGM

L

0

0

sin0 0, cos 0 1

sin , cos 1

0

z

A

wp

d A

wp

0z

, 0, z

G diag0, 0, gA

wp

0, gGM

T

, gGM

L

, 0

M N G g

o

w

Linear dynamics:

45

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

The diagonal G matrix is based on the assumption of yz-symmetry. In the

asymmetrical case G takes the form:

where:

G G

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 Z

z

0 Z

0

0

0 0 0 K

0 0

0 0 M

z

0 M

0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0

Z

z

gA

wp

0

Z

0

g

A

wp

xdA

M

z

Z

0

K

gz

g

z

g

g

A

wp

y

2

dA gGM

T

M

0

gz

g

z

b

g

A

wp

x

2

dA gGM

L

46

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

M

B

G

K

Floating

vessel

Submerged

vessel

Diving

BG

BM

GM=BG

GM

height above

keel line

Surfacing

KB

Metacenter M, center of gravity G and center of buoyancy B for a submerged

and a floating vessel. K is the keel line.

47

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

The metacenter height can be computed by using basic hydrostatics:

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

GM

T

BM

T

BG, GM

L

BM

L

BG

K

M

B

G

For small roll and pitch angles the transverse and longitudinal

radius of curvature can be approximated by:

where the moments of area about the water planes are defined as:

BM

T

I

T

, BM

L

I

L

I

L

A

wp

x

2

dA, I

T

A

wp

y

2

dA

For conventional ships an upper bound on these integrals can be found by

considering a rectangular water plane area A

wp

=BL where B and L are the

beam and length of the hull:

I

L

1

12

L

3

B, I

T

1

12

B

3

L

48

Ivar Ihle TTK4190 Spring 2006

Definition (Metacenter Stability):

A floating vessel is said to be:

Transverse metacentrically stable if: GM

T

GM

T,min

> 0

Longitudinal metacentrically stable if: GM

L

GM

L,min

> 0

The longitudinal stability requirement is easy to satisfy for ships since

the pitching motion is quite limited.

The lateral requirement, however, is an important design criterion used to

predescribe sufficient stability in roll to avoid that the vessel does not roll

around. For instance, for large ferries carrying passengers and cars, the lateral

stability requirement can be as high as GM

T,min

= 0.8 (m) to guarantee a proper

stability margin in roll.

A trade-off between stability and comfort should be made since a large stability

margin will result in large restoring forces which can be quite uncomfortable

for passengers.

3.2.3 Restoring Forces and Moments

- AN AXISYMMETRIC, TURBULENT FLOW ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT INFILTRATION INTO A PRESSURIZED STRUCTURE WITH A FABRIC ENDCAPUploaded byMeh Di
- Field Development ConceptsUploaded byMarc Raphael Parrikal
- Module 12 Mechanical Properties of MatterUploaded byJudy Panguito Aralar
- Exp2 StabilityUploaded byrafai1
- Sample Thematic UnitUploaded byfayswan4232
- Chapter - 8_Simple Harmonic MotionUploaded byMohammed Aftab Ahmed
- STAT CH2 Confidential IntervalUploaded byMonny MOM
- 4. Archimedes' PrincipleUploaded bySharania Udhaya Kumar
- Aeroacoustic analysis of wind turbine blades: Turbulent boundary layer trailing edge noiseUploaded byVasishta Bhargava
- chapter 2Uploaded bynns
- Determination and Analysis of the Stability of Floating BodiesUploaded byUnstraightable Finger
- CCUploaded byMariano Valiente Jr.
- 3D Boundary Layer Study on a Rotating Wind Turbine BladeUploaded bysurichi
- Hydraulics Objective Type Questions - Set 24 _ Engineering, Competitive Exams and Jobs.pdfUploaded byl8o8r8d8s8i8v8
- chapter_7Uploaded bySunil kumar Kumawat
- Calculation of the Heat Transfer Coefficient 1Uploaded byIslam Unity
- class ix chapter - floatation gravitation solve board questionsUploaded byapi-242227794
- Toppers copyUploaded byAbhishek Agrawal
- Unsteady Thermal Radiation Mixed Convection Flow From AmovingUploaded bybrayann23
- abschn23Uploaded byJAAK2005
- Parent and Child Aquatics BbbUploaded byRICHARD
- Mars Balloon Probe - Copy2222 - CopyUploaded byShahir Afif Islam
- edts 234 lesson plan buoyancyUploaded byapi-314845964
- Arc Hi Me DesUploaded byfara_1691
- Gravitation Thrust and PressureUploaded byabhishek
- MetodosNumericosCamadaLimiteAnlisedeSimilaridadeUploaded byJorge Sarushan
- s5_12Uploaded bySharmila Shanmuga Sunder
- External FlowsUploaded byMano Prakash
- keey 1965Uploaded bylorencorumba
- Thermodynamics + Fluid Mechanics _ Hydraulic MachinesUploaded bySivasutha007

- Marpol Introduction 002Uploaded byPhome Pyae
- Table of ContentsUploaded bydimaeduard
- Sailing Yacht Performance - The Effects of Heel Angle and Leeway Angle on Resistance and SideforceUploaded bynecatiygt
- 161246731-Stability-of-Multihulls.pdfUploaded byFilipe Rosa
- CatamaranUploaded bynecatiygt
- Constructive AnatomyUploaded bygazorninplotz

- a112282.pdfUploaded byMilad Moradi
- Appendix 7Uploaded bySiswand BIn Mohd Ali
- artigo13Uploaded byRicardo Minette
- Wsf-4 2624 ManuscriptUploaded byBlue Dark
- Gujarat PGCET Question Bank MechUploaded bysasikalasivakumar
- Finite Element Analysis of Transient Free Convection Flow Over Vertical PlateUploaded byHafiq Para
- Hull Roughness Ship Hull SurfaceUploaded byakupiek
- Lecture 18Uploaded byThang Hoang
- Flat Plate Boundary LayerUploaded byNasri Jamaludin
- AssignmentsUploaded byGCVishnuKumar
- ME_Old_NewUploaded bypravin23105921
- ipu mechatronics syllabusUploaded bybadree456
- Technical ReferenceUploaded bycata_alex_munt
- FM_MCQUploaded bySarocivil
- Boundary conditions at a naturally permeable wallUploaded byOscar A. Luévano
- RiegelsAerofoilSections.pdfUploaded bypickle77
- TurbulenceUploaded byShekhar Vishwanadha
- ConvectionUploaded bySkull Crown
- CFD modelling of natural convection in air cavitiesUploaded byadugg
- thermal power syllabusUploaded byaneessheik786
- ThesisUploaded byJames Psr
- Fluid Mechanics TYS Exp 251Uploaded byShubham mishra
- FREE SHEAR LAYERS, BASE PRESSURE AND BLUFF-BODY DRAGUploaded byKarkhia Lorissa
- hydrodynamic characteristics of propellersUploaded byeraz11
- Wind-Tunnel Interference Effects on Delta Wing Aerodynamics.pdfUploaded byChegrani Ahmed
- 1995 Embedded Vortices in Internal Flow Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss EnhancementUploaded byArief Rachman
- Aero Foil Users InstructionsUploaded byArif Abdul Rahman
- A Computer Design Method for Vertical Thermosyphon ReboilersUploaded bySrihari Kodimela
- FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVECTIONUploaded byEnesEmreTaş
- AGARD - HEAT TRANSFER AND COOLING IN GAS TURBINES.pdfUploaded byRadek Wasilewski