You are on page 1of 73

INSTITUTE TECHNOLOGY BRUNEI

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
COURSE NOTE
COURSE NUMBER: FEG1MA1
COURSE TITLE: ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS 1
DR. MD. FAZLUL KARIM
1
Differentiation
Function:
Let us consider the following question:
To fence a rectangular region with a wire of length 100
m
, what is the relation between
the length and the width of the rectangle?
Figure: A rectangle
Refer to Figure, Let the rectangular region has length
x
and width
y
. Then
2 2 100 x y +
And so
50 . y x
y
changes according to
x
, and a value of
x
will determine a value of
y
. For example, if 1 x ,
then 49 y ; if 19.4 x , then 30.6 y .
We note that since
x
is the length of a rectangle, 0 x . It is also clear that 50 x . Hence, for
this particular case, the value of
x
is restricted to the interval [ ] 0, 50 . Similarly,
y
is also
restricted to the interval [ ] 0, 50 .
The relation 50 y x exhibits the concept of a function.
Definition: If a variable y depends on a variable x in such a way that each value of x determines
exactly one value of y, then we say that y is a function of x.
Definition: A function f from set A to set B , written as : f A B , is a rule that assigns, to
each element in A, a unique element in B . A is called the domain of f, and B the co-domain of
f.
2
y
x
f
A B
Figure: The function f
In the above example, the function involved is
[ ] [ ]
( )
: 0, 50 0, 50
50
f
f x x


Concept of limit:
Many are puzzled by the phrase h approaches 0 but 0 h . The following example gives you
an idea of what the phrase means.
Suppose one wishes to travel from Ato B , where B is 100m on the right of A.
First he reaches the midpoint C of AB .
Then he reaches the midpoint Dof CB .
He travels in this way that he always reaches the midpoint of where he is and B . In other words,
if h represents the distance between him and B , then h approaches 0 but 0 h . Can u think of
another way?
The symbol
( ) lim
x a
f x b

means that when


x
approaches
a
but x a , then the function value
( ) f x approaches b .
Definition: If the values of f(x) can be made as close as we like to L by taking values of x
sufficiently close to a (but not equal to a), then we write
L x f
a x

) ( lim
, which is read the limit of f(x) as x approaches a is L.
3
A B
A B
C
B
A
C D
Example. ( )
2
1
lim 1 1
x
x x

+
Intuitively, when
x
is close to 1,
2
x
approaches 1 (say 1.01 x , then
2
1.0201 x
; if
1.001 x , then
2
1.002 x
), so
2
1 x x +
approaches 1.
Example: Find ) 3 4 ( lim
2
5
+

x x
x
Solution: ) 3 4 ( lim
2
5
+

x x
x
=l 3 lim 4 lim
5 5
2
5
+
x x x
x x im
=( ) 8 3 ) 5 ( 4 5 3 lim 5 lim 4 lim
2
5 5
2
5
+ +
x x x
x
Example: Find
3
4 5
lim
3
2

x
x
x
Solution:
3
4 5
lim
3
2

x
x
x
=
( )
( )
44
3 2
4 2 . 5
3 lim
4 5 lim
3
2
3
2

x
x
x
x
Continuity: A moving object cannot vanish at some point and reappear someplace else to
continue its motion. Thus, we perceive the path of a moving object as an unbroken curve, without
gaps, breaks or holes.
Definition: A function f is said to be continuous at x = a provided the following conditions are
satisfied
(i) f(a) is defined
(ii)
) ( lim x f
a x
exists
(iii)
) ( ) ( lim a f x f
a x

Example: Determine whether the following functions are continuous at x = 2.

'

'

2 , 4
2 ,
2
4
) ( ,
2 , 3
2 ,
2
4
) ( ,
2
4
) (
2 2
2
x
x
x
x
x h
x
x
x
x
x g
x
x
x f
Solution: In all the cases the functions are identical, except at x = 2, and hence all three have the
same limit at x = 2, namely
( ) 4 2 lim
2
4
lim ) ( lim ) ( lim ) ( lim
2
2
2 2 2 2
+



x
x
x
x h x g x f
x x x x x
The function f is undefined at x = 2, and hence is not continuous at x = 2. The function g is
defined at x = 2, but its value there is g(2) = 3 which is not same as the limit as x approaches 2,
hence g is also not continuous at x = 2. The value of the function h at x = 2 is h(2) = 4, which is
same as the limit as x approaches 2, hence h is continuous at x = 2.
4
Derivative:
Suppose a particle travels along the
y
-axis. Its position as time t is given by ( )
3 2
3 y f t t t +
.
When 0 t , 0 y ; when 1 t , 4 y ; when 2 t , 20 y ; etc.
The average velocity of the particle between 0 t and 1 t is 4 while the average velocity of
the particle between 0 t and 2 t is 10.
We see that the average velocity is increasing when t increases. This shows that the velocity of
the particle changes from time to time.
Suppose t and t h + are two different times, then the average velocity between time t and t h +
is
( ) ( ) f t h f t
h
+
.
If we let h approaches 0, it is reasonable that
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f t h f t
h

+
is the instantaneous velocity of the particle at time t .
5
0 4 20
y
position of particle when 0 t
position of particle when 1 t
position of particle when 2 t
The gradient (slope) of a curve is the gradient of the tangent:

Gradient of chord:
=
2 1
2 1
y y
x x

=
y
x

=
2 1
2 1
( ) ( ) f x f x
x x

Gradient of tangent:
=
0
lim
x
y dy
x dx

,
Differentiation from first principles:
6
y
x

=
( ) ( ) f x x f x
x

+
'
0 0
( ) ) )
( ) lim lim
x x
dy y f x x f x
f x
dx x x




+
_ _


, ,
Definition: . Let
) , ( , ) , ( : b a C R b a f
. The derivative of f at
x c
is the limit
( ) ( )
0
lim
h
f c h f c
h

+
.
If this limit exists, f is said to be differentiable at
x c
.
Remarks
1. We use the symbol ( ) ' f c to denote the derivative of f at
x c
, i.e.
( )
( ) ( )
0
' lim
h
f c h f c
f c
h

+
.
7
Techniques of differentiation
** 0 ) ( c
dx
d
Example1. Let f(x)=5, then 0 ) 5 (
dx
d
** Let
n
be a positive integer and ( )
n
f x x . Then ( )
1
'
n
f x nx

.
Example: 1 1 ) ( , 5 ) (
0 4 5
x x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
** f c x cf
dx
d
)) ( (
Example(i):
4 4 5 5
20 5 . 4 ) ( 4 ) 4 ( x x x
dx
d
x
dx
d

(ii)

1
) (
1

,
_

x
dx
d x
dx
d
** [ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x g
dx
d
x f
dx
d
x g x f
dx
d
t t
Example: [ ] ( ) ( ) x x x
dx
d
x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
2 4
3 2 4 2 4
+ + +
Parametric differentiation:
dy
dy
d
dx dx
d

Implicit differentiation:
( ) ( ) x
dy
f y f y
dx
d d
dx dy
1 1
] ]

Logarithmic differentiation:
( )
1
ln( )
dy
y
y dx
d
dx
_


,

The product rule:


8
( ) ( ) ( ) y x u x v x uv
dy dv du
u v
dx dx dx
+
Example: Find ,
dx
dy
if ( )( ) x x x y +
3 2
7 1 4
Solution:
dx
d
dx
dy
( )( ) [ ] x x x +
3 2
7 1 4
=( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 4 7 7 1 4
2 3 3 2
+ + + x
dx
d
x x x x
dx
d
x
= ( )( ) ( )( ) 1 9 140 8 7 1 21 1 4
2 4 3 2 2
+ + + x x x x x x x
The quotient rule:
) (
) (
) (
x v
x u
x y
2
du dv
v u
dy
dx dx
dx v

Example: Differentiate:
t
te
y
t
cos 2
2

Solution:
( )
2
2 2
cos 2
) cos 2 ( ) ( cos 2
t
t
dt
d
te te
dt
d
t
dx
dy
t t

=
t
t te e te t
t t t
2
2 2 2
cos 4
) sin 2 ( ) 2 ( cos 2 +
=
t
t t t t t e
t
2
2
cos 2
) sin cos cos 2 ( + +
The chain rule:
(function of a function)
y is a function of u and u is a function of x

dy dy du
dx du dx

Example: Differentiate (i) ( )


9
1 3 x y ,(ii) ( ) 2 5 cos 3
2
+ x y
9
Solution (i) Let
9
, 1 3 u y x u
3 , 9
8

dx
du
u
du
dy
( )
8
9 . u
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
.3= ( )
8 8
1 3 27 27 x u
(ii) Let u y x u cos 3 , 2 5
2
+
x
dx
du
u
du
dy
10 , sin 3
( ) 2 5 sin 30 sin 30 .
2
+ x x u x
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
Chain Rule:
If g is differentiable at x and f is differentiable at g(x), then the composition f g o is differentiable
at x. Moreover,
( ) ) ( )) ( ( ) ( x g x g f x g f

Alternatively, if ( ) ( ) ) ( , x g u x g f y then, y = f (u) and


dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
.
Example : If ( )
3
cos 4 ) ( x x h , find ( ) ' . h x
Solution. We first find f and g such that h = f g o .
If u u f x x g cos 4 ) ( , ) (
3
then
( ) ( )
2
3
3 ) ( , sin 4 ) (
) ( cos 4 )) ( ( ) (
x x g u u f
x h x x g f x g f


Using Chain rule, ( ) ( )
3 2 2
sin 12 3 ) ( sin 4 ) ( )) ( ( ) ( x x x x g x g x g f x h

Alternatively, let y = h(x) and let u y x u cos 4 ,


3

By the form of the chain rule ( )( ) ( )
3 2 2
sin 12 3 sin 4 . ) ( x x x u
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
x h
Example: If ( ) ( )
100
2
3sin 1 h x x x + + , find ( ) ' h x .
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
100
2
99
2
' differentiate .differentiate 3sin 1
100 3sin 1 2 3cos
h x x x
x x x x
+ +
+ + +
10
Example: If
( )
1
2
2
1
sin f x x x
x
_
+

,
, find ( ) ' f x .
Solution:
( )
1
2
2 2
2
1 1 1
' sin 2 sin cos
2
f x x x x x x x
x x

_ _
+ +

, ,
Example: Evaluate the derivatives of the following functions:
( ) ( )
x
x
c x x b x x a
sin 1
cos
) ( , sin ) ( , 3 cos sin ) (
2

+
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x x x x x x
dx
d
a 3 sin 3 cos 3 3 sin cos ) 3 cos (sin ) ( +

(b) By the product and chain rules:
x x x x
x
x x x x x x
dx
d
cos
2
1
sin 2
2
1
. cos sin 2 ) sin (
2
3
2 2
+ +
(c) By the Quotient rule:
( )
( ) ( )
( ) x x
x
x
x x x
x
x x x x
x
x
dx
d
sin 1
1
sin 1
1 sin
sin 1
cos sin sin
sin 1
) sin 0 )( (cos ) sin ( sin 1
sin 1
cos
2
2
2 2
2

+ +



,
_

Implicit differentiation:
Example: Find ,
dx
dy
if xy = 1
Solution: Differentiating implicitly yields
x
y
1
, from which it follows that
2
1
0
0
) (
) 1 (
) (
x x
y
dx
dy
y
dx
dy
x
dx
x d
y
dx
dy
x
dx
d
dx
xy d

+
+

.
Example: Find the slope of the curve 0 1
2
+ x y at the points (2,-1) and (2,1).
Solution: Differentiating implicitly yields
11
[ ]
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
0 1 2
) 0 ( 1
) 1 , 2 ( ) 1 , 2 (
2

1
]
1

dx
dy
dx
dy
y dx
dy
dx
dy
y
dx
d
x y
dx
d
We have accumulated the following formulae:
( ) f x ( ) ' f x
k (a constant)
( ) 0
r
x r
sin x
cos x
tan x
cot x
sec x
csc x
1
sin x

1
cos x

1
tan x

1
cot x

1
sec x

1
csc x

0
1 r
rx

cos x
sin x
2
sec x
2
csc x
sec tan x x
csc cot x x
2
1
1 x
2
1
1 x
2
1
1 x +
2
1
1 x

+
2
1
1 x x
2
1
1 x x
12
) (log x
dx
d
) (sinh x
dx
d
) (cosh x
dx
d
) (tanh x
dx
d
x
1
Coshx
Sinhx
x h
2
sec
Derivative of Logarithmic and exponential function:
x
x
dx
d 1
) (log
Example: Find ( )) 1 (log
2
+ x
dx
d
Solution: ( )) 1 (log
2
+ x
dx
d
= ( )
1
2
1 .
1
1
2
2
2
+
+
+ x
x
x
dx
d
x
Example: Find
1
]
1

,
_

+ x
x x
dx
d
1
sin
ln
2
Solution:
1
]
1

,
_

+ x
x x
dx
d
1
sin
ln
2
=
( )
1
]
1

+ + x x x
dx
d
1 ln
2
1
) ln(sin ln 2
) 1 ( 2
1
cot
2
) 1 ( 2
1
sin
cos 2
x
x
x x x
x
x +
+
+
+
Example: Differentiate
x
x
tan
) (sec
Solution: Let
x x y
x y
x
sec log tan log
) (sec
tan

Differentiating both sides w. r. to x,


( ) ( ) ( ) x x x x x x x y
dx
dy
x x x x
x
x
dx
dy
y
x
sec log sec tan sec sec log sec tan
sec log sec tan sec
sec
1
. tan .
1
2 2 tan 2 2
2
+ +
+
Example: Find ,
dx
dy
if
x x
x x
y
sin 1 sin 1
sin 1 sin 1
tan
1
+ +
+


Solution: On rationalizing the denominator,
13
2
1
2 2
tan tan
2
cos
2
sin 2
2
sin 2
tan
sin
cos 1
tan
1
2
1 1


dx
dy
x x
x x
x
x
x
y
Example: If ,
1 1
tan
2
1
x
x
y
+


find ,
dx
dy
Solution: Putting
2
1 1
2
2
1
1
.
2
1
tan
2
1
2 2
tan tan
2
tan
2
cos
2
sin 2
2
sin 2
sin
cos 1
tan
1 sec 1 1
, tan
x dx
dy
x y
x
x
x
+


Differentiations of parametric equations:


When x and y are given in terms of a parameter, say , then by the function of a function rule of
differentiation


d
dx
dx
dy
d
d
dx
y d
d
dx
d
dy
dx
dy

,
_


2
2
, /
Example: Find ,
dx
dy
if ( ) ( ) cos 1 ( , sin + a y a x
Solution:
( ) 2
cot
2
sin 2
2
cos
2
sin 2
cos 1
sin
/
2


a
a
d
dx
d
dy
dx
dy
Higher (successive) derivatives:
( ) x x
dx
d
dx
dy
dx
d
x
dx
dy
x y
6 3
3 ,
2
2 3

,
_


Now,
,
_

dx
dy
dx
d
is denoted by
2
2
dx
y d
(i.e. 2
nd
derivative of y with respect to x)
Similarly,
3
3
dx
y d
,(i.e. 3
nd
derivative of y with respect to x) is here 6.
If y = f (x), the successive derivatives are also denoted by
14
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2 1
x f D x f D x Df
x f x f x f
y
y y
y y y
n
n
n
n




D stand for the symbol
dx
d
.
##The
th
n derivatives of some special functions
( ) f x
) (x f
n
k (a constant)
n
x
ax
e
a x +
1
) log( a x +
Sin(ax+b)
Cos(ax+b)
0
! n
ax n
e a
( )
( )
1
! 1
+
+

n
n
a x
n
( )
( )
1
1
)! 1 ( 1
+

+

n
n
a x
n

,
_

+ +

,
_

+ +
b ax
n
a
b ax
n
a
n
n
2
sin
2
sin

Example: If
), sin(log ) cos(log x b x a y +
show that 0
1 2
2
+ + y xy y x
Solution : Given
), sin(log ) cos(log x b x a y +
Differentiating
) cos(log ) sin(log
1
). cos(log
1
). sin(log
1
1
x b x a xy
x
x b
x
x a y
+
+
Differentiating again,
( )
0
) sin(log ) cos(log
1
). sin(log
1
). cos(log
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
+ +
+ +
+
y xy y x
y x b x a xy y x
x
x b
x
x a y xy
Example: If
,
6
1
2 3
2
x x x
x x
y
+
+
find
.
n
y
Solution: ( ) ) 2 ( 3 ) 6 ( 6
2 2 3
+ + + x x x x x x x x x
15
Let
2 3 6
1
2 3
2

+
+
+
+
+
x
C
x
B
x
A
x x x
x x
Multiplying both sides by ( ) ) 2 ( 3 + x x x , we get,
( ) ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( 3 1
2
+ + + + + x Cx x Bx x x A x x
Putting x = 0,-3,2 successively on both sides, we get
2
1
,
3
1
,
3
1
C B A
( )
1
]
1

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ + + 1 1 1
) 2 (
1
.
2
1
) 3 (
1
.
3
1 1
.
6
1
! 1
2
1
.
2
1
3
1
.
3
1 1
.
6
1
n n n
n
n
x x x
n y
x x x
y
Applications of differentiations:
Example: A particle P moves along the x-axis in such a way that its position at time t is given by
t t t x 24 15 2
2 3
+ ft.
(a) Find the velocity and acceleration of P at time t.
(b) In which direction and how fast is P moving at 2 s? Is it speeding up or slowing down at
that time?
(c) When is P instantaneously at rest? When is its speed instantaneously not changing?
Solution:
(a) The velocity and acceleration of P at time t are
) 4 )( 1 ( 6 24 30 6
2
+ t t t t
dt
ds
v ft/s
) 5 2 ( 6 30 12 t t
dt
dv
a ft/s
2
(b) At t = 2, we have v = -12 and a = -6. Thus, P is moving to the lef with speed 12 ft/s, and,
since the velocity and acceleration are both negative, its speed is increasing.
(c) P is at rest when v = 0, that is, when t = 1 or t = 4 s. Its speed is unchanging when a =0,
that is, at t = 5/2 s.
Example: Determine the rate of change of voltage, given t t v 2 sin 5 volts when t = 0.2s.
Solution: Rate of change of voltage is ( ) t t t t t t
dt
dv
2 sin 5 2 cos 10 2 sin 5 2 cos 2 5 + +
When t = 0.2, 7892 . 3 ) 2 . 0 ( 2 sin 5 ) 2 . 0 ( 2 cos ) 2 . 0 ( 10 2 sin 5 2 cos 10 + + t t t
dt
dv
Example: The luminous intensity I candelas of a lamp at varying voltage V is given by
. 10 4
2 4
V l

Determine the voltage at which the length is increasing at a rate of 0.6 candelas
per volt.
Solution: The rate of change of light with respect to voltage is given by
dV
dI
.
Since
( ) V V
dV
dI
V l
4 4
2 4
10 8 2 10 4
10 4



When the light is increasing at 0.6 candelas per volt then
16
volts V V 750 , 10 8 6 . 0
4


Example: Newtons law of cooling is given by ,
0
kt
e

where the excess of temperature at


zero time is .
0
C

Determine the rate of change of temperature after 40 s, given that


. 03 . 0 , 16
0
k C

Solution: The rate of change of temperature is


( )
kt
e k
dt
d


0

When
( )
( )
s C e
dt
d
t k C
/ 594 . 1 03 . 0 16
, 40 , 03 . 0 , 16
40 03 . 0
0

Example: The distance x metres moved by a car in a time t seconds is given by


. 1 4 2 3
2 3
+ t t t x Determine the velocity and acceleration when (a) t = 0 and (b) t = 1.5 s.
Solution: Velocity s m t t
dt
dx
v / 4 4 9
2
+
Acceleration
2
2
2
/ 4 18 s m t
dt
x d
a
(a) When time t = 0, ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
/ 4 4 0 18 , / 4 4 0 4 0 9 s m a s m v +
(b) When time t = 1.5, ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
/ 23 4 5 . 01 18 , / 25 . 18 4 5 . 1 4 5 . 1 9 s m a s m v +
Partial Differentiation
Area of a rectangle depends upon its length and breadth, hence we can say that area is the
function of two variables, i.e., its length and breadth.
z is called a function of two variables x and y if z has one definite value for every pair of x and y.
Symbolically, it is written as
z = f (x,y).
The variables x and y are called independent variables while z is called the dependent variable.
Similarly, we can define z as a function of more than two variables.
Partial derivatives: Let z = f(x,y) be function of two independent variables x and y. If we keep y
constant and x varies then z becomes a function of x only. The derivative of z with respect of x,
keeping, y as constant is called partial derivatives of z, w.r.to x and is denoted by the symbols
) , ( , , y x f
x
f
x
z
x

etc. Then
( ) ( )
x
y x f y x x f
x
z
x

, ,
lim
0
+


Similarly,
( ) ( )
y
y x f y y x f
y
z
y

, ,
lim
0
+


Notation:
t
y
z
r
x
z
s
y x
z
q
y
z
p
x
z

2
2
2
2 2
, , , ,
Example: If , 3 2 5
2 3 4
y y x x z + find
y
z
b
x
z
a

) ( , ) (
Solution: (a)To find
x
z

, y is kept constant
17
( ) ( )
2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 4
6 20 0 6 20 ) 1 ( 3 2 5 y x x y x x
dx
d
y x
dx
d
y x
dx
d
x
z
+ + +

(b)To find
y
z

, x is kept constant
( ) ( ) ( ) 3 4 1 . 3 2 . 2 ) 0 ( 5 ) ( 3 2 ) 1 ( 5
3 3 4 2 3 4
+ +

y x y x x y
dy
d
y
dy
d
x
dy
d
x
y
z
Example: If
xy z sin
show that
y
z
x x
z
y

1 1
Solution:
xy
x
z
y
xy y
x
z
cos
1
, cos

, since y is kept constant


xy
y
z
x
xy x
y
z
cos
1
, cos

, since x is kept constant


Hence
y
z
x x
z
y

1 1
.
Application: Error determination
) ( . ), ( , lim
0
approx x
dx
dy
y approx
dx
dy
x
y
dx
dy
x
y
x


x is known as absolute error in x
x
x
is known as the relative error in x
100
x
x
is known as percentage error in x.
Example: Pressure p of a mass of a gas is given by
mRT pV
, where m and R are constants, V
is the volume and T the temperature. Find expressions for
V
p
T
p

, .
Solution: Since
mRT pV
then
V
mRT
p
Hence ( ) ,
V
mR
T
dT
d
V
mR
T
p

V is kept constant.
,
1
2
V
mRT
V dV
d
mRT
V
p

,
_

T is kept constant.
Example: The power dissipated in a resistor is given by
R
E
P
2
. Using calculus, find the
approximate percentage change in P when E is increased by 3% and R is decreased by 2%.
Solution:
R
E
P
2

R E P log log 2 log


On differentiating we get,
18
8 ) 2 ( 3 2
100
100 100
2
100
2

P
P
R
R
E
E
P
P
R
R
E
E
P
P
Percentage change in P = 8.
Partial derivatives of higher order:
Let z = f (x,y), then
y
z
x
z

,
being the functions of x and y can be further differentiated
partially w.r. to x and y.
Symbolically
yx xy xy
yy
xx
f f f or
y x
f
or
y x
z
y
z
x
f or
y
f
or
y
z
y
z
y
f or
x
f
or
x
z
x
z
x

,
_

,
_


,
_

, , ,
, ,
, ,
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Example: Prove that
) ( ) ( at x g at x f y + +
satisfies

,
_

2
2
2
2
2
x
y
a
t
y
, where f and g are assumed to be at least twice differentiable and a is any
constant.
Solution:
) ( ) ( at x g at x f y + +
--------------(1)
Differentiating (1) w.r. to x partially we get
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
at x g at x f
x
y
at x g at x f
x
y
+ +

+ +

Differentiating (1) w.r. to t partially we get


19
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
)] ( ) ( [ ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
x
y
a at x g at x f a at x g a at x f a
t
y
at x g a at x f a
t
y

+ + + +

Example: If ,
xyz
e u find the value of
z y x
u

3
Solution:
( )
( )
[ ]
2 2 2
2
3
2
2
3 1
) .( ) ( ) 2 1 ,
) ( ) )( ( ) ( ,
z y x xyz e
yz x x yz e xyz e
z y x
u
or
yz x x e xy xz e x e
z y
u
or
xy e
z
u
e u
xyz
xyz xyz
xyz xyz xyz
xyz
xyz
+ +
+ + +

+ +

Extremum problem (Maxima and Minima):


One application of the derivative is to determine the maximum and minimum of a differentiable
function. We shall give examples of this application.
Local maximum or local minimum is generally known as local extremum . Look at the graph of
[ ] : , f a b in the figure and note that
(i) ( )
1
f c is a local maximum,
(ii) ( )
2
f c is a local minimum,
(iii) ( ) f a is a minimum on [ ] , a b
(iv) ( )
3
f c is a local maximum on [ ] , b and it is also maximum on [ ] , a b ,
(v) f(a) is not a local minimum on [a,b]
(vi) ) (
1
c f is a maximum on [ ] ,
(vii) ) (
2
c f is a minimum on [ ] ,
Theorem: If f(c) is a local extremum and f if differentiable at c, then . 0 ) ( c f
.
Turning points:
(Stationary points)
20
y
x
f
a
1
c
2
c
3
c
b
P is a maximum Q is a minimum
At a turning point:
0
dy
dx

;
Max if :
2
2
0
d y
dx
<
Min if :
2
2
0
d y
dx
>
Inflexion point if:
2
2
0
d y
dx

Definition: A number
0
x is called a critical number of f if ( )
0
' 0 f x or f is not
differentiable at
0
x x .
21
Determination of Maxima and Minima:
Example: Find the extremum of [ ] ( )
3 2
: 0, 6 , 2 7 f f x x x + .
Solution: Since f is continuous on [ ] 0, 6 , the Extremum Theorem tells us that f has a
maximum and a minimum.
0 ) 4 3 (
0 4 3
0 ) (
2



x x
x x
x f
Or, x = 0 or 4/3
So, the critical numbers of f are
4
0,
3
and 6 (observe that 0 and 6 are critical numbers of f
because f is not differentiable at 0 or 6).
( )
( )
0 7
4 31
3 9
6 151
f
f
f

Thus, 151 is the maximum and


31
9
is the minimum.
Let us note the following result which is useful in determining whether a local extremum occurs
at a critical point.
Example: Find the extremum of
R x x x x f + , cos sin ) (
Solution: Since sin and cos are periodic functions with period 2 , it is enough to look at the
problem for [ ] 0, 2 x .
( ) ' cos sin f x x x and to find the critical number we let ( ) ' 0 f x . Then we get
tan 1 x or
5
,
4 4
x


Critical numbers of f are
5
0, ,
4 4

and 2 . ( 0 and 2 are critical numbers because f is not


differentiable at 0 and 2 when we restrict the domain to [ ] 0, 2 ). f is continuous on
[ ] 0, 2 , thus f has a maximum and a myinimum. They occur at the critical numbers.
22
Comparing ( ) 0 1 f ,
5
2, 2
4 4
f f

_ _


, ,
and ( ) 2 1 f , we see that 2
4
f
_


,

is the maximum and
5
2
4
f
_


,
is the minimum.
Second derivative test: If c is a point the interval in which the function f (x) is defined and if
0 ) ( c f and 0 ) ( c f the f(c) is a maximum if ) (c f
is negative and a minimum if
) (c f
is positive.
Example: Find for what values of x, the following expression is maximum and minimum
respectively:
20 36 21 2
2 3
+ x x x , find also the maximum and minimum values of the expression.
Solution: Let
36 42 6 ) (
20 36 21 2 ) (
2
2 3
+
+
x x x f
x x x x f
Which exists for all values of x.
Now, when f(x) is a maximum or a minimum, 0 ) ( x f
( )( )
6 , 1
0 6 1 6
0 36 42 6
2


+
x
x x
x x
Now, when x =1, 30 42 12 ) ( x x f , which is negative
When x = 6, 30 42 12 ) ( x x f , which is positive
Hence the given expression is maximum for x = 1, and minimum for x = 6.
The maximum and minimum values of the given expression are respectively f(1), i.e. -3 and
f(6), i.e. -128.
Example: Examine whether
x
x
1
possesses a maximum or a minimum and determine the
same.
Let
e x x
dx
dy
x
x
x
x x dx
dy
y
x
x
y x y
x



, log 1 , 0
) 1 ( ) log 1 (
1
log
1 1
.
1
log
1
log ,
2 2 2
1
Differentiating (1) w. r . to x,
( )
3 4
2
2
2
2
2
log 2 3
2 log 1
1
.
.
1 1
x
x
x
x x
x
x
dx
y d
y dx
dy
y
+


,
_

+
,
_

When x = e,
3
1
2
2
2 3
.
e
e
dx
y d
e
+

, which is negative
Therefore, for x = e, the function is a maximum, and the maximum value is
e
e
1
.
23
Example: A liquid form of penicillin manufactured by a pharmaceutical firm is sold in bulk at a
price of RM 200 per unit. If the total production cost for x units is
2
003 . 0 80 000 , 500 ) ( x x x C + +
And if the production capacity of the firm is at most 30,000 units in a specified time, how many
units of penicillin must be manufactured and sold in that time to maximize the profit?
Solution: Since the total revenue for selling x units is
x x R 200 ) (
, the profit P(x) on x units
will be
) 003 . 0 80 000 , 500 ( 200 ) ( ) ( ) (
2
x x x x C x R x P + + ---(1)
Since the production capacity is at most 30,000 units, x must lie in the interval [0,30,000].
From (1) x x
dx
dP
006 . 0 120 ) 006 . 0 80 ( 200 +
Setting 0 006 . 0 120 , 0 x
dx
dP
000 , 20 x
Since the critical number lies in the interval [0,30,000], the maximum profit must occur at one of
the values x = 0, x = 20,000 or, x = 30,000.
000 , 400 ) ( , 30000
000 , 700 ) ( , 20000
00 , 500 ) ( , 0



x P x
x P x
x P x
Therefore the maximum profit P= 700,000 occurs when x = 20,000 units manufactured and sold
in the spefied times.
Example: An object is hurled upward from the roof of a building 10 m high. It rises and then falls
back; its height above ground t s after it is thrown is
10 8 9 . 4
2
+ + t t y m,
until it strikes the ground. What is the maximum height above the ground that the object attains?
With what speed does the object strike the ground?
Solution: The vertical velocity at time t during flight is
8 8 . 9 8 ) 9 . 4 ( 2 ) ( + + t t
dt
dy
t v m/s.
The object is rising when v>0, that is, when
, 8 . 9 / 8 0 < <t
and is falling for t > 8/9.8. Thus, the
object is at its maximum height at time t = 8/9.8 s, and this maximum height is
27 . 13 10
8 . 9
8
8
8 . 9
8
9 . 4
2
max
+
,
_

+
,
_

y m.
The time t at which the object strikes the ground is the positive root of the quadratic equation
obtained by setting y = 0,
Namely,
462 . 2
8 . 9
196 64 8

+
t s.
The velocity at this time is v = -(9.8)(2.462)+8 =16.12. Thus, the object strikes the ground with
a speed of about 16.12 m/s.
24
Example: A boat sails 30miles to the east from a point P , then it changes direction and sails to
the south. If this boat is sailing at a constant speed of 10miles/hr, at what rate is its distance from
the point P increasing
(i) 2hours after it leaves the point P
(ii) 7 hours after it leaves the point P ?
Solution:
(i) Since the constant speed of the boat is 10miles/hr, so 2hrs after it leaves the point P ,
it has traveled 20 miles and it is still sailing east. Thus the rate of its distance from
the point P is increasing at 10miles/hr.
(ii) 7hrs after it leaves P , it has sailed east 30 miles in 3hrs and south 40 miles in 4hrs.
Let its distance from P at time t after it starts sailing be
s
, where 3 t hrs, and
a
be
the distance traveled along the south direction.
Then
2 2 2
30 s a +
So
2 2 .
ds da
s a
dt dt

When 40. 50. a s Then


40
10
50
8miles/hr.
ds a da
dt s dt

Thus the rate of its distance from the point P is increasing at 8miles/hr.
Example: A d.c supply has e.m.f E = 12 V and internal resistance 1 r . Prove using
calculus that the power transferred to a load resistor R is a maximum when . 1 r R
[Hints: The power, P, in the load is given by
( )
2
2
r R
R E
P
+

]
Solution: The power, P, in the load is given by
( )
2
2
r R
R E
P
+

Substituting E = 12 and r = 1 we find


( )
2
1
144
+

R
R
P
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 4
2
1
) 1 ( 144
1
) 1 ( 2 144 1 144
+

+
+ +

R
R
R
R R R
dR
dP
(2)
For maximum power transfer to the load we require
( )
1 , 0
1
) 1 ( 144
, 0
3

+

R
R
R
dR
dP
(2)
Now,
25
P
s
a
30miles
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
16
288
, 1
1
) 2 ( 288
1
1 3 ). 1 ( 144 ) 144 ( 1
2
2
4 6
2 3
2
2


+
+ +

dR
P d
R
R
R
R
R R R
dR
P d
(4)
Which show that he turning point, 1, is a maximum. Hence maximum power is
transferred to the load when R = r. (2)
Integration
Definition: If ( ) ( ) ( ) ' , , F x f x x a b , then f is the derivative of F and F is called
an antiderivative (integral or indefinite integral) of f on ( ) , a b .
Again, If F (x) is an integral of f(x), and x = a and x = b be two given values of x, the quantity
F(b) F(a) is defined as the definite integral of f(x), denoted by the symbol

b
a
dx x f ) ( .
a b
Constant of integration: It may be noted that
), ( ) ( x f x F
dx
d
then we also have { } ), ( ) ( x f c x F
dx
d
+ where C is an arbitrary
constant. Thus, a general value of the indefinite integral

+ C x F dx x f ) ( ) (
.
Integration is differentiation in reverse:
26
) (x f y
differentiating.
2
y x
gives
2
dy
x
dx

integrating
2x
reverses this and we get back
2
x c +
2
2xdx x c +

c can be any number c is an arbitrary constant


2xdx

is called an Indefinite Integral.


Example: Find cos . xdx

Solution: Let ( ) sin F x x . Then ( ) ' cos F x x . Thus ( ) sin F x x is an antiderivative


of
cos x
. Therefore
{ }

+ R c c x xdx sin cos


(You will see later that
1
ln , dx x k
x
+

where ln x is the logarithmic function with base


e
.)
Example: Determine:

+ dx x ) 7 3 cos(
Solution: Let 3x+7=u
Then du dx
dx
du
3
1
, 3
Therefore c x c u
du
u dx x + + + +

) 7 3 sin(
3
1
sin
3
1
3
cos ) 7 3 cos(
Example: Find sin cos
r
x xdx

where r is a rational number and 1 r .


Solution: Let sin u x , then cos
du
x
dx
and cos du xdx .
1
1
sin cos

1
sin
,
1
r r
r
r
x xdx u du
u
C
r
x
C C
r
+
+

+
+
+
+

27
Fundamental Integrals:




+ +
+ + +
+ + + +

+ + + +
+

+
, cot cos ) ( , tan sec ) (
sec tan sec ) ( , tan sec ,
tan
sec ) (
sin cos ,
sin
cos ) ( , cos sin ,
cos
sin ) (
) ( , ) ( , log
1
) ( ,
1
) (
2 2
2 2
1
c x xdx ec x c x xdx ix
c x xdax x viii c x xdx c
m
mx
mxdx vii
c x xdx c
m
mx
mxdx vi c x xdx c
m
mx
mxdx v
c e dx e iv c
m
e
dx e iii c x dx
x
ii c
n
x
dx x i
x x
mx
mx
n
n
Techniques and applications of Integration:
Example: Find

N n xdx x
n
, sec tan
2
Solution: Let tan u x , then
2
sec . du xdx

+
+
+
+

+ +
R c c
n
x
c
n
u
dx u xdx x
n n
n n
,
1
tan
1
sec tan
1 1
2
Example: Find sin , , 0. ax dx a a


Solution: Let
u ax
, then du a dx and
( )
sin sin
1
sin
1
cos
1
cos ,
du
ax dx u
a
udu
a
u C
a
ax C C
a

+
+

Example: Determine

+ dx x x ) 6
7
3
4 (
2
Solution:

+ dx x x ) 6
7
3
4 (
2
can be written as

+ dx x xdx dx
2
6
7
3
4
Hence

+ dx x x ) 6
7
3
4 (
2
=4x+ c
x x
+
+

+
+ +
1 2
6
1 1
.
7
3
1 2 1 1
=4x+ c x x +
3 2
2
14
3
Example: Determine (a) ( )

dt t b dx
x
x x
2
3
1 ) ( ,
4
3 2
Solution: Rearranging into standard integral form gives:
c x x dx dx x dx
x
x
dx
x
x
dx
x
x x
+


4
3
6
1
4
3
2
1
4
3
4
2
4
3 2
3 2
3 3
28
Example: Find the indefinite integrals:
dx e e c dx
x
x
b dx
x
x
a
x x

+
+
1 ) ( ,
) ln 3 sin(
) ( ,
1
) (
2
Solution:
(a)
dx
x
x

+1
2
, Let du xdx xdx du x u
2
1
, 2 , 1
2
+
( ) c x c x c u
u
du
+ + + + +

1 ln 1 ln
2
1
ln
2
1
2
1
2 2
(b)
dx
x
x

) ln 3 sin(
, Let dx
x
du x u
3
, ln 3
c x c u udu + +

) ln 3 cos(
3
1
cos
3
1
sin
3
1
(c)
dx e e
x x

+ 1 , Let dx e du e u
x x
+ , 1
( ) c e c u du u
x
+ + +

2
3
2
3
2
1
1
3
2
3
2
Example: Find tan . x dx

Solution:
( )
1
sin
tan
cos
1
Let cos , then sin
ln
ln cos
ln cos
ln sec , is an arbitrary constant
x
x dx dx
x
du u x du x dx
u
u C
x C
x C
x C C


+
+
+
+

Example: Find
2
.
x
x e dx

Solution: Let
2
u x
, then 2 du x dx .
29
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
, is an arbitrary constant
2
x u
u
x
xe dx e du
e C
e C C

+
+

Example: Find
sin
2 cos
x
dx
x +

.
Solution: Let 2 cos , sin u x du x dx + .
sin 1
2 cos
ln ,
ln 2 cos
x
dx du
x u
u C C
x C

+
+
+ +

Example: Find
sin
.
x
dx
x

Solution: Let
1
,
2
u x du dx
x

sin
sin 2
2cos ,
2cos
x
dx u du
x
u C C
x C

+
+

Example: Find
2
2 .
x
x dx

Solution: Let
2
u x
, then 2 . du x dx
2
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
,
2 ln 2
2
2ln 2
x u
u
u
x
x dx du
du
C C
C

+
+

Integration by parts: ( )

+ +

g f fg g f g f g f fg g f g f fg , ,
Sometimes it is written as

vdu uv udv
This is known as the formula of integration by parts.
30
Example: Find ln . x dx

Solution:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
ln 1.ln
' ,
' ,
1
ln ,
ln 1
ln ln ,
ln
x dx x dx
f x g x dx
f x g x f x g x dx
x C x x C dx C
x
C
x C x dx
x
x C x x C x K K
x x x K


+ +
_
+ +

,
+ +
+

Example: Find
1
sin . xdx

Solution: We let ( ) ' 1 f x and ( )


1
sin g x x

, then ( ) f x x and ( )
2
1
'
1
g x
x

.
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
1
2
sin 1.sin
'
'
sin
1
xdx xdx
f x g x dx
f x g x f x g x
x
x x dx
x

To find
2
1
x
dx
x

, let
2
1 u x
, then 2 . du xdx
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1 ,
x du
dx
u
x
u du
u
C
x C C


+
+

Putting this into (1), we get


31
1 1 2
sin sin 1 xdx x x x C

+ +

.
Example: Find sin .
x
e xdx

Solution:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
sin '
' ' , sin
sin cos , ' cos
s cos '
' ' ,
x
x
x x x
x
x
e xdx f x g x dx
f x g x f x g x dx f x e g x x
e x e xdx f x e g x x
e xdx f x g x dx
f x g x f x g x dx f x e

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
cos
cos sin , ' sin
cos sin
x x x
x x
g x x
e x e x dx f x e g x x
e x e xdx

Put this into (1), then


( )
sin sin cos sin
sin cos sin
x x x x
x x x
e xdx e x e x e xdx
e x e x e xdx
+

So 2 sin sin cos ,


x x x
e xdx e x e x

thus
( )
1
sin sin cos ,
2
x x x
e xdx e x e x C C +


Example: Evaluate:

2
0
sin 2

d
Solution:

d sin 2
=

+ + c d sin 2 cos 2 2 ) cos ( ) cos ( 2

2
0
sin 2

d
=
[ ] 2 sin 2 cos 2
2
0
+


Example: Find
2
1
1
dx
x

.
Solution: Let
sec x u
, then sec tan dx u udu and
2 2
1 1
sec tan
1 sec 1
sec
ln sec tan ,
dx u udu
x u
udu
u u C C

+ +

32
x
2
1 x
Refer to the figure, since
secu x
,
2
tan 1 u x
.
Thus
2
2
1
ln 1 .
1
dx x x C
x
+ +

Example: Find
2
1
.
1
dx
x +

Solution: Let tan x u , then


2
sec dx udu
.
2 2
2
1 1
1 1 tan
1
sec
sec
sec
ln sec tan ,
dx du
x u
udu
u
udu
u u C C

+ +

+ +

Since tanu x , we have


2
sec 1 u x +
,
thus
2
2
1
ln 1 .
1
dx x x C
x
+ + +
+

Example: Find
2
1
.
2 2
dx
x x + +

Solution: ( )
2
2
2 2 1 1. x x x + + + + Let 1 tan x u + , then
2
sec dx udu
.
( )
2
2
2
2
1 1
1 1 2 2
1
sec
tan 1
sec
ln sec tan ,
ln 2 2 1
dx dx
x x x
udu
u
udu
u u C C
x x x C

+ + + +

+ +
+ + + + +

Partial fraction:
Find

+
dx
x x
x
3 2
2
33
1
x
2
1 x +
1
u
Solution:
( )( ) 1 3 3 2
2
+

+ x x
x
x x
x
, writing it in the partial fraction, we have
1
1
.
4
1
3
1
.
4
3
3 2
2

+
+

+ x x x x
x
R c c x x
dx
x
dx
x
dx
x x
dx
x x
x
+ + +

+
+

,
_

+
+


, 1 ln
4
1
3 ln
4
3
1
1
4
1
3
1
4
3
1
1
.
4
1
3
1
.
4
3
3 2
2
Example: Find
( ) ( )
1
.
1 2
dx
x x +

Solution: First we shall express


( ) ( )
1
1 2 x x +
as a partial fraction.
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1
1 2 3 1 3 2 x x x x
_ _


+ +
, ,
Then
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1
1 2 3 1 3 2
dx dx dx
x x x x

+ + +

To find
1
1
dx
x

, we let 1 u x , then . du dx
1 1
1
1 1
1
ln ,
ln 1
dx du
x u
u C C
x C

+
+

Similarly, R C C x dx
x
+ +
+

2 2
, 2 ln
2
1
( )( )
R C C x x dx
x x
+ +
+

, 2 ln
3
1
1 ln
3
1
2 1
1
THEOREM (Fundamental Theorem of Calculus)
Suppose
(i) f is integrable on [ ] , a b
(ii) F is continuous on [ ] , a b and ' F f on ( ) , a b
Then ( ) ( )
b
a
f F b F a

34
Definite integral: Definite integrals are those in which limits are applied.
Example: Evaluate (a)

a
dx x
0
2
and (b) ( )

+
2
1
2
2 3 dx x x
Solution: (a)
3 3
1
3
0
3
0
2
a
x dx x
a a

(b)
( )
2
9
) 2 ( ) 1 (
2
3
) 1 (
3
1
4 ) 4 (
2
3
) 8 (
3
1
2
2
3
3
1
2 3
2
1
2 3
2
1
2

,
_

+ + + +

x x x dx x x
Example: Evaluate ( )dx x

3
2
2
4
Solution: ( )
( )
3
25
3
2
) 2 .( 4
3
3
3 . 4
3
4 4
3 3
3
2
3 3
2
2

,
_



1
]
1

x
x dx x
Example: Evaluate:

2
0
2 sin 3

xdx
Solution:
3 ) 1 1 (
2
3
) 0 cos (cos
2
3
) 0 ( 2 cos
2
2 cos
2
3
2 cos
2
1
3 2 sin 3
2
0
2
0

1
]
1

'


,
_


1
]
1

,
_

x xdx
Example: Find
1
0
sin . x dx

Solution: We know that ( ) cos F x x is an antiderivative of ( ) sin . f x x


Now F is continuous on [ ] 0,1 and ' F f on ( ) 0,1 ,
f is continuous on [ ] 0,1 and f is integrable on [ ] 0,1 .
By the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,
( ) ( )
1 1
0 0
1
0
sin
|
1 0
cos1 cos 0
1 cos1.
x dx f
F
F F


+


Remark
b
a
f

is often written as ( )
b
a
f x dx

to emphasize on the variable


x
.
35
Example: Find
( )
1
3
2
1
1 . x dx +

Solution:
( ) ( )
1
2
1 f x x +
is continuous on [ ] 1, 3 , so it is integrable on [ ] 1, 3 . We need to
find one antiderivative of f .
( ) ( )
( )
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1 let 1 , then
2
3
2
1 , is a constant
3
x dx u du u x du dx
u c
x c c
+ +
+
+ +

We need only one antiderivative of f , we choose
( ) ( )
3
2
2
1
3
F x x +
Thus
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
3
3
2
1
1
3 3
2 2
1 |
3 1
2 2
1 3 1 1
3 3
2
8 2 2 .
3
x dx F x
F F
+

+ +

Example: Evaluate:

+
2
0 2
1 2
3
x
xdx
Solution: Let 1 2
2
+ x u
1 , 0
, 9 , 2
4
, 4



u x
u whenx
x
du
dx x
dx
du
Thus [ ] 3 1 9
2
3
2
1
4
3
4
3
4
3
1 2
3
9
1
2
1
9
1
2
1
9
1
2
0 2

+


u
du u
u
du
x
xdx

Example:

2
0
2
cos

xdx
Solution:
36
( )
4
sin
4
1
4
2 sin
4
1
2
2 cos 1
2
1
cos 2
2
1
cos
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2 2


+
1
]
1

+ +

x
x
dx x xdx xdx
Example:

1
0 2
1
1
sin
dx
x
x
Solution: Putting
dx
x
d x
2
1
1
1
, sin


When x =0,
2
, 1 ; 0

x
8 2
1
sin
2
2
0
2
2
0
1
0 2
1

1
]
1




d dx
x
x
I
Example:


a
dx x a
0
2 2
Solution:Put
d a dx a x cos , sin
When x =0,
2
, ; 0

a x
( )
4 2
2 sin
2
2 cos 1
2
1
. cos
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2 2
a a
d a d a I

1
]
1

+ +

General properties of definite Integral:
) ( ) ( , , ) ( ) ( . , ) ( ) ( .
, ) ( ) ( ) ( . , ) ( ) ( .
0 0 0 0
x a f x f if dx x f n dx x f iv dx x a f dx x f iii
b c a dx x f dx x f dx x f ii dx x f dx x f i
a na a a
a
c
c
a
b
a
a
b
b
a
+
< < +


a
a
dx x f v , 0 ) ( . if f(x) is odd function,


a
a
a
dx x f dx x f vi
0
) ( 2 ) ( . , if f(x) is even
function
Cor: A function f(x) is said to be an odd function of x, if f(-x)= - f(x). e.g x, sinx
A function f(x) is said to be an even function of x, if f(-x)= f(x). e.g x x x f cos , ) (
2

Example: Show that


2
0
0 tan log

xdx
Solution:
0 , 0 2
tan log cot log
2
tan log tan log
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0


,
_



I I
I xdx xdx dx x xdx I

37
Example: Show that


+
2
0
4
cos sin
sin

dx
x x
x
Solution:


+
+
+

+

,
_

+
,
_

,
_

2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
sin cos
cos
cos sin
sin
2
sin cos
cos
2
cos
2
sin
2
sin
cos sin
sin


dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
I
dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
I
[ ]
4
,
2 cos sin
cos sin
2
0
2
0
2
0



+
+


I x dx dx
x x
x x
Example: A car is travelling at 72 km/h. At a certain instant its brakes are applied to produce a
constant deceleration of 0.8 m/s
2
. How far does the car travel before coming to a stop?
Solution: Let s(t) be the distance the car travels in the t seconds after the breaks are applied. Then
), / ( 8 . 0 ) (
2
s m t s so the velocity at time t is given by

+
1
8 . 0 8 . 0 ) ( c t dt t s
m/s.
Since 72 ) 0 ( s km/h = 20 m/s, we have 20
1
c . Thus,
t t s 8 . 0 20 ) (
38
And
( )

+ . 4 . 0 20 8 . 0 20 ) (
2
2
c t t dt t t s
Since s(0) = 0, we have 0
2
c and . 4 . 0 20 ) (
2
t t t s When the car has stopped, its velocity
will be 0. Hence, the stopping time is the solution t of the equation
t t s 8 . 0 20 ) ( 0
That is, t = 25 s. The distance travelled during deceleration is s(25) = 250 m.
Applications of integration:
Let us look at a few applications of integration. We shall see how the integral can be used to find
the length of a curve, the area of a surface of revolution and the volume of a solid of a revolution.
Length of a curve:
The length of the curve ( ) [ ] , , y f x x a b is defined as
1
0
1
lim .
n
k k
P
k
T T

The length
k
l of the line segment joining
1 k
T

and
k
T is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
.
k k k k k
l x x f x f x

+
If f is a function with continuous first order derivative on the interval [ ] , a b , then the length of
the curve ( ) [ ] , , y f x x a b is defined by the integral
( ) ( )
2
1 ' .
b
a
f x dx +

Example: Find the length of the curve 2


3
x y
from (1,1) to ( ) 2 2 , 2 .
Solution:
2
1
2
3
x
dx
dy

The required arc length


dx x L

+
2
1
4
9
1 , Let dx du x u
4
9
,
4
9
1 +
4
22
2 ,
4
13
1 u x u x
39
( ) y f x
0
T
1
T
1 k
T

k
T
n
T
0
a x
1
a x
1 k
x
k
x
x
n
b x
09 . 2 ]
4
13
4
22
[
27
8
27
8
9
4
2
3
2
3
4 / 22
4 / 13
2
3 4 / 22
4 / 13
2
1

,
_


,
_

u du u L
Example: Find the length of the curve
( )
3
2
1 y x +
from 0 x to 4. x
Solution: Let
( ) ( )
3
2
1 f x x +
, then
( ) ( )
1
2
3
' 1
2
f x x + and ( ) ( ) ( )
2 9
1 ' 1 1 .
4
f x x + + +
The length of the curve
( ) ( )
( )
4
0
4
0
49
13
49
3
2
13
3
2
1 ' 2
1
9 13
2
1
let 9 13
2 9
1
27
1
343 13
27
f x dx
x dx
du
u u x
u
+
+
+

_


,

Example: Determine the length of an arc of the cycloid


) cos 1 ( ), sin ( + a y a x
,
measured from the vertex (i.e., the origin)
Solution: Here ( )
2
cos 2 sin cos 1
2 2
2 2



a a
d
dy
d
dx
d
ds
+ +
,
_

+
,
_

Also at the origin 0 .


Hence the required length, from 0 to any point is
2
sin 4
2
cos 2
0

a d a s

.
Areas of a plane curves:
The definite integral

b
a
b
a
ydx e i dx x f , . , ) ( represents the area bounded by the curves y =
f(x), the x-axis and the two fixed ordinates x = a and x =b.
Example: Find the area of the quadrant of the ellipse
1
2
2
2
2
+
b
y
a
x
between the major and minor axes.
Solution: The required area is
1 ,
2
2
0
2
2
2 2
0
+

b
y
a
x
dx x a
a
b
ydx
a a
, for the curve
y=

2
0
, cos . cos

d a a
a
b
putting sin a x
40
= ( ) ab
ab
d
ab

4
1
2
2 sin
2
2 cos 1
2
2
0
2
0

1
]
1

+ +

Example: Find the area A of the plane region lying above the x-axis and under the curve
. 3
2
x x y
Solution:
We need to find the points where the curve
2
3 x x y meets the x-axis. These are solutions of
the equation
). 3 ( 3 0
2
x x x x
The only roots are x = 0 and 3. Hence, the area of the region is given by
( )
2
9
) 0 0 (
3
27
2
27
3
1
2
3
3
3
0
3 2
3
0
2

x x dx x x A square units.
Example: Find the area under the curve
, sin x y
above y = 0 from x = 0 to . x
Solution: The required area is
2 ) 1 1 ( cos sin
0
0

x dx x A
square units.
**Area between two curves
If f and g are continuous functions on the interval [a,b] and if
) ( ) ( x g x f
for all x in [a,b],
then the area of the region bounded above by y = f(x), below by y = g(x), on the left by x = a and
on the right by the line x = b is
dx x g x f A
b
a
)] ( ) ( [

Example: Find the area of the bounded, plane region R lying between the curves
x x y 2
2
and . 4
2
x y
Solution: First, we must find the intersections of the curves, so we solve the equations
simultaneously:
0 ) 1 )( 2 ( 2
0 4 2 2
4 2
2
2 2
+


x x
x x
x y x x y
So x = 2 or x = -1
Since , 2 1 , 2 4
2 2
x x x x The area A of R is given by
41
( ) ( )
) 1
3
2
4 ( 4 ) 8 (
3
2
) 2 ( 4
3
2
4 ) 2 2 4 ( ] 2 4 [
2
1
2 3
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
+ + +
+ +


x x x dx x x dx x x x A
= 9 square units.
Example: Find the area of the region bounded above by y = x+6, bounded below by
2
x y , and
bounded on the sides by the lines x = 0 and x = 2.
Solution: The required area
( )
3
34
3
6
2
] 6 [
2
0
3 2 2
0
2

1
]
1

+ +

x
x
x
dx x x A
Example . Find the area of the region bounded by the curves
2
y x and
3
. y x
Solution: The two curves
2
y x and
3
y x meet when
2 3
x x
, i.e. ( )
2
1 0 x x which
gives 0 x or 1 x . Note that on the interval [ ] 0,1 , the graph of
2
y x lies above that of
3
y x . Thus the area of the region between
2
y x and
3
y x is
( )
1
3 4
1
2 3
0
0
3 4
1

12
x x
x x dx
1

1
]

Surface of Revolution:
If f is a continuously differentiable non-negative function on [ ] , a b ,then the area of a
surface generated by revolving the curve ( ) [ ] , , y f x x a b , about the
x
-axis is
42
y
x
1
1
2
y x
3
y x
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 1 '
b
a
f x f x dx +

Suppose that a parametric curve in the upper half of the


xy
-plane defined by a pair of
continuously differentiable functions
( ) ( ) [ ] , , , x x t y y t t a b
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 ' ' .
b
a
y t x t y t dt +

Example: Find the surface area of a sphere with radius


. r
Solution: The surface of a sphere can be generated by revolving a semicircle
2 2
y r x
, [ ] , x r r about the
x
-axis.
Let
( )
2 2
f x r x , [ ] , x r r . Then ( )
2 2
' .
x
f x
r x

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
2 2
The surface area of a sphere 2 1 '
2 1
2

r
r
r
r
r
r
f x f x dx
x
r x dx
r x
rdx

+
_

2
4 r
Volume of Revolution:
The Disc Method:
The volume of the solid of revolution generated by revolving about the
x
-axis the region
bounded by the curve ( ) [ ] , , y f x x a b , where f is continuous, and the
x
-axis
from
x a
to x b is given by
( ) ( )
2 b
a
f x dx

.
Example: Find the volume of a sold ball having radius a.
Solution: The ball can be generated by rotating the half-disk, a x a x a y , 0
2 2

about the x-axis. Therefore its volume is
( ) ( )
3
0
3 2
0
2 2
2
2 2
3
4
3
1
2 2 a x x a dx x a dx x a V
a a
a
a

cubic units.
Example: Find the volume of the solid of revolution when the region which is bounded by
the curves 2 y x and
2
y x is revolved about
(i) The
x
-axis, (ii) The
y
-axis
43
Solution: Let us first find the points of intersection between the two given curves. Solving
the two equations 2 y x and
2
y x , we have
2
2 , x x i.e. ( ) 2 0, x x
So, 0 x or 2 x , and the curves meet at ( ) 0, 0 and ( ) 2, 4 .
(i) The region T bounded by the two curves (refer to the figure above) is revolved about the
x
-axis. Note that a small vertical slice of the solid which is perpendicular to the axis of
revolution is in the form of a washer with cross sectional area
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 . x x
1

1
]
The volume obtained by revolving T about the
x
-axis is
( ) ( )
2
3 5
2 2
2
2
0
0
4
2
3 5
64

15
x x
x x dx

1
1

1
1
]
]

(ii) The region T is revolved about the


y
-axis. A small horizontal slice of the solid which is
perpendicular to the axis of revolution is in the form of a washer with cross sectional area
( )
2
2
.
2
y
y
_
_



,
,
The volume obtained by revolving T about the
y
-axis is
( )
4
2
2 3
2 4
0
0
8
2 2 12 3
y y y
y dy


_
1
_


1

,
]
,

44
y
4
2
x
( ) 2, 4
2 y x
2
y x
T
The Shell Method:
The volume of the solid of revolution is
( ) 2 .
b
a
xf x dx

Example: Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the region bounded by the
curve
2
1
y
x
and the
x
-axis between 1 x and 2 x about
(i) The
y
-axis
(ii) The
x
-axis
(iii) The line 1 x
Solution:
(i) The given region is revolved about the
y
-axis. Subdivide the region into small strips
that are parallel to the axis of revolution, then each strip when revolved generates a
cylindrical shell. The volume of the solid of revolution about the
y
-axis is
2
2
2 1
1
1
2 2 ln
2 ln 2
x dx x
x

(ii)When the given region is revolved about the


x
-axis, we subdivide the region into
small strips that are perpendicular to the axis of revolution. Each strip when revolved
generates a disc. The volume of the solid of revolution is
2
2
2 3
1
1
1 1 7
3 24
dx
x x

_


,

45
x
y
2
1
y
x

1 2
(iii)When the given region is revolved about the line 1 x , a vertical strip at coordinate
x

is at distance ( ) 1 1 x x + from the axis of revolution; and when revolved it generates a
cylindrical shell. The volume of solid of revolution is
( )
2
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
2 1 2 ln 2 ln 2
2
x dx x
x x

1 _
+ +

1
] ,

Multiple Integrals: Multiple integral is a natural extension of a definite integral to a function of


two variables (double integral) or three variables (triple integral) or more variables. Double and
triple integrals are useful in evaluating are, volume, mass, centroid and moments of inertia of
plane and solid regions.
Double integral over region A may be evaluated by two successive integrations. If A is described
as [ ] b x a y y y x f y x f , ), ( ) (
2 1 2 1
Then

b
a
y
y
dx dy y x f dxdy y x f ] ) , ( [ ) , (
2
1
) ( :
2 2
x y y c
a b
46
1 1 2
x
2
1
y
x

) ( :
1 1
x y y c R
Partial definite integrals:

b
a
b
a
dy y x f dx y x f ) , ( , ) , (
Example:
2 2
2
1
0
2 2 1
0
2
1
0
2
y x y
xdx y dx xy

3 3
1
0
3 1
0
2
1
0
2
x xy
dy y x dy xy

This two-stage of integration process is called iterated integration.
We introduce the following notation:

1
]
1

d
c
b
a
d
c
b
a
dy dx y x f dxdy y x f ) , ( ) , (

1
]
1

b
a
d
c
b
a
d
c
dx dy y x f dydx y x f ) , ( ) , (
These integrals are called iterated integrals.
Example: Evaluate ( ) ( )


4
2
3
1
3
1
4
2
2 40 ) ( , 2 40 ) ( dxdy xy b dydx xy a
Solution: (a)
( ) ( ) [ ]
[ ] 112 6 80
) 12 80 ( 40 2 40 2 40
3
1
2
3
1
3
1
3
1
4
2
2
4
2
3
1
4
2


1
]
1



x x
dx x dx xy y dx dy xy dydx xy
Similarly,(b) 112
Example: Evaluate the double integral

R
xdA y
2
over the rectangle { }. 1 0 , 2 3 : ) , ( y x y x R
Solution:
6
5
6
5
2
5
2
1
0
3
1
0
2
2
3
1
0
2 2
1
0
2
3
2 2

1
]
1


1
]
1

y dy y dy
x y
xdxdy y xdA y
R
Example: Evaluate

+
2
0 0
) cos(

dxdy y x
Solution: We have
( ) [ ]

0
2
0
2
0 0
sin ) cos( y x dy dx y x dy I + +

=
[ ]dy y y

+ +
2
0
) 0 sin( ) sin(

=
[ ] [ ] 2 cos 2 sin sin
2
0
2
0


y dy y y
47
Example: Evaluate
dy e dx
x
x
y

1
0 0
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) 1
2
1
2
1 1 ) (
1
0
2
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0 0

1
]
1


1
]
1


e
x
e xdx e dx x xe xe dx dy e dx
x
x
y
x
x
y
Example: Evaluate

xydxdy
over the region in the positive quadrant for which
1 +y x
.
Solution:
B(0,1)
x+y=1
O A(1,0) x
Solution: x+y=1 represents a straight line AB in the figure. The limits for y are 1 x and 0.
Required integral = ( )( )
2
1
0
1
0
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
1
2
x xdx
y
xdx ydy xdx
x
x

1
]
1

= ( )
24
1
4 3
2
2 2
1
2
2
1
1
0
4 3 2
3 2
1
0

1
]
1

+ +

x x x
dx x x x
Area in polar coordinate: Area =

rdrd
Evaluate,


2
0 sin
a
a
rdrd I
Solution: ( )

+
1
]
1


2
0
2
2
0
2
2
sin
2
0
2
2
0 sin
2 cos 1
4
cos
2 2
d
a
d
a
d
r
rdrd I
a
a
a
a
2 2
2 sin
4
2
2
0
2
a a

1
]
1


Triple integral: Let V be a given three-dimensional domain in space, bounded by a closed
surface S. Let f(x,y,z) be a continuous function in V of the rectangular coordinates x,y,z. Then a
triple integral of f over the domain V is defined as



V V
i i v
dxdydz z y x f dv p f v p f
i
) , , ( ) ( ) ( lim
0
------------(1)
Volume: Volume of a solid contained in the domain V is given by the triple integral (1) with
f(x,y,z) = 1,
i.e. volume =

V
dxdydz
Evaluate:
( ) 3 2 , 2 1 , 1 0 : , + +

z y x R dxdydz z y x
R
Solution:
( )
3
2
2
2
1
3
2
1
0
2
1
1
0
2
) (
1
]
1

+ +
+ +

z y x
dy dx dz z y x dy dx
48
( ) ( ) [ ] ( )
( )
( ) ( ) [ ] ( )
2
9
4
2
4 5 2 2 5 4 2
8
1
4
5 2 2
2
1
1 . 5 2 2
2
1
2 3
2
1
1
0
2
1
0
2 2
1
0
2
1
2 1
0
2
1
1
0
2 2
2
1
1
0

1
]
1

+
+ + + + +
1
]
1

+ +

+ + + + + +


x
x
dx x x x dx
y x
dx
dy y x dx y x y x dy dx
Example: Find the total mass of the region in the cube
1 0 , 1 0 , 1 0 z y x
with density
at any point given by xyz.
Solution: Mass =
8
1
2 4
1
4
1
2 2
1
2
1
0
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
2
1
0
1
0
1
0

1
]
1


1
]
1

1
]
1


z
zdz dz
zy
dydz yz
x
xyzdxdydz
Complex numbers
For any real number x, x
2
0 and therefore x
2
+ 11>0 for xR. Thus the equation
x
2
+ 1 = 0 has no solution in R. This equation has a solution in the complex number field.
Note that i, -i are the solutions of the equation x
2
+ 1 = 0. i =
1
.
Definition: A number of the form a + ib is called a complex number when a and b are real
numbers and i =
1
. We denote the set of all complex numbers by C. Two complex numbers z1
= (a1,b1) and z2 = (a2,b2) are equal if a1=a2 and b1=b2.
A pair of complex numbers a + ib and a ib are said to be conjugate of each other.
Fundamental operations with complex numbers:
1. Addition: z1 + z2 = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1
b b i a a ib a ib a + + + + + + = (a1+a2, b1+b2)
2. Subtraction: z1 - z2 = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1
b b i a a ib a ib a + + + = (a1-a2, b1-b2)
3. Multiplication:z1z2 = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1
b a b a i b b a a ib a ib a + + + + = (a1a2 b1b2,
a1b2+a2b1)
4. Division:
2
2
2
2
2 1 1 2
2
2
2
2
2 1 2 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
.
b a
b a b a
i
b a
b b a a
ib a
ib a
ib a
ib a
ib a
ib a
+

+
+
+

+
+

+
+
Graphical representation of a complex number:
y
49
x
(a,b)
If z = (a,b), then a and b are the real and imaginary parts of the complex number z. The complex
numbers can be represented as points in R
2
and we call the x-axis and y-axis to be the real and
imaginary axis respectively. The plane itself is called the Argand plane. Also one can think of a
complex number as a vector from the origin to the point (a,b).
Example: Let
1
3 z i + and
2
1 2 z i + . Then their sum
1 2
z z + is given by
1 2
(3 ) ( 1 2 ) 2 3 z z i i i + + + + +
And their difference
1 2
z z is given by
1 2
(3 ) ( 1 2 ) 4 z z i i i + +
Their product
1 2
z z is given by
2
1 2
(3 )( 1 2 ) 3 6 2 3 5 2 5 5 z z i i i i i i i + + + + + + ,
Example: We find the real and imaginary part of 1/ z . Since
2 2
( )( ) x iy x iy x y + + ,
We have
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
.

x iy
z x iy x iy x iy
x iy x iy
x y x y x y


+ +


+ + +
And therefore
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
,
x Rz y Iz
R I
z x y x y z x y x y


+ + + +
From these equation, we conclude that
1
0 0 Rz R
z
> >
And
1
0 0 Iz I
z
> <
Modulus of a complex number (Absolute value)
50
For any complex number
2 2
, z a ib a b + + is a nonnegative real number and therefore there is a
nonnegative square root for
2 2
a b +
. This nonnegative square root of
2 2
a b +
is the modulus of
the complex number. Note also that
2 2
( )( ) zz a ib a ib a b + + .
Definition: Let z a ib + be a complex number. The nonnegative square root of
2 2
a b +
is the
modulus (or the absolute value) of the number z and is denoted by z ; thus we have
2 2
: z zz a b +
Argument of a complex number (Polar form):
Definition: Let z a ib + be any nonzero complex number. Let r z . The argument of a
nonzero complex number z , denoted by
arg z
, is the angle defined by the equations
y
cos , sin a r b r
The argument of a complex number z is the angle between the real axis and the line segment
joining the origin to the point z . We can write any nonzero complex number z in the following
polar form
(cos sin ) z r i +
We write
cos sin
i
e i

+
And thus
i
z re

= r
R is called the modulus (or magnitude) of z and is called the argument (or amplitude) of z.
Example: Express the complex number i 3 2 2 + in polar form.
Solution: Modulus or absolute value,
4 12 4 3 2 2 + + i r
sin 4 3 2 , cos 4 2
Amplitude or argument
3
3 tan ,
1



Then i 3 2 2 + = ( )
3
4
3
sin
3
cos 4 sin cos
i
e i i r



,
_

+ +
51
x
(a,b)
a
b

Example: Let
1
1 z i + . Then
2 2
1
1 1 2 z +
And the argument
1
is given by
1 1
1 2 cos , 1 2 sin
Clearly
1
/ 4
Thus
/ 4
1 2
i
i e

+
Let
2
z i . The modulus of
2
z is given by
2 2
2
0 1 1 z +
And the argument is given by
2 2
0 cos , 1 sin
Therefore,
2
/ 2
And
/ 2 i
i e

Let
3
1 z . In this case, we have
3
1 z and the argument
3
and therefore
1
i
e


Let
4
1 z i . Then
2 2
4
1 ( 1) 2 z +
And the argument
4
is given by
4 4
1 2 cos , 1 2 sin
Clearly,
1 / 4
Thus
/ 4
1 2
i
i e


Example: Convert (a)

30 4 , (b)

145 7 into Cartesian form.


Solution(a) Using trigonometric ratios, 2 30 sin 4 , 464 . 3 30 cos 4

y x
Hence 2 464 . 3 30 4 i +

(b)

145 7 lies in the 3


rd
quadrant.
Angle

35 145 180
Hence 015 . 4 35 sin 7 , 734 . 5 35 cos 7

y x
Hence 015 . 4 734 . 5 145 7 i

Example: Solve the complex equation
3 6 ) ( 2 i iy x +
Solution:
3 6 2 2 3 6 ) ( 2 i y i x i iy x + +
,
Equating the real and imaginary parts gives:
52
2
3
, 3
3 2 , 6 2


y x
y x
De Moivres Theorem:
n i n i
n
sin cos ) sin cos + +
**Roots of a complex number:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
n
m
i
n
m
m i m i
I m m i m i
n n



+
+
+
+ + + +
+ + + +
2
sin
2
cos 2 sin 2 cos sin cos
, 2 sin 2 cos sin cos
1 1
Giving m the values of 0,1,2,,n-1 successively, we get the required roots.
Example: Find the different values of
( ) 3
1
1 i +
Solution:
) sin (cos 1 i r i + +
4
, 1 tan , 2 , sin 1 , cos 1

r r r
( )
1
]
1

+ + +
1
]
1

,
_

+ + +
1
]
1

,
_

+ +

,
_

+ +
)
4
2 (
3
1
sin )
4
2 (
3
1
cos 2
)
4
2 sin( )
4
2 cos( 2
4
sin
4
cos 2 1
4
sin
4
cos 2 1
6
1
3
1
3
1
3
1



n i n
n i n i i
i i
Putting n = 0,1,2 we get 3 values
1
]
1

+
1
]
1

+
1
]
1

+
12
17
sin
12
17
cos 2 ,
12
9
sin
12
9
cos 2 ,
12
sin
12
cos 2
6
1
6
1
6
1

i i i
Applications of complex numbers:
The effect of multiplying a phasor by i is to rotate it in a positive direction (i.e. anticlockwise)
on an Argand diagram through

90 without altering its length.. Similarly, multiplying a phasor
by i rotates the phasor through -

90 . These facts are used in a.c. theory since certain


quantities in the phasor diagrams lie at

90 to each other. For example, in the R-L series circuit


L
V leads i by

90 and may be written as i


L
V . Thus
, , ,
L R L R
IX V iR V V iV V + where
L
X is the inductive reactance,
fL 2
and
V = IZ (Z is the impedance) then Z iX R
L
+
Similarly for the R C circuit
c
V
lags I by

90 and
fC
X Z iX R V iV V
c c c R
2
1
, ,
Example: Determine the resistance and series inductance (or capacitance) for each of the
following impedances, assuming a frequency of 50 Hz:
( ) + 20 ) ( , 0 . 7 0 . 4 ) ( i b i a
53
Solution: (a) Impedance , Z = ( ) + 0 . 7 0 . 4 i , hence
Resistance = 0 . 4 and reactance = 7.0 , since the imaginary part is positive, the reactance is
inductive, fL X X e i
L L
2 , 0 . 7 . . , then inductance,
H
f
X
L
L
0223 . 0
) 50 ( 2
0 . 7
2


or 22.3 mH
(b)Impedance , Z = ( ) 0 . 20 0 i , hence
Resistance = 0 and reactance = 20 , since the imaginary part isnegative, the reactance is
capacitive,
fC
X X e i
c c
2
1
, 20 . .
, then capacitance,
F F
fX
C
c


2 . 159
) 20 )( 50 ( 2
1
2
1

Exponential and circular functions of a complex number:
If
iy x z +
then we define:
.....
4 3 2
! 4 ! 3 ! 2
1 + + + + +
z z z
z e
z
.
! 4 ! 2
1 cos
...
! 5 ! 3
sin
4 2
5 3
+
+
z z
z
z z
z z
( ) ( )
i
e e
z
e e
z
e z i z similarly
e z i z
e
iz iz
iz
z z
z i
z z
z i z
iz iz iz iz
iz
iz
iz
2
sin ,
2
cos
sin cos ,
sin cos
...
! 3 ! 2
1
...
! 5 ! 3
....
! 4 ! 2
1 sin cos
3 2
5 3 4 2


+
+ + + +

,
_

+ +

,
_

+ +
54
Hyperbolic functions:
We will study certain combinations of
x
e and
x
e

, called hyperbolic functions.


The function
x
e can be expressed as the sum of an odd function and an even function:
) (
2
) (
2
even
e e
odd
e e
e
x x x x
x

+
+

The odd function is called the hyperbolic sine of x and the even function is called the hyperbolic
cosine of x. They are denoted by
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
e e
e e
x
e e
e e
x
e e
x
e e
x

coth , tanh
2
cosh ,
2
sinh
x x
e x x e x x

+ sinh cosh , cosh sinh
Relation between circular and hyperbolic functions:
x i ix x i ix
x ix x ix
x i ix x i ix
tan tanh , tanh tan
cos cosh , cosh cos
sin sinh , sinh sin



Derivatives of Hyperbolic functions:
x
e e e e
dx
d
x
dx
d
x
e e e e
dx
d
x
dx
d
x x x x
x x x x
sinh
2 2
) (cosh
cosh
2 2
) (sinh

,
_

,
_



x echx echx
dx
d
x ech x
dx
d
x h
x x
x x
x
x
dx
d
x
dx
d
cot cos ) (cos , cos ) (coth
sec
cosh
1
cosh
sinh cosh
cosh
sinh
) (tanh
2
2
2 2
2 2


,
_

Example:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 3 3 3
sinh 3 sinh ) (cosh x x x
dx
d
x x
dx
d

55
Example: Differentiate the following hyperbolic functions
3 4 ) 3 ln( ) ( , 4 3 sin 4 ) (
2
ch sh y b t tch y a
Solution: (a)
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t tch t tsh t t ch t sh t
dt
dy
t tch y
4 3 cos 3 4 3 sin 4 4 3 cos 3 4 4 4 4 3 sin 4
4 3 sin 4
+ +

(b)
( )
( )


3 3 8 3 coth 3 3 3 . 3 2 . 4 3 3
3
1
3 4 3 ln
2
sh ch sh ch ch
sh d
dy
ch sh y


56
Vectors and Scalars
A vector is a quantity having both magnitude and direction, such as displacement, velocity, force
and acceleration.
Graphically a vector is represented by an arrow OP defining the direction, the magnitude of the
vector being indicated by the length of the arrow.
O
A

P
Analytically a vector is represented by a letter with an arrow over it, as
A

and its magnitude is


denoted by
A

or A.
A scalar is a quantity having magnitude but no direction, e.g. mass, length, time and any real
number.
Vector algebra:
1. Two vectors A and B are equal if they have the same magnitude and direction regardless
of the position of their initial points. Thus . B A

2. A vector having direction opposite to that of vector


A

but having the same magnitude is


denoted by -
A

.
A

-
A

3. The sum or resultant of vectors


A

and
B

is a vector C

formed by placing the initial


point of
B

on the terminal point of


A

and then joining the initial point of


A

to the
terminal point of
B

, i.e. C

=
A

+
B

.
4.
A

-
B

=
A

+ (-
B

), the subtraction of
B

from
A

may be regarded as the addition


of -
B

to
A

. If
A

=
B

, then
A

-
B

is defined as the null or zero vector and is


represented by the symbol 0.
5. The product of a vector
A

by a scalar m is a vector m
A

with magnitude
m
times
the magnitude of
A

and with direction the same as or opposite to that of


A

, according
as m is positive or negative.
57
A

B A C

+
Laws of vector Algebra:
1.
A

+
B

=
B

+
A

commutative law for addition


2.
A

+ (
B

+C

) = (
A

+
B

)+C

Associative law for addition


3. m
A

=
A

m commutative law for multiplication


4. m(n
A

)= (mn)
A

Associative law for multiplication


Unit vector: A unit vector is a vector is a vector having unit magnitude, if
A

is a vector with
magnitude 0 A , then
A
A

is a unit vector having the same direction as


A

.
The rectangular unit vectors k j i

, , : An important set of unit vectors are those having the
directions of the positive x, y and z axes of a three dimensional rectangular coordinate system,
and are denoted respectively by j i

, and k

.
Components of a vector: Any vector
A

in 3 dimensions can be represented with initial point at


the origin O of a rectangular coordinate system. Let ( )
3 2 1
, , A A A be the rectangular coordinates
of the terminal point of vector
A

with initial point at O. The vectors j A i A



2 1
, and k A

3
are
called the component vectors of
A

.
Vector k A j A i A A

3 2 1
+ + , the magnitude of
A

is
2
3
2
2
2
1
A A A A A + +

In particular, the position vector or radius vector r

from O to the point (x,y,z) is written


k z j y i x r

+ + and has magnitude


2 2 2
z y x r + + .
Example: Given k j i r k j i r k j i r

2 2 , 3 4 2 , 2 3
3 2 1
+ + + , find the magnitude
of
3 2 1 3 2 1 3
5 3 2 ) ( , ) ( , ) ( r r r c r r r b r a

+ +
Solution: (a) ( ) 3 2 2 1 2 2
2 2 2
3
+ + + + k j i r

(b)
( ) 2 4 4 4
4 4 ) 2 2 ( ) 3 4 2 ( ) 2 3 (
2 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
+ + +
+ + + + + + +
r r r
j i k j i k j i k j i r r r



Example: Find a unit vector parallel to the resultant of vectors
k j i r k j i r

3 2 , 5 4 2
2 1
+ + +
Solution: Resultant ( ) 7 2 6 3 , 2 6 3
2 2 2
2 1
+ + + + R k j i r r R

Then a unit vector parallel to


R

is
7
2
7
6
7
3
7
2 6 3 k j i k j i
R
R

+
+
.
58
i A

1
j A

2
k A

3
A

x
y
z
Product of vectors:
Two vectors are multiplied in two manners, i.e., scalarly and vectorly.
The scalar or dot product: The dot product of vectors
A

and
B

is the scalar quantity


obtained by multiplying the product of the magnitudes of the vectors and the cosine of the angle
between them.
In symbols, , cos . AB B A

0 , where is the angle between
A

and
B

.
The following laws are valid:
0 . . . , 1 . . . . 4
) . ( ) .( ). ( ) . ( . 3
. . ) .( . 2
. . . 1


+ +

i k k j j i k k j j i i
m B A B m A B A m B A m
C A B A C B A
A B B A




5.If
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 2 1 3 2 1
. , .
,
A A A A A A B A B A B A B A
k B j B i B B k A j A i A A
+ + + +
+ + + +


6.If 0 . B A

, and
A

and
B

are not null vectors, then


A

and
B

are perpendicular.
The vector or cross product: The vector or cross product of two vectors
A

and
B

is a vector
B A C

. The magnitude of
B A

is defined as the product of the magnitudes of


A

and
B

and the sine of the angle between them. The direction of the vector B A C

is
perpendicular to the plane
A

and
B

such that
A

,
B

and C

form a right-handed system.


In symbols, 0 , sin

AB B A , where

is a unit vector indicating the direction of


B A

. If
A

=
B

, or if
A

is parallel to
B

then 0 , 0 sin B A

The following laws are valid:


j i k i k j k j i k k j j i i
m B A B m A B A m B A m
C A B A C B A
A B B A






+ +

, , , 0 . 4
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( . 3
) ( . 2
. 1
5.If
59
A

3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1 3 2 1
,
B B B
A A A
k j i
B A
k B j B i B B k A j A i A A




+ + + +
6.The magnitude of
B A

is the same as the area of a parallelogram with sides


A

and
B

.
Triple product: The vector product of two vectors
B

and C

is a vector quantity. So this


product ) ( C B

may be multiplied scalarly or vectorially with a third vector
A

to give two
triple products namely ( ) C B A

. and ( ) C B A

. The former being a scalar quantity is
termed as scalar triple product or box product and the latter being a vector quantity is called a
vector triple product.
The following laws are valid:
( )
) .( ) .( ) .( . 2
. ) . .( 1
B A C A C B C B A
C B A C B A


= volume of the parallelepiped having B A



, and C


as edges.
If
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1
) .(
, ,
C C C
B B B
A A A
C B A
k C j C i C C k B j B i B B k A j A i A A

+ + + + + +


3. ( ) ( ) C B A C B A


4. ( ) ( ) ( )C B A B C A C B A

. .
Example: Find the angle between k j i A

+ 2 2 and k j i B

2 3 6 +
Solution:





79
1905 . 0
7 . 3
4 .
cos
7 2 ) 3 ( 6 , 3 ) 1 ( 2 2
4 2 ) 1 ( ) 3 ( 2 6 . 2 .
cos .
2 2 2 2 2 2


+ + + +
+ +

AB
B A
B A
B A
AB B A
Example: Determine the value of a so that k j a i A

+ + 2 and k j i B

2 2 4 are
perpendicular.
Solution:
If
A

and
B

are perpendicular then 0 . B A



Then 3 , 0 2 2 8 ) 2 ( 1 ) 2 ( 4 . 2 . + + a a a B A

Example: Find the work done in moving an object along a vector k j i r

5 2 3 + if the
applied force is k j i F

2
Solution:
60
Work done = ( ) ( ) 9 5 2 6 5 2 3 . 2 . + + k j i k j i r F

Example: If k j i A

3 2 and k j i B

2 4 + , find
( ) ( ) B A B A c A B b B A a

+ ) ( , ) ( , ) (
Solution: (a)
k j i
k j i
B A

11 3 10
2 4 1
1 3 2 + +


(c) ( ) ( ) k j i B A k j i B A

+ + + 7 , 3 3
k j i
k j i
B A B A



22 6 20
1 7 1
3 1 3 ) ( ) (

+
Example: Determine a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of k j i A

3 6 2 and
k j i B

+ 3 4
Solution:
B A

is a vector perpendicular to the plane of


A

and
B

.
k j i
k j i
B A

30 10 15
1 3 4
3 6 2 +


A unit vector perpendicular to
B A

is
( ) ( ) ( )
7
6
7
2
7
3
30 10 15
30 10 15
B A
B A
2 2 2
k j i k j i



+
+ +
+

Example: Find the volume of the parallelepiped whose three co-terminus edges are represented
by the vectors j j i

4 , 2 + and k j

3 +
Solution: Volume of the required parallelepiped is scalar triple product of the vectors
j j i

4 , 2 + and k j

3 +
=
12
3 1 0
0 4 0
0 2 1

61
Matrices and Matrix Operations
The following rectangular array with three rows and seven columns might describe the number
of hours that a student spent studying three subjects during a certain week:
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
Math 2 3 2 4 1 4 2
Engl 0 3 1 4 4 2 2
Che 4 1 3 1 0 0 2
If we suppress the headings, then we are left with the following rectangular array of numbers
with 3 rows and 7 columns called a matrix.
2 3 2 4 1 4 2
0 3 1 4 4 2 2
4 1 3 1 0 0 2
Definition: A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers.
Examples:
[ ] ,
1
2
, 3 2 ,
2 4
3 2
1
]
1

1
]
1

A general mn matrix might be written as


62

,
_

mn m m
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
A matrix with only one row is called a row matrix and a matrix with only one column is called a
column matrix.
A matrix A with n rows and n columns is called a square matrix of order n and the entries a
11
, a
22
,., a
nn
are said to be main diagonal of A .

,
_

nn n n
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
Operations on Matrices
Equality: Two matrices are defined to be equal if they have the same order and their
corresponding entries are equal.
Consider the matrices

,
_

,
_

,
_

0 4 3
0 2 1
,
5 3
2 1
,
3
2 1
C B
x
A
If x = 5, then A = B. There is no value of x for which A=C since A & C have different orders.
Definition: If A and B are the matrices of the same order, then the A+B is the matrix obtained by
adding the entries of B to the corresponding entries of A, and the difference A-B is the matrix
obtained by subtracting the entries of B from the corresponding entries of A. Matrix of different
sizes cannot be added or subtracted.
63
Example:

,
_

,
_

,
_

0 4 3
0 2 1
,
5 3
2 1
,
4 3
2 1
C B A
Then

,
_

,
_

+
1 0
0 0
,
9 6
4 2
B A B A
The expressions A+C, B+C, A-C and B-C are undefined.
Definition: If A is any matrix and c is any scalar, then the product cA is the matrix obtained by
multiplying each entry of the matrix A by c.
For the matrix

,
_

,
_

8 6
4 2
2
4 3
2 1
A
A
we have,
Definition:If A is an mr matrix and B is an rn matrix, then the product AB is the mn matrix
whose entries are determined as follows:
Multiply the corresponding entries from the row and column together and then add up the
resulting products.
Consider

,
_

,
_

1 1
2 3
3 1
,
0 4 3
0 2 1
B A
The entry in row 1 and column 1 of AB is computed as follows:
(1.1) + (2.3) + (0.1) = 7
The computations for the remaining products are
(1.3)+ (2.2) + (0.1) = 7

64

,
_

17 15
7 7
AB
A B = AB
mr rn = mn
Transpose of a matrix: If A is an mn matrix, then the transpose of A,denoted byA
T
is defined
to be the nm matrix that results from interchanging the rows and columns of A.
If

,
_

,
_

2 7
16 7
,
2 16
7 7
t
A
then A
Trace: If A is a square matrix, then the trace of A, denoted by tr(A), is defined to be the sum of
the entries on the main diagonal of A.
If
9 2 7 ) (
,
2 16
7 7
+

,
_

A tr
then A
Inverses; Rules of Matrix Arithmetic
Properties of Matrix Operations: for real numbers a and b always have ab = ba, which is called
commutative law for multiplication. Matrices, however, AB and BA need not be equal. It can
happen that the product AB is defined but BA is undefined.
Consider the matrices
Thus AB BA.
Properties of Matrix Arithmetic:
The following rules of matrix arithmetic are valid
(i)A + B = B + A (commutative law for addition)
(ii) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C (Associative law for addition)
(iii) A(BC) = (AB)C (Associative law for multiplication)
(iv)A(B + C) = AB + AC (Left distributive law)
(v)(B + C)A = BA + CA (Right distributive law)
Zero matrix: A matrix, all of whose entries are zero, such as

,
_

0 0
0 0
A
is called zero matrix.
Identity Matrix: The n-square identity or matrix denoted by I is the n-square matrix with 1s on
the diagonal and 0s elsewhere.
Example:

,
_

1 0
0 1
I
65

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

0 3
6 3
,
4 11
2 1
0 3
2 1
,
3 2
0 1
BA AB
B A
Singular & Nonsingular matrices: If
0 A
, then A is said to be nonsingular matrix;
otherwise it is said to be singular.
Thus

,
_

6 4
2 1
A
and

,
_

8 2
4 1
B
are nonsingular and singular respectively.
The inverse of a matrix: Let A be a nonsingular matrix of order n. Let B be another square
matrix of the same order such that AB = BA = I, where I is the unit matrix of order n. Then B is
said to be the inverse of A which is written as A
1
.
Thus A A
1
= A
1
A = I.
The matrix

,
_

d c
b a
A
is invertible if ad bc 0, in which case the inverse is given by the formula

,
_

a c -
b - d
1
A
1 -
bc ad
Example: Inverse of

,
_

5 4
3 2
A
is

,
_

2 4 -
3 - 5
2
1
A
1 -
Example: Find the inverse of

,
_


1 2 1
1 3 2
2 1 3
A
Here
A
= 8
Cofactors of A are a
11
= -1 a
12
= -3 a
13
= 7
a
21
= 3 a
22
= 1 a
23
= -5
a
31
= 5 a
32
= 7 a
33
= -11
adjoint

,
_

11 5 7
7 1 3
5 3 1
A
1
1 3 5
1
3 1 7
8
7 5 11
A

_





,
Task: Find the inverse of the following matrices:

,
_

,
_

1 1 6
1 0 4
2 2 11
,
8 1 4
3 1 2
0 2 1
66
Using Row Operations to find the inverse of

,
_

8 0 1
3 5 2
3 2 1
A
Solution: We want to reduce A to the identity matrix by row operations and simultaneously apply
these operations on I to transform it into A
1
. The computations are as follows:
67

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

1 2 5 1 0 0
3 5 13 0 1 0
9 16 40 0 0 1
1 2 5 1 0 0
3 5 13 0 1 0
3 6 14 0 2 1
1 2 5 1 0 0
0 1 2 3 1 0
0 0 1 3 2 1
1 2 5 1 0 0
0 1 2 3 1 0
0 0 1 3 2 1
1 0 1 5 2 0
0 1 2 3 1 0
0 0 1 3 2 1
1 0 0 8 0 1
0 1 0 3 5 2
0 0 1 3 2 1
68
Thus

,
_

1 2 5
3 5 13
9 16 40
1
A
Triangular Matrices: A square matrix in which all the entries below the main diagonal are zero
is called upper triangular and a square matrix in which all the entries above the main diagonal are
zero is called lower triangular. A matrix that is either upper triangular or lower triangular is
called triangular.
Examples:

,
_

3 0 0
2 4 0
3 2 1

,
_

7 2 3
0 3 1
0 0 2
upper triangular lower triangular
Orthogonal Matrices: A square matrix A with the property A
t
= A
-1
is said to be orthogonal
matrix.
It follows from this definition that a square matrix A is orthogonal if and only if
A A
t
= A
t
A = I.
Example:

,
_



cos sin
sin cos
A
is orthogonal for all choices of , since
I A A
t

,
_

,
_

,
_

1 0
0 1
cos sin
sin cos
cos sin
sin cos




Rank of a matrix: The rank of a matrix A is equal to the order of the highest ordered
nonvanishing determinant in A. It follows, therefore, that for a nonsingular square matrix of order
n, the rank is equal to n.
Examples: A =
0 0
0 0
_

,
, r (A) = 0 , since all elements are 0
A =
2 1
4 3
_

,
, r (A) = 2, since 0 A
A =
2 1
4 2
_

,
, r (A) = 1, since 0 A
Task: Find the rank of

,
_

,
_

1 2 3
8 5 4
3 2 1
1 2 3
6 5 4
3 2 1
and
Example: Solve by Cramers rule:
0 2 4 3
0 6 2
11
+ +

+ +
z y x
z y x
z y x
69
Solution:
26 , 7 , 8
286 0
0 4 3
6 2
11 1 1
, 77
2 0 3
1 0 2
1 11 1
, 88
2 4 0
1 6 0
1 1 11
, 11
2 4 3
1 6 2
1 1 1



D
D
z
D
D
y
D
D
x
D
D D D
z
y
x
z
y x
Matrix Inversion Method:
Consider the system a11x1 + a12x2 + + a1nxn = b1
a12x2 + a22x2 + + a2nxn = b2

an1x1 + an2 x2 + + annxn = bn


The system can be written in the matrix form as
AX = B
where

,
_

,
_

,
_

n n
nn n n
n
n
b
b
b
B
x
x
x
X
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
, ,
AX = B
1 1
1
1
A AX A B
IX A B
X A B




If A is known, then the solution vector X can be found out from the above matrix relation.
Example: Solve the equations 3x
1
+ x
2
+ 2x
3
= 3
2x
1
3x
2
x
3
= -3
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ x
3
= 4
The given system can be written as
AX = B
Where

,
_

,
_

,
_


4
3
3
, ,
1 2 1
1 3 2
2 1 3
3
2
1
B
x
x
x
X A
70
Here
A
= 8
Cofactors of A are a
11
= -1 a
12
= -3 a
13
= 7
a
21
= 3 a
22
= 1 a
23
= -5
a
31
= 5 a
32
= 7 a
33
= -11
adjoint

,
_

11 5 7
7 1 3
5 3 1
A
1
1 3 5
1
3 1 7
8
7 5 11
A

_





,
It follows therefore
8
1
3
2
1

,
_

x
x
x

,
_

,
_

4
3
3
11 5 7
7 1 3
5 3 1
=

,
_

1
2
1
which gives x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2 and x
3
= -1.
Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues:
Let

,
_

,
_

,
_

1
2
,
1
1
,
0 1
2 3
v u A
The images of u and v under multiplication by A are shown in figure.
In this section, we study equations such as Ax = 2x or Ax = -4x
and we look for vectors that are transformed by A into a scalar multiple of themselves.
Definition: An eigenvector of
n n
matrix A is a nonzero vector x such that Ax = x for some
scalar . A scalar is called an eigenvalue of A if there is nontrivial solution x of Ax = x; such
an x is called an eigenvector corresponding to .
Example: Let

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
3
,
5
6
,
2 5
6 1
v u A
Are u and v eigenvectors of A ?
Solution:

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
3
11
9
2
3
2 5
6 1
4
5
6
4
20
24
5
6
2 5
6 1
Av
u Au

,
_

,
_

,
_

2
3
,
5
6
,
2 5
6 1
v u A
Thus u is an eigenvector corresponding to an eigenvalue 4, but v is not an eigenvector of A ,
because Av is not a multiple of v.
71
To find the eigenvalues of an
n n
matrix we rewrite Ax = x as
Ax = Ix
Or equivalently (A - I)x = 0 ..(i)
For to be an eigenvalue, there must be a nonzero solution of this equation.
However (i) has a nonzero solution if and only if
det(A - I) = 0
This is called the characteristic equation of A; the scalars satisfying this equation are the
eigenvalues of A. When expanded, the determinant det(A - I) is a polynomial p in called the
characteristic polynomial of A.
Example: Find the eigenvalues and eigen vectors of

,
_

2 2
4 8
A
Solution: The eigen values2 are the roots of the characteristic equation
( )( )
6 , 4 . .
0 6 4 ,
0 24 10 ,
0
2 2
4 8
2

e i
or
or
The two distinct eigenvalues are 4 and 6
Eigenvector corresponding to eigen value 4 :
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_



1
1
, 0 2 2
0 4 4
0
2 2
4 4
, 0
4 2 2
4 4 8
,
0
1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
c X
x x x x
x x
x
x
x
x
or
X I A
Eigenvector corresponding to eigen value 6 :
( )

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_

,
_



2
1
2 , 0 4 2
0 4 2
0
4 2
4 2
, 0
6 2 2
4 6 8
,
0
2 2
2 1 2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
c X
x x x x
x x
x
x
x
x
or
X I A
Eigenvalues of 3 3 matrix: Find the eigenvalues of
72

,
_

8 17 4
1 0 0
0 1 0
A
Solution: The characteristic polynomial of A is det(A - I) =

8 17 4
0 1
0 1
= -
3
+ 8
2
- 17 + 4
The eigenvalues of A must satisfy the cubic equation -
3
+ 8
2
- 17 + 4 = 0
or
3
- 8
2
+ 17 - 4 = 0
or ( - 4) (
2
- 4 + 1) = 0
Therefore = 4 , 2 3, 2 3 +
Theorem: If A is an n n triangular matrix (upper , lower or diagonal), then the eigenvalues of A
are the entries on the main diagonal of A.
Example: The eigenvalues of the lower triangular matrix

,
_

2 3 1
0 4 1
0 0 2
are = 2 , 4 and 2.
73