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SUBSYNCHRONOUS RESONANCE IN SERIES COMPENSATED TRANSMISSION LINES

John W. Ballance Southern California Edison Company Rosemead, California

Saul Goldberg

California State Polytechnic University


San Luis Obispo, California

ABSTRACT
The concept of subsynchronous resonance in series compensated transmission lines is presented. Contributions of synchronous generator rotor motion and induction generation to sustained subsynchronous oscillation are discussed. Computer simulation studies of a 500 kv transmission system are shown to closely correspond to actual system test data. Adverse effects of subsynchronous resonance on system components are described.

SERIES RESONANCE
The series impedance of a series compensated transmission line and generator may be approximately calculated as shown below if lumped-parameter equivalents are used for lines and shunt elements are neglected [101.

Z (fn)

Re.t + j27Tf. Lext + Ri,ee + j27rf. LII,.


+

12.C,

+Rgien+j27rLgen

(1)

INTRODUCTION
Literature available, mostly through AIEE, prior to the latter part of 1970 [1-91 describes the concept of series resonance possible in power transmission lines utilizing series capacitors. Some of the references have described the phenomenon as one form of selfexcitation. Series capacitors have been extensively applied in EHV transmission lines in the Western United States for the purpose of compensating the series inductance of lines as an aid to stability.
To the authors' knowledge, the phenomenon as previously described has not been regarded as serious enough on these systems to warrant special design considerations. Recent studies are now suggesting that the existence of a series resonant frequency between 0 and 60 hertz combined with the characteristics of a synchronous machine create the possibility of sustained or poorly damped subsynchronous oscillations. With the flow of non-60 hertz frequencies in the machine armature, oscillating torques and torsional vibration may result.

Symbol
Rext, Lext

Interpretation
Equivalent load resistance and inductance Cline

ine RI Ine, LI, Rgen* Lgen

Transmission line resistance, series inductance and series capacitance.


Generator resistance and inductance as viewed from transmission system at f..

At resonance,

Im(Z(fn))

0 =

j27rfn (Lent + LIine + Lgen) + j27JfnC,ine

(2)

This paper presents the results of an extensive study undertaken to identify the cause of electrical subsynchronous oscillations and to develop a method of predicting the frequency and magnitude of these oscillations.

fn is approximately

It follows then that the line has a natural resonant frequency fn where

27r

\/ Cline (Lext + Litne + Lgen)

(3)

Paper T 73 167-4, recommended and approved by the Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEE PES Winter Meeting, New York, N.Y., January 28-February 2, 1973. Manuscript submitted October 2, 1972; made available for printing December 13, 1972.

A more accurate solution for fns including the effects of line shunts and charging is obtained by a network technique. Figure 1 is a plot of fn as a function of series compensation, for a typical 500 kV system with radial generator. The Appendix describes a computer program called RES which has been written to calculate the network impedance
at subsynchronous frequencies.

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501
z

45

0 "I 'J
0

40
35

PERCENT COMPENSATION = (100) Y XC SERIES CAPACITORS I XL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

cLLI
0

It is clear from (6) that when fn < f0, the value for slip is negative and the synchronous generator operates as an induction generator presenting an apparent negative resistance to the system. A plot of generator resistance, Rg,, as a function of the subsynchronous resonant frequency, f., is included as Figure 2.

R
a

30
25

'C

uz

20
15

RESONANT ELECTRICAL FREQUENCY -fn


10
20

10 5
10
20

(HERTZ) 30 40

50

60

30

cr
ZI~c

11

PERCENT SERIES COMPENSATION OF TOTAL SYSTEM

RGEN

Rrotor
S
Rn -60

FIGURE 1. Resonant Frequency of Radial Transmission Line

0 Z

0L

S =

f%

uiI wc:i)
If a value of f equal to fn is substituted into (1), Z
<Cr

Rrotor

2%

(fn) = Rest + Riine

(4)

For normal power systems Z (fn) is always positive.

FIGURE 2. Negative Resistance Characteristics of a Synchronous Generator at Subsynchronous Frequencies

INDUCTION GENERATOR EFFECTS


For resonant oscillations to be sustained, the net system resistance must be nearly zero which could not be attained in a simple series resonant circuit. The concept of sustained subsynchronous resonance for a salient pole machine has been presented in [10]. The following method for calculating the impedance of a large synchronous roundrotor generator at subsynchronous frequencies is outlined in [11].
At subsynchronous frequencies, the apparent generator impedance is approximately:

When the value of apparent negative generator resistance is equal in magnitude to the system resistance external to the machine, the subsynchronous oscillations are undamped.
As an example, consider the radial transmission system shown in Figure 3.

EOUIVALENT SYSTEM LOAD

T-TRAN SMISSION
I
-j.013

LINE

-.-(

STEP UP TRANSFORMER

GENERATOR

Zgen
where S, the slip, is S-=

R,

+ i60 Xd"
j

per unit

(5)

K~~~~
I

.0014+j.038

l~~
j.013
.000+

j.

i.0002

-jl)oy

jl70y

I 1170y ji1oy,

jI
lPEDANCES IN PER UNIT ON 100MVA 525KV BASE ACDMITTANCES 'yIN MVAR AT 525 KV

f. fandR = K (r2-rl)
Interpretation

(6)

Figure 3. A Typical Series Compensated

Symbol

Radial Transmission System

fn~

subsynchronous electrical frequency.


synchronous electrical frequency or rotor electrical speed = 60 hertz.
per unit rotor resistance.

f.

The apparent generator impedance can be modeled as

R,
KR
r,
r2

Zgen (f) =- S

60

Xd"

correction factor = 1.7


per unit positive sequence rotor resistance.

Values for Rr and X '" suggested in references are as follows: Rr = 1.7 (.02)=.034
Xd" =- 0. 10

per unit negative sequence rotor resistance.


per unit subtransient generator reactance.

Ref. [11] Ref. [13]

Xd "

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Both parameters are expressed in per unit on the machine base. Assuming the machine base is 900 MVA, then the generator impedance on the line base of 100 MVA, 525 KV, yields,

R,= .034 (100/900) = .0038 per unit


Xd" =0.1 (100/900)
=

0.01 1 per unit

The level of series compensation in Figure 3 is approximated by


Percent Total Compensation
PTC

apparently the oscillations at f =60 + fn are reasonably well damped. This is not the case, however, at fm 60 - f., where f,, is the rotor oscillation frequency. If fm corresponds to a natural torsional vibration frequency of the turbine-generator shaft system, the magnitude of the rotor oscillations are greatly amplified. It is reasoned that this rotor motion contributes an additional apparent negative resistance to the electrical system at frequencies f, = 60 + fm and f2= 60 - = fn. As the electrical system is inductive at f1, there is no resonance and the rotor resistance may be neglected. At f2 the system is in resonance, and the negative rotor resistance must be included in the calculations for Z. Thus, if fm is sufficiently close to a shaft natural frequency, the generator apparent negative resistance is more negative than predicted by calculations including only the induction generator effects. A thorough treatment of the torsional motion possibilities is included in [14].
Equation 5 predicts that subsynchronous oscillations will be sustained if the level of series compensation is greater than that value which would yield

100 xe

(7)

Xc is the reactance of the series capacitors and XL is the inductive reactance of the generator, line and load. Thus

Z,y8 (fn) + Zgen (60-f.) =0

(8)

PTC =

100 (.0134 + .0134) (.006+ .0384 +.0196 +.01 1)

With the additional effects of rotor motion, it becomes possible for oscillations to be sustained within a range of compensation which is lower than the level predicted by (8).

36%

SIMULATION RESULTS
System measurements were taken at the Mohave Generating Station in January, 1972, to determine the susceptibility of the system to oscillations when the line is series compensated. System configuration for the measurements is shown in Figure 4. Small disturbances were introduced into the system by insertion of series capacitor modules into the Mohave-Lugo line. Results of Case 6.2, the simultaneous insertion of four series capacitor modules into the Mohave-Lugo line, are summarized in Figure 5. The Mohave-Eldorado line was open during this case. Subsynchronous oscillations are observable in both the high and low pressure stator current oscillograms. The measured resonant frequency is 22.8 hertz with a damping time constant of approximately .43 seconds. As illustrated, the subsynchronous oscillations are positively damped.

The resonant frequency of the system, f,, was calculated by the RES program to be 36 hertz. From (5), the generator impedance is

30 - .0038 +i 36 (.011) Zg, n(30) 60 .1) (36-60) 36

--.0057 + j .0066 per unit


The resistance of the system external to the generator was calculated by RES to be

Rexternal .002 per unit


Note that this solution would predict increasing oscillations because the sum of the external resistance and the generator resistance is negative at resonance.

Using the RES program, the calculated resonant frequency is 23.4 hertz, with a damping time constant of approximately .63 seconds. The error between calculated and observed values is attributed to the use of an equivalent impedance at Lugo which is not equal to the actual impedance on the day of the test.
4) (3 of)4)

ELDORADO

pMOENKOPI
H( )f

FOUR CORNERS

EIII345 kV

SERIES CAPACITOR BANK AT LUGO ON MOHAVE LINE WITH BYPASS SWITCH INITIALLY CLOSED. TOTAL SERIES CAPACITOR BANK REACTANCE = 35% LINE REACTANCE.

GENERATOR ROTOR MOTION EFFECTS Positive sequence subsynchronous currents flowing in the generator stator cause oscillating torques on the generator rotor at frequencies equal to 60+f,f and 60-fn, where f. is the subsynchronous resonant frequency. From a review of the shaft torsional response,
FIGURE 4. System Configuration for January 7,1972 Measurements

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HP GENERATOR B40 Stator Current 1100 Amp / Div

--.-+

;-~V:t 1 it -1

fI,.1tIHt.

LP GENERATOR B0 Stator Current 1100 Amp/Div


TIME
FIGURE 5. January 7,1972 Case 6.2 Results Insertion Of 35% Series Compensation Into Mohave-Lugo Line

(40 MSEC Per Division)

TRANSIENT SIMULATION RESULTS


The effect of rotor motion on system response is being investigated by the Advanced Systems Technology group of the Westinghouse Electric Company. This study was initiated by an Edison contract with Westinghouse [12] for this purpose. Results of the study are based on a Westinghouse computer simulation program which represents the complete rotor circuit, the turbine-generator mechanical system and the three-phase electrical transmission system.
A simulation study based on assumed system conditions has been made using this program. The turbine-generator shaft system described in [14] has been included in the simulation.
HP GENERATOR ELECTRICAL TORQUE

The study results shown in Figure 6 illustrate that with 31.8% total series compensation, the simulation would predict increasing oscillations. Limiting of the oscillations at a constant magnitude could be expected if saturation effects of the machine are included in the program. Simulation results for 36.2% series compensation are shown in Figure 7. Because the calculated slip frequency no longer matches a natural torsional mode, better damping is anticipated and demonstrated by the simulation, thus confirming the hypothesis that rotor motion and torsional resonance have significant effects on apparent generator impedance at subsynchronous frequencies. It should be noted that Equation (5) predicts more negative rotor resistance than is indicated by either the tests or simulations.
HP GENERATOR ELECTRICAL TORQUE

LP GENERATOR ELECTRICAL TORQUE

LP GENERATOR

ELECTRICAL TORGUE

LINE CURRENT

LINE CURRENT

____

.il.I .i ii']

TIME

(50 MSEC PER DIVISION)

TIME

(50 MSEC PER DIVISION)

FIGURE 6. Simulation Of Subsynchronous Resonance 31.8 % Total Series Compensation

FIGURE 7. Simulation Of Subsynchronous Resonance Series Compensation Increased To 36.2%

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As a further check, the system conditions corresponding to the January 1972 Case 6.2 have been simulated. The results of this simulation as shown in Figure 8, correspond very closely with actual oscillograms.

CONCLUSIONS
Resonance in series compensated transmission lines coupled with the induction generator effects of a synchronous generator, and the effects of rotor motion near shaft resonant frequencies, has been shown to make possible sustained electrical system oscillations. Theoretical explanations have been shown to correlate very closely with actual system observations and computer simulation studies. These relatively new discoveries of capacitor side-effects must be considered where capacitors are used and may, under the most unfavorable circumstances require special precautions in the use of series capacitors near generating stations.

z
w

cc

cc

V\ \il '\lA fl'0.' I_ _


i--0

cc&
cc w
w

REFERENCES (1) M. I. Alimansky, "The Applications and Performance of Series Capacitors" General Electric Review (Schenectady, N.Y.), Vol. 33, No. 11, November 1930, pp. 616-625.
(2) J. W Butler, C. Concordia, "Analysis of Series Capacitor Application Problems;' AIEE Transactions, Vol. 56, 1937, pp. 975978.

TIME 150 MSEC PER DIVISION)


SIMULATION RESULTS
MEASURED VALUES

FIGURE 8. January 7, 1972 Case 6.2 Simulation

Result

(3) C. Concordia, G. K. Carter, "Negative Damping of Electrical Machinery" AIEE Transactions, Vol. 60, March 1941, pp. 116120. (4) C. F Wagner, "Self-Excitation of Induction Motors with Series Capacitors;' AIEE Transactions, Vol. 60, 1941, pp. 1241-1247.
(5) Edith Clarke, S. B. Crary, "Stability Limitations of LongDistance AC Power Transmission Systems" AIEE Transactions, 1941, pp. 1051-1059. Discussion by C. Concordia, AIEE Transactions, 1941, Vol. 60, p. 1299.

TRANSIENTS
pulsating torques on the on the turbinegenerator shaft. In fact, if the applied mechanical oscillation frequency fmr corresponds to a natural mode frequency of the shaft, the torques in the shaft are amplified due to resonance phenomena. Results obtained from simulations of the turbine-generator shaft response to subsynchronous frequencies raise concern for shaft integrity following transients which stimulate subsynchronous oscillations. A review of these effects on the turbine-generator shaft system is included in a companion paper [14].
cause

If subsynchronous oscillations

rotor, then these torques must also exist elsewhere

(6) E. C. Starr, R. D. Evans, "Series Capacitors for Transmission Circuits' AIEE Transactions, Vol. 61, 1942, pp. 963-973.
(7) R. D. Bodine, C. Concordia, G. Kron, "Self-Excited Oscillations of Capacitor Compensated Long-Distance Transmission Systems;' AIEE Transactions, Vol. 62, 1943, pp. 41-44 discussion pp. 371-372.

A digital transients program [151 and the G.E. Transient Network Analyzer [16] have been used to perform studies on the Mohave 500 kV transmission system to predict the magnitudes, frequencies and decay rates of torques caused by faults. Results of these studies are being analyzed to determine the effects possible on the generators or other transmission components.

(8) B. M. Jones, J. M. Arthur, G. M. Stearns, A. A. Johnson, "A 10,000 kVA Series Capacitor Improves Voltage in 66 kV Line Supplying Large Electric Furnace Load, AIEE Transactions, Vol. 67, 1948.

EFFECTS OF SUBSYNCHRONOUS RESONANCE


It has been shown that subsynchronous
resonance can cause

(9) R. L. Witzke, E. L. Michelson, "Technical Problems Associated with the Application of a Capacitor in Series with a Synchronous Condenser;' AIEE Transactions, Vol. 70, 1951, pp. 519-525. (10) H. M. Rustebakke, C. Concordia, "Self-Excited Oscillations in a Transmission System Using Series Capacitors;' IEEE Transactions, PAS-89, No. 7, September/October 1970, pp. 15041512.

torques in the shafts of synchronous machines. Under certain circumstances subsynchronous currents may also appear in lower voltage circuits, and may cause similar stresses on generator auxiliary motors as well as noticeable light flicker near the generating station.

The effects of subsynchronous

resonance can

theoretically lead

to system instability if the currents flow in major series compensated

transmission lines. At subsynchronous frequencies, the increased reactance of the series compensation causes a proportionally higher voltage to appear across the capacitor bank, leading to possible incorrect capacitor gap flashover. No instance of a voltage high enough to bypass capacitors has been calculated.

(11) L. A. Kilgore, L. C. Elliott, E. R. Taylor, "The Prediction and Control of Self-Excited Oscillations Due to Series Capacitors in Power Systems' IEEE Transactions, PAS-90, Vol. 3, May/June 1971.
(12) Southern California Edison Company, Subsynchronous Resonance Phenomenon Study, Advanced Systems Technology,

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Westinghouse Electrical Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


(13) Electrical Transmission & Distribution Book, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1964.

magnetic Transients in Single and Multiphase Networks;' IEEE Transactions, PAS-88, No. 4, April 1969.

(16) "Transient Network Analyzer Study of the Sub-Synchronous


Currents for Southern California Edison Company-Mohave Plant;' Electric Utility Engineering Operation, General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York, June 9, 1972.

(14) S. Goldberg, W R. Schmus, "Torsional Stresses in TurbineGenerator Shaft Due To Subsynchronous Resonance;' submitted to IEEE- 1973 Power Engineering Society Meeting. (15) Herman W Dommel, "Digital Computer Solution of Electro-

(17) G. W. Stagg, A. H. El-Abiad, Computer Methods In Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1968.

APPENDIX
From the equivalent pi-section transmission line model illustrated below, the driving point impedance at A may be calculated by Equation 1.

where Z. Zc

is impedance of shunt reactors is impedance of series capacitors ZB is impedance of line charging (B/2) ZL is impedance of transmission.line ZEXT is impedance of system beyond bus C ZGEN is impedance of generator at subsynchronous frequencies, including the step-up transformer impedance
ZB A + (Z S +

ZS ZB A + ZS ZC (A + BZB ) Za) (A + BZB) r GEN A ZEXT ZS (ZB + ZL) + (ZEXT + ZS) (ZB ZC + ZI,[ZC + ZB1) B --ZEXT ZS + (ZEXT + ZS) (ZB + ZC)
The above equations are limited in application to radial transmission elements. To generalize the approach, a method to calculate the Z..S matrix [17] has been written into a computer program named RES. ZBUS is calculated at each frequency and an iterative approach is used to converge on the resonant frequency, fn, such that Im Z(fn) =0

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Discussion
C. E. J. Bowler, C. Concordia, and J. B. Tice (General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York. 12305.): This paper has presented the facts of an occurrence of subsynchronous instability which seemed, at least to some people, to be at variance with traditional theories on the subject. Since this occurrence, much work has been done to describe the nature 'of the problem analytically, and it has now been shown to fit an extension of the previous work that incorporates additional details in the problem description. As the paper discusses the problem and results in a general way, it seems desirable to clarify certain statements. 1.) Regarding the statement that positive (phase) sequence subsynchronous currents at frequency fn in the stator produce oscillating torques at frequencies of both 60 - fn and 60 + fn, we believe this is not quite correct. The physical circumstances are approximately as follows: If we consider the case of a balanced armature and network circuit and a rotor with some moderate degree of saliency, all natural rotor currents of frequency flr, f2r, etc., will have corresponding stator currents of 60 - flr and 60 + flr, 60 - f2r and 60 + f2r, etc. That is, each natur,l frequency will have two frequencies in the stator but only one in the rotor. The higher frequency is much the smaller, because the saliency is not great. On the other hand, if we consider the case of a single-phase stator circuit (for example, a single-line-to-ground transmission fault, which corresponds to a line-to-line load on the generator), and for simplicity neglect the slight rotor saliency, a single-phase (not positive-(phase)sequence) stator current of natural frequency fs will have corresponding rotor current of frequency 60 - fs and 60 + fs. For example, a rotor natural-frequency current of 29 Hz would be manifested by stator currents of 31 Hz with positive phase sequences, and also of 89 Hz. For example, again, a single-phase stator current of 31 Hz would produce rotor currents of 29 Hz and 91 Hz. Thus, although the apparent good damping of this 60 + fn frequency mentioned in the paper is better explained by the absence of the current in the first place, there is the very significant possibility of 60 + fn current and torques on single-phase faults. 2.) The paper refers to "reasoning" that rotor motion can contribute to negative resistance, and to the "hypothesis" that rotor motion has significant effects. It should be pointed out that references 3 and 10 of the' paper had already demonstrated this point, by showing the completely overriding effect of rotor motion near resonance of the rotor as a whole with the power system. Moreover, paper T 73 218-5, being presented at a different session at this same meeting, shows a similar overriding effect of rotor motion at any torsional natural frequency unless there is an appreciable amount of mechanical damping. Returning to the facts presented, namely the presence of an instability with 31.8% compensation but the existence of a stable state with a higher compensation of 36.2%, this can be explained as the effect of the nearness of the slip frequency currents to a torsional resonance. This phenomenon is a critical function of the net system resistance and the torsional mechanical damping. It is conceivable that in some cases a time simulation might not predict this conditional stability at 36.2% compensation if the wrong choice of damping were made, since with sufficiently low damping it is possible to be unstable even with 36.2% compensation. On the other hand, assuming a large value of damping would mean that instability would not occur for any value of compensation up to 36.2% oer more. The failure of the MOHAVE units in this mode has provided a certain amount of quantitative detail regarding the performance of machines when subjected to these phenomena that will be valuable in assessing the importance of mechanical torsional resonance and the very important contribution of mechanical damping, which apparently varies considerably with machine loading. It is evident that additional tests and correlation with calculated data on torsional natural frequencies and damping are urgently needed in view of the increasing use of series compensation, especially in the systems of the western utilities. In many instances it is likely that utility system modifications, including the addition of resistance and/or tuned filters will be required in order to achieve a combination of machine-system characteristics that is compatible with continued reliable service in the future.

Manuscript received February 12, 1973.

G. A. Fischer, R. Quay, and R. L. Winchester (General Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y. 12305.): The problem' described in this paper is real. Two shaft failures occurred on Southern California Edison's Mohave No. 1 high pressure turbine-generator during similar operational circumstances,_the first in late 1970 and the second approximately a year later. The failures have since been related to elecManuscript received February 20, 1973.

trical subsynchronous resonance involving the turbine-generator and the series compensated transmission system, where the system electrical resonant frequency coincided very nearly with the second torsional critical of the rotating shaft system. In this discussion we will describe the nature of thesMohave No. 1 failures, and comment on turbine-generator characteristics which have an important bearing on the subsynchronous resonance problem. Mohave No. 1 is a cross-compound machine. The high pressure element consists of high pressure and intermediate pressure turbine shafts, the generator, and a shaft-driven alternator exciter. The failure occurred in the shaft section between the generator and the shaft driven alternator, at the main generator collector, and is shown in Figure 1. A conducting path was. established from each collector ring through the insulating sleeves to the shaft. Heavy current flow through the double ground then eroded large pockets of metal from the shaft and collector rings. Analysis of line current oscillograms taken during the disturbance indicated the presence of appreciable magnitudes of currents of subsynchronous frequency. Subsynchronous current produces subsynchronous torque on the generator of approximately the same per unit magnitude, but at slip frequency. It was possible to very accurately determine the subsynchronous current frequency from the oscillograms, and it turned out that the corresponding slip frequency was very nearly equal to the second torsional critical of the shaft system. The second torsional critical essentially involves the exciter alternator shaft oscillating mechanically against the remaining shaft inertial elements, as shown in Figure 3 of the companion paper1. Maximum twist occurs in the shaft section between the generator and alternator. Although the failure first appeared to be electrical in nature, detailed study indicated that mechanical phenomena precipitated the failure of the electrical insulation. Figure 2 shows a polished and magnified cross-section from the shaft in the region of the failure. The collector insulating sleeve was originally along the outer surface, and the bore contained the insulated collector connections. The light region at the center of the cross-section, extending in about a /2-inch band between inner and outer surfaces, was determined, metallurgically, to be a heat affected zone in which temperatures in excess of 650C were required to producQ the observed change in metal structure. We have established that the temperatures required to produce the heat affected zone were the result of mechanical strain cycling, where the stress magnitude and frequency were large enough to produce substantial heat generation in the metal, resulting in the very high temperatures. The phenomena have been duplicated in the laboratory. Figure 3 shows a I / 10-scale model of the shaft, which was subjected to torsional strain cycling at a frequency corresponding to the slip frequency at Mohave. The discolored sections on the shaft indicate abnormal heating, and were produced in a matter of seconds after the start of the test. We have concluded that the failure was initiated when abnormal heating iin the shaft caused heating of the collector insulation, which eventually failed and resulted in a double ground. The mechanical data used to analyze the simptified model of power system and turbine-generator interaction considered in this, and in a companion paperl, is not routinely supplied and must be obtained from the equipment manufacturer. The shaft inertias and spring constants are regularly used by our company in calculating short circuit, synchronizing out-of-phase or other fault torques on the machine. In these cases, the primary frequencies of the driving torques are the well known values of zero, and 60 and 120 Hertz which are far enough removed from the shaft torsional natural frequencies that the simplified lumped mass model may be used with sufficient accuracy. This may not be true for the subsynchronous currents which occur very close to the mechanical resonance. In the lumped mass model, the inertias of the turbine and generator rotors, including all assembled components such as wheels, buckets, couplings, retaining ring and windings, are considered as connected together by the effective spring constants of the smaller diameter shafts. In actual fact, when the large diameter wheels and buckets of the last stages of the low pressure turbine rotors and the couplings are included as additional mass points, not only is the number of degrees of freedom and hence the number of critical speeds increased, but there is also a slight change in the calculated criticals for the lower modes. This slight change becomes important when the forcing frequency is close to the critical and the mechanical damping is low. This point is well covered in the companion paperl. It is well known that the response of a mechanical spring-mass system at or close to a critical frequency is limited by the damping. We would like to emphasize that the damping values are low, and are not very well known. Torsional damping in large turbine-generators has simply not been a matter of primary concern in the past, and only a small amount of test data is available as a result of some very limited tests. Additional tests are necessary to determine the machine damping values before they can be used with confidence, and these are being undertaken.

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g-.

7/A
\

(SIN 27Tft
+2

tI 1.5
.0

L5

60 50
Fig. 1. No. 1.

40

30

20

10

0LINEFREQ

Photograph of damaged collector, Mohave

Fig. 4.

Typical A vs. Ccurves.

0
CD z

UJ
j :5.
n1

100 0 10 .1 % LIFE EXPENDED PER INCIDENT


Cyclic life expenditure curve.

Fig. 2.

Cross section from damaged shaft.

Fig. 5.

Fig. 3.

Photograph of model shaft test specimen.

1 656

Although, the companion paper1 does mention the high torque gain that occurs at resonance, it should be repeated that for actual subsynchronous current stimulus that can occur, the response torque at the critical (or even several cycles off the critical) can be higher than the shaft can withstand. The curves shown in the companion paperl were derived from data furnished by our company which defined shaft capabilities in terms of acceptable stimulating torque levels, even at the criticals. It should not be assumed that these conditions can be met on any series compensated transmission system without extensive application studies and possible system design modifications. Of primary interest then to the system designers will be the values of subsynchronous currents that are permissible, since these will determine the degree of system modification which is required. The present large turbine-generator set is a very complex machine designed for maximum efficiency, consistent with long life and high reliability, with the steam conditions and electrical parameters specified by the user. The torsional characteristics tend to be fixed by other design criteria such as short steam paths, minimum foundation length, oil film stability, long bearing life, short circuit torques, etc. There appears little likelihood that any practical designs will significantly change the first three or four torsional resonances below 60 Hertz. Therefore, the problem becomes one of determining the torsional fatigue life capability of the machine, and of specifying it in a manner that is useful to the electrical system designer. One of our first attempts to do this was the use of A vs. a curves, as described in the companion paperl, in which allowable subsynchronous current at each frequency from 10 to 60 Hertz was shown for three different system electrical time constants which seemed possible to attain with various system modifications. A typical set of curves is shown in Figure 4. This approach has the advantage of separating the problem at the generator terminals into the electrical system problem and the turbinegenerator mechanical response. This separation has, in the past, served the industry well and has permitted both the utility system and the machine designers to progress in their well defined areas of responsibility as rapidly as was economically feasible. In the present situation, however, it appears at this time as though the interaction between the electrical system resonance and the turbine-generator mechanical resonance is sufficient to make it impossible to uniquely define the terminal current components and system stability criteria without considering the machine-system response at the same time. This is discussed in reference 2. More recently, machine capability has been defined by curves of cyclic life expenditure per subsynchronous transient incident, as shown in Figure 5. This curve is necessary if torsional duty above the high cycle fatigue life of the machine is to be permitted. At the same time we are gathering data to improve the accuracy of fatigue life calculations, it behooves the utility owner and the power generation industry to determine and define the frequency of occurrence that is to be expected. This includes both the frequency and severity of transients on any one system and a projection of the number of systems which might be using series compensation in the near future. We would like to re-emphasize that there is practically no directly applicable test information to support current estimates of turbinegenerator cyclic torque capability. Our estimates are based on small specimen correlations between torsional and bending fatigue phenomena with extrapolations for large sizes, actual geometry details, operating environment, etc. At least a few years will be required to build the substantial test machines required, and to run the tests necessary to provide accurate data on machine capability. With the increased knowledge obtained from such critical speed, damping and fatigue life tests, the turbine-generator manufacturer may be able to make moderate machine design changes and provide cyclic life calculations with the same confidence that has characterized other developments in the history of power generation. But when all is said and done, we believe it will become clear that this problem cannot be solved in the turbine-generator alone. Other ways will have to be found to alleviate the effects by system design and modification.

damping circuits3.

paper describe Southern California Edison's experience with the phenomena of self excitation. The authors are to be complemented for bringing this potential problem to the attention of the industry and for their observations on the causes of such difficulties. The data collected during their tests is of great value to the industry in verifying the existence of these oscillations in operating power systems and in verifying the accuracy of computing methods used to analyze these problems. It should be noted that the simulation shown in Figure 8 was made using a digital transient analysis program 1 that represented the sources by a voltage source behind subtransient reactance. The close match with field test results shows that the torsional interaction is not a significant factor in the electrical currents following switching transients until the rotor motion has had time to build up. This allows problems associated with switching transients and faults to be studied separately from the self excitation problems. Although these studies have shown that a serious problem exists at the Mohave station, certain other points need to be brought out to avoid the conclusion that one must abandon the very real economic advantages of series compensation. It is interesting to note that this is the first and only case reported where the phenomenon has appeared in turbine generators connected to series compensated lines, although a number of such transmission systems with series compensation have been in operation for some time. It is instructive to examine these other systems and to note the differences from that of the author's system. These other large systems have most likely not exhibited these phenomena basically because of the divergence of loads and because of the numerous machines with different torsional frequencies in these systems. The subsynchronous currents in such systems are damped and dissipated reducing the subsynchronous current component in any one machine to zero or to a very low magnitude. Also, remote water wheel generators, even though directly feeding into series compensated lines, are generally not susceptible to the electromechanical aspects of this problem since their shaft mechanical torsional frequencies are usually 10 Hz or lower, corresponding, to an electrical system frequency of 50 Hz or higher. Such a high electrical frequency requires higher amounts of compensation than have to this time been used2. The induction generator action of future plants, with EHV or UHV lines, however, should be examined, and where there is the possibility of this phenomenon being a problem, consideration should be given to rotor connected damper windings to reduce the rotor resistance. This is a relatively inexpensive addition. With remote turbine generation feeding into one or two similar lines it may be practical to avoid the exact dlectrical frequencies that correspond to the mechanical torsional frequencies of the units, and so avoid this difficulty. With multiple dissimilar compensated lines it may not be possible to avoid' all the frequencies of concern, and in such cases, it may be necessary to provide relatively inexpensive electrical

REFERENCES
1. Feero W. E., Juves, J. A., and Long R. W. - "Digital Models of Large Systems for Transient Analysis." Proceedings of the American Power Conference Vol. 32, 1970 pp. 1076-1081. 2. L. W. Lloyed, E. R. Taylor, F. G. Berg, S. M. Merry, "A Study of Reinsertion Transient Voltages and Currents for Series Capacitor's on USBR Glen Canyon - Flagstaff 345-kV Lines" Presented at the 1971 Summer Meeting of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. 3. L. A. Kilgore, L. C. Elliott, E. R. Taylor, "The Prediction and Control of Self Excited Oscillations Due to Series Capacitors in Power Systems," IEEE Transactions, PAS - 90, Vol. 3, May/June 1971. pp. 1305-131 1.

REFERENCES l. Subsynchronous Resonance and Torsional Stresses in TurbineGenerator Shafts, Saul Goldberg, W. R. Schmus, C73 135-1, 1973 PES Winter Meeting. 2. Self Excited Torsional Frequency Oscillations with Series Capacitors, C. E. J. Bowler, D. N. Ewart, C. Concordia, T 73 218-5, 1973 PES Winter Meeting.

The system equations contain the quantity Rline. Since Rline is a quantity that varies with temperature to a great degree as well as frequency to a small degree, it would appear meteorological conditions existing at a given time could influence the answers given by the calculation. It appears in an after-the-fact analysis the meteorological conditions existing at the time of the incidence would have to be considered. Likewise, an analysis establishing a threshhold to limit the magnitude of the subsynchronous oscillations would require the E. R. Taylor, L. A. Kilgore, and D. G. Ramey (Westinghouse Electric lowest possible value of _Rline or basically the lowest tempe-ratures to East Corporation, Pittsburg, Pa. 15112.): This paper and a companion which the line will be exposed. For long lines, meteorological con-

resonance.

Walter H. Croft (Arizona Public Service Company, Phoenix, Ariz. 85036.): The authors are to be complimented on their presentation of a straightforward approach in the analysis of the effects of subsynchronous resonance and its application to a practical system where cause of a failure of a generator has been traced to subsynchronous

Manuscript received February 13, 1973.


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Manuscript received February 20, 1973.

ditions may vary considerable over the length of the line at any given time so a composite value of Rline is necessary. I would appreciate the authors' comments on the effect of this varying value of Rline caused by the lines' meteorological environment. Also since both R and L external quantities appear representing additional system and/or load, it can be assumed that the magnitude of the load and its characteristics' could have an influence on subsynchronous resonance values obtained. Would the authors please comment on this?

J. W. Ballance and S. Goldberg: The authors thank the discussors for their comments. Messrs. Bowler, Concordia and Tice are correct in noting that positive sequence stator currents transform to 60-fn torques in the rotor. Their second comment states that previous papers have described
Manuscript received April 25, 1973.

the effect of rotor motion. These papers considered only frequencies in the very low range which has been called hunting. Our paper and other recent papers have extended the rotor motion effects to the range of 20 to 50 Hz. As Messrs. Taylor, Kilgore, and Ramey have noted, sustained subsynchronous resonance has not been encountered at any' other generating station. However, recent studies have indicated that many plants in the West, both existing and planned, may be susceptible to high shaft torques as a result of either sustained or transient subsynchronous currents. 'The discussors suggestions of methods to avoid exact resonance are welcome. Messrs. Fischer, Quay, and Winchester are to be complimented for their thorough presentation of the mechanical aspects of the Mohave failure. Their past research has contributed greatly to the explanation of the failure. It is hoped that future research and testing may suggest a means to prevent future occurrences of this type. The resistance of a transmission line varies both as a function of the temperature, as Mr. Croft has noted, and as a function of electrical frequency (skin effect). Load changes also affect the'net system resistance and reactance. These effects can be significant in a study of susceptibility to subsynchronous resonance, as Mr. Croft has suggested.

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