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Unusual Filter Circuits

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Speaker: Arthur Williams Chief Scientist Telebyte Inc. Tuesday September 27, 2005

TOPICS

Design of D-Element Active Low-Pass Filters and a Bidirectional Impedance Converter for Resistive Loads Active Adjustable Amplitude and Delay Equalizer Structures High-Q Notch filters Q-Multiplier Active Band-Pass filters A Family of Zero Phase-Shift Low-Pass Filters Some Useful Passive Filter Transformations to Improve Realizability Miscellaneous Circuits and Tricks

2

Frequency Scaling

FSF =

Normalized n = 3 Butterworth low-pass filter normalized to 1 rad/sec : (a) LC filter; (b) active filter; (c) frequency response

Denormalized low-pass filter scaled to 1000Hz: (a) LC filter; (b) active filter; (c) frequency response.

Frequency and impedance scaling are normally combined into one step rather than performed sequentially. The denormalized values are then given by L = C=

ZxL/FSF C Z x FSF

Design of D-Element Active Low-Pass Filters and a Bi-Directional Impedance Converter for Resistive Loads Generalized Impedance Converters (GIC) Z1Z3Z5 Z11= Z Z 2 4

If Z4 consists of a capacitor having an impedance 1/sC where s= and all other elements are resistors, the driving point impedance becomes:

Z11=

sCR1R3R5 R2

The impedance is proportional to frequency and is therefore identical to an inductor having an inductance of:

L=

CR1R3R5 R2

Note: If R1 and R2 and part of a digital potentiometer the value of L can be digitally programmable.

D Element If both Z1 and Z3 are capacitors C and Z2,Z4 and Z5 are resistors, the resulting driving point impedance becomes:

Z11= Z11=

R5 s2C2R2R4 1 s2D

where:

C2R2R4 R5

Z11=

1 s2R

Z11=

1 -2R

8

D Element Circuit

Rule

A transfer function of a network remains unchanged if all impedances are multiplied (or divided) by the same factor. This factor can be a fixed number or a variable, as long as every impedance element that appears in the transfer function is multiplied (or divided) by the same factor. The 1/S transformation involves multiplying all impedances in a network by 1/S.

10

11

Design of Active Low-Pass filter with 3dB point at 400Hz using D Elements

1/S Transformation

Realization of D Element

12

Normalized Elliptic Function Filter C11 20 =75 N=11 Rdb=0.18dB s=1.0353 60.8dB

1/S Transformation

Realization of D Elements

13

14

Bi-Directional Impedance Converter for Matching D Element Filters Requiring Capacitive Loads to Resistive Terminations

Rs Rs R

+

CGIC R R R

Value of R Arbitrary Rs is source and load resistive terminations CGIC is D Element Circuit Capacitive Terminations

15

In T(s)

T(s)=1

+K

Out

Fr

Freq

2 K=2 Out 1

K=1

16

s s + r2

r= 2+2 r= 2Fr r Q= 2

Where K=2 and Q >2

17

This architecture can be used as an amplitude equalizer by varying K. If K=2 the circuit can be used as a delay equalizer by varying Q. By varying both K and Q this architecture can be used for both amplitude and delay equalization.

18

There will be an interaction between amplitude and delay as K is varied to change the amount of amplitude equalization.

2.414 2 1.707

1.25

1.707 2 2.414

19

20

By introducing a potentiometer into the circuit amplitude equalization can also be achieved The amplitude equalization at r is given by: Adb= 20 Log (4K-1) Where K from 0.25 to 1 covers an amplitude equalization range of - to +9.54 dB

21

To extend the amplitude equalization range beyond +9.54 dB the following circuit can be used. The amplitude equalization at r given by: Adb= 20 Log (2K-1) where a K variation from 0.5 to results in an infinite range of equalization capability. In reality 12dB has been found to be more than adequate so K will vary from 0.626 to 2.49.

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Simplified Adjustable Amplitude Equalizer The following circuit combines a fixed Q bandpass section with a summing amplifier to provide a low complexity adjustable amplitude equalizer. The design equations are given by:

Q0.707

23

To compute the desired Q first define fb corresponding to one-half the boost(or null) desired in dB. Then: Q= Where fbb2 Kr

)=

10Adb/20 +X db

+X/2 db

and b= or b=

f

fb fr

Whichever b is >1

fb -X/2 dB -X dB

fr

f

24

This circuit is in the form of a bridge where a signal is applied across terminals 1 and 2 the output is measured across terminals 3 and 4. At =1 all branches have equal impedances of 0.707 -45so a null occurs across the output.

25

The circuit is redrawn in figure B in the form of a lattice. Circuit C is the Identical circuit shown as two lattices in parallel.

26

There is a theorem which states that any branch in series with both the ZA and ZB branches of a lattice can be extracted and placed outside the lattice. The branch is replaced by a short. This is shown in figure D above. The resulting circuit is known as a Twin-T. This circuit has a null at 1 radian for the normalized values shown.

27

To calculate values for this circuit pick a convenient value for C. Then R1= 1 2foC

28

Circuit A above illustrates bootstrapping a network with a factor K. If is a twin-T the resulting Q becomes: Q= 1 4(1-K) If we select a positive K <1, and sufficiently close to 1, the circuit Q can be dramatically increased. The resulting circuit is shown in figure B.

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rLQ/2

rLQ/2

L rLQ/4

at resonance

-rLQ/4

rLQ/4

phantom negative resistor of -rLQ/4 appears in the equivalent circuit which can be cancelled by a positive resistor of rLQ/4 resulting in a very deep null at resonance (60dB or more).

30

Impedance of a center-tapped parallel resonant circuit at resonance is rLQ total and rLQ/4 from end to center tap (due to N2 relationship). Hence a

1 In T(s)

+1

Out

T(s) can be any bandpass circuit having properties of unity gain at fr, adjustable Q and adjustable fr.

31

Out In

The middle term of the denominator has been modified so the circuit Q is given by Q/(1-) where 0< <1. The Q can then be increased by the factor 1/(1-) . Note that the circuit gain is increased by the same factor.

32

A simple implementation of this circuit is shown in figure B. The design equations are: First calculate from = 1 - Qr Qeff where Qeff is the overall circuit Q and Qr is the design Q of the bandpass section. The component values can be computed from:

R1b

R1a 2Qr2-1

33

25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 -5.000.00 -10.00 -15.00 -20.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00

0.5dB

1dB

3dB

6dB

12dB

24dB

dB

Freq Radians

34

0.00 -20.000.00 -40.00 -60.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00

Phase 0.5dB

Phase 1dB

Phase 3dB

Phase 6dB

Phase 12dB

Phase 24dB

-120.00 -140.00 -160.00 -180.00

Freq Radians

35

amplitude

phase

Fo

Freq

36

Advantages : Reduces value of L Allows for parasitic capacity across inductor

NC2 L N2

N=1+

CA

N2LA

37

This transformation can be used to reduce the value of a terminating resistor and yet maintain the narrow-band response.

38

The following example illustrates how this approximation can reduce the source impedance of a filter.

39

40

41

Effect of leakage inductance can be minimized by splitting capacitors which adds additional poles

42

1

Z2

Z4

Z1

Z3

Z5

ZN

1

Z2R2/N

Z4R4/N

Z1R1/N

Z3R3/N

Z5R5/N

ZNR

Method of exponentially tapering a network to a higher (or lower) load impedance value with minimal effect on response

43

i=

EOUT SCR2R3

EOUT

EOUT SCR2

L=CR2R3

i=

EOUT SCR2R3

EOUT

EOUT SCR2 44

0.2432F

0.8025H

1.605H

Center tap

1 ohm 0.4864F

1 ohm

1 ohm

1 ohm

0.8025F

1.605F

1.22

Rad/sec

45

R

N = 0 .7 0 7

R /2

N = 0 .7 0 7

N =1

R

+2V

+1V

+

+ 0 .5 V

+ 0 .5 V

+

+ 0 .5 V

46

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