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Option should complete the following problems during the vacation, for handing in at the beginning of Michaelmas Term. (These problems are mostly based on the B3 Atmospheric Physics course.) Recommended further reading: An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, D G Andrews (CUP), Physics of Atmospheres, J T Houghton (CUP). 1. In a thought-experiment the temperature of the atmosphere is decreased by 1 K everywhere and the heat thereby released is given to the top 100 m of the ocean, whose temperature rises by an amount T everywhere. Find T . Comment on the possible implications of this result for climate change. [Take the specic heat capacity of sea water to be 4.2 and cp of air to be 1.0, each in units of kJ K1 kg1 . Take the radius of the Earth to be 6400 km.] 2. A balloon is required to carry an instrument payload to a height of 30 km at a latitude of 40 N in June, corresponding to a typical atmospheric pressure of about 1225 Pa and temperature of about 233 K. The total mass of the payload plus the balloon is 150 kg. What approximate radius of balloon is needed, assuming that after being charged with a measured bubble of helium at launch it just becomes spherical at oat altitude? What are the relative merits and disadvantages of balloons, satellites and aircraft as instrument platforms? 3. Show that, if there is a uniform lapse rate dT /dz = , the pressure in the atmosphere is given by M g/R z p(z ) = p0 1 T0 where M is the molar mass of air and R is the molar gas constant. Calculate the height at which the pressure is 0.1 of its surface value (p0 ) assuming a surface temperature (T0 ) of 290 K and (i) a uniform lapse rate of 10 K km1 and (ii) a uniform temperature of 290 K. 4. What is meant by the stability of a parcel of air, with respect to its vertical motion? Investigate the criterion for stability as follows. By considering a rising parcel of air, give a physical denition of the dry adiabatic lapse rate d . Write down the expression for d in terms of familiar physical quantities. Consider a parcel at height z and temperature T that is originally in equilibrium with the surrounding air. It is displaced adiabatically through a vertical distance z : what is its new temperature? Assuming the surrounding air has lapse rate , what is the temperature of the surrounding air at the same height as the displaced parcel? (Ignore any disturbances to the surrounding air due to the parcels displacement.)

Assuming that the parcel has the same pressure as its surroundings and using the ideal gas law, nd the dierence in density between the parcel and its surroundings. Hence show that the parcel is stable if < d . 5. Show that the vertical acceleration of a parcel of air of density p in an atmosphere of density is given by 1 g . p Given that the parcel moves adiabatically, show that for a small vertical displacement z from equilibrium d2 z + N 2 z = 0 , dt2 where N2 = g T dT g + dz cp

and dT /dz is the lapse rate of the surrounding atmosphere. Discuss solutions of this equation when N 2 < 0, = 0 and > 0, and explain how they relate to question 4. For N 2 > 0, calculate the period of the oscillation given a lapse rate of 6.5 K km1 and T = 270 K. [This oscillation is a particular case of an internal gravity wave and its angular frequency is called the buoyancy frequency, or Brunt-V ais al a frequency.] 6. Calculate the times taken for water drops of radii 1 m, 10m and 100m to fall a distance of 500 m in air at terminal velocity. [Assume Stokess Law, that the viscous force on a spherical drop of radius a and speed v is 6av . Take the dynamic viscosity for air to be 1.7 105 kg m1 s1 and the density of air at the relevant altitude to be 1.0 kg m3 .] Check the validity of your calculation by estimating the Reynolds Number for each radius. 7. Write down an expression, in terms of a vertical integral, for the optical depth (z ) corresponding to a specic absorbing gas and a specic wavelength. Give the corresponding expression for the transmittance T (z ) from height z to space. Solve the monochromatic radiative transfer equation in the form

R =

0

dT dz + B (0)T (0) , dz

where R is the radiance leaving the top of the atmosphere and B (z ) is the Planck blackbody function corresponding to the temperature at height z . (Assume that the ground emits as a black body.) Give a physical interpretation of each of the terms in this equation.

8. Find expressions for the optical depth (z ) at height z , and the transmittance T (z ) to space from height z , for an absorbing gas whose density varies as a (z ) = a0 exp(z/Ha ) , where Ha is a constant scale height, at a wavelength where the absorption coecient is k . Find an expression for the weighting function dT /dz , and show that this is a maximum at the height where = 1. Sketch the optical depth, the transmittance and the weighting function as functions of height. Optional: Comment on the signicance of the weighting function for remote sounding of the atmospheric temperature prole.

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