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% LEATHER. KINGSFORO THE STORY OF VEDIC INDIA. W. FREEMAN THE STORY OF THE TUSCAN REPUBLICS. By W. By W. E WATTS THE STORY OF AUSTRALASIA. BABYLON. A. MORSE STEPHENS THE STORY OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. ILLUSTRATED. By Prof. By GUSTAVE MASSON THE STORY OF MEXICO. By Prof. By H. THEAL THE STORY OF VENICE. MAHAFFY THE STORY OF ASSYRIA. THE STORY OF PHOENICIA. CHURCH OF THE SARACENS. AND PERSIA. GILT TOP $1. By GEORGE RAWLINSON THE STORY OF JAPAN. G. CHURCH THE STORY OF THE BARBARY CORSAIRS. By Z. By Z. ARCHER and C. By Z. RAWLINSON OF ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE. By Z. OMAN THE STORY OF SICILY. By HELEN ZIMMERN THE STORY OF EARLY BRITAIN. A. C. THOROLD ROGERS. BENJAMIN OF ANCIENT EGYPT. By GEO. By GEORGE RAWLINSON THE STORY OF THE HANSA TOWNS. By Hon. BARING-GOULD OF NORWAY. HARRISON OF ROME. By GBO. D. A. By S. By Prof.7^ THE EARLIER VOLUMES ARE THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY THE STORY OF GREECE. JBWETT OF PERSIA. By H. BOYESEN OF SPAIN. ALFRED J. By SUSAN HALE TKE STORY OF HOLLAND. L. J. By E. R. MORFILL THE STORY OF PARTHIA. JAS. By STANLEY LANE-POOLE THE STORY OF MEDIA. By GREVILLE TREGARTHEN THE STORY OF SOUTHERN AFRICA. MORFILL THE STORY OF THE JEWS UNDER ROME. By ARTHUR GILMAN OF THE MOORS IN SPAIN. For prospectus G. By S. By ALETHEA WIEL THE STORY OF THE CRUSADES. By R. S. A. A. PER VOL. A. JAS. and SUSAN HALE OF HUNGARY. W. By W. By Prof.. of the series see end of this volume PUTNAM'S SONS. MORRISON THE STORY OF SCOTLAND. E. H. By ARTHUR OILMAN OF THE JEWS. By STANLEY LANB-POOLE THE STORY OF RUSSIA. By Prof. M. R. By HENRY BRADLEY THE STORY OF TURKEY. EMILY LAWLESS THE STORY OF THE GOTHS. K. A. By Prof. VAMBERY OF CARTHAGE. By JAMES E. By BELLA DUFFY THE STORY OF POLAND. By C. By Prof. H. RAGOZIN. By STANLEY LANB-POOLE OF THE NORMANS. HOSMER OF CHALDEA. P. A. RAGOZIN THE STORY OF MEDIAEVAL FRANCE. P. $1-50 . ALFRED J. RAGOZIN OF GERMANY. NEW YORK AND LONDON . By DAVID MURRAY THE STORY OF THE CHRISTIAN RECOVERY OF SPAIN. HUG THE STORY OF PORTUGAL.THE STORY OF THE NATION: I2MO. By JOHN MACKINTOSH THE STORY OF SWITZERLAND. STEAD and MRS. RAGOZIN THE STORY OF IRELAND. By T. By SARAH O. By E.
INTERIOR DK ST. SOPHIA. .
G.A. FELLOW OF ALL SOULS COLLKGE. NEW YORK PUTNAM'S SONS T. . F. M.A.S.. W.Jjtoig ojf the Aj aliens THE STORY OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE C." ETC. C. FISIIKR 1895 LONDON: UNWIN . OMAN." THE ART OF WAR IN THE MIDDLE AGES. OXFORD AUTHOR OK " WARWICK THE " KINGMAKER. P.
1892 G. P.BY COPYRIGHT. FISHER UNWIN Ubc Unfcfeerbocfter press Hew . PUTNAM'S SONS 1 Entered at Stationers' Hall BY T.
FIFTY years ago the word " Byzantine " was used as a synonym for all that was corrupt and decadent, and the tale of the East-Roman Empire was dismissed by modern historians as depressing and The great Gibbon had branded the monotonous. successors of Justinian and Heraclius as a series of vicious weaklings, and for several generations no one
dared to contradict him.
books have served to undeceive the English
monumental work of Finlay, published in and the more modern volumes of Mr. Bury,
which appeared in 1889. Since they have written, the Byzantines no longer need an apologist, and the
work of the East- Roman Empire in holding back the Saracen, and in keeping alive throughout the Dark Ages the lamp of learning, is beginning to be realize'd.
writer of this
book has endeavoured to
the story of Byzantium in the spirit of Finlay and He wishes to acknowBury, not in that of Gibbon.
ledge his debts
both to the veteran of the war of
Greek Independence, and to the young Dublin proWithout their aid his task would have been very heavy with it the difficulty was removed. The author does not claim to have grappled with
the chroniclers of the Eastern realm, but thinks some acquaintance with Ammianus, Procopius, " Maurice's Strategikon," Leo the Deacon, Leo the
Wise, Constantine Porphyrogenitus,
and Nicetas, may justify task he has essayed.
having undertaken the
Foundation of Byzantium, 3 Early history of the city, 5 Byzantine luxury, 7 Byzantium destroyed A.D. 196, 9
Taken by Maximinus,
THE FOUNDATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE 33)
Constantine the Great, 15 Constantine's Choice, 17 The Topography of Constantinople, 19 The Senate House, 21
cation Festival, 29.
THK FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS
The Goths and
Outbreak of War, 39
the Huns, 35 Valens and the Goths 37 Battle of Adrianople, 41.
THE DEPARTURE OF THE GERMANS
Alaric the Goth, 49
THE REORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN
Youth of Theodosius II., 55 Exile of Eudocia, 57 Reign of Rebellion of Marcianus, 59 Zeno reorganizes the Army, 61 Theodoric and his Departure for Italy, 63.
Justinian's personal character,
73 The Blues and Theodora's speech, 79.
the Goths in Italy, 83
Conquest of Africa, 85
Theodahat's augury, 87
besiege Rome, 89 Baduila reconquers Italy,
Death of King Baduila, 95
THE END OF
Fall of Antioch, 99 The Great Plague, 101 Justinian as Theologian, 103 Belisarius defeats the Huns, 105 Building
of St. Sophia, 107
Procopiuson St. Sophia, 109 His Legislation, 113.
OF THE SLAVS
Fall of Maurice, 127.
115 of the Papacy, 119 Their Invasion of Moesia, 125
Lombard Conquests in Italy, 117 Rise Persian Wars, 121 The Slavs, 123
THE DARKEST HOUR
Misfortunes of Phocas, 129 Accession of Heraclius, 131 Letter of Chosroes, 133 Victories of Heraclius, 135 First Siege of Constantinople, 137 Triumph of Heraclius, 139.
SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE
Decay of the Latin tongue, 143 Christianity and the State, Evils of Monasticism, 145 Christianity and Slavery, 147 149 Superstitions, 151 Weaknesses of Byzantine Society,
153 Estimate of Byzantine Society, 155-57.
THE COMING OF THE SARACENS
Rise of Mahomet, 159 Arab Invasion of Syria, 161 Jerusalem taken, 163 The Sons of Heraclius, 165 The Themes Wars of Constans II., 169 Reign of Concreated, 167
stantine IV., 171.
of Leontius, 177
Justinian II., 176 Restoration of Justinian II., i;j Anarchy, 711-17 A.D.. 181 Accession of Leo the Isaurian, 183.
THE SARACENS TURNED BACK
Leo's Crusade against Images, Superstitious Vanities, 191 193 Constantine V. dissolves the Monasteries, 197 Irene
blinds her son, 199
Coronation of Charles the Great, 201.
THE END OF THE
Reign of Nicephorus I., 203 Reign of Leo V., 205 Michael Amorian, 207 Persecution by Theophilus, 209 The choice of Theophilus, 211 Michael the Drunkard, 213.
THE LITERARY EMPERORS AND THEIR TIME
Reignsof Leo VI. and Constantine VII., 217 Leo's Tactica, Art and Letters, 221 The Commerce of Constanti-
Conquests of Nicephorus Capture of Antioch, 231 Murder of Nicephorus I., 233 John Zimisces defeats the Russians, 235 Triumph of Zimisces, 237 Death of Zimisces, 239.
Decay of the Saracen power, 227
THE END OF THE MACEDONIAN DYNASTY
The Bulgarian Wars,
Death of King Samuel, 243
Empress Zoe and her Marriages, 245-7.
of the Seljouks, 251 Misfortunes o. Romanus Diogenes, 255 Character of Alexius Comnenus, 257.
THE COMNENI AND THE CRUSADES
Norman War, 259
Battle of Durazzo, 261
The Crusades, Conquests of Alexius I., 265 Second Norman War, Reign of John Comnenus, 269 Wars of Manuel I.,
THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE
Misfortunes of the Angeli, 275 277 The Fourth Crusade, 279
Cyprus and Bulgaria lost, The Leaders of the Crusade, 281 Rising against the Franks, 285 The two Sieges of ConThe Franks enter Constantinople, 289 stantinople, 287
Plunder of the City, 291
of Alexius Ducas, 293.
THE LATIN EMPIRE AND THE EMPIRE OF NICAEA
slain in Battle, 295
The Smaller Latin
297 Successes of Theodore Lascaris, 299 John Vatatzes Usurpation of Michael Paleologus, conquers Thrace, 301 303 The Franks driven from Constantinople, 305.
DECLINE AND DECAY
of the restored Empire, 309 Rise of the Ottoman Turks, 313
3 2l ~3Z l
Orkhan the Turk, 323
Revolt of Cantacuzenus, 325
The Turks cross into Europe, quests of the Servians, 327 329 Siege of Philadelphia, 331.
THE END OF A LONG TALE
Reign of John Paleologus, 333 Turkish Civil Wars, 335 Murad II. attacks Constantinople, 337 Death of Manuel II., 339
at Florence, 341
Apathy of the Greeks, 345
Last Hours of
Fall of Constantinople, 349.
PAR CHARLES BAYET. . CONSTANTINE THE GREAT MAP OF THE HEART OF CONSTANTINOPLE THE ATMEIDAN [HIPPODROME] AND ST.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . EQUESTRIAN 28 . 2O 23 26 SOPHIA MS. 1883) 68 THEODORA IMPERATRIX (FROM THE PAINTING BY VAL THE COPYRIGHT IS IN THE ARTIST'S PRINSEP. SOPHIA Frontispiece. HANDS) 78 .) . 1883 PAR CHARLES BAYET." COURT (FROM PARIS. BUILDING A PALACE (FROM A BYZANTINE FIFTEENTH-CENTURY DRAWING OF THE . QUANTIN. 58 THE EMPRESS THEODORA AND HER " L'ART BVZANTIN. EARLY COIN OF BYZANTIUM LATE COIN OF BYZANTIUM SHOWING CRESCENT AND STAR 4 4 14 . PAGE INTERIOR OF ST. 33 43 FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN." PARIS. STATUE OF CONSTANTINE GOTHIC IDOLS (FROM THE COLUMN OF ARCADIUS) GOTHIC CAPTJVES (FROM THE COLUMN OF ARCADIUS) ANGEL OF VICTORY (FROM A FIFTH-CENTURY DIPTYCH). QUANTIN.
QUANTIN. 1883) . PAGE CAVALRY SCOUTS (FROM A BYZANTINE MS. QUANTIN. MONKS. QUANTIN. 1883 . 209 A WARRIOR-SAINT LEONTIUS) (FROM A BYZANTINE " FRESCO)." PAR CHARLES BAYET. I?6 BISHOPS. AND WOMEN. ." BAYET." PAR CHARLES BAYET. PARIS. LAYMEN. 118 CROSS OF JUSTINUS "L'ART BYZANTIN. 96 Io8 COLUMNS IN ST." PAR CHARLES BAYET. PARIS..223 . 1883 (ST. QUANTIN." PAR 1883 c. .). MSS. 152 CHURCH OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES AT THESSALON1CA (FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN. PARIS. QUANTIN. HO FROM PARIS. (FROM THE VATICAN). FROM " L*ART BYZANTIN. 1883) PAR CHARLES BAYET. PARIS. QUANTIN. PARIS.. KINGS.Xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN.146 ILLUMINATED INITIALS (FROM BYZANTINE " L'ART BYZANTIN. 1883 REPRESENTATION OF THE MADONNA ENTHRONED (FROM A BYZANTINE IVORY). BAYET. ADORING THE MADONNA (FROM A BYZANTINE MS." PAR CHARLES BAYET. DETAILS OF ST. .)"L'ART BYZANTIN. 86 . QUANTIN. WORK (OUR LORD AND THE TWELVE FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN. ." PARIS. GALLERIES OF SOPHIA II.. FROM L'ART BYZANTIN. . 1883 GENERAL VIEW OF ST. SOPHIA (FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN. PARIS. 1883 PAR CHARLES .. SOPHIA FROM PARIS. I9T QUANTIN.. QUANTIN. 1883 DETAILS OF ST. SOPHIA ST." PAR CHARLES APOSTLES).)- FROM BAYET." PAR C. 195 2OO SOPHIA BYZANTINE METAL BAYET.
QUANTIN. (FROM THE SIDE OF THE 283 HARBOUR) BYZANTINE RELIQUARY (FROM " L'ART BYZANTIN. FROM " L'ART BYZANTIN. QUANTIN. QUANTIN." PAR CHARLES BAYET.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 1883) . FROM " L'ART KYZANT1N. 1883 299 FOUNTAIN IN THE COURT OF SOPHIA . QUANTIN. FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN. 1883 PARIS. "L'ART BYZANTIN. ST. (FROM "L'ART BYZAN- TIN." PAR CHARLES BAYET.)." PAR CHARLES BAYET. . RETURN OF A VICTORIOUS EMPEROR (FROM AN EMBROIDKRED ROBE). PARIS. 1883 2$$ BYZANTINE IVORY-CARVING OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY (FROM THE BRITISH MUSEUM). PARIS. ." PAR CHARLES BAYET. PARIS." PAR CHARLES BAYET PARIS. QUANTIN. 1883 . BYZANTIN. PARIS. XV11 PAGE 232 ARABESQUE DESIGN FROM A BYZANTINE MS." PAR CHARLES BAYET. FROM L'ART BYZANTIN. 1883 RUSSIAN (FROM PARIS. QUANTIN." . QUANTIN. OUR LORD BLESSING ROMANUS DIOGENES AND EUDOCIA " (FROM AN IVORY AT PARIS). 236 ARCHITECTURE FROM BYZANTINE " MODEL 238 (CHURCH AT VLADIMIR). QUANTIN." PAR CHARLES BAYET. 266 HUNTERS (FROM A BYZANTINE MS. 1883 FROM "L'ART PARIS. PARIS.). 289 FINIAL FROM A BYZANTINE MS. 1883 . 1883 253 NICEPHORUS BOTANIATES SITTING IN STATE (FROM A CONTEMPORARY MS. FROM L'ART BYZANTIN. PAR CHARLES BAYET. . 270 VIEW OF CONSTANTINOPLE." PAR CHARLES BAYET. QUANTIN.302 . .
QUANTIN. QUANTIN. 1883 DESIGN A BYZANTINE MS. 1883) . 1883) . CHARLES BAYET." PAR CHARLES BAYET." PAR CHARLES BAYET.)..." PAR CHARLES BAYET. . PARIS." PAR CHARLES BAYET.XV111 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS." PAR CHARLES BAYET. . -312 ANDRONICUS PALEOLOGUS ADORING OUR LORD (FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN. 1883 . 1883) DETAILS OF ST. (FROM FROM ARABESQUE "L'ART BYZANTIN. 335 QUANTIN. PAGE BYZANTINE CHAPEL AT ANI. PARIS. 350 .). . 326 MANUEL PALEOLOGUS AND HIS FAMILY (FROM A CONTEMPORARY MS. QUANTIN. FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN. THE OLD CAPITAL OF ARMENIA (FROM " L'ART BYZANTIN. . PARIS." PAR PARIS. PARIS. SOPHIA : . QUANTIN. 338 345 ANGEL OF THE NIGHT (FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN. PARIS. QUANTIN. . 1883) 316 JOHN CANTACUZENUS SITTING IN STATE (FROM A CONTEMPORARY MS. FROM "L'ART BYZANTIN.. .
Artiit'i /lands.] The copyright is . \prqtn the l^indn^by I'al.. /'/.THEODORA IMI'KKATRIX.></.
race.THE STORY OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE. forming a quiet backwater from the rapid stream which runs outside. strikes inland for seven miles. rowed across the broad Propontis. a few hundred first inlet European shore of the Bosphorus. The settlers Greeks of the Dorian natives of the thriving seaport-state of Megara. and hastily secured themselves from the wild tribes of the inland. one of . colonists disembarked. by running some rough sort of a stockade across the ground from beach to beach. BYZANTIUM. thousand five hundred and fifty-eight years a little fleet of galleys toiled painfully against the ago current up the long strait of the Hellespont. On the headland. enclosed between this inlet and the open sea. which after-ages were to know as the Golden Horn. and came to anchor in the smooth waters of the Two which cuts into the There a long crescent-shaped creek. Thus was founded the were city of Byzantium.
was to be found. Presently the whole coastland of the their first which the Greeks. on coming. into unknown waters. there Megarian seamen were soon found following in its wake. One band of these venturesome traders pushed far to the West to plant colonies in Sicily. There. and the fisheries of the Bosphorus and the Maeotic Lake. the warlike women who had once vexed far-off Greece by their inroads there. metals of Colchis and the forests of Paphlagonia. the most enterprising of all the cities of Hellas in the time of colonial and commercial expansion which was then at its its way Wherever a Greek prow had cut height. and grew rich on the profits which they drew from the . nor the tribes of the Amazons discover many lands well worth the knowing. sea. : where kings of untold wealth reigned over the tribes there dwelt. nor the country of the Hyperbut they did boreans. till The they had come to the extreme riches of the Golden Fleece they did not find. Sea and the fabulous lands that lay beyond. if one could but struggle far : enough up its boreans. from the rich corn lands by the banks of the Dnieper and Bug. the Amazons. by the banks of the nver of Colchis Thermodon. towards the mist-enshrouded entrance of the Black as legends told. called .2 BYZANTIUM. but the larger share of the attention of Megara was turned towards the sunrising. Golden Fleece. the blessed folk northern shore. too. the land of the Hyperwho dwell behind the North Wind and know seek these fabled nothing of storm and winter. was to be found the realm of the the Eldorado of the ancient world. To wonders the Greeks sailed ever North and East limits of the sea.
" They therefore pitched upon the headland by the Golden Horn. Byzantium Megarian colonists had established themselves at Chalcedon. The settlers who were destined to found the greater city applied to the oracle of Delphi to give them advice as to the site of their new home. reasoning that the Chalcedonians were truly blind to have neglected the more eligible site on the Thracian shore. on the far less in- From the first its situation marked out Byzantium Alike from the miliof view no city commercial from the and point tary could have been better placed. in order to found a colony viting Bithynian side of the strait. on the opposite Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus. two thousand years later. and Apollo. Looking out from the easternmost headland of Thrace. almost more than any other Greeks. with all Europe behind it and all Asia before. Already. spirit that. into that Cape of Good Hope.FOUNDATION OF BYZANTIUM. it was equally well as destined for a great future. seventeen years into another came band of being. suited to be the frontier fortress to defend the border . to devoted their attention the Euxine. we are told. Axeinos trading to " 3 the Inhospitable " became fringed with settlements. and the foundation of Byzantium was but one of their many before achievements. " and its name was changed " in recognition of the Hospitable was in a similar It its friendly ports." The Megarians. bade them "build their town over against the city of the blind. the seamen who led the next in " Euxeinos impulse of exploration that rose " turned the name of the Cape of Storms great of the " Europe.
As fortresses went in those early days it was almost impregnable two sides protected by the water. In all its early history Byzantium never fell by storm famine or treachery : accounted for the few occasions on which the hands of an enemy.4 BYZANTIUM. or the basis of operations for an invasion from the other. the lands by the Danube mouth or the shores of the Maeotic Lake. place pletely commanded the whole Black Sea trade every In its : EARLY COIN OF BYZANTIUM. had to pass close under its walls. so that the prosperity of a hundred Hellenic towns on the Euxine was always at the mercy of the masters of Byzantium. vessel that went forth from Greece or Ionia to traffic with Scythia or Colchis. of the one. LATE COIN OF BYZANTIUM SHOWING CRESCENT AND STAR. it fell into commercial aspect the was even more It comfavourably situated. : .\\ ay house alone Byzantium would have been prosperous but it had also a flourishing local trade of its own with the tribes of the neighbouring Thracian inland. and as a half. The Greek loved short stages and frequent stoppages. the third by a strong wall not commanded by any neighbouring heights.
For thirty years it was in the hands of the kings of Persia. when transformed into a cow. and drew much that the city call it 5 profit from its its fisheries : so badge coat of arms as much so we should comprised a tunny-fish as well as the famous ox whose form alluded to the legend of the naming of the Bosphorus. in the rising called the " Ionic Revolt. which served as a model for the more famous structure on which his son Xerxes crossed the Hellespont. bours when Byzantium in common with all its neighmade an ineffectual attempt to throw off the Persian yoke.AS AN INDEPENDENT STATE. forded the strait from Kurope into Asia [Beif-mftf^ . who as much to enrich himself as to pay his seamen forced every ship passing up or down the Bosphorus to pay a heavy toll. but with that short exception it maintained its freedom during the first three hundred years that followed its foundation. and won no small unpopularity thereby for the cause of invented strait dues. 1 As an independent state Byzantium had a long and eventful history. He freedom which he professed to champion. have drawn its name from Ixjing the place where Io. but she was finally freed from the Oriental yoke seventeen years later. Fifteen years later. fresh from the triumph of Salamis and Mycalc. sailed to her walls up and after a long leaguer starved out 1 The Bosphorus was sup|KKe<l to See coin on opposite page." it was held for a time by the arch-rebel Histiaeus. Many stirring scenes took place beneath its walls it was close to : them that the great Darius threw across the Bosphorus his bridge of boats. Ere long Byzantium fell back again into the hands of Persia. when the victorious Greeks.
6 BYZANTIUM. now the mistress of the seas.C. . whose blessing gave Byzantium its chief wealth and Demeter. all the losses of war. the obstinate garrison there. During the fifth century Byzantium twice declared war on Athens. and it was at The fleet wintered 479]. for it resembled a 7T with an extra limb. that they used iron copper for small money. of instead puzzled all other Greeks. once by treachery from within. We there know comparatively little about the internal history of these early centuries of the life of Byzantium. and the Byzantines escaped anything harder than the payment of a heavy war In a few years their commercial gains indemnity.C. But the Athenians. and the state was itself repaired again. 1 See coin on page 4. did not deal hardly with their conquered enemies. Poseidon the ruler of the sea.C. all Athens were laid. Some odd fragments of information survive here and for example. a peculiarity shared by no other ancient state save Sparta. except in one or two disgraceful cases. Theii alphabet rejoiced in an abnormally shaped B. and on each occasion fell into the hands of the enemy once by voluntary surrender in 439 B.. 1 The chief gods of the city were those that we might have expected . when Asia placed their ships at the disposal of the Athenian admirals Cimon and tions of the naval empire of the Greek states of Aristeides. which : we know. the goddess who presided over the Thracian and Scythian corn lands which formed its second source of prosperity. that the first foundaByzantium [B. in 408 B.
The Byzantines were. where the excellent wines of offered Maronea and other neighbour: ing places great temptations. till their commander consented to allow restaurants to be erected at convenient distances round the ramparts. which has descended to our is still used as an emblem by the present . the whole civic militia struck work in the height of a siege. which was frustrated owing to the sudden appearance of a light in heaven.culminating in an attempt at an escalade by night. \ve are assured. and never shrank from war as we should have expected a nation of epicures to do. for it is at any rate certain that the city showed all through its history great energy and love of independence.C 339].BYZANTINE LUXURY. which revealed the advancing enemy and was taken by the Byzantines as a token of special divine aid [B. They were gluttons too as well as tipplers on one occasion. It was not till the rise of Philip of Macedon and his greater son Alexander that Byzantium fell for the time into the hands of an enemy. In commemoration of it they assumed as one of their civic badges the own days and blazing crescent and star. if 7 tell : ancient chroniclers us the truth. a luxurious as well as a busy race they spent too much time in their numerous inns. and it was thought they might melt if exposed to too great heat 1 Yobably these tales are the scandals of neighbours ! who envied Byzantine prosperity. One comic writer informs us that the Byzantines were eating young tunny-fish their favourite dish so constantly. was king repulsed from the city's walls fifth The elder after a long siege. that their whole bodies had become well-nigh gelatinous.
continued to flourish under the Pax Romana. During the wars of Rome with Macedon and Antiochus the Great it proved such a faithful assistant that the Senate libera et foederata. that the Emperor Vespasian stripped it of these privileges. But after repulsing Philip the Byzantines had to submit some years later to Alexander. and were again an independent community for a hundred years. it gave it the status of a civitas " a free and confederate city. and obtained good and easy terms in consequence. they recovered a precarious freedom." and in was not taken under direct Roman government. and threw it into the province of Thrace. and passed on his decease through the hands of his successors After the Demetrius Poliorcetes. Byzantium could not be tribute to Rome. death of the latter in battle. but of its allowed complete liberty trol foreign relations everything save the conand the payment of a It was not till the Roman Republic had long passed away.8 BYZANTIUM. They formed under him part of the enormous Macedonian empire. the long-continued peace which all the inner countries of first the empire enjoyed during the two centuries of . It deprived of its unrivalled position for commerce. Though deprived of a liberty which had for long years been almost nominal. and Lysimachus. however. to exist for the future as an ordinary provincial town [A.D. till the po\ver of Rome invaded the regions of Thrace and the Helles- pont Byzantium was one of the cities which took the wise course of making an early alliance with the Romans. the owners of the city Ottoman Sultans. 73].
but the civil magistrates of Bvzantium were slain before his eyes. and fell upon the forces of his rival legions..nd f is as one of the most important mentioned again and again cities of the middle all regions of the Roman world. as for the other parts of the civilized world. 196 that thev were forced to yield. strengthened in haste. Commodus. where Severus had assumed the imperial The city was seized by the army of Syria. and the epoch of the militarv emperors followed. the garrison of Byzantium refused to submit. and style. that the whole seemed but walls " one block." were laboriously cast down. Most unhaopily for itself Byzantium lay on the line of division between the eastern provinces.D. where Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed. was murdered. and it was not till A. Presently Severus appeared from the west. rian Italy. and ere long three military usurpers were wrangling for his blood-stained diadem. For more than two years they maintained the impregnable city against the lieutenants of Severus. But an evil time for Byzantium.BYZANTIUM DESTROYED the imoerial A.D. But when all his other adherents had yielded. In 192 A.a. 196. The emperor appeared in person to ounish the long-protracted resistance of the town not only the garrison. g n giwc. began when the golden age of the Antonines ceased. and the Syrian emoeror out to death. the cast Victory followed the arms of the Illywas subdued. after he had made himself master of Rome and Pesccnnius. the unworthv son of the great and good Marcus Aurelius. and the Illyrian provinces. The property .D. The massive : so firmly built with great square stones clamped together with bolts of iron.
Peace however it was not destined to see. who had were absolutely exterminated. who staved off from the ruin which appeared about to overwhelm it in the third quarter of the third century. and made such a slaughter of its inhabitants that it is said that the old Megarian race attraction of the site to remain desolate. All through the middle years of the third century it was vexed by the incursions of the Goths. gave back to the Byzantines the right to govern themselves. and praised by the historian find Byzantium again inhabitants are specially Trebellius Pollio for the courage with which they repelled a Gothic raid in the reign of Claudius II. It profited especially from the constant neighbourhood of the imperial court. after Diocletian Roman Empire .D. but the town had received a hard blow. we a populous town. the son of Severus. so long possessed it But the irresistible was too great to allow its ruins Within ten years after its sack its by the army of Gallienus. and the town itself municipal privileges and handed over to be governed like a dependent village by its neighof the citizens was confiscated. and would have required a long spell of peace to recover its prosperity. The soldiers of Gallienus sacked Byzantium from cellar to garret. in A. who harried mercilessly the countries on the Black Sea whose tained its commerce it sus- trade. again seized fate was 263 an and shared the by usurping emperor. Caracalla. deprived of all bours of Perinthus.IO BYZANTIUM. The strong the Illyrian emperors. Under Gallienus of his adherents. gave Byzantium time and peace to recover its ancient prosperity.
it Though it was not his capital the chief fortress of his realm. Byzantium after a while found itself the border fortress of Licinius. But the Illyrian emperor returned in haste. while Maximinus Daza was governing the Asiatic provinces. But Licinius when he had recovered the place set to work to render it impregnable.and took Byzantium bysurprise. West. While Licinius was absent in Italy. 314]. since the defeat of Maximinus. seem to have been sacked or burnt. 323 he war with in an unsuccessful himself found engaged his brother-in-law Constantine. however. But the military importance of Byzantium was always After the interfering with its commercial greatness. II away. The town must have suffered severely by changing masters twice in the same year . which. still beneath in the walls of the city but Constantine persevered . it does not. the Emperor of the made his last desperate stand.D. For many months the war stood . as was so often the case with a captured city in those dismal days. the emperor who ruled in the Balkan Peninsula. defeated his grasping neighbour not far from the walls of the city. Maximinus treacherously attacked his rival's dominions without declaration of war.TAKEN BY MAXIMINUS. only sixty miles the Bithynian side of the Propontis. and recovered his great frontier fortress after it had been only a few months out of his hands [A. It he made was accordingly at Byzantium that Licinius when in A D. on fixed his residence at Nicomedia. abdication of Diocletian the empire was for twenty years vexed by constant partitions of territory between the colleagues whom he left behind him. embraced the whole eastern half of the Roman world.
launched from dozens of military engines which he had erected on these artificial At last the city surrendered. and the cause heights. subdued. and stood a victor on the ramparts which were ever afterwards to bear his name. became the sole emperor of the world. raising great walls. the last of his the siege. mounds which overlooked the and sweeping away the defenders by a constant stream of missiles. rivals Roman . Constantine.12 BYZANTIUM. of Licinius was lost.
self-reliant. For thirty-seven years. 328-330.II. ever since Diocletian parcelled out the provinces with his colleagues.) WllEN fortunes the fall of Byzantium had wrecked the of Licinius. unity had been unknown.D. was one of those men whose hard practical ability has stamoed upon the history of the world a much deeper imoress than has been left by many conquerors and legislators of infinitely greater genius. (A. whose number had sometimes risen to six and sometimes sunk to two. unsympathetic type of mind . and emperors. the Roman world was again united beneath the sceptre of a single master. He was a man of that self. Constantine. whose victory over his rivals had been secured by his talents as an administrator and a diplomatist no less than by his military skill. had administered their realms on different principles and with varying success.contained. THE FOUNDATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE.
un- CONSTANTINE THE GREAT. cold. Though the strain of old Roman blood in his veins in must have been but small. But if Roman in character. Born by the Danube.14 THE FOUNDATION OF CONStANTtNOPtA. or in Frederic the Great of Prussia. . steady. he was anything but Roman in his sympathies. which we recognize in his great predecessor Augustus. which in earlier centuries had won the empire of the world. Constantine . wearying energy. was many ways a typical Roman the hard. was once more incarnate in him.
of the Roman world. but the administrative and commercial centre Italy his : : . and of turning Rome into a provincial town. it was to meet the exigencies of war on the frontiers It was or the government of distant provinces. For more than a hundred years Rome had been a most inconvenient residence for the emperors. an imperial city which was to be neither a mere camp nor a mere court. If preceding emperors had dwelt far afield. though real enough. reserved for Constantine to erect over against Rome a rival metropolis for the civilized world. bad harbours and separated . had dwelt by the Rhine and the Danube the politic Diocletian had chosen Nicomedia as his favourite residence.CONSTANTINE THE GREAT. The main problem which had been before them was the repelling of incessant barbarian inroads on the Balkan Peninsula the troubles on the Rhine and the Euphrates. had been but minor evils. But no one had yet dreamed of raising up a rival to the mistress of the world. Rome. When he distributed his dominions among his heirs. he from any of that superstitious reverence for the ancient glories of the city on the Tiber which had inspired so many of his predecessors. reared in the courts and free 15 camps of Asia and Gaul. . placed half way down its the long projection of Italy. There had been emperors before him who had neglected Rome the barbarian Maximinus I. it was Gaul that he gave as the noblest share to his eldest and best-loved son Italy was to him a younger child's portion. was absolutely was to him but a secondary province amongst wide realms. handicapped by from the rest of the empire by the passes of the Alps.
with- out being too far away from the East that should be so strongly situated that it might prove an impregnable arsenal and citadel against barbarian attacks from the north that should at the same time be far enough away from the turmoil of the actual frontier to afford a safe and splendid residence for the imperial court The names of several towns are given by historians as having suggested themselves to Constantine. was responsibilities far too able a man to overlook the great need of the all its weighing on day a more conveniently placed administrative and He required a place military centre for his empire. . that should be easily accessible by land and sea which roads Rome had never been in spite of its wonderful that should overlook the Danube . and had not the sole advantage of Naissus. Sardica the modern Sofia in Bulgaria was . lands. was too far away from the points where the emperor was most wanted the banks of the Danube and the For the everwalls of Sirmium and Singidunum. with all the Roman world at his feet. . : the same objections. . that of being connected in liable to . and his mind. First was his own birth-place Naissus (Nisch) on the Morava. in the heart of the Balkan Peninsula but Naissus had little to recommend it it was too close to the frontier and too far from the sea.16 THE FOUNDATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE. Constantine. recurring wars with Persia it was even more inconno venient but these were less pressing dangers Persian army had yet penetrated beyond Antioch only 200 miles from the frontier while in the Balkan Peninsula the Goths had broken so far into the heart of the empire as to sack Athens and Thessalonica.
then. that it was Yet the world was startled the first Roman . with the persecutions and Galerius. Nicomedia on its long gulf at the east end of the Propontis was more eligible situation in every way. of his choice hard to conceive of it as a destined seat of empire. Nothing. sentiment with the emperor's early days. was thoroughly well known to Constantine. and none of its military advantages can have missed his eye. in addition. Constantine had no wish to choose a city in which his own memory would be eclipsed by that of his predecessor Diocletian. i. selection of the old Megarian city for his at new capital. nothing could be alleged except its ancient legendary glories. it Though close to the sea had no good harbour. could have been more natural than his . on the other hand. and the fact that the mythologists of Rome had always fabled that their city drew its origin from the exiled Trojans of ^Eneas. news so had been long known Byzantium merely as a great port of call for the Euxine trade. . the last place on which Constantine had cast his mind. the class of his subjects whom he had most favoured of of Diocletian late. and had already served as an imperial residence. and as a first-class provincial fortress. But all that could be urged in favour of Nicomedia applied a with double force to Byzantium.CONSTANTINO S CHOICE. For Ilium. Byzantium. and. For months his camp had been pitched beneath its walls he must have known accurately every inch of its environs. and it was just too far from the mouth of the Hellespont to command effectually the exit of the Euxine. and whose name was associated by the Christians.
thinks fit to stop.C. the emperor advanced till he was three miles from the eastern angle 01 and Byzantium. the gate of old Byzantium. we read. " Milton. In later ages a was told to account for the maglegend picturesque nificent scale on which it was planned. marched out on foot. only turned his steps when he had included in his boundary line all the seven hills which are embraced in the peninsula between the Propontis and the Golden Horn. rising ground just outside the walls of the old where Constantine's tent had been pitched during the siege of B.l8 THE FOUNDATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE. When once Constantine had determined to make his capital. As he paced on further and further westward along the shore of the Golden Horn. or golden milestone. court. before me. the invisible guide who marches said. in Byzantium preference to place in the Balkan lands. his with his usual energy and thoroughness. his attendants grew more and more surprised at the vastness of his scheme. 323. But Con" I shall go on." he stantine turned to rebuke them " until He." Guided by his mysterious presentiment of greatness." from which all the The . any other measures were taken The limits of the new city were at once marked out by solemn Roman style. was selected out as the marketThere he erected the place of the new foundation. At last they ventured to observe that he had already exceeded the most ample limits that an imperial city could require. The emperor. till he was more than two miles away from his starting-point. new fortifications : city. followed by all his processions in the old and traced with his spear the line where the were to be drawn.
in vie in size with Old Rome. " " IQ distances of the eastern world were in future to be was point of the world not a mere single stone. perhaps. the most easterly was the Great Baths. order to shut off the imperial precinct from the for North-west of the palace lay the central open space which the life of Constantinople was to find its centre. where the Bosphorus joins the Propontis. but a small building like a within temple. To its east. commencing at the Lighthouse. about a mile. as we have in already said. wall. about a thousand feet long by three hundred broad. This was the "Augustaeum. to give space not only for a magnificent residence for his whole court. It was paved with marble and surrounded on all sides by stately public buildings.THE TOPOGRAPHY OF CONSTANTINOPLE. known. Of these. This central . but for spacious gardens and pleasure-grounds. the Christian Empress Helena. turned inland and A in swept along parallel to the shore city. from " their Baths of Zeuxippus." They were built on the same magnificent scale which the earlier builder. together with measured. that of his venerated mother. as the emperors had used not."a splendid oblong forum. The tium was chosen by Constantine south-eastern part of the old town of Byzanfor the site of his The spot was cleared of all private imperial palace. a for dwellings space of 150 acres. but between the palace and the open space were three detached edifices connected by a colonnade. though they could the enormous Haths . lay the imperial palace. its roof supported by seven pillars was placed the statue of the emperor.
B.Obelish 9-Delphic Tripod to.Senate House 6.G L D E N HORN THE HEART OF CONSTANTINOPLE i. Baths of Zeuxippus j.Kathlsma (Royal Box) z.Patriarch's Palace ^.Chalcoprateion (Brassmarket) 3. Milion ^.Statues etc. Brazen Column _ -= >L!ghthousn .
21 Constantine utilized and enlarged the old public bath of Byzantium. the old Hellenic masterpieces which had escaped the rapacious hands of twelve generations of plundering proconsuls and Caesars. on account of its having been twice destroyed within the century.THE SENATE HOUSE. on the east side of the Augustaeum the Senate House. 404. Adjoining the Baths. lay on the north the Palace of the Patriarch. We assembly was worthily housed. of Caracalla. But. the patriarchal dwelling . and had indeed persuaded many old his senatorial families to migrate eastward by judicious know that the gifts of pensions and houses. lay the second great building. hall of A fine building in itself. it was adorned with ancient statuary. There were to be seen the Athene of Lyndus. the Pan which had been consecrated by the Greeks after the defeat of Xerxes. like the Baths of Zeuxippus. but no details survive about Constantine's building. as the Bishop of Byzantium was ere long to be called. Constantine had determined to endow of new city with a senate modelled on that Old Rome. which had been rebuilt after the taking of the city by Severus. and the Zeus of Dodona. He adorned the frontage and courts of the edifice with statues taken from every prominent town of Greece and Asia. who describes the Linked to the Senate House by a colonnade. the Amphithrite of Rhodes. among which the Nine Muses of Helicon are specially cited by the historian burning of the place in B. with a spacious audience and a garden. to the north.C. when raised to the same status as his brethren of Antioch and Alexandria.
in which were renewed the games that Old Rome had known so well. lay an edifice which played a very proAll minent part in the public life of Constantinople. but persons of all ranks and professions. We itself often hear of the " Green " faction " identifying with Arianism. or of the Blue" supporting a pretender to the throne. a splendid circus 640 cubits long and 160 broad. And so it was with he lived too near his royal the patriarch himself master to be able to gain any independent authority. facing the three buildings which we have already described. This was the great Hippodrome. chose their colour and backed their faction. From the " Blues and the " Greens was one rivalry of the of the most striking features of the life of the place. and spread into all first " foundation 'of the city the " branches of life. It was carried far beyond the circus. and constantly led to a positive danger to riots. along the western side of the Augustaeum. : Physically and morally alike he was too much overlooked by his august neighbour. and never found the least opportunity of setting up an independent spiritual authority over against the civil government. was yet completely overshadowed by the imperial palace which rose behind it. The system was the public peace. culmi- . Not merely men of sporting interests. or of founding an imperium in imperio like the Bishop of Rome. The whole system of the chariot races between the " teams that represented the " factions of the Circus was reproduced at Byzantium with an energy that even surpassed the devotion of the Romans to horse racing.22 THE FOUNDATION OP CONSTANTINOPLE.
and around it many strange scenes were enacted. most notable. called the Kathisma. whose strange juxtaposition seemed almost to typify the heterogeneous materials from which the new city was built up. nating in the great sedition of A. The emperor's box. and sat on the east side . " " the Greens Hippodrome always entered by the the north-eastern gate. sat in state after his reconquest of Constantinople. Here also. spina. with his rivals. Leontius and Apsimarus. occupied the whole of the short northern side. two it centuries later. which we shall In the presently have to describe at length. bound beneath his footstool. the verse. which every circus showed it was ornamented with three most curious monu- ments.24 THE FOUNDATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE. the Emperor Justinian II." or division wall. on the Lion and the Asp." centre of the Down " the Hippodrome ran the . and contained many hundreds of Blues for the imperial retinue.D. though one of the : least beautiful. of the antiquities of Constantinople it was the threeheaded brazen serpent which Pausanias and the . names of the vanquished shalt trample while the populace chanted. was on this throne that the rebel Hypatius was crowned emperor by the mob. and covered with the usual hieroglyphic inscriptions the second was the . The great central tnrone of the Kathisma was the place in which the monarch showed himself most frequently to his sub- " " seats jeers. 523. in allusion to the " Thou princes. with his own wife's necklace for an impromptu diadem. approached by the north-western gate and stretched along the western side. The first and oldest was an obelisk brought from Egypt.
after 2$ had dedicated at Delphi in 479 had destroyed the Persian army at they IMatasa. The golden tripod. few at first. were already described. but its central decorations still stand erect in the midst of an open space which the : Turks call memory of its the Atmeidan.C. had long been wanting the sacrilegious Phocians had stolen it six centuries before but the dedicatory inscriptions engraved on the coils of the pedestal survived then and survive : . " " The the vast walls of the Hippodrome till our own day have crumbled away. It was exactly the reverse of a change which can be seen at . the most important landmark among them being the Milion or central milestone of the empire. victorious Greeks B. in ancient use. which we have The statues. Constantino's own contribution to the collection was a tall porphyry column surmounted by a bronze image which had once been the tutelary Apollo of the city of Hierapolis. or place of horses.. contrasting strangely with the venerable antiquity of its neighbours. stood a range of small chapels and statues. but was turned into a representation of the emperor by the easy method of knocking off" its head and substituting the imperial features. increased by later emperors. By some freak of chance all three monuments have remained now to delight the archaeologist. third monument on the spina was a square bronze column of more modern work.THE HIPPODROME. eastern wall of the dim Along the outer Hippodrome on the western edge of the Augustaeum. till they extended along the whole length of the forum. which was supported by the heads of the serpents.
(From a Byzantitte MS.) .BUILDING A PALACE.
and everywhere there were buildings of note. Peter. and the Cathedral most of the important events in the history of the city took place. and finally " ended at the " Royal Gate of the palace. But to north and west the city extended for miles. on the column in the Corso. was The Church the second of the Holy Apostles. supported on arches. crossed the square. The edifices which we have described formed the heart of Constantinople. down once in it Burnt probably of the Basilica-shape then usual. 27 the Rome. which Constanthe ecclesiastical edifices of the civil tine destined as the burying-place of his family.ST. It was not the famous domed edifice which now bears that name. Between the Palace. The somewhat of the gallery must have been of the curious passage perched aloft on arches which connects the Pitti and Ufifizzi general effect like that palaces at Florence. and turned him into St. and dedicated to the Divine Wisdom (Hagia Sophia]. From door of St. which lay opposite to St. the fifth and once in the sixth centuries. SOPHIA. where the popes have removed the head of Emperor Aurelius. Sophia a wooden gallery. Sophia. among the town. North of the Hippodrome stood the great church which Constantine erected for his Christian subjects. though no other cluster could vie with that round the Augustaeum. the public . has left no trace of its original character. but an earlier and humbler building. By this the emperor would betake himself to divine service the west vithout having to cross the street of the Chalcoprateia (brass market). the Hippodrome. Of outlying buildings.
was one of the chief shows of Constantinople down to the end of the governor of the city. . the buildings were so far advanced that he was able to hold the festival which celebrated its consecration. 328 or 329 the exact date is not that Constantine had definitely easily to be fixed chosen Byzantium for his capital. As early as May 11. and the palace of the praetorian praefect. and drawn out the plan for its development. by which the great road from the west entered the walls. the Golden Gate. of notice. which stood by the last-named edifice. Middle Ages. and some curious legends gathered around it. It was in A. all must FIFTEENTH-CENTURY DRAWING OF THE EQUESTRIAN STATUE OF CONSTANTINE. 330.D. granaries along the quays. who acted as have been well worthy A statue of Constantine on horseback.ZS THE FOUNDATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE.
must have composed a very considerable element in the new population. had determined that the new city should be Christian from the first.\\on the new capital to attract immigrants was the old Roman privilege of free distribution of seem insignificant t -<l corn to the populace. 2$ bishops blessed first still and held the the partially completed service in St. The countless officers and functionaries of the imtheir and slaves. Constantine rich many senators of Old Rome and many provincial proprietors of Greece and Asia to take up abode in it. spared when the older streets were levelled to clear it.DEDICATION FESTIVAL. the ground for the palace and adjoining buildings. granting them places in his new senate and sites for the dwellings they would require. save a few of the old temples of the Byzantines. not as of his city. only the African corn from Carthage . To fill the vast invited limits art. formed part of the public transferred to provision of Rome. The statues of the gods which adorned the Baths and Senate House stood there as works of objects of worship. Christian palace. abounded at Byzantium. The artizans and handicraftsmen were enticed in thousands by the offer of special Merchants and seamen had always privileges. with their subordinates bers which the city made the old commercial prosperity of Most effective though most demoralizing of the gifts which Constantine l)c>t. was the use of Constantinople. Sophia for . and now flocked in numperial court. Of paganism there was no trace in Constantine. The which had previously wheat-tribute of Egypt. though unbaptized himself.
3O THE FOUNDATION OF CONSTANTINOPLE.D. But " New Rome was a phrase destined to subsist in poetry and rhetoric alone the world from the first very rightly gave the city the : founder's name only. On the completion of the dedication festival in 330 A. . an imperial edict gave the city the title of New Rome. being for the future assigned for the subsistence of the older city. and persisted in calling it Con- stantinople. and the record was placed on a marble tablet near the equestrian statue of the emperor. opposite " the Strategion.
and unsympathetic. was able to devote his leisure to ecclesiastical controversies. suspicious. . Constantius II. and to dishonour himself by starting the first . but gloomy. lived seven years after he had comthe dedication of his new city. Euphrates. THE FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS. 337.D. save by some minor bickerings on the Rhine and the among of .. an administrator of some ability. for by some strange chance the barbarian invasions which had troubled the third century had ceased for a time.. peace prosperity CONSTANTIM: received on his death-bed into that Christian Church on whose verge he had lingered during the last half of his life. The Roman world was not yet quite ripe for a permanent division it was still possible to manage it from a single centre. and the Romans were untroubled. and ended in the concentration of the whole empire from the Forth to the Tigris under the sceptre of Constantius 1 1. the second son of the great emperor.III. and died in pleted and on the 22nd of May. A. By his will he left his realm to be divided his sons and nephews but a rapid succession murders and civil wars thinned out the imperial house.
Julian. chief was to come. strove. if asked whence danger to the empire might be expected. 332.32 THE FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS. Both Constantius and Julian. It was from the north that mis- For a hundred and fifty years the Romans had been well acquainted with the tribes of the Goths. Only after a hard struggle had they been rolled back across the Danube.D. in a war that lasted from A. compelled their king to give his sons as hostages. Since then the seemed of adventure the Goths and for war appetite dictated . to the Mesopotamian frontier. who strove to put back the clock of time and restore the worship of the ancient gods of Greece. pagan zealot. nor in the short reign of his cousin and successor. who. the amiable and cultured. in what had once been the land of the Dacians. where their great enemy. But it was not in the east that the impending storm was really brewing. The crisis in fall not destined to the history of the empire was in his day. but entirely wrongheaded. by Christian that the world persecution of Christian had seen. All through the third century they had been molesting the provinces of the Balkan Peninsula by their incessant raids. as we have already had occasion to relate. the most easterly of the Teutonic nations who lay along the imperial border. The last struggle with them had been in the time of Constantine. would have pointed eastward. and his own terms of peace. and compelled to limit their settlements to its northern bank.D. with no very great success. Sapor King of Persia. to break through the line of Roman fortresses that protected Syria and Asia Minor. had beaten them in the open field. 328 to A.
or tribe of the north and east. incomparably the of portion most precious relic of the old Teutonic tongues that ever consecrated New we now possess. Transylvania. The Romans were beginning to look upon them as a guard that set on the frontier to ward off the wilder peoples : The nation was lay to their north and east. they might almost be called a civilized race. One Ulfilas of the earliest Gothic converts. . : permanently checked for forty years they had kept comparatively quiet and seldom indulged in raids across the Danube. and the Bible.34 THE FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS. They were rapidly settling down into farmers in the fertile lands on the Theiss and steady the Pruth they traded freely with the Roman towns of Moesia many of their young warriors enlisted the Roman among auxiliary troops. of Moldavia. lay more to the south. The Goths were rapidly losing their ancient ferocity. in . Compared to the barbarians who dwelt beyond them. were becoming Christians : priests of their own blood already ministered to them. the Dniester valley. Wallachia. By this time many of the Goths . lay more to Bessarabia. whose tribal name was the Thervings. what are now the countries and Southern Hungary the the Gruthungs. was already in their hands. Ostrogoths. now divided into two tribes the Visigoths. translated into their own language. and one considerable body of Gothic emigrants had been permitted to settle as subjects of the empire on the northern slope of the Balkans. his work still survives. the good Bishop the first bishop of German blood that was had rendered into their idiom the A great Testament and most of the Old. and in .
THE HUNS. instead of eyes men . ing his great fortress-capital to serve as the central place of arms of the Balkan Peninsula. dreadful to the Visigoths than to their eastern . Then the Huns fell on the Visigoths. under their Duke Fritigern. and stiff-necked proud. to become vassals of the Huns. The wave of invasion pressed on the Bug and the Pruth proved no barrier to the swarms of nomad bowman. But a to totally 35 were now in rear- unexpected series of events show how prescient Constantine had been. they almost exterminated. . burst into the lands north of the Euxine. The first tribe that lay in way. and the Visigoths. good at the bow. broad shouldered. 372 the Huns. fell back in dismay with their wives and children. P. Surrender to the enemy was more skilful in riding. till they found themselves with their backs to the Danube. hiding under a barely human form the ferocity of the wild beast. an enormous Tartar horde from beyond the Don and Volga. and began to work their their way westward." But the enemy whom the Gothic historian describes in these uninviting terms was too strong for the Teutons of the The Ostrogoths were crushed and compelled Kast. but lithe and active. The Ostrogoths made a desperate attempt to defend the line of the Dniester against the " oncoming savages with faces that can hardly be called faces rather shapeless black collops of flesh with little points little in stature. About the year A. their waggons and flocks and herds. the nomadic race of the Alans. Then they fell upon the Goths. near the marshes of the Delta of the Danube. save a remnant who fought their way southward to the Wallachian shore.
they were more civilized. cowardly. Valentinian had taken the West for his portion. the Visigoths sent in despair to ask permission to cross from the Emperor. and avaricious prince. bewailing their calamity. slothful and timid. THE FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS. or to admit them within the line of river filled imperial palace at Constantinople. and earnestly supplicating leave to cross. and dwelt in his camp on the Rhine and Upper Danube. while Valens. contemporary writer A describes how they stood. the greatest general of the day. and the East was ruled by Valens. a stupid.D. with an implied . Pressed against the Danube and the Roman border. who had obtained the diadem and half the Roman world only because he was the brother of Valentinian. The house of Constantine was gone. The proposal of the Goths and fortress that protected the border. It was difficult to say which was more dangerous to refuse a passage to 200. most of them were and the Christians. 376) the Roman Empire was again divided.36 brethren . and promising that they would ever faithfully adhere to the imperial alliance if only the boon was granted them. besides women and old men and children were there on the river bank. shut himself up with a court of slaves and flatterers in the Valens with dismay.000 desperate men with arms in their hands and a savage foe at their backs.000 fighting men. prospect of slavery to savages seems to have appeared intolerable to them." At this moment (A. " All the multitude that had escaped from the murderous savagery of the Huns no less than 200. stretching out their hands with loud lamentations.
did not suffice for so many hundred thousand mouths as had just entered its border. The provisions of Moesia disputes soon broke out. the bribes were Further accepted and the Goths retained their arms. gave up the sons of and streamed across the river as fast as the Roman Danube-flotilla could transport But no sooner had they reached Moesia than The Roman officials at first tried troubles broke out. held back the food. but the Goths were unwilling to surrender their weapons. and Valens had ordered stores of corn from Asia to be collected for the use of the Goths. This shameless extortion patience of the Goths lasted. In sheer hunger the Goths were driven to barter a slave for a single loaf of bread and ten pounds of silver for a sheep. drove the Goths to desperation. But them. Fritigern. with many . The Goths accepted their chiefs as hostages.VALENS AND THE GOTHS. Lupicinus. and doled out what he chose to give at exorbitant prices. continued as long as the stores and the At last the poorer immigrants were actually beginning to sell their own This children for slaves rather than let them starve. and a chance affray set the whole nation in a blaze. to disarm the immigrants. the he chose latter alternative ing : 37 much doubtif the Goths to would give hostages and surrender should be ferried across the their arms. to fill his own pockets. the governor. . After obligation to find land for them. the terms. they Danube and permitted settle as subject-allies within the empire. and offered large in strict disbribes to be allowed to retain them obedience to the Emperor's orders. till they should have received and commenced to cultivate land of their own.
itself into a repetition of the great raids of the third century towns were sacked and the open country : harried in the old style. Fritigern told his tale. Lupicinus recklessly bade his retinue seize and slay Fritigern and the other guests at his banquet. nor was the war rendered less fierce by the fact that many runaway slaves and other outcasts invaders. the palace.38 THE FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS. as well as by other tribes flying first from the Huns. But the the provincial population joined the Roman armies still retained their the ravages of the Goths were reputation checked at the Balkans. slain. Then and bade them take up arms against Rome. . the Visigoths were at armies. soldiers strove to drive them off. near the modern Kustendje thinned the ranks of sides. of his nobles. There followed a year of desperate fighting all along the Danube. The Goths half-starved for many months. when some starving Goths tried to Roman pillage the market by force. soon showed that the old barbarian spirit was but thinly covered by the veneer of Christianity and civilization which they had ac- The struggle resolved quired in the last half-century. held at bay by the imperial desperate pitched battle at Ad Salices. and though joined by the remnants of the Ostrogoths from the Danube mouth. A party of at and were once mishandled or On hearing the tumult and learning its cause. The Goths drew their swords and cut their nearest way out of camp of his riding to the followers. and the northern slope of the Balkans. A both but led to no decisive result. and smarting under the extortion and chicanery to which they had been subjected. was dining with Count Lupicinus at the town of Marcianopolis. old among .
They had come to consider it more chief honourable to fight on horse than on foot. robnr peditum^ still whose day had lasted since the Punic wars.OUTBREAK OF WAR. person. with a splendid army of 60. Every one expected to hear of a victory. field the un warlike Emperor. handled. to fighting on horseback.C. when of wild barbarians. driven into the field in by the clamours of his subjects. with great reinforcements brought from Asia Minor. to any amount But a new chapter of the history of the art of war was just commencing during their sojourn in the plains of South Russia and Roumania the Goths had taken. In 378 B. At the same time his nephew Gratian. ever the nurse of cavalry from the day of the Scythian to that of the Tartar and " Cossack.000 men. for the reputation of invincibility clung to the legions. they found themselves face to face into the army that . when the Emperor started to attack them. a gallant young prince who had succeeded to the Empire of the West. fairly were still reckoned superior. the main body of the Goths succeeded in forcing the line of the Balkans they were not far from Adrianople . The personal intervention of Valens in the struggle was followed by a fearful disaster. Next took the year." and every was followed by his war-band of mounted men.. Dwelling in the Ukraine they had felt the . 39 however. and after six hundred years of war the disciplined infantry of Rome. Driven against their will into conflict with the empire. influence of that land. set forth through Pannonia to bring aid to the lands of the Lower Danube. first of all German races.
had so long held the world in fear. their position equally unable to had to stand to be cut down. After some abortive negotiations he developed an body of horsemen charged in on the Roman flank. and had turned back their own ancestors in rout three generations before. in Valens found the main body of the Goths encamped a great " laager. Every attempt to stand firm failed." on the plain north of Adrianople. so closely were they suears packed snapped right and left. soldiers the press. they : deploy or to fly. and in a few minutes left. which had been foraging at a distance receiving news of the Some fight it had ridden straight for the battle field. auxiliaries. lancers. . great . attack on their front. So tremendous was their impact that Roman legions and cohorts were pushed together in hopeless confusion. centre. when suddenly a squadrons which covered the left flank of the Emperor's army were ridden down and trampled under foot. plying lance and sword against stifled in were . were one undistinguishable mass.40 THE FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS. and reserve. and drove it in upon the centre. rolled it up. day was lost. light troops. Men could not arms to strike a blow. Then the abandoned infantry realized the horror of every moment. their bearers unable to lift them to a vertical position being many raise their . Then the Goths swept down on the infantry of the left wing. and infantry of the line were wedged together in a press that grew closer The Roman cavalry saw that the and rode off without another effort. Imperial guards. Into this quivering mass the Goths rode. It was the main strength of the Gothic cavalry.
After a vain assault on Adrianople. all that mass of riches within cast appeared inaccessible to them.. They away the sirgi. and rolled backward on to Thrace. Harrying the whole country side as they passed by. 4! the helpless enemy. and thirty-five fearful commanders of different corps. It was not till forty thousand men had fallen that the thinning of the ranks enabled the survivors to break out and follow their cavalry in a headlong flight. Constantine's prescience 1 So forty years was for the Ammianus Marccllinus. and was never reorganized again on tke old Roman lines. after his death. before the " Golden aptly compared by the conAmmianus Marccllinus. the Emperor.xtrnt of streets . . the victorious Goths pressed rapidly on towards the imperial city. dead on the field. they made no hostile attempt on the city. The battle of Adrianople was the most defeat suffered by a it Roman army is since Cannae. the Count of the Palace." its south- Hut the attack was destined to come to nothing: "their courage failed them when they looked on the vast circuit of walls and the enormous . The Gate. This awful catastrophe brought down on Constantinople the first attack which it experienced since it had changed its name from Byzantium. a slaughter to which temporary historian army of the East was almost annihilated. they presented themselves western exit. They left behind them.machines which they had prepared." 1 Beyond skirmishing under the walls with a body of Saracen cavalry which had been brought up to strengthen the garrison.THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE. the Grand Masters of the Infantry and Cavalry.
time justified. he destroyed many marauders and scattered bands. and enlisted in his armies all the chiefs and their war-bands. With the remnants of the army against the barbarians . He granted the Goths land for their settlement in the Thracian province which they had wasted. If they dispersed to plunder they were cut off. a wise and virtuous prince. a king Presently Fritigern peace with his successor the Carpathian country. when in . of the East he made head with- out venturing to attack their main body. The unlucky Valens was succeeded on the throne by Theodosius. great victories over the legions of the West. if they held together in masses they starved. by caution and courage combined. the disaster that had shaken the Roman power in the Danube lands. . and were granted a higher pay than the native Roman soldiery. who set himself to repair. and Theodosius frankly promised observed the terms that Fritigern had faithfully asked of Valens ten years before. died. He was right in believing that an on the Bosphorus would prove the impregnable city salvation of the Balkan Peninsula even if all its open country were overrun by the invader. and made the continuance of the war profitless to them. Within ten years after the fight of Adrianople he had forty thousand Teutonic horsemen in his service they formed the best and most formidable part of his host. The immediate military results of it the policy of Theodosius were not unsatisfactory was his Gothic auxiliaries who won for him his two .42 first THE FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS. and Theodosius made who had lately come over the Danube at the head of a new swarm of Goths from Athanarich.
VI U > .
their own chiefs. Now. then the ranks of disciplined soldiery. And at last he cried aloud. then the lofty walls. they had been Roman leaders and mixed with equal under placed To leave them under numbers of Roman troops.' said he. and left the throne to his two weakly sons Arcadius and Honorius.D. in their It practically put the command of the was no hold over them empire save their personal loyalty to Theodosius.44 A. THE FIGHT WITH THE GOTHS. Doubtless the Emperor is as a god on earth.' deemed passed his eyes hither and the site of the city. In good Emperor " Theodosius. the lover of peace and of the Goths. as is shown in the story which . had been enlisted before." as he was called. and deliberately favour them at the auxiliaries expense of the native soldiery. the long. 394 the rebel Eugenius. then the fleets of corn-ships. 388 he conquered the rebel Magnus Maximus. died. at last behold what I had often heard and incredible. .D. and in A. was a most unhappy experiment. But from the political side the experiment of Theodosius was fraught with the greatest danger that When barbarian the Roman Empire had yet known. mingled as the waters thither admiring first He from divers springs mix in a single pool. hands for there the Gothic historian Jornandes of the old King Athanarich " tells about the ' visit to Constantinople. and the spell which the grandeur of the Roman name and Roman culture still exercised over their minds. That spell was still strong. then the crowds of people of all nations.' for But this impression hand against him is guilty of his was not to conA. When I 'do he entered the royal city. 395.D. ' and he who raises a " own tinue blood.
were to move from one district to another without special permission. A landowner WHS even prohibited from enlisting in the army. The civil government and no local patriotism. that to prevent the revenue from suffering. unless he could show that he left an heir behind him capable of paying his share in the local rates. from the curtails.IV. existing solely for the purpose of paying taxes. only the lower classes who . down actually forbidden to the poorest peasant. at the end of the fourth in a condition which made the experiwas century. appointed directly from Constantinople. administered every provincial post from the greatest There was little local selfto the least. this was or local magnate. Empire. ment of Theodosius particularly dangerous. So strongly view held. An almost entire separation existed between the civil population and the military caste it was hard for a civilian of . hosts of officials. The government was highly centralized and bureaucratic THE Roman . THE DEPARTURE OF THE GERMANS. was looked on the bureaucratic caste by population as a multitude without rights or capacities. any position to enlist . the land-holding classes.
source of unending trouble in the third century for a hundred years it had made and unmade Caesars at its pleasure. Caesar-making seemed as easy the sack of provincial churches and leaders as to the the rank and file. civil But professed Christianity. Clearly nothing could be more dangerous than to hand over the protection of the timid and unarmed guardians. in were of no account join the army. That was while it was still mainly composed of men born within the empire. and officered by Romans. it protected. while at the worst they were liable to relapse into barbarism. of them indeed had married Roman wives and taken war-bands. But Theodosius had now swamped element /othic in the native the army by his wholesale enlistment of And he had. handed of the chief Some . military adventurers of alien while nearly all had at the best they were The contempt they must have population to such felt for the umvarlike provincials was so great.nany military posts to Teutons. that empire so no wonder if the Teutons yielded. every pressure the sons of soldiers continue in the arisen a purely professional army. treasuries did to it is . kindly to Roman modes of life. and the temptation to plunder the wealthy cities of the constant and pressing. and take to harrying the empire again in the old fearless fashion of the third century. to make Thus had the other hand.46 THE DEPARTURE OF THE GERMANS. cast all their loyalty and civilization to the winds. blood. moreover. which had no sympathy or connection with the unarmed provincials whom The army had been a . tax-paying were suffered to On was used service.
and to appoint Gainas Magister militum for the East Gainas and Stilicho contented themselves with to make but another Teutonic leader wire-pulling at Court thought that the time had come for bolder work. had attained his eighteenth year.STILICHO. In the for the young emperor was aged only eleven. East Arcadius. Theodosius had married Gainas slew Rufinus at a review. Alaric was a chief sprung from the family of the Baits. thin. but before the first year of his reign was over. at Both at the court of Arcadius. Theodosius had distributed so many high military posts to Goths and other Teutons. who reigned Honorius. and always looked as if he was His prime minister was a about to fall asleep. The weak Arcadius was then compelled the eunuch Eutropius his minister. a war of factions commenced between the German and the Roman party. that influence was almost unbounded. But he was a witless " young man. and at that of had received the West as his share." Western Roman named Rufinus. . who Constantinople. and sallow. whom the Goths reckoned next to the god- . 47 the personal ascendency of Theodosius was removed. before the Emperor's very eyes. short. so inactive that he seldom spoke. the elder brother. Stilicho this of Italy was predominant . Magister militum (commander-in-chief) of the armies at the council board of he was a pure barbarian by Honorius though him to his own niece him and left Serena. practically supreme in the West. and might have ruled his own realm had he possessed the energy. the empire fell at once into the troubles When which were inevitable. a Gothic captain named blood.
Magister uiilituin like Stilicho and Gainas. [A. 396. paying only a shadow of homage to the royal phantom at Constantinople. but had succeeded in filling him with contempt for . Roman effeminacy. He was young. and the Visigoths rolled north again into Illyricum. daring. who was withstood plunder. it was found that dog does not eat dog. and untameable several years spent at Constantinople had failed to civilize him. certain arrears of pay. reigned with undisputed sway over the eastern parts of the Balkan Peninsula. descended Amals among their princely houses. now proclaimed King of the Goths by his victorious soldiery.48 THE DEPARTURE OF THE GERMANS. on condition that he was made a. from the Danube to the gates of Constantinople. There . Sated with plunder. ransoming or sacking every town in his way till the Goths were gorged with one him save Stilicho. he raised the Visigoths in revolt. By skilful manoeuvres Stilicho blockaded Alaric in a mountain position in Arcadia but when he had him " at his mercy. and from Constantinople to Greece. summoned from the West to aid his master's brother. or auxiliaries.D. and the Constantinopolitan govern- ment found itself with only a shadow of an army to Alaric wandered far and wide. Soon after the death of Theo- dosius." The Teutonic prime minister let the Teutonic rebel escape him. making it his pretext that the advisers of Arcadius were refusing \\\Q foederati . chose to ask. oppose the rebels. Alaric then consented to grant Arcadius peace. The Teutonic sojourners in Moesiaand Thrace joined him almost to a man. and granted as much land for his tribesmen as he No .] For the next five years Alaric.
In A. the eunuch Kutropius. fought hard to turn the Goths out of Italy. He marched round the head of the Adriatic and invaded Northern Italy. Alaric. 49 appeared every reason to believe that a German kingdom was about to be permanently established in the lands south and west of the Danube. weak and more worthless than his brother Arcadius. When Stilicho was gone. suddenly declared war on Western Emperor Honorius. but before he had actually come into conflict with Stilicho.ALARIC THE GOT II. . Gainas the Gothic Magister militum of the East. instead of resuming his attacks on the Constantinople. who wished to keep the rule of the West to himself. who was as invasion. and beat back Alaric's first But then the young emperor. But another series of events was impending. ransoming ind plundering every town from Rome downwards. The half-Romanized Stilicho. and the man of war had no .D. While Alaric's eyes were turned on Italy. The fate which actually befell Gaul. then into that of Spain. How different the history of Europe would have been if the Germans had settled down in Servia and Bulgaria we need hardly point out. where he ranged about at his will. slew the great minister on a charge of treason. and Britain. a few years later seemed destined for Moesia and Macedonia. the Court of Constantinople had been the seat of grave troubles. The Visigoths are heard of no more in the Balkan Peninsula they now pass into the history of Italy and Italy. had fallen out. and his creature. 401. Spain. Alaric had everything his own way he moved with the whole Visigothic race into .
50 THE DEPARTURE OF THE GERMANS. and a hunted criminal to-day. threw himself on the protection of the Church he fled into the Cathedral of St Sophia and clung to the altar. the Germercenaries in the army of Asia started an man Gainas was insurrection under a certain Tribigild. The life patriarch extorted a promise that the eunuch's should be spared. John preached to a crowded congregation " a sermon on the text. The Magister militum now brought his army over to Constantinople." emphasizing every period of his harangue by pointing to the fallen Eutropius prime minister of the empire yesterday. One of the most striking incidents in the history of St. considerable a head of army. troops march to told against But when he was at the ostensibly for that purpose. in difficulty wretched harem-bred disposing of the Grand Chamberlain. hearing of his danger. but sent a message to Constantinople bidding Arcadius give up to him the obnoxious Grand Chamberlain. but the inexorable Gainas was not contented with his rival's removal he . he did not attack the rebels. and quartered it there to overawe the emperor. collected and them. Eutropius. : John Chrysostom. and Eutropius gave himself up. Vanity of vanities. the intrepid Patriarch of Constansoldiers to enter the church. Sophia while the cowering Chamberlain lay before followed the altar. and tinople. forbade the protected the fugitive for some days. had Eutropius brought back to Constantinople and beheaded. all is : vanity. . Instigated by Gainas. Arcadius banished him to Cyprus. It appeared quite likely that ere long the Germans would sack the city but the fate that .
GAINAS SLAIN. were closed to prevent Gainas and his gates from outside returning. stantinopolitan and not days. He himself and tion of Gainas to a sudden end. befell 51 ten years later was not destined for Conmere chance brawl put the dominastantinople. but he had not the genius of Alaric. whose son he faithfully defended even against the assault of his own countrymen. and at last their barracks were surrounded and set on fire. The rioters .D. Rome A many of his troops were outside the city. less The mob showed itself more courageous unruly than the Roman mob of elder whole population turned out with extem- and attacked the German soldiery. Isolated bodies of the cut off one by one. nor the numerical He strength that had followed the younger chief. when a sudden quarrel at one of the gates between a band of Goths and some riotous citizens brought about a The Congeneral outbreak against the Germans. had the upper hand seven thousand soldiers fell. 401. Gainas at once declared open war on the empire. and a desperate streettroops porized arms The fight Germans were ranged over the entire city. officer King who of the Huns. and the remnant thought themselves lucky to escape. They were neither . Curiously enough the defeated Gainas was himself not only a : Goth but a heathen he was named Fravitta and had been the sworn guest-friend of Theodosius. where he was caught and beheaded by Uldes. [A.] The departure of Alaric and the death of Gainas freed the Eastern Romans from the double danger that has impended over them. was beaten in the field and forced to fly across the Danube.
supported by the empress. The populace . once to defend their was chased back by an earthquake wrath of heaven. Synod of the Oak held outside the in their and at last city. but rash and inconsiderate alike in His charity and eloquence made speech and action. and perhaps Caesars. John was a man of saintly life and apostolic fervour. against his brother prelate. John took the . She favoured his austere the intrigues of Theophilus. Patriarch of Alexandria. making and unmaking pleasure. the war between the empress and the patriarch broke out again. nor to remain under the rule of a semi-civilized German Magister milituin. but manners and autocratic methods of dealing with his subordinates had made him many foes among The patriarch's enemies were secretly the clergy. and the terrified Emperor. ministers.52 to see THE DEPARTURE OF THE GERMANS. at his good spend the remaining seven years of his life in comparative His court was only troubled by peace and quiet. The weak Arcadius was enabled to him the idol of the populace of the imperial city. Theodosius to Egypt. induced the Emperor to allow the saintly to be deposed by a hastily-summoned patriarch " " the council. rose at pastor riots broke out. backed the Asiatic clergy complaints about John's oppression of them. however. an open war between his spouse. which seemed to restored manifest the John to his place. the Patriarch of Constantinople. and John Chrysostom. an independent German kingdom on the and Danube Morava. Next year. who had taken offence at the outspoken way in which John habitually denounced the luxury and insolence of her court. the Empress yElia Eudoxia.
Meanwhile the exiled John was banished to a dreary mountain fastness in Cappadocia.D. probably kindled broke out ground. 53 occasion of the erection of a statue of Eudoxia in the Augustaeum to recommence ceremonies his polemics. and he delivered a scathing sermon in which if his enemies are to be believed he com- pared the empress to Herodias. which was consumed with all the treasures of ancient Greek art of which Constantine had made it the repository. and finally to the Senate-house. and banished him to Asia. and afterwards condemned to a still more remote prison at He died on his way thither. a wonderful leaving reputation for patience and cheerfulness under affliction. for the charges against him were mere pretexts to cover the hatred of his disloyal clergy and the revenge of the insulted Aelia Eudoxia. That night a fire. [A. Some obsolete semi-pagan at its dedication roused his wrath. 407. This fifth-century Becket was well-nigh the only patriarch of Constantinople who ever fell out with the imperial Court on a question of morals as distinguished from dogma. in St. A. seized the in his cathedral by armed force. which demand. The Emperor.EXILE OF CHRYSOSTOM. and himself to John the Baptist. 404. insolence.D. which was burnt to the From thence it spread to the neighbouring buildings. . Sophia. Pityus on the Euxine. and on Easter Day. condemned Chrysostom. by the angry adherents of Chrysostom.] . and frivolity of the Empress and her Court no real ecclesiastical question was involved in his deposition. another at his wife's summoned patriarch council. Chrysostom's quarrel was with the luxury.
D. But the ministers of Arcadius were exceptionally virtuous or exceptionally destitute of ambition. in A. made a wise commercial treaty with the king of Persia he repelled with ease a Hunnish invasion of Moesia he built a flotilla on the Danube. 408-518. THE REORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE. forty years before . .V. where Roman warships had not been seen since the death of Valens. at the early age of thirty-one his imperious consort had preceded him to the grave. The little emperor was duly crowned.. he reorganized the corn supply . There was hardly an instance in Roman history of a minor succeeding quietly to his father's throne. ambitious relative or a disloyal general had habitually supplanted the helpless heir. their only son. . a child of seven years. (A. who held the office of Praetorian Praefect. and the administration of the East An undertaken in his name by the able Anthemius.) THE feeble and inert Arcadius died .D. 408. and the empire of the East was left to Theodosius II. History relates nothing but good of this minister he .
. though she was but two honest and : years his senior. and assumed the Pulcheria was an extraordinary her fear had been that. Pulcheria. Pulcheria. The empire was him for bringing still more indebted to up the young Theodosius as an The palace under god-fearing man. she took the When Anthemius title died in A. indefatigable. By her advice he married in A. her brother's crown . she proved equal to ruling the realms of the East with success. 414. regency of the East. woman on gathering up the reins of power she took a vow of chastity. beautiful penmanship. Austere. and treated her as his colleague and equal. When Theodosius came of age he refused to remove his sister from power. Anthemius' rule was the school of the virtues the lives of the emperor and his three sisters. though no woman had ever made the attempt before. II. and unselfish. from which Alaric and his Visigothic hordes had now taken their final departure. though he took some interest in literature. 55 of Constantinople and did much to get back into order and cultivation the desolated north-western lands of the Balkan Peninsula. her husband might cherish ambitious schemes against thirty-six years .YOUTH OF THEODOSIUS . and persuaded her sisters she therefore kept single herself to make a similar vow. Theodosius inherited the piety and honesty of his grandfather and namesake. and lived as a crowned nun for : of Augusta. were the model and the marvel of their subjects.D. Arcadia. was the ruling spirit of the family. if she married. and was renowned for his His eldest sister. but was a youth of slender capacity. and possessed unlimited influence over him. and Marina.D.
the Master of the Offices." who fifty " The " was one emperor. but he long contrived to dwell affectionately with both. day met by a peasant him with a presented Phrygian apple of enormous size. which of the succeeding age. daughter The emperor's chosen spouse had been Leontius. ending. took it and gave it to the emperor as he reentered the Palace. which finds an exact : parallel in one of the tales of the " Arabian Nights. The cause of her exile is not really known we have only a wild story concerning it. the whole Court marvelled at And he gave the ' man a hundred and gold pieces in reward. And Theodosius having received it. whether she had eaten it or sent it to some one. and the empress retired to spend the last years of her life in seclusion at Jerusalem. saying. Theodosius had been less easy-going and goodhearted he must have sent away either his sister or his wife. beautiful. the year that THE EASTERN EMPIRE. baptized by the name She displayed her literary tastes in writing religious had some merit. the beautiful came of and of the philosopher accomplished Athenais. not knowing the history of the apple. age. and sent the apple to the Empress Eudocia. and of Eudocia." so runs the tale. so that it. But Paulinus. though their bickerings were unAfter many years of married life. but was converted before her brought up marriage. recognized and called his wife and questioned her. as a pagan. it ' and concealed it. and volatile literary If she had chosen as sister-in-law. The austere Pulcheria always immersed in observances state business or occupied in religious found herself ere long ill at ease in the company of lady whom the lively.OF 56 REORGANIZATION he 421. a final quarrel came. And Eudocia swore that she had . ' ' it. But she sent it as a present to Paulinus. according to the critics poetry.' Where is the apple that I sent you ? She answered. however. I have eaten Then he bade her swear by his salvation the truth.' because he was a friend of the emperor.
and dwelt there all her days. And she went down from Constantinople to Jerusalem. and that Paulinus was also an official of mature the tale years. the that Eudocia Theodosius' long reign passed by Its quiet. whose empire now stretched all the lands north of the Black Sea and Danube. but the constant ill-success of the imperial generals seems to show that the armies of the East had never been properly reorganized since the military system of Theodosius I. and had sent it to him as a love-gift . ent it 57 the emperor showed to no man. where the Goths had once dwelt. but he permitted Eudocia to go to the Holy Places to pray. over great king of the Huns. In this struggle the Roman armies were almost invariably unfortunate. And on this account he put Paulinus to death. suspecting that she was enamoured of Paulinus. The chief improbability of had reached the age of forty when the breach between her and her husband took place. and had to be bought off by the annual payment of 700 Ibs.000]. had been broken up by the revolt of Gainas forty years before. The Huns ravaged the country as far as Adrianople and Philippopolis. in comparative only serious troubles were a short war with the Persians. Then her the apple. and that Eudocia know spent her last years of retirement in Palestine." That Paulinus was executed. of gold [3 1. His grandson had neither a trustworthy body of German auxiliaries nor a sufficiently large . and a longer one with Attila. for he was a very handsome man. but had herself eaten it. It is true that they fell on Theodosius while his main force was engaged on the Persian frontier. we for certain. Ail the rest of the story is in reality hidden from is us. and was exceedingly wrath.EXILE OF EUDOCIA.
l century Diptych.) .ANGEL OF VICTORY. (From a Fift.
beyond the Adriatic. leaving an only daughter. Their chief merit was that they guided the Roman Empire in saw the East safely through the stormy times which its extinction in the West. The reconstruction of the for Roman military forces 1 1. had designated as his successor. a cruel and profligate prince.Anastasius (491-518). who was married to her cousin Valentinian III. who at the same time ended her vow of celibacy and married Marcianus. (457-474). or by the Senate and army. . not his young son-in-law. They were all bred as high civil officials.REIGN OF MARCIANUS. but his sister Pulcheria. province after province was being lopped . The marriage was but formal. he had met and been checked by the succours which Marcianus for both were now well : political expedient it sent to the distressed Romans of the West Marcianus and Pulcheria passed away.. all ascended the throne at a ripe not as generals age not one of them won his crown by arms. He Theodosius. Zeno (474-49 1 ).. 59 native levy of born subjects of the empire to protect his borders. Before Attila died in 452. was reserved the successors of Theodosius himself was killed by a fall from his horse in 450 A.D. Emperor of the West. and freed itself from the ignominious tribute to the Huns. When peaceably designated either by their predecessors. While. The empire had peace and prosperity under their rule. all were . advanced in years as a was all that could be desired. the came into the hands of a series of three men empire of ability. with great wisdom. a veteran soldier and a prominent member of the Senate. These princes were Leo I.
aspiring generals were not wanting in the East . Suabian. was the of the conspiracy great Magister militum Aspar. not from the diversity of their political conditions.).D. o and was once chased out of his capital by rebels. by arms or intrigue. the emperors were ephemeral puppets. after the extinction of the house of Theodosius (455 A.D. ceeded in maintaining their realm absolutely Both East and West were equally exposed to the barbarian in the fifth century. 457 and A. it is only fair to remember they were greatly helped by the fact that ability of the three While this the German element . comparison bears witness to the personal emperors who ruled at Constantinople between A. the greatest danger of Leo I.D.60 REORGANIZATION OF THE off EASTERN EMPIRE. In West. who. 518. on the other hand. grip on the Balkan Peninsula intact. In the East. the a tight emperors who reigned at Constantinople kept sucand on and Asia. and formed into a new Germanic kingdom. made and unmade by the generals of their the armies. and the difference of their fate came from the character of their rulers. Gundovald two one seventeen years. the other Burgundian by birth deposed or slew no less than five of their nominal masters in Magistri Ricimer and The Germans. it was the emperors who destroyed one after another the ambitious generals. in their armies had never reached the pitch of power to which it had attained in the West the suppression of Gainas forty years before had saved them from that But unruly and danger. and twice . who were invariably militum. threatened their throne. whom he detected slew when he was on the eve of Zeno rebelling.
Anastasius was vexed for several years a certain Count Vitalian. the empire was never in serious danger of sinking into disorder or breaking all from the barbarians beyond the Danube. or mountain populations of Southern Asia Minor. Leo I. a loyal army of 150. an army in which the barbarian auxiliaries now composed of Teutons and Huns in about equal numbers were decidedly dominated by to the . that Anastasius left his successor. a treasure of 320. up.D. and an unbroken frontier to East and West. himself an Isaurian born. who He raised an imperial guard developed the scheme. the native elements. but on each occasion he triumphed over his adversaries. and enlisted as many corps of them as could be raised moreover. and filled them up with native troops in great numbers. 518. into new un- kingdoms. as the Western realm had done.ZENO REORGANIZES THE ARMY.000 Ibs. from his countrymen. in these rebellions. and celebrated his victory by the execution of the leaders of the revolt. who ranged of the raids by over the Thracian provinces with armies recruited spite of But. 6l vexed by dangerous risings in Asia Minor. he formed regiments of Armenians and other inhabitants of the Roman frontier of the East.000 men. So far was it from this fate. when he died in A. The main secret of the success of the emperors of the fifth century in holding their own came from the Roman they had reorganized their armies. . but it was his son-in-law and successor. He added several regiments of them army of the East. Zeno. and handed over to his successor. was the first ruler who utilized the military virtues of fact that the Isaurians. Anastasius. of gold.
the son of Theodemir. each other. the son of Theodemir. the son of Triarius [he is usually known as Theodoric the One-Eyed]. 452]. the Ostroand freed themselves.westward. after quarrelling for themselves together against Zeno. was to danger which the Eastern Empire into fell the Germans of hands experience from the submitted had The Ostrogoths of Zeno. when their brethren in the Visigoths fled into Roman But when the reign of Valens. Theodoric.of of them streamed south. territory. They soon fell of the Balkan Peninsula for more than twenty years. reconciliation is a while. the border-province of the Western Empire. the Hunnish Empire Attila [A. . offering the title Zeno first tried to turn them against to the one.D. the two Theodorics. the ally of Rome br the moment. the two Theodorics harried the whole of Macedonia and Moesia by never-ending raids. the The last reign to the Huns ninety years before. and two Ostrogothic chiefs. Theodoric. as in the time of Alaric and Stilicho it " was seen that dog will not eat " dog . While they lay opposite each other. and a large pension. and settled in Pannonia. had surrounded his rival on a rocky hill in a defile of the Balkans. the son of Triarius. and Theodoric. replaced their late masters goths The bulk as the main danger on the Danube.62 REORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE. broke up at the death . on the frontier of the East-Roman districts of Dacia out with Zeno. Theodoric. But now of Magister militum. then to the other. were the scourges and Moesia. While the bulk of their tribesmen settled down on the banks of the Save and Mid-Danube. banded The story of their curious.
one of the . the Roman plan is always to and called to him. the great Odoacer. replied by advising the Romans to persuade Odoacer to recognize as his lord Julius Nepos. but would acknowledge him as ruler alike of East and West at the same time they besought Zeno to nominate. " The One-Eyed is Whichever of us These men are Goths like ourselves. against a spear fixed by the door of his tent but his namesake continued a thorn in the side of the empire till 488 A. do you not see that destroy Goths by Goths? fails.REBELLION OF THEODORIC. his incur- ephemeral emperors who reigned in Italy over the shrunken Western realm had ended in 476. rode " 63 down Madman. They give you real help. was gradually depopulating the realm by sions." So the right two Theodorics made peace. to his enemy's lines betrayer of your race. but send out me to you against perish here in the Desert" Then all the Goths cried out. 479]. though he made no permanent settlement in Moesia or Macedonia.D. not we. they. Two years later Theodoric the One-Eyed was slain by accident his horse flung him. In that year Zeno bethought him of a device for rid- ding himself of the Ostrogoth. will be the never stronger. and did not trouble himself to nominate another puppet-Caesar to succeed him. when the German general Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustulus. Zeno . and Zeno had to cope with them both at once [A. as he mounted. to inform him that they did not require an emperor of their own to govern Italy.D. as his representative in the Italian lands. who. By his order a deputation from the Roman Senate line of The visited Zeno at Constantinople. their defender.
dethroned nominees of Ricimer. But the Western realm had shrunk down to Italy and Illyricum. while to recognize the Conagainst Zeno's own will stantinopolitan emperor as his suzerain. the Goths conquered Italy. if he would conquer bare. seen our last of the after Wich the departure of the Ostrogoths we have Germans in the Balkan Peninsula . " it from Odoacer. took several reverses of late from the Roman the offer. and theoretically his conquest of Italy meant the reunion of the East and the West. He was made all started off with and consul. In 488 A. and the power of Zeno therein was purely to win the realm of Italy.64 REORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE. The Ostrogoth. and Theodoric German king and Roman patrician began to reign at Ravenna. who had harried the in- land of the Balkan Peninsula and had met arms.D. 488 the Slavs take their place as the molesters of the Roman frontier on the Danube. it occurred to Zeno to offer Theodoric the government of Italy. who had survived 1iis Odoacer refused. and patrician the Ostrogothic nation at his back " After hard fighting with Odoacer and the mixed multitude of mercenaries that followed him. still affecting proclaimed himself king in Italy. and loss of the imperial diadem. . He always professed to be the vassal and deputy of the emperor at Constantinople. nominal.
but had adopted as his heir his nephew Justinian. Zeno. Anastasius died in A. as all his three predecessors had been when they mounted the throne. He the front in the army. and to sign his said to have been hardly able His reign of nine years would have been of little note in history for he made no wars and spent no treasure if he had not been the means of placing on the throne of the East the own name. and Anastasius. THE Emperor Justinus.D. Justinus had no children himself. he had won heirs. Justinus was well advanced in years. Hut unlike Leo. son of his deceased brother Sabatius.VI. JUSTINIAN. whom Senate and army alike hailed as most worthy to succeed the good old man. The late emperor had nephews. 518 at the to ripe age of eighty-eight. his way to service. not in the civil had risen from the ranks. This young man. born after his . greatest ruler since the death of Constantine. and the commander his sceptre passed of his body-guard. but he had never designated them as his and they retired into private life at his death. was a rough is uncultured soldier.
that he had declared his intention eminently practical personage. and had passed the age of thirty-five. His uncle trusted everything to him. music. libellous work called the " Secret History. *' membered him young. that and that Roman actresses Certainly not by Procopius. but had been reared. theology. It is Theodora was an 1 actress.D. 1 gives us many scandalous details of her career but the very virulence of the book makes its . indisputable. giving his contemporaries the impression that he was a staid. and finally made him his colleague on the throne. business-like. have gathered around Theodora's hard to say how far her early life had been discreditable. with intelligence. finance. 526 the world learnt. administrative economy. was no uncultured peasant as they had been. the star of the Byzantine comic stage.66 father JUSTINIAN." written by an enemy of herself and her stories So many that name it is A husband. and uncle had won their way to high places in the army. The architecture. tales incredible. first a keen zeal to only thing in which he seems to have taken little personal interest was military matters. Justinian was heir designate to the empire. however. fortification. to the horror of the respectable and the joy of all scandal-mongers. and applied himself almost every department of civil life. as the heir of a wealthy house. Law. ." it of taking to wife the dancer Theodora. whose name it bears. But in A. and No one ever rewas said. and most certainly no one ever expected him to scandalize the empire by a sensational marriage. He showed from the in all the learning of the day. all were dear to him.
It is unfortunate that we have no representation of her surviving. : . was the most : beautiful woman of her age." All that her detractors could say was that she was below the middle height. She rose to the height of her situation once her courage saved her husband's throne. as even her enemies allow. save the famous mosaic in San Vitale at Ravenna. says " that it was impossible for mere man to describe her comeliness in words. and his uncle the Emperor threatened to disinherit him but he was quietly persistent. Procopius. though not unhealthy. or imitate it in art. There had been scores of bad and reckless men on the throne before. His own mother used every effort to turn him from his purpose. Theodora was in spirit and intelligence well suited to be the mate of the Emperor of the East. and that her complexion was rather pale. Whatever her early life may have been. After her marriage no word of scandal was breathed against her life. and Justinian had to repeal it in order to legalize his own marriage. but none of them had ever dared to commit an action which startled the world half so much as this freak of the staid Justinian. and always she was the ablest and the most trusted of his councillors. and to confer on Theodora the title of " Patrician.THEODORA. the best historian of the day. There was actually a law which forbade a member of the Senate to marry an actress." Theodora. enjoyed an unenviable reputation 67 for light morals. and mosaic is of all forms of art that least suited to reproduce beauty. and ere the aged Justinus died he had been induced to acknowledge the marriage of his nephew.
bring upon his people. studious. All night long. The Emperor was a hard and suspicious master. Of most all the fairly compared with Louis XIV. or paced the dark halls in deep thought. unlike that of the Frenchman. that either Justinian or Theodora are sympathetic characters. he was in- comparably the greatest of the emperors who reigned at Constantinople. however. of France but it may be remembered to his credit in the comparison that Louis has nothing to set against Justinian's great legal work the compilation of the Pandects and Institutes. and that Justinian's private life. If Justinian seemed hardly human to those who . and hard-working regretted his choice of a consort. When his heart was set on a project he was utterly unmindful of the slaughter and ruin which it might . and unscrupulous in political matters. but an evil One grotesque tale even spirit that required no rest. It 69 The Emperor never cannot be said. said that the Emperor had been seen long after midwithout night traversing the corridors of his palace his head. was strict even to austerity. In the extent of his conquests and the magnificence of his public works. sovereigns of history he may be in . he sat alone over his State papers in his cabinet. if : broader great provinces.JUSTINIAN'S PERSONAL CHARACTER. grave. and not over gratehe was intolerant ful to subjects who served him well in religious. His sleepless vigilance so struck his subjects that the strangest legends became current even in his life. But the greatness was purely he left the personal empire weaker in resources. than he found it.time: his ene- mies whispered that he was no mere man. we read.
y feared him. now heard of for the first time. and 600. yet his personality seems to pervade the whole period. and the Bulgarians had made raids across the Danube. 487.D. to pride JUSTINIAN. became the sole occupant of the throne. and that she often interfered to aid own the It is particularly recorded that. and history hardly remembers the insignificant predecessors and successors whose reigns eke out the remainder of the years between 500 in who had fallen into sin. She is reproached of an is not ? inordinate estate low a from has risen vanities of imperial state. Since the Ostrogoths had moved out of the Balkan Peninsula in A. her influence would appear not to have been an evil one historians acknowledge that she was liberal in almsgiving. Theodora is represented as entirely given and ambition. on the whole.D. it had not suffered from any very long or destructive invasion from without.. she was zealous the dangers bering in establishing institutions for the reclaiming of women and Justinian which he was destined to occupy for thirty-eight years. The empire when Justinian took it over from the hands of his uncle was in a more prosperous condition than it had known since the death of Constantine. of her own youth. It was less than half the century. The Slavonic tribes. The aged Justinus died 527 A. religious after her fashion. love for the pomps and Yet. High officials complained that she had as great a voice in settling political matters as her husband. rememoppressed. never forgiving an offence. up but hunting to death or exile all who had crossed her but who that in the smallest thing. but .
the resources of the provinces beyond the Bosphorus were intact. Attila. had spent little or none of the great hoard of treasure which Anastasius had bequeathed to him. But the more fortunate Asiatic lands had 1 hardly seen a foreign enemy for centuries.13.D.000] in store when Justinian came to The army. There were more than 300. and com- a larger proportion of born subjects of the it had been at than any time since the battle of empire posed in Adrianople.000 Ibs. and were far from having recovered the effects of the ravages of Fritigern and Alaric. and Persian wars had been Southern Asia Minor had once or infrequent of late. 71 they had not yet shown any signs of settling down as the Goths had done within the limits of the empire. . 1 There would appear to have been from 50. as we have had occasion to the throne.JUSTINIAN'S ARMY. though vexatious. twice suffered from internal risings rebellions of the warlike Isaurians but civil war left no such perma- nent mark on the land as did barbarian invasions. was in good order. the European provinces of the empire were in worse condition than the Asiatic. but the extent of the frontiers of the empire were so great that Justinian never sent out a single army of more than 1 There had been only an isolated raids of Huns in A. and Theodoric. which No other invasion reached as far as penetrated as far as Palestine. Their incursions. Except in the immediate neighbourhood of the Persian fron- tier there was no danger.400. relate in the last chapter. Antioch.000 men under arms. 395.000 to 200. were not Still dangerous. Justinus in his quiet reign of gold [. On the whole.
armed with lance and bow. these drawbacks Justinian enjoyed an enormous and steady revenue. small and great. proprietors. enterprises forces of only a third of that 30. and the frequent grant of monopolies was noxious to trade. capped by the necessity for providing free corn for the populace of Yet in spite of all Constantinople. the German Herules and Gepidae from beyond the Danube heavier Huns and Arabs troops. John of Cappadocia. The flower of the Roman army was no longer its infantry. in consideration of their exemption from The budget was always handimilitary service. His finance minister. The exaction pay of arbitrary customs dues. Among both horse and foot large the bodies of foreign auxiliaries were still found : supplied light cavalry. " when Justinian The cardinal taxes should be raised in the manner least oppressive to those who " them was as yet undreamt of. was such an ingenious extortioner that the .j2 JUSTINIAN. but its mailed horsemen (Cataphmcti). and entrusted with such mighty found often number are of Africa or the defence invasion the as of the Armenian border. The weakest took it point in the empire its over was maxim of political economy. that financial system.000 strong. as the The infantry Parthian cavalry had once been of old. were still mercilessly overtaxed. comprised more archers and javelin-men than heavy the Isaurians and other provincials of the troops : mountainous parts of Asia Minor were reckoned the best of them. The deplorable system of tax-farming through middlemen was emLanded ployed in many branches of the revenue.
administrator. But during the first five years of his reign his attention was distracted by other matters. We reconquering not the further provinces of the shall see that he went far towards Italy. theologian. He aimed if Africa. foreign policy forms the main determined to take up a task which none of his predecessors since the division of the Empire He had under Arcadius and Honorius had dared to contemIt was his dream to re. pretence by which he was nominally acknowledged as Kmperor West of the Adriatic. wt shall But the history of his interest of his reign. Here again Justinian well be compared to Louis XIV. The . speak in their proper place. causes of quarrel were ultimately the rival pretensions of the Roman and Persian Empires to the suzerainty of the small them was an obstinate war of four with Kobad. : but it was kept at the expense of The reign bore fruit of the provinces raise grinding taxation of Justinian's in the permanent impoverishment : his successors were never able to may revenue again. treasury was never 73 empty in the hardest stress of war full and famine the future.JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN POLICY. while really all power was his in the hands of the German at rulers who posed as vicegerents. King of Persia. Of his doings as legislator. and Spain old empire. and builder. such a Justinian's policy divides into the departments of internal and foreign affairs.unite under his sceptre plate. accomplishing his intention. the German kingdoms in the Western Mediterranean which had been formed out of the broken fragments of the realm of Honorius and to end the solemn . The first of years' duration.
and at twenty-five Magister militum of the East. who declared a year after Justinian's accession. 1 His influence at Court was very great. the terms amounted to the restoraThe only importance of the tion of the old frontier. the kingdoms of Lazica and Iberia.74 states JUSTINIAN. close to the Persian frontier town of Nisibis. Procopius. indeed. as he had married Antonina. too. on fortress of importance from the other the death of Kobad. was not unlike that which Marlborough. Governor of Dara. Persian war was bloody. inland This famous general was a native of the Thracian he entered the army very young. till at the age of twenty-three he was already . a district says his secretary. and rose rapidly." do not know where the district a was situated. and showed him that he possessed an officer of firstrate merit in Belisarius. war was that it enabled Justinian to test his army. cisive. on their northern frontiers near the Black Sea. his son Chosroes made peace . His position. was the casus belli chosen by Kobad. . Belisarius was ruled in Bom Germania. war in 528. with the empire. and when. but absolutely indeAll the attacks of the enemy were repelled. We German settlement. of Dara. presumably between Thrace and and Illyricum. and more proxiof the fortresses on the mately the strengthening His fortification Mesopotamian border by Justinian. The and one great pitched battle won over him at Dara in But neither party succeeded in taking a single 530. the favourite and confidante of the Empress Theodora. " at the Court of Queen Like Marlborough. the victor of the battle of Dara. enjoyed Anne. owing to his wife's ascendency.
1 See chap. dominated in them they were prone to riot and mischief. 22. ii. of another danger. impartially ordered the leaders of the rioters on both sides to be put to death. 75 and bullied by his clever and unscrupulous wife. Justinian. hold the view which denied the existence both of a truly and a truly Divine nature in Our Lord Jesus Christ. Antonina never set herself to thwart her mistress . had been growing stronger. To the be a "Green" house of the 2 in 530 meant to be a partisan of late Emperor Anastasius. and interfered more and more in politics. and. . 3 To human . and a Blues " posed as partisans of Monophysite. and in declining did the Marlboroughs. In January of that year there was serious rioting in the streets. We have already noticed and " Greens. 532]. years knew much the same misfortune the Persian fall as The year which saw saw also the rise and while the " it War end [A. though ordinarily he favoured the Blue faction. as the house of Justinus. p. The " From mere Circus factions . and even in religious controversies. as the events of 532 were to show.THE BLUES AND GREENS. Unlike the great Duchess Sarah. which lasted life Emperor's Blues " was much more threatening to the and power.D. but after Theodora's lost death she and her husband favour. they were a serious danger to the State. but they had almost grown into political parties they still retained at the bottom many traces of their The rougher elements prelow sporting origin. and strictly orthodox in matters ecclesiastical." the great factions of the 1 All through the fifth century they Byzantine Circus.
The guards seized them and they were again susno doubt to the terror pended but once more owing of the executioners at the menaces of the mob Then the multitude broke loose. who began to shout for the deposition of Justinian. and four of a the in great and presence were duly beheaded of Conon. . Nihi. who was immediately responsible for the executions. rope the guards were swept away.of them Seven were selected for execution. and a regiment . The Emperor could only count on 4. conquer. John of Cappadocia. and taking as their watchword. crying for the deposition of minister. and wished to make Hypatius. and Justinian was weak enough to promise to dismiss the officials. The last three rioters were to man so bungled his task that two of the criminals. the unpopular finance and of Eudemius. The ordinary police of the capital were quite unable to master them. fell to the ground alive. owing to the garrison having been sent to the Persian War. the slipped. Praefect of the city. trouble was fomented and refused to disperse the the of the of house by partisans the late emperor.000 men of the Imperial Guard." swept through the city. in front the but be hanghung. St. : nephew of Anastasius. But the mob was now quite out of hand. and the half-hung criminals were thrust into sanctuary at the adjacent monastery. one a Blue the other a Green. The city was almost empty of troops. a few German auxiliaries. the of monastery angry mob. This exciting incident proved the of six days of desperate rioting. Caesar in his stead. " commencement The Blues and Greens united.
installed him in the royal seat of the Kathisma. under Belisarius. till it was wafted across the square to St. and sallied out to clear the streets. and the insurgents were now in possession of most of the city. the Senate House. had taken refuge with the It was not till he was Emperor in the palace. and from thence the flames issued out to burn the hospital of Sampson and the church of St. between the Imperial In the heat of the palace and the Hippodrome. for want of a proper diadem. fell into the hands of his own adherents. but the that the Byzantine mob disthe soldiers of Gainas a hundred and played against offered a stout resistance. But they could not find their chosen leader. Meanwhile there was dismay and diversity of 1 See map on p. who feared to have actually him about his person. for the unfortunate Hypatius. Sophia. showing the same pluck The main fighting took place around the great of the square Augustaeum. and croxvned him there with a gold chain of his wife's. twenty-five years before. Belisarius was placed in command of the whole." mailed horsemen. The Senate House caught and then the conflagration spread east and north. 20. 1 The fire checked the fighting. Irene.THE NIKA RIOT. . rioters. who had just returned from the seat of war. that this rebel in spite of himself. On the third day of the riot the great cathedral was burnt to the ground. 77 of 500 " Cataphracti. fight the rebels set fire to the Brazen Porch by fire. But on the sixth day of the riots they led him to the Hippodrome. who had no desire to risk his neck. out driven by Justinian.
Primep.THEODORA IMPERATRIX. [From the Painting by Val.} is in the . The copyright Arttsfs hands.
John of Cappadocia and many to fly clea. " This is no occasion to keep to the old rule that a woman must not speak in the council. and after a hard struggle the rebels were entirely routed. Justinian ordered a last assault on the rebels. but the soldiery forced both the side entrances. It was then that the Empress Theodora rose to the level of the occasion. other ministers strove to persuade the Emperor by sea. shouts of saluting their " newly-crowned leader with Hypatie Aitguste. Now every man must die once. is May I never see the day when my purple robe stripped from me. and urged her husband to make one final assault on the enemy. tu vincas" preparatory Belisarius attacked to a final attack on the palace. and they insisted that if he remained there longer he would be surrounded by the rebels and cut off from escape. Those who are most concerned have most right to dictate the course of action. to save your the ' life.THEODORA'S SPEECH. The factions were now in the Hip- podrome. councils in 79 the Palace. refused to fly. and gather additional troops at Hera- There was nothing left in his power save the palace. and for a king death is better than dethronement and exile. . and Belisarius led sea. Crowded into the enormous building with only five exits. there are your ships and with the old saying that : Empire out his full force. nothing is is easier But / agree the best winding-sheet. and when I If you wish. Her words are preserved by Procopius. Lady and Mistress ! am no more called O Emperor.'" Spurred on by his wife's bold words. at once all three gates of the Hippodrome: that directed against the door of the Kathisma failed.
" the six days of this great Sedition of Nika." It is curious to learn that not even this awful slaughter succeeded in crushing the factions. thousands by the swords of the victorious It is said that 35.000 men were slain in Imperialists. But they never We came again so near to changing the course of history as in the famous rising of A. .D.8o they fell in JUSTINIAN. hear of the Blues and Greens still rioting on various occasions during the next fifty years. 532.
Athalaric. The enforced delay of six years between his acces- sion and it his first attempt to execute his great plan. the great king of the Osruler. in A. compelled by Gothic public . drawn back. the kingdom fell to his mother. which he had first to deal. the king incapable sovereign. JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS.D.D.VII. 533. and she. a warlike and ambitious. of the Vandals. had died in A. as happened. Theodoric. Hilderic. Justinian found himself at last free. the power had passed within those six years into the hands of a weak and In each of the In Africa. but very incapable. extremely favourable to the Em- two German kingdoms with peror. and after the supof the "Nika" sedition had cowed the unruly pression the Persians had AFTER attempt to populace of Constantinople. and his grandson and successor. had been dethroned by his cousin Gelimer. was. foiled in their conquer Mesopotamia. trogoths. Amalasuntha. and was able to take in hand his great scheme for the reconquest of the lost provinces of the empire. After the death of the young Athalaric. In Italy. 526.
they were but a sprinkling among the millions of provincials whom they had to govern. In all Italy there were probably but three cities Ravenna. had opinion to take a husband her nearest kinsman. to rule in her behalf. Verona. and suspicious. They had. conquered larger realms than their limited numbers were to control. scheming. wedded Theodahat. But when the conquerors spread themselves abroad. and the Goths and Vandals were too few to occupy such wide tracts as Italy and Africa. were at Both the Vandals in Africa and the Goths in Italy this time so weak as to invite an attack by an enterprising neighbour. and Pavia in which the Ostrogoths formed a large proportion of the population. Now such a body concentrated on one spot was powerful enough to bear down everything before it. count neither on their loyalty nor their respect in the event of a war. within a year of her having brought him the kingdom of Italy as a dowry.$2 JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS. governing by dint of the ascendency which their 1 The murder . unwisely He was cruel. . Theodahat possessed exactly those vices which were most suited to make him the scorn of his warlike subjects he could . and murdered his wife. with their wives really able and children. of Africa of Amalasuntha took place after the Roman invasion but Theodahat was already on the throne when the Vandal wmr was proceeding. The original tribal hordes which had subdued Africa and Italy were composed of fifty or sixty thousand warriors. 1 Cowardly and avaricious as well as ungrateful. in fact. A great army makes but a small nation. They formed merely a small aristocracy.
held the balance with strict justice between the two. and employed Romans as well as Goths in the govern- ment of the country. It may be that the climate was unfavourable to races reared in the Danube lands. was added to race hatred. after their settlement in the south. . and then by a ruffian. Theodoric was succeeded by a child. under more favourable circumstances. Even he was unable to strike at the most fatal difference of all between his country- Arians. there was hardly any hope of welding together the two nationalities. The Vandals of the third generation and the Goths of the second. This was seen by Theodoric. it may be offered that the temptations of unlimited luxury by Roman civilization sufficed to demoralize . having been converted to Christianity in the fourth century by missionaries who held the Arian heresy. did with the conquered inhabitants of Gaul. the great conqueror of Italy and he did his best to reconcile Goth and Roman. Another source of weakness in the kingdoms of Africa and Italy must be noted. and his work ended with him.WEAKNESS OF THE GOTHS IN ITALY. fathers 83 had won over the minds of the umvarlike The only populations which they had subdued. were Orthodox Catholics. almost without exception. Their men and the Italians. seem to have degenerated in courage and stamina. But one generation does little to assuage old hatreds such as that between the conquerors and the conquered in Italy. chance for the survival of the Ostrogothic and Vandal monarchies lay in the possibility of their amal- gamating with the Roman provincial population. as the Franks. When religious hatred subjects. The Goths were on the other hand.
The Vandals were less numerous than the Goths.at the extreme eastern limit of the Vandal The town power. There was truth in this saying. Gothic in his. who has left accompanied. " Gothic sage observed at the time that the Goth. were not Moreover. the Emperor's ally. which the Goths . The case of the kingdom of Africa was infinitely kingdom of Italy. when poor. but the fact that Gelimer had wrongfully 533. in proportion worse than that of the to their subjects they were not merely heretics. but only a succession of turbulent princes of the Viking type. not a definite re-assertion of the claim of the empire over Africa for such language would have provoked the rulers of Italy and Spain to join the Vandals. when rich. who was now at the height of his " favour for his successful suppression of the rioters. Procopius. JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS. sailed from the Bosphorus with an 10. Belisarius. but fanatical and persecuting heretics.84 them. tends to become Roman in his habits the Roman. a capable writer. Nika " army of He was a full by his secretary.000 horse. . fit for war and nothing else. luckily for history. Justinian declared war on King Gelimer the mo- ment that he had made peace with Persia. deposed Hilderic. In July. using as his casus belli. Belisarius landed at Tripoli. and the result of the change was ominous for the permanence of the kingdom of Italy. If the masters softened and the subjects hardened. they had never had at their head a great organizer and administrator like Theodoric." A .000 foot and 5. very account of his master's campaigns. they would not preserve for ever their respective positions.
D. their gates. about to give himself up. and the city fell into his hands next day. gaged till in calling in his scattered \\arriors. on the road to Bulla. The provincials were delighted at the rout of their masters.CONQUEST OF AFRICA. Carthage. and Carthage had not the aspect of a conquered town. a hard struggle he defeated them. meeting with no opposition for the incapable Gelimer had been caught unprepared. 429. his army broke It open kingdom. to wipe away his tears and a loaf. since Genseric entered Africa in A. and welcomed the imperial army with joy there was neither riot . It was not he had approached within ten miles of Carthage After that Belisarius was attacked by the Vandals. Gelimer made one more He advanced on attempt to try the fortunes of war. a delicacy he had not tasted ever since he had been forced to partake of the unsavoury . to which to chant a dirge he had written on the fate of himself and the Vandal race a sponge. and asked but for three : so the story goes a things harp. Calling up his last reserves. was at 85 once betrayed to him by its Roman inhabitants. whose humanity was as well known as his He sent to Carthage to say that he was courage. Gelimer took refuge for a time with the Moorish tribes who dwelt in the fastnesses of Mount Atlas. Again the day went against him . nor pillage. his last fortresses threw and there was an end of the Vandal had existed just 104 years. up. and was still en- From . But ere long he resolved to surrender himself to Belisarius. and was met by Belisarius at Tricameron. . thence he advanced cautiously along the coast. .
on declared war on his western He in the wretched King Theodahat the summer of A. as we have already said. and took him to Constantinople. using as his pretext the murder of Queen Amalasuntha. (From a Byzantine MS. of the golden vessels of the Temple spoils were some at Jerusalem. and which Gaiseric had Carthage. her ungrateful spouse had . ! food of the Moors Belisarius received Gelimer with with kindness. 435.) Rome. along the treasures of the palace of Carthage.D. in CAVALRY SCOUTS. when they sacked the imperial It is said that among these 453.85 JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS. carried from Rome to The triumphal entry of Belisarius into Constantinople with his captives and his spoils. encouraged Justinian to order instant preparations for an attack on the second frontier. which inof Rome captured by the of the cluded many spoils Vandals eighty-six years before. which Titus had brought in triumph to city. German kingdom. whom.
" Jew expounded as meaning that at the end of the approaching war the Gothic race would be exterminated and their Italian subjects terribly thinned. alive. and bade the king visit them at the end of that time. Justinian. pigs represent unclean Gentiles. The one part he called "Goths. and half of to the " Italians. actual war had broken out on the Illyrian frontier between the Goths and the governor of DalThere was no use in making further offers to matia. to whom Theodahat applied. his crown. When Theodahat looked in he found all but two of the "Goth" pigs dead." without food or water for ten days. first 87 imprisoned and then strangled within a year of of the Goths. . ten in each. while the Imperial troops would conquer. Procopius tells us a strange tale of the doings of a Jewish magician of He took thirty note. for he was as superstitious as he was incompetent. While Theodahat was busying himself with portents. and wasted. we must supand pose penned them in three styes. showed the greatest their marriage. if the Emperor would guarantee his life and his private Meanwhile he consulted soothsayers and magicians about his prospects." the second "Italians. and the king of Italy had to face the situation as best he could." but the all. though with toil and difficulty. whether he was consciencemerely cowardly.THEODAHAT'S AUGURY. He even wrote to Constantinople offering to resign property." though gaunt This poror almost all." He left the beasts and the third " Imperialists. were tent the Imperialists. and take augury from their condition. The king stricken or terror at the declaration of war.
the fall of Rhegium. where there was a considerable Gothic garrison. Naples was After . After this important conquest.88 yuSTlNIAN*S FOREIGN CONQUESTS. the Imperialists finding their way within the walls by crawling up a disused aqueduct. and Palermo fell after a short siege. that when the news came that Belisarius had crossed over into Italy and he In his stead taken Rhegium.500 barbarian first Belisarius' sorts. though his forces were reduced to a mere handful by the necessity of leaving garrisons in his late conquests. King Witiges made no effort to obstruct his approach. meeting no opposition Southern were scattered Goths through very thinly Italy. campaign was as fortunate as summer had been that which he had waged against Gelimer. auxiliaries of different Isaurians. He had received news that the Franks . and 4. Theodahat seemed incapable of defending himself. well known for personal courage and integrity. Belisarius landed in Sicily. fell into a condition of abject helplessness. taken by surprise. which so provoked his warlike subjects. Belisarius marched for the on rapidly Naples. In six months the whole island was in the hands of Belisarius. and had not even enough men to garrison the Lucanian and Calabrian fortresses. a middle-aged warrior. Belisarius made for Rome.000 Roman troops. they rose and slew him. All the Sicilian towns threw open their gates except Palermo. the army of the Goths elected as their king Witiges. but quite incompetent to face the im- pending storm. In the of 535. him with an even smaller army than had been given all to conquer Africa only 3.
All was in vain. and went north to oppose an imaginary danger in the Alps. Five thousand men had ! sufficed to seize the ancient capital of the world [December. essaying every device to force an entry. Naples. . one at . The scene best remembered in the siege was the simultaneous assault on five points in the wall. as Belisarius had done a year before open storm . Three of the attacks were beaten back with ease but near the Praenestine Gate. though the besiegers outnumbered the garrison twenty-fold.000 strong and laid siege to Rome. who had been left with 4. at the south-east of the city. on the 2ist of March. Having staved off the danger of a Prankish war by ceding Provence to King Theuderic. For more than a year the Ostrogoths lay before its walls.THE GOTHS BESIEGE ROME. when he should have been defending the line of the Tiber.000 men to defend the city. Witiges turned back. The troops of Leuthe Gothic general. 89 were threatening an evasion of Northern Italy. The defence of the town by Belisarius and his very inadequate garrison forms the most interesting episode in the Italian war. 537.] Next spring King Witiges came down with the main army of the Goths more than 100. and exposed their lives with the same recklessness that their ancestors had shown in the invasion of the empire a hundred years back. . only to learn that Rome was hands of the enemy. 536. and idiotic enough to evacuate it without striking a blow. They tried they endeavoured to bribe traitors within the city they strove to creep along the bed of a disused aqueduct. had been struck with panic at the approach of Belisarius. and were cowardly in the now daris.
and must have been among the missiles employed against the Goths. the Gothic capital. within the walls. had just received a reinforcement of 6. with the tomb in such numbers. A of year and nine days after he had formed the siege Rome. storming party actually forced its way and hard sheer out be beaten to had fighting and by on the of north-west. Then. a great quadrangular structure Hadrian's tomb of white marble.go JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS. indeed. " " and the Barberini Faun at Munich were found. and had wisely sent a considerable force. buried in the ditch of the tomb of Hadrian. The rough usage which they then received proved the means of preserving them for the admiration of the modern world. that the arrows and darts of the defenders were insufficient to beat them back. a the thousand years later. Belisarius. and crushed mass of assailants beneath a rain of marble fragments. mausoleum Hadrian. His army. the unlucky Witiges had to abandon it. and news had just arrived that the Imperialists had launched a new army against Ravenna. had given up all hope of success. at the . that form the pride of " modern galleries the " Dancing Faun at Florence. Two famous antiques. reduced by sword and famine. the Imperialists tore down the scores of statues which adorned the mausoleum. under an officer named John. swarmed at the foot of The Goths. corners.000 or 7. surmounted 300 feet square and 85 feet high was of statuary collections by one of the most magnificent in ancient Rome. another spirited combat took place. to fall on the Adriatic coast .000 men. including its four great equestrian statues of emperors at their ladders. as a last resource.
the last Gothic stronghold. only Pavia and Verona were by Gothic garrisons. Belisarius gradually forced his way nearer to Ravenna. Northern Franks came down into and threatened to conquer the valley of the Po. enraged at their imbecile king. 91 The scene of the war was . the Goths lost it Firmly fixed at Ancona and Rimini and Osimo. and when he sailed home. and struck with admiration for the courage and generosity of Belisarius. The Romans gained territory. in A. The He himself. the Italy. now still transported further to the north but its character remained the same.] Witiges. 540 laid siege to it. to grant any terms other his than unconditional sur- master Justinian was ready to acknowledge Witiges as vassal-king in Trans-Padane Famine drove Ravenna to open its gates.D. Goths disperse each to for but bade the home. and. and the captive A. Italy now seemed even still . as Africa and laid his trophies at his master's feet. 540 loyal general refused his . offered to make their conqueror Emperor of the West. made no such skilful defence as did his rival at Rome three years before.BELISARIUS TAKES RAVENNA. for a new Persian war with Chos- . Witiges then made proposals for submission but Belisarius refused . though the Goths. render. taking the great Gothic treasurehoard from the palace of Theodoric. He himself was re- quired in the East. [May. and Italy. Belisarius deemed his work so nearly done. blockaded by Belisarius in his capital. To add to his troubles. that his lieutenants would suffice to crush out held the last embers of the strife.D. Witiges. and dwell peaceably the future as subjects of the empire. sailed for Constantinople.
" had become unbearably oppressive. and came to bloody ends but their successor was Baduila. or logothetes. [B." knight . age. Otranto. When him. was on the eve of breaking out. and Ravenna. The king's real name was Baduila. and that the imperial " governors. 543.92 roes.C. and . as shown on his coins. The fact was. with the same rapidity with which they had yielded to Belisarius. Of Naples they were Naples. But things were not destined to end so. soon deprived.] Baduila invested it. and still more their fiscal agents. At the last moment the Goths found a king and a hero to rescue them. and at once the cities of Central and Southern Italy began to fall back into Gothic hands. and was now regretting the days of Theodoric as a long-lost golden Most of its cities were soon in Baduila's hands. rulers reigned for a few months at Pavia. that the war had been a cruel strain on the Italians. been has he as Middle of the Ages. obtained had was followed by two more successes the scattered armies of Witiges rallied round the banner of the new king. which seems to have been a nickname. and recorded by some historians. to finish the Pavia. Italy had lived through the fit of enthusiasm with which it had received the armies of Justinian. son of Kobad. he the generals of Justinian marched against war by the capture of Verona and won over them the first victory that the Goths This since their enemies landed in Italy. JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS. the Imperialists retained only the districts round Rome. and the conquest of Italy was destined to be Two ephemeral deferred for twelve years more. 1 . but Imperialist writers always call him Totila. 1 the " the first noblest character of the sixth century called.
and that the regenerate Goths would win back all that they had Ere long he was at the gates of Rome. troubles of the last ten years had they had so that all come upon them. and enough. Haduila condemned him to death. let them know that the unjust man and the ravisher was never brave in fight but that. and And yet under Theodahat the forts of Italy. according to a man's life. to do with 100. what Witiges had failed . such was his luck in battle. weapons. horses. with 15. . famous all generals. as they knew well. they must begin a new course with Him.000 men. Lest all his Italian conquests should be Justinian was obliged to send back . A general. as showing A Gothic warrior had the character of the man. a the man who loved gold better than justice angered God by their unrighteous lives. Now God seemed to have avenged Himself on them He had begun a new course with them.000. 93 ere long constrained it to surrender. He answered them that they must choose that day whether i hey preferred to save one man's life or the life of the Gothic race. the Goths had brave soldiers. had ever disspeech which he delivered to his generals soon after this success deserves a record. As for the present criminal being a valiant hero.BADUILA CU. He treated the inhabitants with a kindness and consideration which no Roman played. lost. countless treasure. been convicted of violating the daughter of a Roman. except Belisarius. and justice was the only path.\QU:-:RS ITALY. prepared lost. to essay. At the beginning of the war. His officers came round him to plead for the soldier's life. Such was the justice of Baduila and it seemed as if his dream was about to come true.
000 well-armed Goths. he had But Belisarius was ill-supplied with men . who commanded of their the garrison. angry with the cruel and avaricious fallen into disfavour at Court. in the time of Witiges. tending to corrupt the mind of the Goths. and with it all the traditions of the world: empire of the ancient city to him they seemed but snares. Baduila had determined to do that which no general since Hannibal had contemplated he would destroy Rome.000 Greeks had conquered. and the imperial and of him stinted ministers money. Bessas. Portus. watching faminehe never The That chance the city.94 JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS. The people he sent away unharmed they were but a few thousand left after the horrors of the famine dur- But he broke down the walls. Therefore they must choose henceforth. they for the victory enemy traitors . or unjust and have God against them. And conquered more than 20. Belisarius. 7. and let in BadThe King thought that his uila and his Goths. for no one else could hold back the Goths. and be just men and have God with them. mantled the palaces and arsenals. 100. Unable troops wait at he had to to relieve Rome. why ? Because of old they looked to anything rather than justice they had sinned against each other and : the Romans. by the for a chance to enter mouth of the Tiber. wretched. got. poor.000 of the enemy. For a few weeks . and one night some opened the Asinarian Gate. were and the Goths had few. stricken Romans. troubles were over he assembled his chiefs. and bade them observe how. began to long . and robbed of kingdom and But now that liberty. and dising the siege.
DEATH OF KING BADUILA. Italy was his . They . At evening they reeled back broken. crossed the Po and the Alps. given up to the wolf and the owl [A. 553]. and go back to dwell in the of their fathers. and their king received a mortal wound in the flight [A. it was all up with the courage and kingly righteousness had not sufficed to save them from the same doom which had overtaken the Vandals. ruled Italy. more numerous than any that Belisarius had led. till the great general was called home by some wretched court intrigue. and passed away into The scheme of oblivion in the northern darkness. 550]. under the com- mand of the eunuch Narses. holding his own against Belisarius. that made the chamberlain succeeded. the remnant of conquering Ostrogoths marched off. under a chief named Teia but he was slain in battle at the Goths surrendered. told Narses that the hand of God was against them Italy. into a general but it Narses marched round the head of the and invaded Italy from the north. So the poor in land the north. For eleven unquiet years. Adriatic. With the death of Baduila. 95 Rome was a deserted city.D. they would quit . For a long day the Ostrogothic knights rode and again again into the Imperialist ranks but all . Baduila.D. the brave and just. But presently Justinian gathered another army. and then Nuceria. uila It was a strange choice . but an Italy Justinian was complete. . . in the Apennines. Badwent forth to meet him at Tagina. and sent it to Italy. their furious charges failed. The Goths their hero's knightly broken army made one last stand in Campania.
" to primeval solitude war and famine bare. SOPHIA. taking advantage of it. ancient so wasted and depopulated. and. that the traces of the Roman rule had almost vanished. There was civil war in Spain. " The land. Liberius.96 JUSTINIAN'S FOREIGN CONQUESTS. governor of . landed in Andalusia. Africa. . out by waging this desperate war with the Goths the moment it ended he began to essay another western conquest. and rapidly took the towns of the south of the great peninsula Cordova. It is " was reduced had swept it tired strange to find that the Emperor was not DETAILS OF ST." says a contemporary chronicler.
united in arms under King Athangild.JUSTINIAN'S SPANISH CONQUESTS. Malaga. The factious Visigoths then dropped their strife. and Cadiz. 97 Cartagena.D. Justinian and his tory successors. down to A. 623. and checked the further progress of But a long slip of the lost territhe imperial arms. was not recovered by them. . reigned over the greater part of the sea-coast of Southern Spain.
Justinian. subject respectively to Persia and the empire. the empire became involved in a new struggle with its great Eastern neighbour.VIII. as the king had hoped. as well as the Vandals and Goths. just at the moment of the fall of Ravenna. is mainly to be explained by the fact that. 540. 553.D. was caught unprepared the army of the Euphrates was so weak that it never dared face the in : West . 540. THE END OF JUSTINIAN'S REIGN.D. and the final conquest of Italy in A. was in possession of provinces that had formerly been Roman. and while the flower of the Roman army was still in the Using as his pretext for war some petty quarrels between two tribes of Arabs. He determined to strike before Justinian had got free from his Italian war.D. slackness with which the generals of Justinian prosecuted the Gothic war in the period between the THE triumph of Belisarius at Ravenna in A. and remembered that he too. he declared war the spring of A. and might one day be re- Chosroes of African claimed by the Emperor. Persia was seriously alarmed at the and Italian conquests of Justinian.
Chosroes first won no such campaign. Avoiding the fortresses of Mesopotamia. he sent all his disposable troops the Euphrates frontier. Chosroes. His main object was to strike a blow at Antioch. After this. the an metropolis of the East. them by the Euphrates as Nebuchadnezzar had done of old with the Jews and built for them a city which he called Chosroantiocheia. and was all reckoned safe from attacks owing to its distance Antioch had a strong garrison of " " " Blues and " Greens of its 6. But the commander was incompetent. the fortifications had . and been somewhat neglected of late. blending his own name with that of their ancient abode. who led his army in person. neglectto ing the Italian war. and named Belisarius himself as the chief commander. Persians in the field.FALL OF ANTIOCH. After a sharp struggle. a rich city that had not seen enemy for nearly three centuries. the inhabitants escaped with to it. more than a hundred and sixty years before. successes as had distinguished his Having commenced an attack on the . gg and the opening of the war was fraught with such a disaster to the empire as had not been known since the battle of Adrianople. but the city was of sacked captives from cellar garret and thousands were dragged Chosroes planted away by the Persians. This horrible disaster to the second city of the Roman East roused all Justinian's energy.000 men and the circus factions had taken arms to support the regular from the frontier. Chosroes took the town by assault the garrison cut its way out. and many of troops. burst into Northern Syria.
D. 541 ended without serious fighting. were of small importance but regarded the honours of the war as being his own. he was drawn home by the news that Belisarius had invaded Assyria and was besieging Nisibis. because Justinian consented to pay him 2. far to the north. and the : invaders retired after having reduced one single lingered for two Chosroes. On the Roman approach of the king the imperial general but his manoeuvre had cost the Persian the retired. years a sort of by-war was maintained in this small district. and the year B.100 THE END OF JUSTINIAN'S REIGN. The war till and more especially humiliated by a bloody repulse from the walls of Edessa. border fortresses in Colchis. Mesopotamian fortress. and resigned it to .000 Ibs. hard by the Black For no less than seven Sea. One curious clause was inserted ceased in the document though hostilities everywhere else.000] on the ratification of the treaty. that Chosroes resigned the attempt to hold the small and rugged many men on mountain kingdom of the Lazi. 556. disgusted at the ill-success years more. In the next spring very similar operations followed Belisarius defended the line of the Euphrates with success. the rights of the two monarchs to the suzerainty of the kingdom of Lazica. after both parties had wasted much treasure and the unprofitable contest. were left undefined. It was not till A. on the Colchian frontier.C. fruits of a whole summer's preparation. consented to treat for He gave up his conquests which peace [A. of all his efforts since his first success at Antioch. 545]. of gold [108. while peace prevailed on all other points of the Perso-Roman frontier.D.
THE GREAT PLAGUE." says the chronicler. the government had to take special alive. 5. The details which Procopius gives us concerning its progress and results leave no doubt that it operated more powernot been for three known similar visitation than any other factor in that weakening of the empire which is noticeable in the second half of the fully century. All customary occupations ceased in the city. however. When it reached Constantinople.D. " The disease. Justinian on the promise of an 18. was other than human means. IO1 annual grant of But although Justinian had brought his second Persian war to a not unsuccessful end. who taxed the to provinces with unexampled rigour while forced maintain at once a Persian and an Italian war. and was by 556 falling into a condition of incipient disorder and This was partly caused by the reckless decay. the empire had come badly out of the struggle.000 as compensation money. sixth and the market-place was empty save for corpseIn many houses not a single soul remained bearers. This pestilence was one of the epoch-making events in the history of the empire. and measures for the burial of neglected corpses. part of the damage. financial expedients of the Emperor. nor prevail in any . 542 wrought by there broke out in the empire a plague such as had The main hundred years the last had fallen in the reign of Trebonianus Gallus. In A. as great a landmark as the Black Death in the history of England. far back in the third century. "did not attack any particular race or class of men.000 persons a day are said to have fallen victims to it.
instead of trusting to his arms and facing the dangers of war. which had been his most marked characteristic." One he took feature of the Emperor's later years was that more and more interest in theological 1 Bury's a " Later Roman Empire. ." i. his armies 2 who collected his taxes were affected and maintained with the same indifference. yet he seems to have declined in energy. washed or unwashed man took no account. and it was there also. and more especially to have for the power of organization. And his ministers. Greek the year. "After achieving so much in the days of his vigour. because he did not expect to require their services. 402. the might climb to plague A the hill-top. So he allowed his troops to decline in numbers. and it was there he might retire to the The depths of a cavern." . or providential wicked. he persevered inflexibly to his last day in his scheme reconquest of the empire. and lost that preferred mollify to create discord among his foes or to them with gifts. of such distinctions or Arabian. only marked characteristic of chronicler could find was that. it its ravages that the whether by chance strictly spared the most : " he rehimself fell ill of the plague never his old self but was covered. North or South. nor confine itself to any period of particular region. Summer or winter. The chroniclers complain that he had grown less hopeful and less masterful. when he entered into the last stage of his life he seemed to weary of his labours." x Justinian design. Though again. Agathias.102 THE END OF JUSTINIAN'S REIGN.
disputes. six years after the great plague. Justinian was not a monophysite himself. Her bold and adventurous spirit must have buoyed him up in many of the more of Rome.D. The gloom of Justinian's later years was even more marked after the death of his wife Theodora died in A. Justinian seems to have trusted no one his destined successor.JUSTINIAN AS THEOLOGIAN. and to cause a growing estrangement between East and West. He . the heresy which denied the existence both of a human and a divine nature in Our Lord. After her death. and spent much trouble in coercing prelates orthodox and heretical into a reconciliation which had no chance of permanent His chief difficulty was with the bishops success. which forbade the discussion of the subject. difficult enterprizes of the first half of his reign. forced Pope Vigilius to come to and Constantinople. 548. does not appear to have been trusted the second Gothic war the Emperor stinted him of minister was kept seems in to : . the first and most loyal soldier of in the empire. but wished to unify the sect with the main body of the Church by edicts of comprehension. 103 The Church question of the day was the dispute on Monophysitism. signed all that was required of him [A.D. son of his : sister. even to the neglect of State business. The only result was to win Vigilius the reputation of a heretic. Justinus. Even Belisarius. kept him under constraint for he till many months. 554]. the background. and it may be that her loss was no less a cause of the diminished energy of his later years than was his enfeebled health. and no great have possessed his confidence.
to practice their called out in rotation With this undisciplined force. he was recalled [A. others when in Africa. A nomad horde from the South Russian steppes. but they were all dispersed abroad. 558. the whole country side from the Danube to the One body. the charge of its gates.000 men under arms at the moment. city gates. came up to within a few miles of the and inspired such fear that the Constantinopolitans began to send their money and church-plate over to Asia. at his back. hostilities were least expected. and a few on the Mesopotamian frontier. This crisis was a striking example of the mis- management of Justinian's later years. The empire had 150. some in the Thebaid. others in Colchis. and thrown themselves on the Thracian provinces. had crossed the frozen Danube at mid. 7. from which he was only recalled on the occurrence of a sudden military crisis in A." a body of local troops raised in the city and entrusted with 3. and the "Scholarian guards. the Cotrigur Huns. Belisarius command single Justinian then summoned from his retirement.winter.D.IO4 THE END OF JUSTINIAN'S REIGN. others in Spain. which had never seen war. At 549] and sent into private last troops and hampered life. Belisarius . which inspired little confidence as its members were allowed and only trades and avocations for occasional service.D.000 strong. many in Italy. only Propontis plundering and burning. There was such a dearth of men to defend the home provinces that the barbarians rode unhindered ove. him with colleagues. and placed him in of what troops there were available a regiment of 300 veterans from Italy.500 strong.
Four years later an obscure conspiracy against his life was discovered. pursue him back to a carefully prepared where the only point that could be attacked was covered with woods and hedges on either side.BELTS ARTUS DEFEATS THE contrived to beat off the HUNS led 105 Huns. is untrue. and fled leaving 400 men on the field. while the Romans only lost a few wounded and not a single soldier slain. where they could not be seriously molested. service did not prevent Justinian from viewing his great servant with suspicion. and one of the conspirators named BeliThe old emperor sarius as being privy to the plot. general's property. begging the passer-by "dare olxilum Belisario. were shot vulnerable point. while the 300 Italian veterans covered the one The Huns attacked. He them to position. Thus the he saved New Rome this last Even in his old age. he lived two years longer. T he had served so well followed him to the grave nine months later. . down from the woods and beaten off in front. and restored to favour The ungrateful master whom died in March. affected to believe the accusation." and dying in the streets. : Of 1 It is Justinian as conqueror and governor we have comforting to know that the popular legend which tells how the great general lived in poverty and disgrace. last military exploit of Belisarius of the imperial city itself from suburbs the preserved molestation after defending Old Rome in his prime . sequestrated the and kept him under surveillance Belisarius was then acquitted and for eight months. But the suspicious emperor's conduct was quite unpardonable. 565. The " " were placed on the Scholarians untrustworthy flanks.
containing the celebrated mosaic portraits of himself and his wife. The monasteries. and of St. Even in the newly-conquered his great churches of San Vitale.106 said his THE END OF JUSTINIAN'S REIGN. and numbers of them survive. Even more secluded or outlying portions of the empire. and his tastes were as magnificent as those of the great builders of the early empire. outshine the older works of the fifth-century emperors and of the Goth Theodoric. to in the great centres like Constantinople or Jerusalem. But no previous the hoarded treasures of Anastasius. All over the empire the monuments of his wealth and taste dozens of churches. Not merely in ruins. in had been given to monarch had combined building. but out-of-the-way tracts in Cappadocia and Isauria. were seen in historian Procopius was able to compose a considerable volume entirely on the subject of Justinian's buildings. and colonnades. one of the works of Justinian. forts. But there remain two more aspects of his work as a builder life which deserve notice his codification of the laws. hospitals. and From the days of Diocletian Byzantine. are full Ravenna of his buildings. any fine building that is found is. some perfect and more witness to the accuracy of the work. Apollinare in the suburb of Classis. much. and slowly developing from the old and fifth cenfourth the of the of emperors many turies such a degree as did and the will the power to launch out into Justinian He had at his disposal architectural experiments. had been classic forms. in two cases out of three. halls of justice. . Augustus and Nero and Hadrian. the style of architecture which we call for want of a better name.
at Rome is a fair specimen. 241 feet long and 224 specified. Justinian brought into use for the first time on a large scale the combination of a cruciform ground-plan and a very large dome. showing the new combination which we have already It is a Greek cross. Paul's Outside the Walls. time on had commenced preparations for rebuilding it as a monument of his triumph in the civil strife. SOPHIA. The famous Church type of this style. the greatest of Byzantine builders. Rome may Holy Sepulchre at The second was the rectangular church with apses. having in its midst a vast dome. the second in the great Within forty days of its destruction Justinian 532. The third church was different in plan from either of its predecessors. which was nothing more than an adaptation for ecclesiastical purposes of the Old Roman law-courts. In Oriental church-architecture his a forms landmark up to his time Christian reign : had still been using two patterns copied from Old Roman models.BUILDING OF ST. He chose as his architect Anthemius of Tralles. Sophia great cathedral of Constantinople had already been burnt down twice. indeed. and which had bor- rowed from them its name of Basilica. St. pierced by no . as we have had occasion to relate the : may serve as the The first the eve of the banishment of John " " Nika riot of Chrysostom. are the best known of his buildings. of St. The first was the straight round domed church. whose origin can be traced back architects to such Roman originals as the celebrated Temple of Vesta of such the Church of the serve as a type. broad. 107 Justinian's churches. and one of the few whose names have survived.
extraordiwho behold it. being more magnificent than ordinary buildings. and his praises are well justified " It nary to those to those rises to presents a most glorious spectacle. whole of the covered with of interior. and overtops the neighbourIt ing buildings like a ship anchored among them. and much more elegant than the few which approach it in size. towers above the city which it adorns. as from a watch-tower.PROCOPIUS ON less 1 ST. such an abundance of light is . to hide the representations of human forms which are offensive to the Moslems' creed. was which the Vanwith a coat of dalism the Turks has covered whitewash. dome. light and airy and soaring above the floor. the majority of verde antique. 1 09 80 feet than forty windows. but were plundered from the chief pagan temples of Asia. which served as an The inexhaustible quarry for the Christian builder. and altogether incredible who know it by report only. In the nave the aisles and side apses are parted from the main central spaces by magnificent colonnades of marble pillars. Its breadth and length are so judiciously chosen. In height it the very heavens. that it without disproportion. Procopius describes the church with enthusiasm. and from it the whole of Constantinople can be beheld. Within it is singularly full of light and sunshine you would declare that the place is not lighted from without. These are not for the most part the work of Justinian's day. appears both broad and long For it excels both in size and harmony. . but that the rays are produced within itself. both roof and or gilding mosaics. SOPHIA.
. SOPHIA.GALLERIES OF ST.
but his military works have for the most part disappeared. as he received it from his predecessors decisions. it impossible accurately to describe the treasures of gold and silver plate and gems which the Emperor has presented to the church the Sanctuary alone contains forty thousand pounds weight of silver. it. like a painter. poured into interior.JUSTINIANS FORTS. too. the green of others. Ill The gilded ceiling adds glory to its the light reflected upon the gold from though the marble surpasses it in beauty. is Moreover. the glowing red and glittering white. Thus much of Justinian as builder: space fails to enumerate a tithe of his works." : Justinian was almost as great a builder of forts as of churches. Who can tell of the splendour of the columns and marbles with which the church is adorned ? One would think that one some. The Roman law. has marked tints of had come upon a meadow one wonders at the purple full of flowers in bloom with the strongest contrasts of colour. and all had to be Some were protected by garrisons. and those. It may give energy in fortifying the frontiers some idea of his when we state that the Illyrian provinces alone were protected by 294 forts. but many were elaborate fortresses with outworks. Of his great legal achievement we must speak at even shorter length. disposed in four successive lines from the lian hills. of which Procopius gives a list. Danube back to the Thessa- single towers. in was an enormous mass of precedents and which the original basis was overlaid with the various and sometimes contradictory re- . which nature.
scripts of five most especially Theodosius II. other revisers of the laws might have produced Institutes compilations that would have made the seem out of date. to the of the old law was hopelessly obsolete. headed by the clever but unpopular The lawyer Tribonian. six hundred the out of the chaos of the flourished in dark ages. " Instiwork was done for ever and a day. as mediaeval civilization evolved itself starting-point of all Europe. decay " " and chaos followed after Justinian. as a matter of fact. and endeavoured to codify the chaotic mass and reduce it But no one of them had produced a code to order. from of the Twelve Tables down to the days of the days and logical connection with the Justinian. the need for something more than customary folk-right began to make itself felt. and his " " and " Pandects were the last revision of the tutes Old Roman laws. owing had introchange in moral ideas which Christianity duced. when. but it is still astonishing to see the old forms of the times of the how much of early empire survived into the sixth century. which sufficed to bring the law of the day into full It was no mean accord with the spirit of the times.. and succeeding emperors had neither the need nor the inclination .112 THE END OF JUSTINIAN'S REIGN. had predecessors. Justinian employee a commission. But. If the Roman Empire had the century after Justinian as in that which preceded him. into strict had worked their way into which ideas new Christian Much predominance since the days of Constantine. and in systematic legal study years later. work to bring the ancient legislation of Rome. to draw up his new code. Several of his centuries of emperors.
is Hence it came that his name for ever associated with to pass the last great revision of Roman law. by Dante in one Paradise. destined to be enthroned " of the starry thrones of his worshipped as the father of law by the Renaissance.IMMORTALITY OF JVSTIXIAN. to do his work over again." and to be all the legists of . and that he himself went down to posterity as the greatest of legislators.
was hill down the exhausting empire steadily going : effects of the reign selves felt of Justinian were making themmore and more. THE COMING OF THE SLAVS. and Maurice [582-602]. and strove to do their best : for the empire : historians concur in praising the justice of Justinus. who was selected by the reign- ing emperor as his most worthy successor. and at the end of the reign . Justinus was the favourite nephew of Justinian. years which are covered by followed three death of were men of much ." or chief of the Barbarian auxiliaries. and had served him for many years as Curopalates. the THE thirty reigns. [565-578]. Tiberius Constantinus [578These three emperors 582]. or Master of the Palace. the liberality and humanity of Yet under them the Tiberius. the same character as the prede- cessors of Justinian each of them was an experienced official of mature age. Tiberius Constantinus was " Count of the Excubiti.IX." a high Court officer in the suite of Justinus Maurice again served Tiberius as " Count of the Fcederati. those of Justinian Justinus II. the piety of Maurice. They were all men of capacity.
The troubles on the frontier which vexed the last thirty years of the sixth century were due to three separate sets of enemies the Lombards in Italy. on the other hand. who had hitherto dwelt in on Middle Danube. was there- fore universally condemned as avaricious. who was economical and endeavoured to fill the coffers which his predecessors had emptied. 115 of Maurice a time of chaos and disaster was impending. held undisputed possession of Italy for no more than years after the expulsion of the fifteen The empire Ostrogoths in A. The virtues of the emperors seem to have helped them little : than loved . following the same path that had already served for the Visigoths of Alaric and the Ostrogoths of Theodoric. where race of the . Then a new enemy came in from the north. The internal causes of the disaster of this time were the weakening of the empire by the great plague of 544 and still more by the grinding exactions of Its external phenomena Justinian's financiaj system. combined with long and exhausting wars with Persia. were invasions by new hordes from the north. the Slavs and Avars in the Balkan Peninsula. and had more frethe Hungary. which came to a head under his successor. Alboin. and the Persians in the East. Justin's justice made him feared rather Tiberius's liberality rendered him popular. began to covet the fertile plains of Italy. The new-cofners were the Lombards. 553. but drained the treasury Maurice. . having subdued all his nearer neighbours.D.THE LOMBARDS. found as friends than as foes of the been quently But their warlike and ambitious King Romans.
larger the older centres of life in the land he had conquered. instead of choosing one of the and more famous towns of Milan and Verona. amid the revelry of a drinking bout. with very little difficulty. but now deserted. Only one city. But wife in Lombardy the king pushed forward and overran the valley of the Arno. we are told. his wife bear it around to his chosen The queen obeyed. now that In A. was almost uninhabited owing to the combined effects of the great In this once fertile plague and the Ostrogothic war. by the victor's orders. The region. slain in battle. and flocks and herds. and bade warriors. the strong fortress of Pavia. crossed the Alps. he saw the emperors keeping a very inadequate the Ostrogoths were finally garrison. Long years after. and populous. the midst of his wars he was cut off. as far as the line of the Po. legend tells Queen Rosamund. Lombards took possession of the flat country in the north of Italy. There they have left their name as the permanent denomination of the plain of Lombardy. if the us the truth. mounted in gold and fashioned into a cup. lowland. Cunimund. when it fell in 571. Alboin had the ghastly cup filled with wine. after a gallant defence of three years. 568 Alboin and his hordes driven away.D. King of the by the vengeance of hi? She was the daughter of Gepidae. held out against them for long . bringing with them wife and child. but vowed to revenge . the Lombards settled down in great numbers.Il6 THE COMING OF THE SLAVS. whom Alboin had The fallen monarch's skull was. while their old land on the The Danube was abandoned to the Avars. made After subduing into Etruria. Alboin it his capital.
and Otranto. but the Lombard chiefs continued to win territory from Lombard conquests the empire. where he held a broad belt of land. 573]. the greater part of Justinian's Italian conquests were states.. By the sacrifice of her honour she bribed Alboin's armour-bearer to slay his master in his bed. and formed once more into Teutonic retained only two large stretches the one in Central Italy. in 584. were also succeeded left Sardinia and Sicily untouched by the Lombards. during the reigns of Justin. The kingdom. Rome Taranto. But the death of Alboin did not put an end to the in Italy. not the extreme point of Italy down by Keggio and . the one in Central. to on the Tyrrhenian Sea the other comprehend" " the toe and ing the extreme south of the land " " and comprising the of the Italian boot heel r towns of territory of Bruttium and the Calabrian . extending right across the peninsula. from Ravenna and Ancona on the Adriatic. in building a The Roman territory which stretched across Central Italy cut the Lombards 1 Calabria is here used in its old sense. Two of them founded the considerable duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. The emperor of territory. 1 17 herself by her husband's death. and he and his immediate successors completed the conquest of Northern Italy. Tiberius II.LOMBARD CONQUESTS IN ITALY. and Maurice. and Squillace. broke up for a time into several independent duchies. Brindisi. indeed. and the other in Southern Italy. who never fleet. These states sur- vived as independent powers. but the rest of the were reunited by King Autharis. and then fled with him to Constan- tinople [A D. meaning South Apulia. lost. Lombard territories Thus.
Il8 in THE COMING OF THE SLAVS.) (From "L'Art Byzantin. maintained an isolated . two. body of them ." Par C. Paris. the king ruling the main Tuscany and the valley of the Po in while the dukes CROSS OF JUSTINUS ii. (From the Vatican. Bayet. 1883.) of Spoleto and Benevento existence in the south. Qttantin.
from the fact that never again. But they spoke with much more freedom and weight when they had to do. did a time come when all the lands between the Alps and the Straits of Messina were governed by one cessor till ruler. Tig This partition of Italy between the Lombards and the empire is worth remembering. Even during the of the Ostrogoths the Roman bishops had acquired days considerable importance. till our own day. Lombard conquest the Italy were administered by a governor. All the Italian provinces were nominally beneath his control. called the Exarch. or in the distant islands of Sicily and Sardinia. but with a mere governor fettered by orders from distant Constanti- Gregory the Great [590-604] was the first of thepopes who began to assumean independent attitude nople. who it dwelt in harder to enforce his orders at Naples and Reggio. But it was the bishops of Rome who profited most by his absence although a "duke. when the kingdom of United Italy was completed by the conquest of Rome. as a matter of fact. he was only treated with implicit obedience by those of his subordinates He found his own neighbourhood. not with a King of Italy dwelling quite near them. . peninsula gathered into a single state. he was from the first overhis spiritual neighbour. was the whole Not till 1870. but.RISE OF THE PAPACY." a military officer of some importance. Justinian had no sucimperial dominion Victor After the in Emmanuel. as being the chief official representatives of the Italians in dealings with their : shadowed by Teutonic masters. who dwelt at Ravenna. the northernmost and strongest of the imperial fortresses. dwelt at Rome.
though the latter was at The Emperor Maurice stormed too at war with the empire. him as foolish and disobedient. acted as mediator between the government at Ravenna. and readily took upon himself civil functions. who could not bear to see Rome suffering for want of a ruler on the spot. in spite of the protests of his nominal and to the superior the Exarch. but did not venture to depose him. instead of njregory In 599 he leaving the appointment to the Exarch. and to urge him to repress such pretensions by the force of the civil arm. for example." Gregory wrote to Maurice to tell him that the presumption of John was a sure sign that the days of Antichrist were at hand.120 THE COMING OF THE SLAVS. he considered the emperor his suzerain rather than his immediate ruler. issued orders which contradicted bitter quarrel imperial rescripts. nominated a governor for Naples. a private truce for Rome In 592. He was an able and energetic man. This is one of the first signs of the approach of that mediaeval view of the papacy which imagined that it was the pontiffs duty to censure and advise kings . being much troubled with Persian and Avaric wars to On another occasion send troops against Rome. treat Exarch at Ravenna with scant ceremony. and maintained a with successive patriarchs of Constanti- nople. who possessed the favour of Maurice. Gregory behaved as if if Lombard king and the he had been a neutral Although he showed no wish to sever his connection with the Roman Empire. the patriarch John the Faster took the title of When " oecu- menical bishop. he made with the Lombard Duke of Spoleto. He would never give in on disputed points. as and independent sovereign.
War was declared in 572. I. But these trivial gains were far from compensating the empire strife . with their Persian and Slavonic wars. without obtaining any definite Forced to make peace by the superiority over him. Gregory's immediate successors were not men of mark. Like the struggle between Justinian and thirty years before. of a civil war. and ceded him a slice of Armenian territory. Tiberius. Roman generals peneinto Media and Corduene. 121 and emperors on all possible topics and occasions. Contests with the Great king of the East occupied no less than twenty years in the reigns of Justin II. gave back to pressure Maurice the two frontier cities of Dara and Martyropolis. and Maurice. and did not cease till 592. the sole trophies of twenty campaigns.. was that each combatant had seriously weakened and distressed his rival. it was wholly There were more plundering raids than and the frontier provinces of each empire were reduced to a dreadful state of desolation and depopulation trated : far as the gates deep the Persians pushed their ravages as of Antioch. final The delayed for nearly two hundred years. Chosroes indecisive. battles. The wars between the Exarchs of Ravenna and the Lombard kings were little influenced by interference The emperors during the last thirty sixth of the years century were far more engrossed from the East. where the if imperial banner had not been seen for two hundred The net result of the whole twenty years of years. Chosroes II.. or a breach with the empire might have been disavowal of the supremacy of the Constantinopolitan monarch was to be still precipitated.PERSIAN WARS.
They were ready enough to make peace when money was paid them. left There were now : on the northern frontier of the empire of the incoming tribes. the former like the Germans before came pressing into the two centuries provinces to win them- . The Avars were a nomadic race from Asia. and betook themselves to the decessors the Huns. who were at this time building up an empire in Central Asia. one was Tartar and the other Slavonic. the Roman army had been faring far worse. To cross the river and ravage Moesia was too tempting a prospect to be neglected. Their first raid into Roman territory fell into the year 562. and from that time forward they were always causing trouble. however. not far from the mouth of the Danube. and ere long the Avaric cavalry were seen only too frequently along the Balkans and on the coast of the Black Sea. the South Russian plains. The enemies in this quarter were two new tribes. the fearful losses caused by dozens of Persian invasions. just before the death of Justinian. who appeared on the Danube after the Lombards had departed from it to commence no Teutons their invasion of Italy. But the Slavs were a far more serious danger to the empire than the Avars.122 for THE COMING OF THE SLAVS. The latter came only to plunder. The Persian war was exhausting. it was never long before they reappeared south of the Danube. but successful : on the northern frontier. wild horsemen of the Steppes. but as they invariably broke the agreement when the money was spent. much like their pre- They had fled west to escape Turks. and serious losses of territory were beginning to take place.
'. governed by Their abodes no grain but went to war could send out they they thousands of spearmen and bowmen. where they formed ambuscades and endeavoured to take their enemy by surprise.ponds or rivers by lying down in thftevatei for hours togo&". and could only use for boats tree-trunks hollowed out by fire like the Australian savages of as yet to-day. The Slavs tribes of them. and nothing appear except . They had always lain behind the Germans. were mud huts.ee. knew nothing of defensive armour.points were the only Thus a thousand things visible above the surfr. and they cultivated millet. breathing through reeds. We are assured that one of their favourite devices was to conceal themselv'^ * . selves a 123 at first of new home. men might be concealed. far behind the Teutons in civilization they had hardly learnt Goths . The Romans knew only two and Antae. They were rude races. chiefs. and were only formidable in woods and defiles. and overwhelm him by a sudden rush. the simplest arts. and it was only when the German barrier was removed by the migration of the and Lombards that they came into touch with the empire. They had not but dwelt learnt to live under kings or in village the patriarchs of the several families.-j. and many more.THE SLAVS. When They could resist neither cavalry nor disciplined infantry. communities. the Slovenes were the easternmost of the Aryan peoples of Europe. Servians. v. but their wild bands were not very formidable in the open field. and by far the most backward. but behind these there were others who were gradually to push their way to the south and make their presence known Croats.
or Chagan. but it was not till the death of hear of them as a pressing danger. A to this time the inland of the Balkan pen in had been inhabited by Thracian and Illyrian provincials. vSfling language. but more frequently tried to escape from his power by Hence it pushing forward into Roman territory. find Slav and times find but at other Avar leagued them acting separately. comes that we often together. for the king. 1 They formed the only large body of sula Down subjects of the empire outside Italy. incredible. Justinian that we But when the Lombards had passed away westward. though a few still preserved their ancient barbaric idiom.124 THE COMING OF THE SLAVS - a bed of rushes. of whom the majority spoke the Latin tongue. if we had not on This strange stratagem would seem record one or two occasions it was actually practised. in the endeavour to make permanent The raids of the settlements on the Roman bank. Slavs and the Avars were curiously complicated. and as they were about a qi^er Roman 1 of its population' tc character. the Albanian tongue is the only relic of ancient . more chaotic series of campaigns it is hard to conceive. sometimes acted in obedience to him. and ^ hey did much to preserve its prevent it from becoming : From them the Albanians descend Illyria. or even in opposition to each other. who still spoke the olc. of the Tartar tribe had made vassals of many of his Slavonic neighbours. Slavs had begun to make themselves felt early in the sixth century. on the other hand. on which The cross it they came down to the Danube and began to in great numbers. They.
. afflicted them but they. It is not too much to say that between 570 and 600 the old population was almost exterminated over the greater part of the country north of the Balkans . and settled in it. Four years have now elapsed. born in the heart of the district. and dwelt in it as though it had been their own. John of Kphesus 581 was famous for the invasion of the accursed people called Slavonians. Their pride in their Latin tongue was very marked Justinian. was fond of laying special stress on the fact that Latin was his native language. and devastated and burnt. Thraco-Illyrian population the Slavs and Avars fell with unex- ampled before.THE WOES OF THRACE. and semi-civilized. The Goths had at least. The effect of the invasion is well described by the contemporary chronicler. had been Christian while the new-comers were in the lowest grade of savagery. and made themselves masters of the whole country. : On this Latinized invasion of the severity. by main force. who overran Greece " The year and the country by Thessalonica. : lachians who are found in later times scattered in small bodies among the Slavs who had swept over the whole country-side. and all Thrace. and captured the cities and took many forts. 125 Greek or Asiatic.the modern Servia and Bulgaria and very sadly cut down even in the more sheltered Macedonian and Thracian pro- The Latin-speaking provincials almost disappeared the only remnants of them were the " Dalmatian islanders and the " Vlachs or Walvinces. and reduced the people to slavery. and still they live at their ease in the land.
despite the garrisons along the river which were still kept up from Singidunum [Belgrade] to Dorostolum [Silistria].126 THE COMING OF THE SLAVS. and spread themselves far and wide. Relying upon the fortified towns as base the great general Priscus. The Chagan of the Avars had captured 15. attacked the Slavs and Avars in their own homes beyond it. The misfortunes of the Avaric and Slavonic \var were the cause of the fall of the Emperor Maurice. of which he was guilty in 599. He could not protect the unarmed population in the open country within the Roman boundary. fortresses population had fallen back to the line of the Balkans. and the girdle of along the Danube soon covered nothing but a wasted region. and to perform many He even crossed the river and gallant exploits. was able to keep his his ground along the Danube. and offered to release them for a large ransom. and still they encamp and dwell there. Maurice whose treasury was empty refused to comply." The open country was swept bare by the Slavs the towns resisted better. limit of The Roman and the Slavs were ever slipping across the Danube in larger and larger numbers. He had won some unpopularity by his manifest inability to stem the tide of the barbarian invasion. but it was to no effect that he burnt their villages and slew off their warriors. whom Maurice placed in command. sparsely inhabited by Slavs. for neither Slav nor Avar was : skilled in siege operations. as far as God permits them. and more by an act of callousness. and even to the south of it. and the Chagan massacred the .000 prisoners. and ravage and burn and take captive.
But the immediate cause of the his of dealing with the army.FALL OF MAURICE. " Maurice armed the city factions. exclaiming with his last breath. named Phocas. a courage and piety that moved youngest a Maurice died with even his enemies. and just are thy judgments " " ! Thou art just. Then electing as their captain an obscure centurion. O . and caught at Chalcedon. though an old soldier himself. where he was less unpopular than in Europe. and chased away their generals. he fled across the Bosphorus with his wife and children. whom the army had now saluted as emperor." which was the official handbook of the imperial armies for three hundred years. they marched on Constantinople. The cruel usurper had him executed along with all his five sons. and did not possess their respect or emperor's fall was way He was Yet he was an officer of some merit and had written a long military treatise called the " Strategicon. Lord. v. in 602. the child of only thiee years of age. But when he saw that no one would fight for him. in the waste marshes of the Slavs. unpopular with the soldiery. the " Blues and " Greens. orders for the discontented army of the Danube to winter north of the river. Maurice sealed his fate when. to seek refuge in the Asiatic provinces. he issued confidence. The troops refused to obey the order. Soon he was pursued by orders of Phocas.-ivtched captives." and strove to defend himself.
suspicious. and from that moment : his deeds of bloodshed never ceased execution probably the worst of of Constantina. The break in the peaceful and orderly succession which had hitherto prevailed was not only an evil The new precedent. in spite of his faults and his ill luck..THE DARKEST HOUR. Phocas was a mere brutal pious. who. FOR the first time since Constantinople had become the seat of empire the throne had been won by armed rebellion and the murder of the legitimate ruler. and incapable hands the empire began to fall to He opened his reign pieces with alarming rapidity. widow of them was the Maurice and daughter of Tiberius II. with a series of cruel executions of his predecessor's soldier his in friends. ignorant. a far worse than the unemperor proved governor fortunate Maurice. lest their names might be used as the excuse for a conspiracy against him. cruel. moderate. had always been hard-working. even greater horror seems to have been caused But when . and economical. and reckless. whom he slew together with her three young daughters. but an immediate disaster.
The right up to the gates of Chalcedon. for although Thrace had sight of the several times been harried to within city. In 608 their main army penetrated across Cappadocia and In . but he succeeded in putting them all down. indecisive contests in II.MISFORTUNES OF PHOCAS. . 1 To be carefully distinguished from his homonyn in Justinian's time. For Constantinople was eight years his reign continued full of executions Asia was ravaged from sea to sea. and slew the conspirators with fearful tortures. whom he professed a warm personal This war was far different from the the reigns of Justinian and two successive Justin years the Persians burst into North Syria and ravaged it as far as the sea but in the third they turned north and swept over the hitherto untouched provinces of Asia Minor. no enemy had ever been seen in Bithynia. The moment that Phocas had mounted the throne. I2C> he burnt alive the able general Narses. Chosroes of Persia declared war on him. the Thracian and Illyrian provinces were overrun more and more by the Slavs. using the he wished to revenge hypocritical pretext that Maurice. Narses had come up to the capital under safe conduct to clear : himself from accusations of treason so the Emperor not only devised a punishment which had never yet been heard of since the empire became Christian. 1 who had won many laurels in the last Persian war. inhabitants of Constantinople could see the blazing a sight villages across the water on the Asiatic shore Galatia as new as it was terrifying . but broke his own plighted oath. now that the army : . for friendship. Plot after plot was formed in the capital against Phocas.
govern any Heraclius spurned him away with his foot. Urged by desperate entreaties from all parties in Constantinople to strike a blow against the tyrant.THE DARKEST HOUR. "that you have governed the empire?" "Will you " it better ? sneered the desperate usurper. of Europe had been transferred across the Bosphorus Yet Phocas still to make head against the Persians. . Africa was the only portion of the Roman Empire which in the reign of Phocas was suffering neither nor foreign invasion. held on to Constantino'ple revolt himself. When Heraclius the younger arrived with his at the Dardanelles. governed by the aged exarch Heraclius. while at the same time his nephew Nicetas led a large body of horse along the African shore to invade Egypt. and deliver the empire from the yoke of a monster." said Heraclius. Heraclius at last consented. who bore the same name as himself. and brought aboard the galley of the conqueror. and the city threw open its gates. and the sailors hewed him to pieces on the deck. " Is it thus. from civil strife It was well so who was well liked in the province that the emperor had not dared to depose him. Phocas was seized in the palace by an official whom he had cruelly wronged. all the fleet prominent citizens of Con- As stantinople fled secretly to take refuge with him. This he despatched against Constantinople. He quietly got ready a fleet. he neared the capital the troops of Phocas burst into mutiny the tyrant's fleet was scattered after a slight : engagement. which he placed under the orders of his son. it : the creature of a military was by a military revolt alone that he was destined to be overthrown.
ACCESSION OF HERACLIUS. but in 613. Save into better order. and the Slav. and of a very he wore a bushy beard when he came at the throne. with grey eyes fair complexion to . while the imperial armies were endeavouring to defend Cappadocia. " a though he was in the prime of life and strength man of middle stature. and to defend at any rate the frontiers of Thrace and Asia Minor. the Avar. endeavouring to reorganize the empire. strongly built. all the provinces were overrun by the The treasury the Persian. and yellow hair. great but worse . is filled with the catalogue Mesopotamia and North Syria had already been lost by Phocas. the Persian general Shahrbarz turned southwards and attacked Central Syria. 131 Next day the St. and the chronicle of his early years of the losses of the empire. and the army had almost disappeared owing to repeated and bloody defeats in Asia Minor. patriarch and the senate hailed Heraclius as emperor. Heraclius took over the empire in such a state of disorder and confusion that he must soon have felt that some truth in the dying sneer of seemed almost impossible to get things Phocas. The more distant provinces he hardly seems to have hoped to save. A. 610. and he was duly crowned in Sophia on October 5. for resources were wanting. Heraclius seems at first to have almost despaired there was It of the possibility of evolving order out of this chaos." For the first twelve years of his reign he remained Constantinople. Africa and Egypt and the district immediately around the capital. town of Damascus fell into his hands The . but afterwards cut it short. and broadchested.D. was empty.
which had served as its Palladium. was carried into captivity. This brought him back in wrath he stormed the city and put 90. had dug the relic up. Have I not destroyed the Greeks ? You say you trust in your God : why.132 THE DARKEST HOUR. His blasphemous phrases seem like an echo of the letter of Sennacherib in the Second Book of Kings. only Zacharias. Now took off the " This loss Shahrbarz desecrated the church and " True Cross to Persia. and with him went what all Christians then regarded as the most precious thing in the world the wood of the "True Helena. populace rose and slaughtered the : Persian troops when Shahrbarz had departed with his main army. according to the well-known legend. greatest of gods.000 Christians to the sword. has he not delivered out of my hand Caesarea. brought the inhabitants of the East . they thought that the luck of the empire had departed with the Holy Wood. his vile and insensate slave. took it after a short But the resistance. the mother of Constantine. The epistle ran : "Chosroes. of Jerusalem. on Mount Moriah. insult The mad language in which the Persian of pride and the day of his triumph used to Heraclius might also explain their belief. and master of the whole earth." shrine. Jerusalem. and built for it a splendid Cross. and occupied it with a garrison. was to come. to Heraclius. Patriarch sparing the Jewish inhabitants. and . then. In 614 the Persian army appeared before the holy city of Jerusalem. and even imagined that the Last Day was at hand and that Chosroes of Persia almost to despair was Antichrist.
and serve as a great loan to the state. if you will will come to me with your wife and children I give you lands. Alexandria nople ? 133 ? I Shall will I not also destroy Constantiall But pardon your sins .. and the populace bore the privation without demur. who slew him by nailing him to a cross. The Church came at the instance of the most noble way the Patriarch Sergius all the churches of Constantinople sent their treasures and ornaments to the mint to be coined down. were highest great effort to beat back the fire-worshipping Persians from PalesThe Emperor tine. no Caesar had ever gone out forward in in person to war. vowed that he would take the field at the head of the all. for since the death of Theodosius I. and to that from bound make one army a thing most unprecedented. in 395. The free dole of corn which the inhabitants of the capital had been receiving ever since the days of Constantine was abolished. It was indeed observed that this measure not only saved the treasury. which was to be repaid when the Persians should have been conquered. Do not deceive yourself with the vain hope in that Christ." The horror and rage roused by the loss of the " " True Cross and the blasphemies of King Chosroes brought about the feeling that first real outburst of national we meet was felt Empire. who was not even able to save himself from the Jews.THE LETTER OF CHOSROES. but drove into the army where . and olive groves. and will look upon you with a kindly aspect. and recover the Holy Places. It the history of the Eastern that the fate of Christendom in to lowest. vines. hung in the balance.
lost in who were 6 Egypt. That wild race had long been working their wicked will on the almost undefended Thracian provinces. the granary of the empire. for in 617 the Persians had again forced their way to the Bosphorus. and Heraclius only escaped by the ference speed of his horse. so that the dole would have had to be provided by the treasury buying corn. and the supply of government corn 1 entirely cut off. and it was not till 622 that he was able to take the field against the Persians. If the dole had been continued Heraclius could not have found a penny for the war. for the treacherous savage had planted ambushes on the way to secure the person of the Emperor. at the Chagan's pressing But the coninvitation. Heraclius would probably have taken the field next year but for troubles with the Avars. and this time captured Chalcedon.134 they THE DARKEST HOUR. to ride the faster. but now they promised Heraclius went out. The Avars kept the Emperor engaged for some time. a most necessary precaution. a ruinously expensive task. He also provided for the garrisoning of Constantinople by an adequate force. to meet him near Heraclea. had been 6. peace. By the aid of the Church loan Heraclius equipped new a army and strengthened his fleet. was a snare. He cast off his imperial mantle and galloped into the capital just in time to close its gates as the vanguard of the Chagan's army came in sight. This expedition of Heraclius was in spirit the first . were useful thousands of the able-bodied loiterers the strength of the circus factions and the pest of the city.
by to stimulate his a him. and . not by a direct attack. zeal. and cleared Asia Minor of the enemy. 135 It was the first war that the Roman Empire had ever undertaken in a spirit of religious enthusiasm. the Persians broke up from their camp opposite Constantinople." Holy Places. successful 622-27) i n gallant and attempt to save the half-ruined empire. in Cilicia. and came back to fall upon him. conquer the " and to recover the The True Cross. men were wrought up to a high pitch of enthusiasm warlike and the Emperor carried with sermons.D. Persian hosts. of the Crusades. and his name would be reckoned among the foremost of the world's warrior-kings if it had not been for the misfortunes which afterwards fell on him in his old age. threatening in this position both Syria and Cappadocia. He won great and welldeserved fame. In his next campaigns Heraclius endeavoured to liberate the rest of the Roman Empire by assail plan : he resolved to a similar Chosroes at home. for it was to no mere political end that the Emperor and his people looked forward.VICTORIES OF HERACLIUS. His first campaign cleared Asia Minor of the strategy. holy picture one of those eikons in which the Greek Church has always delighted which was believed to be the work of no mortal Heraclius hands. But after much manoeuvring he completely beat the general Shahrbarz. made no his less than six campaigns (A. As he expected. but by skilful Instead of attacking the army at Chalcedon. The marched out to save to army Christendom. in he took ship and landed the rear of the enemy.
Martyropolis. burst over the Balkans and beset ConThe two barbarian stantinople on the European side. and again defeated the general Shahrbarz. back fell Roman recovered Mesopotamia. with its fortresses of and Amida. by concerting a joint plan of operaWhile the main tions with the Chagan of the Avars. July. and recalled expected. and Heraclius In his next campaign he on Armenia. But 626 was the decisive year of the war. hosts could see each other across the water. a under south of him Shahrbarz slipped great body At into Asia Minor and marched on the Bosphorus. capital own Persian Syria and In provinces.I3 6 force THE DARKEST HOUR. in but the generals were defeated in both. his troops from the west. In the June. him to recall the armies his he kept Egypt to defend across the Armenian 623-4 the Emperor advanced into Media. in Armenia. The obstinate Chosroes determined on one final effort to crush Heraclius. suffered severely. Roman army Winter was at hand. and even the whole contrived to exchange messages. the birthplace of the Persian as might have been prophet Zoroaster. Persian army watched the emperor the same moment the Chagan of the Avars. Dara. but the Roman fleet sailing incessantly up and down the strait kept them from joining forces. and August of 626 the capital . with force of his tribe and of his Slavonic dependants. Chosroes. His fought two desperate battles to cover Ctesiphon. where his mountains and threw himself army revenged the woes of Antioch and Jerusalem the Median by burning the fire-temples of Ganzaca and Thebarmes.
but they were beaten back with great slaughter. Heraclius had shown great confidence in the strength of Constantinople and the courage of its defenders. Next year King Chosroes put last levy into the field the whom the of Persia. the garrison was strong.FIRST S7EGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. the patrician Bonus. the siege in disgust and Danube.000 Avars and Slavs. the Roman galleys sunk the and slew thousands of the Slavs who had come off in small Then the Chagan gave up retired across the boats to attack the fleet. with all sorts of siege implements. He imitated King Chosroes in calling in Tartar allies Avars arid revenged the ravages of the Thrace by turning 40. and the same crusading fervour which had inspired the Constantinopolitans in 622 still buoyed up their In the end of July 80. While Shahrbarz and the Chagan were besieging his capital.000 Khazar horsemen The enemy gave way loose on Northern Persia. Next the Chagan built himself rafts and tried to bring the Persians across. was an able officer. but clumsy structures. he bid to go out and "conquer or die. delivered simultaneous assaults along the land front of the city. spirits. he himself was wasting Media and Mesopotamia. He sent a few veteran troops to aid the garrison. the fleet was efficient. : 137 was thus beset the clanger appeared imminent." At to same time he wrote command Shahrbarz to . its commander. in from the north. under a general named Rhazates. and the Persians began to him before everywhere. and But the Emperor was far away on the Euphrates. grow desperate. but did not slacken from his attack on Persia.
evacuate Chalcedon and return Heraclius intercepted the home in haste. The new king sent the humblest messages to the victorious Roman. He cavalry. Heraclius received his ambassadors with kindness. Chosroes could put no new army in the field. he retired to Ctesiphon. The Nemesis of Chosroes' insane vanity had now Ten years after he had written his vaunting arrived. letter to Heraclius he found himself in far worse After adversary had ever been. the capital of his empire. despatch of recall. a war indemnity paid. : of starvation if the darker tale is true. hailing him as his "father. restored. fell it But and Shahrbarz came not. including the "True Cross." faithfully . on the condition that every inch of Roman terri- tory should be evacuated. charging at the head of his and by Christmas Heraclius had seized his palace of Dastagerd. Then the end plight than his Dastagerd had fallen came his own son Siroes and his chief nobles seized him and threw him in chains. himself. and divided among his troops such a plunder as had never been seen since Alexander the Great captured Susa. all Roman captives freed. and a few days after he died of rage and despair according to one story. home army and Near Nineveh Heraclius inflicted on in with the Persian a decisive defeat." and apologizing for all the woes that the ambition of Chosroes had brought upon the world. but even from thence he had to flee on the approach of the enemy. rode down the general of the enemy and slew him with his lance.138 THE DARKEST HOUR. and the spoils of Jerusalem. and granted peace.
of the Heraclius returned to Constantinople in the summer same year with his spoils. Heraclius returned to Constantinople to spend. bearing myrtle boughs. and was much worn by his incessant campaigning. His task. He had now reached the age of fifty-four. perhaps. and led his troops further east than any Roman general had ever penetrated. and the " ceremony concluded with the exhibition of the True Cross" before the high altar of St. . too. and his great trophy. the greatest triumph that any Heraclius had surpassed the emperor ever won. and the Senate conferred on him the title of the " New Scipio." The whole of the citizens. a glorious peace ended the twenty-six years of the Persian war." His entry was celebrated in the style of an old Roman triumph. and the end of his reign was to be almost as disastrous as the commence- ment. 628.TRIUMPH OF HERACLIUS. Sophia. Since Julius Caesar no one had fought so incessantly for six years the emperor had not been out of the saddle nor met with such uniform success. as he hoped. had been the hardest ever imposed on an emperor none of his predecessors . Heraclius afterwards took it back in great pomp to Jerusalem. But the quiet for which he yearned was to be denied him. 139 Siroes consented with alacrity. and in March. the " Holy Wood. came out to meet the army. had ever started to war with his very capital beleaguered and with three-fourths of his provinces in the hands of the enemy. the rest of his years in peace. This was. his victorious army. eastern achievements of Trajan and Severus.
. and it at the very moment out his of Heraclius' triumph that Mahomet kings Islam. was to be invaded by a new enemy far more terrible than the old. and drained of men and money. great The was the Saracen invasion was at hand. he would have prayed that the day of his triumph might also be the day of his death. sent famous circular letter to If the of the earth. spoiled for ten long years by the Persian and the Avar. inviting them to Emperor could but have known that embrace his desolated realm.140 THE DARKEST HOUR.
and religion of the empire had been greatly modified The in the three hundred years that separated them. The regularity of their sequence is all .D. their were either predecessors designated by emperors or less frequently chosen by the high officials and the senate.) THE point in the history reign of Heraclius forms the best dividing of the empire between what may roughly be called Ancient History and the Middle Ages. social life. though the area. SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS (A.XI. The first prominent fact that strikes the eye in the history of the three centuries that the sceptre passed from sovereign to devolution. LIFE. 320-620. is sovereign in quiet and undisturbed From the death of Valens onward there of succession no instance of a military usurper breaking the line The till the crowning of Phocas in 602. had a peaceable and orderly is development. character. which commenced when Constantine established his capital on the Bosphorus. new order of things. There is no break at all between Constantine and Heraclius.
and nearly all the machinery of the administration was worked in Latin phraseology. by son. The first was the gradual de-Romanization (if we may coin the uncouth word) alike of the governing classes and the masses of population. and Arcadius. Theodosius I. more three astonishing when we realize that only cases in the whole period was father succeeded Saving Constantine himself. all names of taxes and in institutions. not a single emperor male issue . Considering this it is extraordinary to note that the whole tendency. sons-inlaw. and in moral character they will compare favourably with any list of sovereigns of similar length that any country can produce.142 the in SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE. In the fourth century the Roman impress was still strong in the East . and brothers-in-law of sovereigns were gladly received as their legitimate heirs. the language was habitually spoken by every educated man. All law terms are habitually Latin. were men but the general average of the emperors of respectable ability. was sometimes cruel. still Writers in born and bred Greece or Asia wrote Latin . The chief modifications which must be marked in the character of the empire between 320 and 620 depend on two processes of gradual change which were going on throughout the three centuries. yet the hereditary instinct had left grown so strong in the empire that nephews. three hundred years did not produce a single unmiti- gated was gloomy and II. Arcadius utterly weak and inept. Valens stupid and avaricious. Justinian hard and tyrant Constantius thankless .. all titles of Latin officers.
had learnt to the seventh century this Roman element was rapidly vanishing.DECAY OF THE LATIN TONGUE. all his successors spoke were better skilled in Greek. Felix. and a scattered line of cities along the Thracian coast. Already in the sixth century a knowledge of Latin was growing unusual even old : among educated men. but little more than the names survived. 800 that he dropped the Pius. as often as in the familiar to them. Augustus about A. counts and praetors. Macedonia. tells The author Johannes Lydus rise us that he owed his in the civil service mainly to accomplishment. for. was absolutely ignorant of the rudiments of Latin. 143 Greek which must have been more Ammianus : Marcellinus may serve as a fair Greece. Procopius. and blunders when he tries to translate the simplest phrase. : " and called himself " 'Ev Xpia-roi TTKTTO^ Nor were the old Roman /3a(Tt\eu9 TWV 'Ptw/iatW. the whole land speak the tongue of its conquerors. It is true that the Emperor was still By hailed as the it " was not style till Perpetuus. Moreover there was still in the lands east of the Adriatic a very large body of Latin-speaking population comprising all the inhabitants of the inland of the Balkan peninsula. Justinian was the last emperor who Latin as his mother tongue. the best writer of the day and a man of real merit and this rare discernment. he wrote in the example of the race rather than in his own ruling tongue in born idiom. The gradual practical disuse of Latin has though not formal its origin in the solution of the con- . except Greece proper.D." official titles yet disused men were still tribunes and patricians.
he was an African. 400 century later almost exterminated them. : a considerable Latin-speaking population obeyed the Emperor were Africa and the Italian Exarchate. it was at the same time growing more and more .144 SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS the LIFE. tinuity between Rome and with the division of the empire between which began the sons after of Constantine and became more complete in 476. from the centre of life and government to have to reunited Constantinople exercised any influence or delayed the de. : as might have been While the empire was losing its Roman characteristics. and Moesians. East. was the poet Flavius Corippus who addressed a long panegyric to Justinus expected.Romanizing of the East. Illyrians. was bound But to yield before the predominant Greek. probably a quarter of the provincials east of the Adriatic spoke Latin in A. who being a subject of the empire wrote in Latin as his native tongue.D.D. Odoacer made himself King of Italy In the course of a century and a half the Latin element in the East. The . The Visi- goths and Ostrogoths harassed and decimated the Thracians. Romanized lands of the Balkan peninsula had now become Slavonic principalities only the Dalmatian seaports and a few scattered survivors in the Balkans still used the old The only districts where tongue. cut off from the Latin-speaking West. II. 620 not a tenth. now by the conquests of But they seem to have been too remote Justinian. The last notable author. the process would have been slower if the Eastern provinces which spoke Latin had not been those which suffered most from the barbarians. but the Slavs a In A.
and the gladiators were about to engage. and the form and spirit of all administrative and legal Many business was unaltered from what it had been in the third century. their brethren. but of a single individual. They survived emperors.D. One day in A. diate successors 145 Under Constantine and his imme- the machinery of government was only just beginning to be effected by the change of the emperor's religion. whose crusade against sexual immorality would have been incomprehensible to even the best of the pagan The old gladiatorial shows. adjuring them not to slay There was an angry scuffle. and the good monk was slain. it had been of the high officials were still pagans. were abolished not long after. work of an end to put detestable of which the infanticide practice pervaded In other provinces of less social life the Christianity was no marked. for sixty years at Rome. the system remained what before. But his death had the effect that his protests might have failed to bring about. It is not till forty years after Constantine's death that we find the Christian spirit fully pene- trating out of the spiritual into the material sphere of life.CHRISTIANITY AND THE STATE. Though the sovereign personally was Christian. one of the most characteristic and repulsive features of Roman life. and no gladiatorial show was ever given again. work of the State. It . though Christian Con- But this was not the stantinople never knew them. 404 the games had begun.. Christian at heart. when the monk Telemachus leapt down into the arena and threw himself between the combatants. Attempts by the State to suppress moral sin no less than legal crime begin with Theodosius I.
- w I c I .
Hereditary . were fitly commemorated by the liberation of deserving individuals. Christianity man with an he was a that immortal soul. had regarded the slave with such contempt that he was hardly reckoned a moral being or conceived to have rights or virtues. and Valentinian I. was from the first taught that the man who manumitted his slaves earned the approval of heaven. and bade slaves and freemen meet on terms of perfect equality around It the baptismal font and before the sacred table. 374 assimilated infantimade it a capital Slavery was also profoundly affected by the The ancient world. public and private. 147 the ancient world. and all occasions of rejoicing. resting on the assumption that the father had the right to decide whether or not he would Constantine made rear the child he had begotten. opinion had condemned the characteristic evils of ancient slavery he permitted the intermarriage of slaves and free persons. and he made the prostitution of a by a master a criminal offence. few philosophers. Though slavery was not extinguished for centuries. lest their parents should be tempted to cast them forth to perish in the old fashion. in cide to other forms of murder. the State assume the charge of feeding and rearing the children of the destitute.CHRISTIANITY AND SLAVERY. save a teaching of the Church. no taught less than his own master. stipulating only for the : consent of the owner of the servile partner in the He declared the children of such mixed wedlock. marriages slave free. its evils Justinian's legislation were immensely modified shows that by his time public . and offence.
which we have been speaking can be directly slaves. They took the form of laying such new exclusive stress on the relations between the individual soul and heaven. classes of infants. Some of the developments of the the idea were harmful and even dangerous to State. on nothing but on saving their own take up a position outside the State. that the realization of this central truth did had add not always fifth operate for good in the Roman world of the and sixth centuries. It was the belief in the importance of the individual human Roman soul in the eyes of God that led the converted to realize his responsibility. more When men retire especially over its eastern provinces. not appeal so keenly to the mind of their captors. the result may be harmless so long as their numbers are small. from their duties as citizens.148 slavery SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE. and cease to be of the slightest use to society. gladiators traced back to a single fundamental Christian truth. and the institution was only kept up by the introduction of barbarian whose position did captives. starting from Egypt. that the duties of man to the State were half forgotten. spread rapidly all over the empire. The improvement of the condition of all the unhappy women. But at this time the monastic impulse was working on such a large scale that its development was positively dangerous. and change his attitude towards the helpless beings whom he It is only fair to before despised and neglected. Chief among these developments was the ascetic monasticism which. heathens and enemies. became almost unknown. It was by thousands and ten thousands that the men . intent souls.
D. they were neither missionaries nor men of learning. The Roman Empire in in its with the barbarians was this attitude of so no small degree of its hampered by many subjects. while letting the world around them slide on as best it may. Before his time monks and books had no special connection with each other. The first abbot to whom it to State. 149 have been bearing the burdens of the stepped aside into the monastery or the hermit's cave. since The ascetic took the barbarian invasions as men complacently lypse. The ascetics of the fifth century had neither of the justifications which made monasticism precious in a later age. When their a State contains masses of men who devote selfish whole energies to a repulsively attempt to save their individual souls. who ought occurred to turn the vast leisure of his monks to good account by setting them systematically to work at copying manuscripts was Cassiodorus. then the own body fight politic is diseased. the exsecretary to King Theodoric the Goth [A. The monastery did not devote itself either to sending out preachers and teachers. or to storing up and cherishing the literary treasures of the ancient world. and not as national calamities which called on every citizen to join in the attempt to repel them. Many interpreted the troubles of the fifth century as the tribulations predicted in the Apocajoy. judgments from heaven rightly inflicted upon a wicked world.EVILS OF MONASTICISM. 530-40]. This apathetic attitude of many Christians during . and watched them develop with something like they must portend the close approach of the Second Advent of our Lord.
But if open heathenism was dead. aiming his work at the pagan Symmachus whose book had been devoted calamities to of the world to the tracing all the conversion of Constantine. Roman all and fought on doggedly against barbarian invasion. but little affected by Christianity in their lives. the last refuge of the professors of the expiring religion. of being the ruin They roundly accused of the Christianity anti-social State by its teaching which led citizen. by . This type was extremely official classes.150 SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE. instead of bowing to the recognizing in every calamity the righteous of the world. common among the literary and There are plenty of sixth-century authors Procopius may . the ills of their time yoke and judgment of heaven and the indication of the approaching end and pestilence. famine. and in 529 Justinian put a formal end to their teaching. It was fortunate classes for the empire that its governing continued to preserve the old traditions of state-craft. a large measure of indifferentism prevailed among the educated classes many men who in the fifth century would have been pagans were : Christians in name in the sixth. the afflictions of the empire was maddening to the heathen minority which still survived among the educated classes. closing the schools of Athens. of the Paganism had practically disappeared by the end fifth century as an active force none save a few philosophers made an open profession of it. men to neglect every duty of the himself The Christian author Orosius felt compelled to write a lengthy history to confute this view.
trivial or obscene ceremonies practised and charms. itself It revealed in a crowd of gross superstitions connected magic. It has been usual to include all days of the the Eastern I. fortune-telling.SUPERSTITIONS. and that there has been no other enduring civilization so absolutely destitute of all the forms and elements of 1 " History of European Morals. Lecky's Byzantine stantine in XIV. As time went on. 13. Romans of all the centuries between Constantine and Con- one sweeping condemnation. non-religious Roman character passed away into the emotional and superstitious mediaeval type of mind. lawyers. . which appeared as indifferentism among the educated classes." ii. The survival of pre-Christian feeling. and cowardly. practices. though the writer was undoubtedly Similar exa professing member of the Church. as The ordinary view of effete. p. irritating statement x that " the universal verdict of history is that it constitutes the most base and despicable form that civilization ever assumed. and statesmen of the day. corrupt. and imposed punishment on those who employed them nevertheless these : but contemptible latest survivals of heathenism persisted down to the empire. witchcraft. and the old stern. The State highly disapproved of such in secret. amples could be quoted by the dozen from among the administrators. serve as an 151 example whose works show no trace of Christian thought. treated with them as impious or heretical. took a very different shape among the lower strata of society. but all were now nominally Christian. such men grew rarer. summed life be may up in Mr.
) C. Par Paris." (From Byzantine MSS. (From "L'Art Byzantin. Quantin. 1883.) .ILLUMINATED INITIALS. Bayet.
Lecky fratricide. full of prostrations and genuflexions. If whose staple commodity was we must sum up the characteristics of the East Romans and their civilization. the wholesale and deliberate use of treachery and lying in matters of diplomacy. It sounds like a cheap echo of the second-hand historians of fifty years ago. 153 none to which the epithet mean may be so It is a monstrous story of the emphatically applied. But remembering its origins we shall." How ingratitude. perpetual obtained his universal : verdict of history. upon the Oriental provinces among races that had long been stigmatized by their masters as hopelessly effete and corrupt Syrians. of of poisonintrigues priests. conspiracies. and Hellenized Asiatics.water. whom even the degenerate Romans of the The Byzanthird century had been wont to despise. It showed features particularly obnoxious to the modern mind of the nineteenth century such as the practice of a degrading and grovelling court etiquette. Egyptians. on the . the conclusion at which we arrive will be very different. it is hard to see certainly that verdict can not have been arrived at after a study of the evidence bearing on the life of the persons accused. and women . uniform Mr. Gibbon-and. ing.WEAKNESSES OF BYZANTINE SOCIETY. the introduction of eunuchs and slaves into high offices of State. tine Empire displayed from its very cradle a taint of weakness derived from this Oriental origin. It is only fair to acknowledge that they had be expected when we Eastern Empire were of the old laid their faults : what else could know that the foundations of the Roman world. greatness. eunuchs.
was the desperate struggle against the fanatical Saracen protracted for four hundred years. but for turbulence. frivolity. The vices of which the East we note and his mercenaries. how. said that Christianity raised the Roman East to a better moral position than it had known for a thousand years. from Jeremiah to . With all their faults the monks and century are a good substitute for It the priests of Cybele and Mithras of the second. Every moralist. and Heraclius. It is not for cowardice that centuries of the empire. above all. how came the Ostrogoth and Vandal to be conquered. whole. the was something that the Government and public opinion of the day had concurred to sweep away the hermits of the fifth Church and State orgies of Daphne and Canopus. the Persian and the Hun to be driven off.154 SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE. the Byzantine populace which routed Gainas and raised the Nika sedition. chief characteristic of the centuries that produced emperors like Theodosius I. Cowardice was certainly not the grossly wronged. till at last the Caliphate broke up ? Frivolity and luxury are an accusation easy to bring against any age. public servants like Belisarius and Priscus. prelates like Athanasius and Chrysostom. united in the reign of Justinian to punish with spiritual and bodily death the unnatural crimes which had been the open practice of emperors themselves in the first Romans have most been accused are cowardice. and commonly each of On these points they have been treachery. wonder at the good points in Byzantine civiIt may fairly be lization rather than at its faults. If military virtue was wanting to the East-Roman armies.
When evil living often Chrysostom raged against the contemporaries of Arcadius. but when we examine all the enormiues laid to the charge of the Byzantines. 155 Juvenal. Ruskin. have numerous against the manners of Constantinople prein We served in Byzantine literature. genesis From the darker forms of vice great cities have their attention . and attracted the enthusiastic attention of thousands of votaries . there is lets alleged than we might expect. the gambling propensities of their husbands. Luxury and go together. on the immoral tendencies of the theatre. hfc anathemas fell on such crimes as the use of cosmetics and dyes by fashionable dames. The races of the Circus played a disproportionate part in social life.'ment. have not to look far around us to discover classes for whom horse. that the Constantinopolitans were excitable and had no other form of sport to distract from the Circus. athletic interests. should cast a stone at the sixth century. we can easily realize the of the famous riots of the Blues and Greens. on the drunken orgies at popular festivals accusations to which any age our own included might plead guilty. and may judge from them something of the faults of the time. has believed his oun generation to be the most obnoxious and contemptible tirades the world's history.ESTIMATE OF BYZANTINE SOCIETY. on. and from Juvenal to Mr. much ostentatious display of plate and furniture.racing still We remember Orientals. It would seem that there was much of the sort of luxury to which ascetic preachers take exception much splendour of ra. When we presents an inexplicable attraction. of horses and chariots. but it is surely hard that our with all its sporting and own age.
but it is true that there was too much intrigue at Conreason is aux talents" practically existed and the there. dosius and Justinian are recorded to have entered upon the herculean task Constantinople London in the nineteenth. it also displayed shining examples of the Flaccilla social virtues. The converted Goth or the renegade Persian. must remember. and inflicted death on those guilty of the worst extremes of immorality. AND RELIGIOUS is LIFE. mixed together. the half-civilized The stantinople. Of the monastic severity which the Empress Pulcheria displayed in the palace we have spoken already. " carriere ouverte not far to seek : the mountaineer from Isauria. in the or civil service. too. There have been other states still and epochs more given to plots and revolts. that if Constantinople showed We much vice. if only they had Both the bureaucracy and the army therefore army had elements which lacked patriotism. able. and were prone to seek advancement either . The Empress was wont to frequent the hospitals.156 never been SOCIAL free. and stability. all the Copt and Syrian and Armenian were wel- comed ability. the sixth century differed from disorderly houses : the latter of endeavouring to suppress all made exile the penalty for panders and procuresses. army and the civil service were full of and ambitious men of all races and classes poor. to think that and there in no reason It is fair to point out that Government strove the Christian public opinion and Theotheir best to put down sexual immorality. After cowardice and light morals. and tend the beds of the sick. conscience. it is treachery that is popularly cited as the most prominent vice of the Eastern Empire.
by intrigue or military is 157 revolt. Lecky speaks of the " perpetual fratricide of the Byzantine emperors. by palace The in fact that all legitimate intrigue or military the plots and there were many much a proof that the period failed hopelessly. It may be interesting to point out that from 340 to 1453 there was not a single emperor murdered by a brother. and only one dethroned by a brother. on the whole. 1 . if there was much treachery there was loyalty among the East Romans.ESTIMATE OF BYZANTINE SOCIETY. either revolt. Two were dethroned by sons. is. 1 Mediaeval Italy from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century could produce far more shocking examples of conscienceless and unjustifiable plotting than the Byzantine Empire existence. perhaps astonishing to have to record that its This being granted. in the whole thousand years of " its Mr. but not murdered. There have certainly been periods in more recent times which show A single instance may suffice a much worse record. it between 350 and 600 the empire never once saw ruler dethroned.
Hence it came to pass that at the end of the war the two powers were each weaker than they had ever been before. Precisely at this moment a new and terrible enemy . sank down in exhaustion to heal them of their deadly wounds. and ravaged from end to end by each others marauding armies. Never before had either power dealt its : neighbour such fearful blows as in this last struggle in previous wars the contest had been waged around border fortresses. utterly wearied and exhausted. and the Roman had guided the yet wilder Chazars up to the walls of Ctesiphon.XII. AFTER the peace of 628 the Roman and the Persian Empires. Heraclius had struck deadly blows at the heart of each other's empire. and harried the inmost provinces up to the gates of each other's capitals. and the prize had been the conquest But Chosroes and of some small slice of marchland. drained of men and money. The Persian had turned the wild hordes of the Avars loose on Thrace. and desirous of nothing but a long interval of peace to recover their lost strength. They were bleeding at every pore. THE COMING OF THE SARACENS.
into the land beyond the Syrian desert. burning to carry all over the world by the force of " God was God. For the first and last time in history there had arisen among the Arabs one of those world-compelling minds that are destined to turn aside the current of events into new channels. that posture. of self-deception and deliberate im- career and cruelty. But while Heraclius and Chosroes were harrying each other's realms events of world-wide importance had been taking place in the Arabian peninsula. prophet and seer. Mahomet. The turbulent polytheists of Arabia had by front. Each of and had them had allies among Arab sometimes sent an expedition or an embassy southBut ward.RISE OF MAHOMET. fanatic and impostor. and delivered an attack so vehement that it was destined to destroy the ancient kingdom of Persia and to shear away half the provinces of the Roman Empire. 159 fell upon the two war-worn combatants. their swords their new war-cry. was developing his all through the years of the Persian war. of benevolence and Mahomet His prophet" . of austerity and himself and his creed to the he had worked licence. By an extraordinary mixture of genuine enthusiasm and vulgar cunning. that strangest of moral enigmas. tribes. The politics of Arabia had up to this time been of little moment either to Roman the or Persian. neither of them dreamed that the scattered and disunited tribes of Arabia would ever combine or become a serious danger. him been converted into a compact band of fanatics. and change the face of whole continents.
not treat lightly the armies of the early. bidding them embrace Islam. nor scoff with Gibbon at the feebleness of the who were routed by them. in chains when The Roman made no direct reply. seven or eight years English writers have been inclined to underrate the force and fury of an army of Mahometan fanatics in the first flush of their enthusiasm. that the storm fell on the Roman Empire. the Arab summons to Heraclius and Chosroes. Mahomet some small presents. In 628. Next year  the first collision between the EastRomans and the Arabs took place. when Mahomet himself was already dead. Now The that our own day the scenes of we have witnessed in Tamaai and Abu Klea we Martini-Henry rifles is For the future we shall troops do so no longer. let us not blame .l6o THE COMING OF THE SARACENS. the Caliph Abu Bekr prepared two armies. The Persian replied with the sent his threat that he he had but sent leisure. and launched the one against Palestine and the other against Till the last Persia. having pushed a raid up to Muta. If the soldiers of Queen Victoria. But it was not till three years later. rush that can break into a British square bristling with not a thing to be despised. neglecting the would put the Prophet enlisting a possible political and only thinking of Both answers were ally. the last year of the great war. a band of Moslems theological bent of his message. found the fanatical Arab a formidable foe.Caliphs. near the Dead Sea. In obedience to the injunctions of his deceased master. armed with modern rifles and artillery. and he doomed the two empires to a similar destruction. regarded as equally unsatisfactory by the Prophet.
yearn to become a martyr. and cared not how he died. had not yet got back into their old Both countries were much distracted organization. well invasion was chosen most unhappily for Heraclius. The Moslem wanted to get killed.ARAB INVASION OF the soldiers of Heraclius SYRIA. In the early engagements between the East. who held his life the cheapest The moment of the Saracen with religious troubles . He had just paid off the enormous debt that he had contracted to the Church. and the odds were on the man he had first . the Saracen invasion they stood aside and refused to . slain an enemy. the heretical sects of the Monophysites and Jacobites who swarmed within their boundaries had lifted up their heads under the Persian rule. and disbanded many of his veterans for the sake of economy. l6l who faced the same enemy with pike and sword alone. being relieved from the governmental They repression that had hitherto been their lot seem to have constituted an actual majority of the population. Syria and Egypt. enough adversary.Romans and the Saracens the superior discipline and more regular arms of the one were not a sufficient counterpoise to put against the mad recklessness of the other. and bitterly resented the endeavours of Heraclius to enforce orthodoxy in the reconquered Their discontent was so bitter that during provinces. and to do so had not only drained the treasury but imposed some new and unwise taxes on the harassed provincials. The Roman fought but he did like his not. after spending twelve and ten years respectively under the Persian yoke. that he dom if in the might reap the fruits of martyrother world.
the tale of the invasion had been intertwined with a whole cycle of romantic the legends. All the mailed horsemen of Heraclius. broke fierce battle their firm array when a victory seemed almost assured. and sixty thousand men crossed the Jordan and advanced to recover The Arabs met them at the fords of the Bostra." the fanatical . the devil and hell-fire behind. an Eastern tributary of the Jordan. his solid phalanx of infantry. who seem to have hated the idea of recording the The Moslems. Hieromax. headed by the fierce warrior Khaled. Thoroughly roused by this disaster Heraclius set all the legions of the East marching. and ere The historians arose among them. alien enemy. details of the Arab conquest on Syria have not been preserved by the East. or even on occasion aided the help the imperial armies. The Romans emerged from the desert collected an army at to drive them off. his Armenian and Isaurian archers. were insufficient to resist the wild rush of the Arabs. and a raged all day. but in July in it was defeated Aijnadin [Gabatha] Ituraea. Paradise is before you.162 THE COMING OF THE SARACENS. fitter for the "Arabian Nights" than sober pages of a chronicle. The Romans drove the back to the very gates of their camp. on the other disasters of Christendom. hand. by the aid of treachery from within. had not yet commenced to write. The Saracen horde under Abu Obeida in the spring of 634 and captured Bostra.Roman historians. But the main lines of the war can be reconstructed with accuracy. but a enemy last charge. " Urged on by the cry of their general. the frontier city of Syria to the east.
though he was now over in health." The Caliph did .JERUSALEM TAKEN. could do nothing Emesa and were sacked before his eyes. Hardly had he reached it when the news arrived that his discontented and demoralized troops had proclaimed a rebel emperor. and after an Heliopolis he hurried to Jerusalem. 163 Orientals threw themselves on regiment after regiment and drove it off the field. The rebel his name was Baanes was put down. and retired to Constantinople. resisted desperately Most of its population were early in 635. after a desperate resistance. replaced it " True Cross in " Chalcis. Patriarch Sophronius was commanded to guide the conqueror around the city. fell field. and the aged Omar came over the desert. though the enemy was before them. sixty. prophet. In the next year. and when he saw the rude Arab standing by the Desolation. massacred. and the Arabs. The inhabitants refused to surrender except to the Caliph in person. cried aloud. but its great stronghold. altar of the Sepulchre. but meanwhile Antioch. protracted more than twelve months. where he had triumph five years before. 637. truly in the "Now is Church of the Holy the Abomination of of which was spoken by Daniel the Holy Place. fell into the hands of Worse yet was Jerusalem for fell. and was beginning . all Northern Syria to follow. This disaster drew Heraclius into the Damascus. All Syria east of Jordan was lost in this fatal battle. proud to take possession of the city which Mahomet had reckoned The the holiest site on earth save Mecca alone. took the inglorious campaign to fail He from its sanctuary.
known ever since as the Mosque of Omar. he a single son. became the prey of the con. Eudocia. The tale of the last years of Heraclius is most The Emperor lay at Constantinople melancholy. King : Isdigerd. and saw it of Nehauend. raised his last army field in 641. Constantine. the single port of Alexthe andria was remaining possession of torn Syria and Egypt from the hands of the unfortunate Heraclius had been even more fatal to his Eastern neighbour. and erected on it a magnificent Mosque. slowly dying of dropsy. and his eldest son Constantine had to take the field in his stead. . The Arabs had attacked the Persian kingdom at the same Romans in Egypt.164 THE COMING OF THE SARACENS. He cut to pieces at the decisive fled away to dwell as an all his exile among the Turks. pressed eastward across the Isthmus of Suez. years more of fighting sufficed to conquer the granary of the Roman Empire and in February. when he attempted to recover North Syria. But the young prince received a crushing defeat in 638. under Amrou. when Heraclius the sole died. who should . Two 641. but he took the site of Solomon's Temple. not confiscate any of the great Christian sanctuaries. and threw themselves upon Egypt. The ten years' war which had moment that they fell on Syria two great battles at Kadesia  and Yalulah  sufficed to place all Western Persia in the hands of the Moslems. the last of the Sassanian line. and kingdom as far as the borders of India querors. Heraclius had married twice left by his first wife. and next year the Arabs.
who was thus excluded from the throne to which he was the natural heir. Heracleonas. worked very badly. It was rumoured far and wide that his step-mother had poisoned him.Romans. The senate and the Byzantine populace were both highly indignant at this usurpation. 165 have been his sole heir. an ambitious and intriguing woman. The court and army was at once split up between the adherents of the two young Emperors. Heracleonas had reigned alone no more than a few weeks when the army of the East and the mob of Constantinople were heard demanding should be crowned as cleonas in his uncle's colleague. but his In the summer submission only saved him for a year. Martina. But he had taken a second The wife. they found themselves distracted fierce by Court intrigues. died. angry tones that Constans Hera- compliance. for the deceased Constantine left a young son named Constans. to make the way clear for her own son Heracleonas. Armed strife between the Emperors seemed destined to break out. joint-heir with his half-brother Constantine. prevailed on her aged husband to make her eldest son. but after reigning only a few months Constantine III. as might have been expected. frightened into was . and was the one grave offence which could be brought against Heraclius. who immediately proclaimed himself sole emperor. and this wife was his own niece Martina. whose life was in other respects blameless.THE SONS OF HERACLWS. and while the defence of the empire against the Saracens should have been the sole care of the East. incestuous choice had provoked much scandal. This arrangement.
but not the last. . It had them in sheer fanatical legends perished long before. Caliph the of Othman civil first in 656. were still dangerous till the murder of the .l66 THE COMING OF THE SARACENS. empire a the the east 1 for the Caliphate gave the Moawiah. they fought unceasingly against the Saracen. Constans II. The times. and his son and successor. hardheaded warrior princes. of 642 the senate decreed his deposition. The victorious faction very cruelly ordered the and the nose of the son to be tongue of the mother slit the first instance of that hateful Oriental members practice being applied to of the royal house. was sole emperor from 642 to 668. after which the outbreak of war among the Moslems the contest AH and Moawiah respite. and he was seized by the adherents of Constans and sent into exile. Constantine IV. who held the lands on Roman To frontier his rival's power lying further to secured a free hand against Ali. fit descendants of the gallant Their main credit lies in the fact that Heraclius. by making the credit of Amrou and his Saracens it must be recorded that the great Alexandrian Library was not burnt by wantonness as the tell. along with his mother Martina. reigned from 668 to 685.. During the * and minority indeed of Constans II. however.. and preserved as a permanent possession of the empire nearly every province that they had still remained Roman at the death of Heraclius. ports preserved by in Egypt and Syria were lost But the Saracens advanced no further by land the sands of the African desert and the passes of Taurus were destined to hold them back for many years. Alexandria the two last the Romans Aradus. They were both strong.
The old Roman names and boundaries. Constans was at liberty to turn his attention to other matters. Of these the first two explain themselves. and the corps-commander There were six was also the provincial governor. Freed from the Saracen war. Anatolic. They were military in their origin. Theme " corps in Asia. him a small annual subsidy so long as the truce should last. and Obsequian themes. the army of Armenia and the army . too. and saw that the extension of their conquests was not destined to spread at once over the whole world. This agreement was invaluable to the empire. and the into new provinces with is found divided strange denominations. district which it defended. victories were not to When they realized that their they lost the first go on for ever. Thracesian. 167 He even consented to pay peace with Constans. called the Armeniac. keenness of the fanatical courage which had made them so terrible. After twenty-seven years of incessant war the mangled realm at last obtained an interval of It was something. Cibyrrhaeot. which had threatened not merely to curtail. now disappear. and each consisted of the district covered by empire a large unit of soldiery " what we should call an armyboth the corps and the meant corps. were induced to pause. which had endured since Diocletian's time. which we find in existence in moment the second half of the seventh century.THE THEMES CREATED. that the Saracens repose. they were " " " " of the East . Bucellarian. but to extinguish the empire. It seems probable that it was at this that the reorganization of the provinces of the empire took place.
Thessalonica. or the islands of Cyprus and Sardinia. beside the great themes. " The Thracein the stress sians were the Army of Thrace. Hellas. Bury's excellent chapter on " Themes. The Bucellarii seem to have been corps composed of natives and barbarian auxiliaries mixed they are heard of long before Constans." who of the war had been drafted across to Asia to reinforce the Eastern troops. In both halves of the empire there . who had charge of outlying posts." and their origin. were. smaller districts under the command of military governors. The Cibyrrhaeot theme alone gets its name from a town. and their names explain their boundaries. which Augustus had invented and Diocletian per1 Roman Empire. and he probably did no more than unite them . and localize them in a single district.l68 THE COMING OF THE SARACENS. Ravenna. quartered along the Propontis. was so called because it was a kind of personal guard for the Emperor and the home districts. Its commander had a his fleet always his charge." in vol. Some of these after- wards grew into independent themes. 1 troops were often employed as The western half of the empire seems to have " also had six " Themes they bear however old and familiar names Thrace. the port of Cibyra in Pamphylia. which must have been the original headquarters of the South-Western Army in Corps. ii. and marines. of his " Later is most convincing as to these very puzzling provinces . Mr. the Obsequian theme. Thus came to an end the old imperial system of dividing military authority and civil jurisdiction. and Africa. such as the passes of Taurus. Sicily.
and for the future a commander chosen for his military capacity has also to discharge civil functions. " the Bearded. invasion the civil governors. and Constantine his son reigned in his stead." The blow was fatal. Constans II. passed not seen the face of an emperor for two hundred When an emperor did appear he brought no years. disappear.. when once he had made peace with Moawiah. he took many But he to take and on failed to Rome. would have done well to turn to the Balkan Peninsula. Constans died. But in 668 he was assassinated in a most strange manner. But he chose instead to do no more than compel the Slavs to pay homage to him and give tribute. busied with the affairs of Italy and Africa. and evict the Slavs from the districts south of Haemus into which they had penetrated during the reign of Heraclius. for Constans signalized his visit by taking down the bronze tiles of the Pantheon and sending them laid siege to the capital. 169 Under stress of the fearful Saracenic petuated. known in as Pogonatus.. till the Constantinopolitans began to fear that he would make Rome or Syracuse his capital.WARS OF CONSTANS II. luck. and even off to Constantinople . Constantine IV. Falling on the Duchy of Benevento. and fled away. The Emperor lingered no less than five years in the West. of which more one long struggle with the . and set out to turn westward. towns. and endeavour to drive the Lombards out of Italy." than half were spent reigned for seventeen years. Andreas his bathing attendant smote him on the head with his soapbox. " As he bathed in the baths called Daphne. which had it.
in But 673 the Caliph made of which had never yet like the ready an expedition. and accompanied by Yezid. forced Dardanelles. The proceeded to blockade the Bosphorus. empire. been undertaken by great fleet and was only the prelude A land army started from Syria to undertake the siege itself. It the general Abderrahman. " Greek-fire inflammable liquids (probably " of which we first hear at fleet gave the Emperor's the superiority in a decisive naval battle. the . with by the armies and fleets of Africa. The fleet beat the imthe Caliph's son and heir. and took Cyzicus. Moawiah on this and Asia Minor. had now made himself sole Caliph the civil wars of the Arabs were now over. stood. It is a thousand pities that the details of this. and once more they fell on the . . the Saracens. perial which the was headed by navy it off the sea. and his successors had to lead back the mere wrecks of a fleet and army to the disheartened Caliph. is that he with- and drove away the mighty armament of Moawiah. the first of the Ommeyade. was won on land and thirty thousand Arabs Abderrahman had fallen during the siege. THE COMING OF THE SARACENS. defeated. great glory of Constantine IV. and the stubborn resistance of the garrison seemed unable to do more than But the happy invention of stave off the evil day. of Constantinople an enterprise Moslems had not yet attempted. victory At the same time a great slain.s. Moawiah. Sicily. For four years the investment of Constantinople lingered on. simultaneous attacks Constantine's reign opened disastrously. its the passage of th^ Using that city as base.170 Saracens. fire-tubes for squirting the famous this time).
the region of the Pruth and over the Danube. who dwelt Dniester. a nomad tribe of Finnish Peninsula. the wild tribes of his northern border took the opportunity of swooping down on the European provinces." Constantine IV. sued for peace. and settled between the Danube and the Eastern Balkans. But there is no good contemporary historian met with clius to give us the desired information. The Slavs came down from lonica.REIGN OF CONSTANTINE IV. whose troops had been drawn off to resist the Arabs. might have gone down to posterity in company with Heraand Leo the Isaurian. where they have left their name till this day. and offered huge war indemnity. promising to pay of gold per annum for thirty years. and laid siege for two years to Thessawhich was only relieved from their attacks when Constantine had finished his war with Moawiah. subdued the Slavs in They united the scattered Slavonic tribes . The year \viah after the raising of the great siege. Moaall his conquests. distant While Constantine was defending his capital from the Eastern enemy. and ambassadors came even from the 3000 Franks and Khazars to congratulate him on the victory which had saved Eastern Christendom from the Arab. blood. If he had but " his sacred bard. are not better known. came of Moesia. restored a Ibs. second great siege of Constantinople. The report of the triumph of Constantine went all over the world. But a far more dangerous attack was made by another enemy in the eastern part of the Balkan The Bulgarians. as the third great hero of the East-Roman Empire. the inland.
The only them was the meeting Oecumenical Council will to notable event that took place in at Constantinople of the Sixth in 680-1. and acquiesced in the new settlement. . was solemnly condemned by the The holders doctrines. who in a previous generation had consented Monothelite dead to the heresy. and alive. of the region into a single strong state. The last six years of Constantine's reign were spent in peace. a lad of sixteen. of Our Lord.172 THE COMING OF THE SARACENS. The date 679 counts Bulgaria. leaving his throne to his eldest son Justinian. were solemnly anathematised. Constantine IV. before he had reached his thirty sixth year. among them Pope Honorius of Rome. died in 685. and the new Bulgarian kingdom was long destined to be a trouble- some neighbour as the first to the empire. the doctrine of the Monothelites. who attributed but one united Churches of the East and West. year of the reign of Isperich first king of Constantine IV. At this Synod. was too exhausted by his long war with to drive the Moawiah to make any serious attempt Bulgarians back over the Danube.
reckless. callous. of the stuff of which tyrants are made. in short. attacked them suddenly. and took no less than thirty thousand prisoners. and forced to He next picked a enlist in the army of Armenia. we have and selfish assert his young man. JUSTINIAN II. he was.. with a firm determination to own individuality and have his own way.XIII THE FIRST ANARCHY. on the most frivolous with the Saracen Caliph quarrel due tribute by the treaty of 679 grounds. He was a bold. The annual had hitherto been paid in Roman solidi. Justinian was but seventeen when he came to the throne. the last of the house of Heraclius. whom he sent over to Asia. inflicted several defeats on their king. but in 692 . but he soon showed that he intended to empire after his own good pleasure long before he had begun to learn the lessons of statecraft rule the Ere he had reached his twenty-first year Justinian He had plunged into war with the Bulgarians. was a sovereign of a different type from any emperor that yet encountered in the annals of the Eastern Empire.
174 THE FrR S T ANARCHY. Both were violent and cruel Theodotus is said to have hung recalcitrant tax-payers up by ropes above smoky fires till they were nearly stifled. He employed two . and Justinian did not punish returned. and was driven to collect money by the most reckless extortion. the accountant general an ex-abbot who had deserted his monastery purse. of her son. and the eunuch Stephanus. unscrupulous ministers. Stephanus thrashed and stoned every one who fell into his hands he is reported to have actually administered a : . Theodotus. equally unsuccessful. and the Roman army was routed with great The two subsequent campaigns were slaughter. when he met the Saracens at Sebastopolis in Cilicia. unwilling His second venture in the field was disastrous his recruits from Bulgaria deserted to the : enemy. or Empson and Dudley to Henry VII: they raised him funds by flagrant extortion and illegal stretching of the law. Justinian refused to receive them. . Justinian's wars depleted his treasury yet he persisted in plunging into expensive schemes of building at the same time. bearing verses of the Koran. and the troops of the Caliph harried Cappadocia far and wide. he was rendering himself no less unpopular in the army. it Abdalmalik tendered in new gold coins of his own mintage. and declared war. whipping to the empress-dowager during the absence him when he While the emperor's financial expedients were making him hated by the moneyed classes. the keeper of the privy These men were to Justinian what Ralph Flambard was to William Rufus.
and banished him to Cherson. who was palace. 175 After his ill-success in the Saracen war. at the head of a few friends. Cathedral of St. Twenty years of anarchy followed the usurpation of Leontius. . and had been driven into rebellion by his He held the throne fears rather than his ambition. he seized the prisoners. An officer named Leontius being appointed. As he parted from his friends he exclaimed that his days were numbered. was about to set out to assume his command. broke it open and liberated some hundreds of political A mob joined him. Leontius bade his nose be slit. and that he should be expecting the order for his execution to arrive at any moment. caught and brought before the rebel leader in company with his two odious ministers. to his great dismay. he began to execute or imprison his officers. In 695 the cup of Justinian's iniquities was full. and to decimate his in high comdangerous as it was to be appointed a general-in-chief during the dictatorship beaten troops : to be employed by him mand was almost as of Robespierre. and rushing to the state prison. who dragged them round the city and burnt them alive. general of the "theme" of Hellas. Theodotus and Stephanus he handed over to the mob. Then a certain monk named Paul stood forth. and bade him save himself by a bold stroke if he would aim a blow at Justinian he would find the people and the army ready to follow him. The new emperor was not a man of capacity. Leontius took the monk's counsel. and then marched on the No one would fight for Justinian. .USURPATION OF LEONTIUS. Sophia.
) hard fighting while the emperors of the house of Heraclius reigned. and finally took Carthage in 697 a hundred and sixty-five years after it had been restored to the empire by Belisarius. (From " L Art Byzantin. 1883. amid constant revolts at home and The Asiatic frontier was ravaged by defeats abroad. . and at the same time a great disaster befel the western half of the empire." Par Charles Bayet. Quantin. barely three years. Paris.THE FIRST ANARCHY. A where the Romans had still maintained themselves by CHURCH OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES AT THESSALONICA. They reduced all its fortresses one after the other. Saracen army from Egypt forced its way into Africa. the armies of Abdalmalik.
177 The larger part of the army of Africa escaped by sea from Carthage when the city fell. and he was placed in confinement in a monastery. his troops gained several victories his predecessor over the Saracens. close to the modern Sebastopol. and condemned his captive rival to the same fate that he himself had inflicted on Justinian Accordingly the nose of Leontius was slit. third of that name. and enjoyed municipal liberty under the suzerainty of the empire. the Greek town in the Crimea. had been sent into exile with his nose mutilated. and during their plotted to dethrone their Leontius. was more fortunate in his reign than II. the ephemeral emperor could count on no loyalty. save Tiberius from suffering the same had fallen on Justinian and Leontius. and Apsimarus seized Constantinople. of the capital to the followers of the rebel admiral. and Leontius had lost. He pro- claimed himself emperor by the title of Tiberius. But these successes did not doom which The people and army were out of hand. We who He had been transported to Cherson. and any shock was sufficient to upset his precarious throne. Justinian displayed in his day of adversity . who commanded the imperial fleet in the Aegean. and even : invaded Northern Syria. Tiberius III. and proclaimed him emperor when he joined them with his enlisted The troops of Leontius betrayed the gates galleys. The officers in command voyage in sailed for Constantinople. must now turn to the banished Justinian.PALL OF LEONTIUS. recovered the frontier districts which Justinian II. which formed the northernmost outpost of civilization. They scheme Tiberius Apsimarus.
Justinian survived to carry out his He came ashore in the land of the Bulgarians. The emperor learnt of the plot through his wife. and oath. sent great sums of money to the Khazar to induce him to surrender Justinian. " May God drown here. and he fled in a fishing boat out into the Euxine with a few friends and servants who had followed him into exile. and pardon enemies ere he died. soon won favour with their king who wanted a good excuse for invading the . But the Emperor's stern was not bent by the tempest.178 a degree of THE FIRST ANARCHY. While they were out at sea a storm arose." if me he answered. the Tartar tribe who dwelt east of the Sea of Azof. ever I " if I enemies cruel get to land spare a single one of my " The boat weathered ! the storm. Justinian to soul One of his companions cried to make his peace with God. before the Khan's orders had been divulged to any one. who was baptized and christened Theodora. and saved himself by the bold expedient of going at once to one of the two Khazar chiefs and asking for a secret interview. When they were alone he fell on him and strangled him. This gave him time to escape. and then calling on the second Khazar served him in the same fashion. and Terbel. and the treacherous barbarian determined to accept the bribe. and sent secret orders to two of his officers to seize his brother-in-law. With this prince the exile so ingratiated himself that he received in fled He marriage his sister. and the boat began to his fill. with the Khan of the Khazars. capacity which astonished his con- from Cherson and took refuge temporaries. But Tiberius III.
Their execution began a reign of ! terror. and obtained an Blachernae. while his adherents " chanted Thou shalt the verse from the ninety-first Psalm. and Tiberius caught as he tried to flee into Asia. and then bound them side by side before his throne in the Cathisma.] So for the people Justinian recovered his throne without fighting. and Heraclius. using their pros- trate bodies as a footstool. and found it in the pretence of supporting the exiled monarch. With a Bulgarian army at his back Justinian appeared before Constantinople. tread on the lion and asp the young lion and dragon : The allusion was shalt thou trample under thy feet.RESTORATION OF JUSTINIAN II. entrance at night near the gate of There was no fighting. had by this time half forgotten his regretted tyranny.D. Justinian came back in a relentless mood." to the names of the usurpers. 179 empire. Justinian had them led round the city in chains. for the adherents of Tiberius were as unready to strike a blow for their master as the followers of Leontius had been [705 A. for Justinian had his oath to keep. the imperial box at the Hippodrome. act was to send for the two usurpers who had sat on his throne: Leontius was brought out from his monastery. and should have resisted him at all hazards. the rule of the house of But they were soon to find out that they had erred in submitting to the exile. There he sat in state. bent on nothing but revenging his His first mutilated nose and his ten years of exile. the Lion and Asp being Leontius and Apsimarus After this strange exhibition the two ex-emperors were beheaded. and was set .
Justinian's wild and wicked freaks had completed the . without further delay an end too good for such a monster. he set to work to hunt out meaner victims many prominent citizens of Constantinople were sown up in Soldiers were sacks and drowned in the Bosphorus. on wreaking vengeance on every one who had been He hanged all the chief concerned in his deposition. : special picked out by the dozen and beheaded. himself so were mere samples of the general In a few years he had made it much detested that might be said that he had been comparatively popular in the days of his first reign. and seized Constantinople while Justinian was absent at Sinope. The six years which followed were purely anarchical. when a general named Philippicus took arms. The conqueror also sought out and sle\v his little son Tiberius. Into 711. where Justinian had them bound to spits and roasted. sea sack was sent to the Cherson. because he had a grudge A The chief men were caught and against its citizens. The army of The end came the tyrant laid down their arms when Philippicus and he was led forth and beheaded approached. whom the sister of the Khan of the Khazars had borne to him during his exile. So ended the house of Heraclius. These atrocities conduct of Justinian. after it had sat for five generations and one hundred and one years on the throne of Constantinople. by city expedition of the Emperor's exile. and put out the Then eyes of the patriarch who had crowned him.l8o THE FIRST ANARCHY. sent to the capital. officers and courtiers of Leontius.
l8l already set in before his restoration. and military discipline and the dissolved. Everything in the army and the state was completely disorganized and out of gear. Meanwhile the organization " of visibly breaking up. did not please the army. who gave the imperial crown to Theodosius of Adrammytium. More merciful than any of his ephemeral predecessors. Philippicus was blinded.D." The Bulgarian and Saracen commenced once more to ravage the frontier provinces. To replace Justinian by Philippicus was only to The new King Log for King Stork. 711-17 demoralization which had A. after compelling him to take holy orders. In less than two years he was upset by a conspiracy which placed on the throne Artemius Anastasius. and every The year their ravages penetrated further inland. The affairs the empire was both of the realm city were neglected and decaying. . letting affairs of state on as best they might. and compelled to exchange the pleasures of the palace for the rigours of a But the Court intrigue which dethroned monastery. But the hero was not at once forthcoming. Theodosius III. dis- time slide missed Anastasius unharmed. and within two Philippicus Anastasius was overthrown by the soldiers of years the Obsequian theme. his own chief secretary. was a mere man of and emperor pleasure.ANARCHY. civil education was disappearing. It required a hero to restore the machinery of government and evolve order out of chaos. spent his substitute in personal enjoyment. and the confusion went on increasing. a respectable but obscure commissioner of taxes.
who had not coveted the throne he occupied. pointed out to them that a great Saracen invasion was impending. Caliph Welid was so impressed with the opportunity offered to him. that civil war had begun. allowed his army to risk one engagement with the When it was beaten he summoned troops of Leo. Leo disowned his allegiance to the incapable Theodosius and marched toward the Bosphorus. the Patriarch. and Antioch-in-Pisidia . more by craft than force. one of the few military officers who had made a great reputation amid the general of the Anatolic theme. The unfortunate emperor. and the chief officers of the court. nor much desired to retain it. They had penetrated into Amorium Phrygia by 716. when at last there appeared the man who was destined to save the East. the province which included the old Cappadocia and Lycaonia. hindered him. to raise the siege of Amorium. for the army raised to serve against him turned aside to engage in the civil war between Anastasius and Theodosius. and were besieging the fortress of with every expectation of success. The landmarks of the Saracens' conquests by land are found in the falls of the great cities of Tyana .l82 THE FIRST ANARCHY. After fearful disasters of the last ten years. Amasia .Roman Empire from a premature dis- memberment This was Leo the Isaurian. " " He was now inducing the Saracens. and that he himself did not wish to remain responsible . the Senate. that he commenced to equip a great armament in the ports of Syria with the express pur- No one pose of laying siege to Constantinople.
ACCESSION OF LEO THE ISAURIAN.
assembly resolved to
crown to Leo, who
early in the spring of 717.
Theodosius retired unharmed to Ephesus, where he When he died the single word lived for many years. " TFIEIA, Health," was inscribed on his tomb according to his
THE SARACENS TURNED
BY dethroning Theodosius
on the very eve of
Isaurian took the great Saracen invasion, of With a responsibilities. upon himself the gravest
army, which of late had been more accustomed to revolt than to fight, a depleted treasury, and a disorganized civil service, he had to face an attack even more dangerous than that which Condemoralized
IV. had beaten off thirty years before. Constantine too, the fourth of a race of hereditary rulers, had a secure throne and a loyal army, while
Leo was a mere adventurer who had seized the crown only a few months before he was put to the
test of the sword.
reigning Caliph was now Suleiman, the seventh of the house of the Ommeyades. He had strained
the resources of his wide empire to provide a fleet and army adequate to the great enterprise which he had taken in hand. The chief command of the expedition was given to his brother Moslemah, who led an army of eighty thousand men from Tarsus across the centre of Asia Minor, and marched on
the Hellespont, taking the strong city of Pergamus his way. Meanwhile a fleet of eighteen hundred sail under the vizier Suleiman, namesake of his
master the Caliph, sailed from Syria for the Aegean, carrying a force no less than that which marched by
land. Fleet and army met at Abydos on the Hellespont without mishap, for Leo had drawn back all his
In August, 7 1 7, only five months after his coronation, the Isaurian saw the vessels of the Saracens sailing
up the Propontis, while their army had crossed Thrace and was approaching the city from
his troops to build
from the sea to the Golden Horn, cutting Constantinople off from all communication with Thrace, while Suleiman blocked the
line of circumvallation
southern exit of the Bosphorus, and tried to close it on the northern side also, so as to prevent any Leo, supplies coming by water from the Euxine. his Horn with sallied forth from the Golden however, dreaded Greek firethe and vessels galleys bearing to the detachment of fire, and did so much harm which Saracen ships had gone northward up the strait, that the blockade was never properly established on that side. The Saracens relied more on starving out the city than on taking it by storm they had come provided with everything necessary for a blockade of many months, and sat down as if intending to remain before But Constantinople the walls for an indefinite time. had been provisioned on an even more lavish scale each family had been bidden to lay in a stock of corn
THE SARACENS TURNED BACK.
a period than two years, and famine ere it was appeared in the camp of the besiegers long Nor had Mosfelt in the houses of the besieged. lemah and Suleiman reckoned with the climate.
Hard winters occasionally occur by the Black Sea, as the troops learnt to their cost in the Crimean War.
But the Saracens were served
even worse by the
winter of 717-18, when the frost never ceased for twelve weeks. Leo might have boasted, like Czar
Nicholas, that December, January, and February were for these months wrought fearful his best generals
Orientals could not stand the weather, and died off
dysentery and cold. The vizier Suleiman was among those who perished. Meanwhile the suffered covered little, being Byzantines by roofs all
like flies of
When next spring came round Moslemah would have had to raise the siege if he had not been heavily reinforced both by sea and land. A fleet of reserve
arrived from Egypt,
and a large army came up from
Tarsus and occupied the Asiatic shores of the Bosphorus.
But Leo did not despair, and took the offensive in His fire-ships stole out and burnt the
Egyptian squadron as it lay at anchor. body of on the coast, troops landing Bithynian surprised and
cut to pieces the Saracen army which watched the other side of the strait. Soon, too, famine began to
their stores of provisions were now and giving out, they had harried the neighbourhood so that no more food could be got from near at fiercely
THE SIEGE RAISED.
hand, while if they sent foraging parties too far from their lines they were cut off by the peasantry. At last Moslemah suffered a disaster which compelled him to
The Bulgarians came down
the Balkans, and routed the covering army which observed Adrianople and protected the siege on the western side. No less than twenty thousand Sara-
themselves, and the survivors were Moslemah gave the order to retire.
by the testimony of the Arab historians so cowed that
army back into Asia, and both forces started homeward. Moslemah got back to Tarsus with only thirty thousand men at his back, out of more than a hundred thousand who had started with him or
him as reinforcements. The fleet fared even was caught by a tempest in the Aegean, and
so fearfully shattered that it is said that only five vessels out of the whole Armada got back to Syria
unharmed. Thus ended the
endeavour of the Saracen
essayed again, though years more wars were
three hundred and
between the Emperor In the future they were always to be border struggles, not desperate attempts to strike at the heart of the empire, and conquer Europe for Islam. To Leo, far more than to his contemporary the Frank Charles Martel,
constantly and the Caliph.
the delivery of Christendom from the Charles turned danger to be attributed.
plundering horde sent out from an outlying province
of the Caliphate.
Leo repulsed the grand-army of
THE SARACENS TURNED BACK.
the Saracens, raised from the whole of their eastern realms, and commanded by the brother of their
Such a defeat was well calculated to impress on their fatalistic minds the idea that Constantinople was not destined by providence to fall into their hands. They were by this time far removed from the frantic fanaticism which had inspired their grandfathers, and the crushing disaster they had now sustained deterred them from any repetition of the Life and power had grown so pleasant to attempt. them that martyrdom was no longer an " end in itself" they preferred, if checked, to live and fight
another day. Leo was, however, by no means entirely freed from the Saracens by his victory of 7 1 8. At several epochs
None of them, however, were really dangerous, and after a victory won over the main army of the raiders in 739 at
Acroinon in Phrygia, Asia Minor was from their presence.
reign he invasions of his border provinces.
in the latter part of
was troubled by
the Isaurian had died on the day on which
of the Caliph raised the siege of Constantifor his reputation in
would have been well
for for the
himself, though happily Unhappily East-Roman realm, he survived yet
twenty years to carry through a series of measures which were in his eyes not less important than the Historians repulse of the Moslems from his capital. have given to the scheme of reform which he took in hand the name of the Iconoclastic movement, because of the opposition to the worship of images which formed one of the most prominent features of his
culture and civilization
hundred years the empire had been literature and
seemed likely to perish in the never-ending clash of arms the old-Roman jurisprudence was being forgotten, the race of educated civil servants was
showing signs of extinction, the governors of provinces were now without exception rough soldiers,
that old bureaucracy whose Roman had so long kept the empire together. Not least among the signs of a decaying civilization were the gross superstitions which had grown up of late in the religious world. Christianity had begun to be permeated by those strange mediaeval fancies which would have been as inexplicable to the old-Roman mind of four centuries before as they are to the mind
of the nineteenth century.
rich crop of puerile
late legends, around the central truths of religion, unnoticed and
and observances had grown up of
unguarded against by theologians, who devoted all and MonoI magecontroversies. worship and relicphysite had in particular developed with strange worship the and assumed shape of mere Fetishism. rapidity, statue was now announced Every ancient picture or as both miraculously produced and endued with miraculous powers. These wonder-working pictures and statues were now adored as things in themselves divine the possession of one of them made the fortune of a church or monastery, and the tangible object of worship seems to have been regarded with quite as much respect as the saint whose memory it recalled. The freaks to which image-worship led were in some cases purely grotesque it was, for
their energies to the barren Monothelite
example, not unusual to select a picture as the godfather of a child in baptism, and to scrape off a little
its paint and produce it at the ceremony to Even patriarchs and bishops represent the saint. ventured to assert that the hand of a celebrated
representation of the Virgin distilled fragrant balsam.
. MADONNA.SUPERSTITIOUS VANITIES. were repulsive to educated laymen of the higher for classes. igi Persian to The success of the Emperor Heraclius in his campaign was ascribed by the vulgar not so much his military talent as to the fact that he carried with fallen him a small picture of the Virgin. Their dislike vain superstitions was emphasized by the influence .) (From "L'Art Byzantin" Par Charles Bayet. inculcated by the clergy and the eagerly believed by the mob..-.) MONKS. ANU WOMEN. ADORING 'iat (From a Byzantine MS. All these vain beliefs. which had from heaven ! LAYMEN. KIM. Quantin. 1883. Paris.
and far more widespread in Asia than in Europe. officials who were Rioting broke out at once. His son Constantine. It was more visible among the laity than among the clergy. Seven years practices after the relief of Constanti- nople he commenced his crusade against superstition. when he looked round on the daily practice of his countrymen. The 725. bemonks the most ardent defenders of images but Leo's own measures went no further than a determined attempt to put down imagefather. For a hundred years the inhabitants of the Asiatic provinces of the empire had been in touch with a religion of which the emphatic denunciation of An Eastidolatry under every shape and form. all the images the capital.D.IQ2 of THE ICONOCLASTS. Hence there had grown up among the stronger minds of the day a vigorous reaction against the prevailing superstitions. could not but confess that there was too much ground for the accusation. The chief which he attacked were the worship of images and the ascription of divine honours to saints more especially in the form of Mariolatry. his Moslem neighbour for Roman. when taunted by clinging to a faith which had grown corrupt and noblest feature its was idolatrous. in when he ordered the removal of struggle which he inaugurated began in A. worship. cause he found the . and the taking down the great figure of . more bold and drastic than his endeavoured to suppress monasticism also. their Mahometanism on minds. and he left the legacy of his enthusiasm to his descendants. In Leo the Isaurian this tendency stood incarnate in its most militant form.
Arianism was the least offensive fault laid to his account. 193 Christ Crucified. The Emperor's enemies did not confine themselves to passive resis- tance to his crusade against images.LEO'S CRUSADE AGAINST IMAGES. The Popes and never thoroughly re-established. the imperial authority was shaken to its foundations. and placed themselves at the by head of the anti-imperial party. indeed. his consent to image-breaking. They set the wildest rumours afloat concerning his intentions it was currently reported that the Jews had bought . endeavouring to drive the East- Roman The fatal to garrisons from Ravenna and Naples. he was accused of a design to undermine the foundations of Christianity. The Emperor replied by a all series of executions. who were now. hatred which Leo provoked might have been him had he not possessed the But full confidence of the army. as distinguished from the crucifix. more especially in the European provinces. and though he had no objection to the Though representation of the cross. over the palace-gate. headed by the monks. In Italy. opposed a to the Emperor's doings. consistently opposed the Iconoclastic their denunciation of it movement. his great victory over the Saracens . Leo's orthodoxy in matters doctrinal was unquestioned. over the The bitter resistance populace. were torn to pieces by a mob. and that the Caliph Yezid had secretly converted him to Mahometanism. and carried out his policy empire by the aid of armed force. nor did they shrink from allying themselves with the Lombards. and were not put down without much fighting. as always. Dangerous revolts broke out in Greece and Italy.
and for three hundred years the reorganized East-Roman state developed a power and energy which appear most surprising after the disasters of the unhappy seventh century. The effects of his work are to be traced mainly by noting the improved and well-ordered state of the empire after his death. the first since Justinian. Leo died in 740. . a new code of laws. Beside insticarry out his schemes to was a busy worker in all he reforms ecclesiastical tuting published written He the various departments of the administration.IQ4 THE ICONOCLASTS. the empire reasserted ancient mastery in the East. that he was able to despise the wrath of the populace. but most unhappily the We monkish chroniclers who described slurred over all his his reign have in order to enlarge to deeds. the details of Leo's reforms. which had fallen into hopeless confusion in The army had the anarchy between 695 and 717. as the latter was now quite extinct in the Balkan He reorganized the finances of the Peninsula. and comparing it with the anarchy that had preceded his accession. in language Greek instead of Latin. had won him such popularity in the camp. but it was more especially in the civil administration of the empire that he seems to have left his mark. and their end. From Leo's day the gradual process of decay which had been observable since the time of Justinian seems to come to an end. until the coming of the Turks in should be glad to have the eleventh century. much of his care. leaving the throne to his son. empire. good more effect on the iniquities of his crusade against image-worship. Having once lived down its the Saracen danger.
Nhl).} (From " L Ait Byzantin" far LRarles Bayet. Quanlin. . Paris.Vl A11ON OK 1I1K MADONNA EN I HKO. (From a Byzantine Ivory.bE.
Hence he incurred an amount of hatred even greater than that which en compassed Leo III. THE ICONOCLASTS. them and executed not only rioters and traitors. as his father had done. whom he had brought up to follow The new emperor was a good in his own footsteps. At this time Pope Stephen.ig6 Constantine V. and his reign was marked by one or two disasters. and his very name has been handed down to history with the insulting byword Copronymus tacked on to it. though its general tenor was Two defeats in Bulgaria were successful enough. comparatively unimportant. and Bulgarians. sent for aid to Pipin the Frank. instead of calling on the Emperor. superstition with whips Constantine chastised He was a true persecutor. but all prominent opponents of his policy who provoked his wrath.D. The loss of the distant exarchate of Ravenna seemed a small thing. Slavs. however.. with scorpions. . when attacked by the same enemy. Constantine was far below his father in ability. 750. all of whom he beat back with great slaughter on the numerous occasions when they invaded the emp'ire. Though strong and clever. and for the future the papacy was for all practical purposes dependent on the Franks and not on the empire.. soldier and a capable man of business. but a noteworthy though not a dangerous loss was suffered when Ravenna and all- the other East-Roman possessions in Central Italy were captured by the Lombards in A. but his main interest in life centred in the struggle against imageWhere Leo had chastised the adherents of worship. when placed by the side of Constantine's successes against the Saracens.
while Irene became sole regent. and the image-worship which they . He first forbade the reception of any novices. fell the to his son. Leo IV. and died young. : supported grew more than ever popular masses. and Empress-Dowager . and a certain number of prominent men were put to death.. the throne to his son. in which nothing occurred of importance save His crown a great victory over the Saracens in 776.CONSTANTINE But in V. leaving like all his race. These unwise measures had the natural effect the monks were everywhere regarded as martyrs. he commenced a crusade against monasticism. an Iconoclast. the In the following year. He collected a council of 338 bishops at Constantinople in 761. Constantine VI. and shortly afterwards begun to close monasteries wholesale. at which image-worship was declared contrary to all Christian doctrine. with the in the full vigour of his persecuting Constantine enthusiasm. . are told that he compelled many of their inmates to We others were exiled to marry by force of threats the not a few were flogged and hundred Cyprus by imprisoned. his dealings with things religious were the main feature of his reign. but one who imitated the milder still While measures of his grandfather rather than the more Leo was consumptive violent methods of his father.. Copronymus died in 775. attacked it everywhere as a heresy and not merely a superstition. 197 the minds both of Constantine himself and of his contemporaries. a child of ten. finding monks the strongest supporters of the images. DISSOLVES THE MONASTERIES. after a reign of little more than four years. and after obtaining this condemnation.
restored her to her former dignity. and an unhappy quarrel with the who had been multitude. and compelled him to marry.198 her THE ICONOCLASTS. his place at the helm of the state. with creatures of her own. which had been won by stopping the . but he pardoned her. More especially. The Empress Irene was clever. Irene had actually striven to oppose him by armed force. name was associated with that of her son in all acts of state. and took. Even when he had reached the age of manhood she kept him still excluded from state affairs. civil power of her and military. For ten years she ruled undisturbed. Church. on the question of his divorce from the wife forced upon him. domineering. Isaurian dynasty was destined to end in a and unnatural tragedy. and filled all offices. a favourite of her own. still dreamed She took advantage of the evil repute which Constantine won by a disastrous war with Bulgaria. The unnatural mother was far from acquiescing in her son's elevation. but in his twenty-second year he rebelled against his mother's dictation. against his will. and after secluding her fSr a short time. and of reasserting herself. Constantine was neither precocious nor unfilial. She overweening the the populace and clergy by stopping persecution of the image-worshippers. and popular. The irrespon- The fearful sible office of regent filled her with courted the favour of ambition. and grew so full of pride and self-confidence that she looked forward with dismay to the prospect of her son's attaining his majority and claiming his inheritance. she relied on her popularity with the however.
quietly seized her and immured her in a monastery in the island of Chalke. Constantine himself.IRENE BLINDS HER SON. much vexed by abroad and palace intrigues at home. her grand treasurer. for Constantine had resumed the policy of his ancestors and developed strong Iconoclastic tendencies when he came to his own. survived many years as a blind monk. but would seem that her religious orthodoxy atoned in the eyes of many of her subjects for the monstrous crime of her usurpation. when Xicephorus. No blow was struck by any one in the cause of the wicked empress. Though containing little that is memorable in itself. as Roman days of crowned Emperor. persecution IQQ her of the image-worshippers during regency. the reign of Irene must be noted as the severingpoint of that connection between Rome and Constan- which had endured since the In the year Sco Pope Leo empire. The wicked Irene some five troublous sat on her ill -gained throne for rebellion It is astonishit years. In 797 Irene imagined that things were ripe for attacking her son. seized the young emperor. The end did not come till 802. . having gained over some of the eunuchs and other courtiers about her person. and immured him in a monastery before any of his adherents were able to come to his aid. and lived to see the ends of no less than five of his successors. Thus ended the rule of the Isaurian dynasty. and conspirators. blinded him. and Nicephorus quietly ascended the throne. ing that her reign lasted so long. King of the Franks. and first III. however. tinople. acting by her orders. Karl.
so far as Italy was concerned. DETAILS OF ST. it.200 transferred to THE ICONOCLASTS. of course. and the papacy had been in reality under Prankish influence. SOPHIA. But it was not till 800 that the final breach took place. and took upon himself the onus of ending it. Since the Italian rebellion in the time of Constantine Coprony- mus. . The for Iconoclastic controversy had prepared the way while the fact that a woman sat on the imperial throne served as a good excuse for the Pope's action. There was. Leo declared that a female reign was an anomaly and an abomination. him the nominal allegiance which he paid to had hitherto Constantinople. by creating a new emperor of the West. that allegiance had been a mere shadow.
and formed a fair equipoise to the realm now ruled by From 800. when we are dealing with the remaining history of the realm that centred at Constantinople. onward we have once more Irene.CORONATION OF CHARLES THE GREAT. but he ruled a group of k-ingdoms which embraced the larger half of the old Western Empire. then. no legality in the act. 201 and Karl the Great was in no real sense the successor of Honorius and Romulus Augustulus. and will be convenient for many purposes to use the adjective Byzantine instead of the adjective Roman. a West-Roman empire it in existence as well as the East-Roman. .
The lines on which it was fought out were still the same the official hierarchy THE form for and the Asiatic provinces favoured Iconoclasm. who overthrew Irene.) Iconoclastic controversy was far from being extinguished with the fall of the house of Leo the Isaurian. the views of Leo the Isaurian were still in vogue. the 1 clergy and the European provinces were "Iconodules. THE END OF THE ICONOCLASTS. and that the eventual triumph of the image-worshippers only came about when a royal house sprung from one of the European themes the family of Basil the Macedonian the crown. gained possession of The treasurer. a term of contempt not unfairly applied to the image-worshippers. while emperors of Eastern birth sat on the throne. "Slaves to images". 802-886. It was destined to continue in a milder more than half a century after the dethronement of Constantine VI.D. . Nicephorus." Hence it is interesting to note that through the greater part of the ninth century.XVI. (A.
nor could Nicephorus get rid of him without signing a rather ignominious and paying a large war-indemnity. a hypocrite. Nicephorus invaded Bulgaria in 8n. 203 and so easily obtained possession of the empire. was desperately wounded. but \ve cannot find any very distinct traces of the operation of such vices in his conduct during the nine years of his reign. Stauraa'us. and his son and heir. This being so. a very fortunate though he put down with ease several insurrections of discontented generals. he was unlucky with his foreign wars. and his family had Hence we are not Nicephorus was an Iconoclast. He did not Mahomet. it is natural that we should terms find his character described in the blackest by the monkish chroniclers of the succeeding century. The Caliph Haroun-al-Raschid did ruler . to the Asiatic provinces. The Byzantine army won a battle and sacked the palace and .worship.&EIGN OF NICEPHORUS I. capital of the Bulgarian king but a few days later Nicephorus allowed himself In to be surprised by a night attack on his camp. was of Oriental extraction. He was not. and a miser. an oppresser.to punish King Crumn for ravaging Thrace. much harm whole country as peace. surprised to find that and refused to follow in the steps of Irene in the direction of restoring image. " persecute the Iconodules." as the Isaurians had done. the panic and confusion the emperor fell. He was. but he gave them no personal encouragement. ravaging the far as Ancyra. A yet greater disaster concluded another war. The . however. His ancestor had been a Christian Arab prince. we are told. expelled in from his country at the time of the rise of always dwelt Asia Minor.
but it soon became evident that his wound was mortal.and left the body of the Emperor in the hands of the his head. and Leo the Armenian. and Michael Rhangabe. The discontent of the army found vent in a mutiny. was a weak. and made the skull Bulgarians.264 routed THE END OF THE ICONOCLASTS. the only son of Nicephorus. This provoked the wrath of that powerful party. . Michael I. good matured man. his elevation to the spiracies against Michael. hitherto East-Romans had the whom enemy despised. army did not stay its flight till Adrianople. and led to conMichael I. took his place on the throne *vas out of the dying emperor's body. not only to ravage the open country in Thrace. servant He was a devoted and began to undo the work of his father-in-law.] Leo the Armenian proved himself worthy of the 'See p. an officer of merit and capacity. who had married the eldest daughter jf Nice- before the breath phorus. made no resistance. but to storm the fortresses of Mesembria and Anchialus. [811-13. who mere chance of his marriage. owed and admirer of monks. was proclaimed emperor in the camp. just as the Lombards had dealt with the skull of King Cunimund three hundred years before. was proclaimed emperor. and remove all Iconoclasts from office. 1 Stauracius. and retired into a monastery after only two years of reign. who cut off into a drinking-cup. 116. and to push their invasions up to the gates of Constantinople. his brotherin-law. but he might have held his own if it had not been for the disgracefully incompetent way in allowed an He which he conducted the Bulgarian \var.
Almost the moment that he was freed from the Bulgarian war. while. have trusted to the sword instead of the dagger. which only brought him the nickname of the Chameleon. without the use of force. and inflicted on the enemy such it man that escaped his sword. and inclined monk-loving Michael I. 205 When the Bulgarians army.REIGN OF LEO confidence of the V. on the one against the side. a sanguinary defeat that hardly a and Bulgaria was so weakened for more than fifty years. Being a native of an Oriental theme. The seven years of Leo's reign were be full of ecclesiastical bickerings. himself. the patriarch and his monks inveighed on the other. Leo became involved in the fatal gave no further trouble Iconoclastic controversy. he was naturally imbued with the views of his great namesake." Leo's idea was the quaint device of to reverse the policy of the permitting the use of images. for the Emperor might. as the event proved. but of hanging them so high from the ground that the public should not be able to touch or kiss them This pleased nobody ! . but Leo tarnished the glory of his in front success by a treacherous attempt at a conference to assassinate King a crime as unnecessary as it was unsuccessful. But being moderate and wary he tried to introduce. Crumn In the marched out next spring he took the offensive to Mesembria. but it should . a middle policy between image-breaking and image-worship a fruitless at" tempt. moving of the images. the Isaurian. of the walls of Constantinople appeared they were repulsed. tumultuous companies of Asiatic soldiery broke into churches and mutilated all the pictures and figures they could find.
racy against his master. violent The most Long ere the end of his reign. and he was cut down and slain at the very foot of the Eucharistic hymn. and a majority of the Eastern bishops resolved that Iconolatry was a dangerous heresy. Leo's reign was prosperous in all save the matter all of his religious troubles. but delayed his punishment. But he was not destined to die in peace in his bed. for he was accustomed to come unarmed and unguarded to the early communion. but numbers were too many for him. was detected in a conspi- Leo cast him into prison. 820. Michael had many friends in the palace who determined to strike a blow ere the Emperor should have discovered their guilt. he called a council to endorse his action.206 THE END OF THE ICONOCLASTS. Michael the Amorian. as he attended matins on Christmas Day.] Michael the Amorian was dragged out of his . the best general in the empire. Like Constantine Copronymus. [Christmas Day. of the opponents of the Emperor were merely interned in remote monasteries. conspirators attended the service. cross off the altar holy table. and left his accomplices at large. They resolved to slay Leo in his private chapel. and attacked the Emperor in the midst of the Leo snatched the heavy metal and struck down some of his assailants. and and anathematized the patriarch Nicephorus other defenders of the images. to his credit that no single person for his conscience' sake in the whole death suffered remembered period. when they ventured to set their will against his. Leo had been compelled to leave his half measures and prohibit all use of images. the Accordingly.
but had raised himself to high rank in the army by his " the courage and ability. was far from satisfying the image-worshippers. He is sometimes styled Amorian. and feet. Amorium in Phrygia. and his conspiracy must be reckoned a gross piece of ingratitude. Michael was a man He strengthened his of very considerable ability. the princess Euphrosyne. Though rough and uncultured. even was not till the been had that time was found to ceremony performed before the fetters were off his It send for a smith to strike away the rings. daughter of the blind Constantine VI. crowned. Michael was by birth a mere peasant. saluted as 20." from his birth-place. and obtained but a very qualified measure of approval : from the monastic party. He shipping monks whom Leo distant monasteries. but more often mentioned by his nickname of " the had been the friend and adviser of at the time of the latter's elevation to the throne.MICHAEL THE AMORIAN. recalled from exile the image-worthe Armenian had sent to and proclaimed that for the future every subject of the empire should enjoy complete This liberty of conscience on the disputed question. . so as to offend neither Iconoclasts nor Iconodules. emperor. even though we acknowledge that he was not personally responsible for his Stammerer. who wished Michael to restore their idols to their ancient places but the Amorian would not consent to this. The religious difficulties of the day he endeavoured to treat in an absolutely impartial way. dungeon. title to the crown by a marriage with the last scion of the Isaurian house." He Leo the Armenian master's murder.
A similar rising in Sicily under a rebel named Euphemius led to the invasion of that island by an army of Moors from Africa. He was succeeded by son Theophilus. His accession was . While the rebellion of Thomas was in progress. would be untroubled by revolts. At first themselves the whole of the island. After nine years of reign the Amorian died a still wearing the crown he had won. and conquered it from end to end. a vehement Iconoclast. but both failed. whose persecuting tendencies had been with difficulty rehis strained in his father's life-time. but in the time of Michael's successors they gradually won for maintained a foothold them. When Michael's hands were free he sent two great armaments to expel the intruders.208 It THE END OF THE ICONOCLASTS. and in spite of all efforts to expel their gains were not rapid. Michael had his share of such afflictions. and though he finally slew Thomas and Euphemius. the two pretenders who laid claim to his crown. who landed in 827. and Moslem hands. natural death. an army of Saracens from Alexandria threw themselves on the island of Crete. was not to be expected that the reign of a no title to the throne whatever. yet by their means he lost two not inconsiderable provinces of his empire. who grew to be the bane of commerce in the Levant. Crete was destined to remain for a whole century in Its hundred harbours became the haunts of innumerable Corsairs. It was just fifty years since any ruler of the empire had met such a peaceful end. with military usurper. and were a serious danger to the empire whenever its fleet fell into bad hands and failed to keep the police of the seas.
a strong Iconoclast like himself. and their His persecubanish. WORK (Our Lord and the Twelve Apostles)." Par Charles Bayet. (From "L? Art Byzantin. 2og . imprison leading men. Quantin.PERSECUTION BY THEOPHILUS. the signal for a new campaign against image-worship he induced the patriarch John the Grammarian. to excommunicate as itv/.AN 1'i. Paris.NK MKIAI. 1883.) idolaters all \vho differed from him. tion would have been almost as vehement as that of . and began to flog.
but for the fact that he did inflict the punishment of death branding and mutilation however he did not disdain. and in the first campaign took and burnt the town of Zapetra. There are other things to be recorded of Theophilus beside his persecution of image-worshippers and his 1 It is said to have been either his birth-place or that of his mother. who had taken the field in person. Thirty thousand of its inhabitants were massacred. each of whom (if legend speaks true) had the word Amorium painted on his shield. but the of Caliph then turned home satisfied with his revenge. Constantine Copronymus.000 men. fifty-five days. and the empire suffered nothing more from this most dangerous invasion. For it was Amorium. . but no further disaster was encountered.210 THE END OF THE ICONOCLASTS. The Iconodules saw the vengeance of heaven for the misdeeds of Theophilus in the disasters which he He fell out with suffered in war from the Saracens. and marched out of Tarsus with 130. 1 This roused Motassem to furious wrath he swore that he would destroy in revenge the town which Theophilus held most dear he collected the largest Saracen army that had been seen since Moslemah beleaguered Constantinople in 717. another headed by Motassem himself marched straight on Amorium. and the home of his ancestors that Motassem had sworn to sack. and took it after a brave defence . not ever . The Saracen war dragged on in an indecisive way. the Caliph Motassem. for which the Com- mander of the Faithful had great regard. . While one division of the Caliph's army defeated Theophilus. and the town was burnt. the birth-place of the Emperor.
Roman emperors he seems to have delighted the most in gold and silver work. Theophilus died in 842. for Theodora was a devoted Iconodule. and used all her influence against her husband's religious opinions. golden apple to Theodora. he walked on and without a further word gave the rival beauty. His golden plane-tree was the talk of the East. Nor should the curious tale of his second marriage be left untold. a The choice was hasty and unhappy. His glance was first fixed on the fair Eikasia.THE CHOICE OF THEOPHILUS." The lady the good had also come retorted that surely most of into the world by their means. a child of three years. leaving the throne to his only son Michael. and the golden his taste for . were remembered for generations. 211 was long remembered for gorgeous display of all the East. carrying like Paris a golden apple in his hand. war with the Caliph. and came among them to choose a wife. The moment that her husband's grave was closed Theodora set to applause of the work to undo his policy. by the Empress-dowager Euphrosyne assemble at her levee all the most beautiful of the daughters of the EastRoman aristocracy. while still a young man. and the regency to the young empress. He which rose and roared means of ingenious machinery within. but approaching her he found no better topic to commence conversation than the awkward statement that " most of the evil had come into the world by means a of women. a reply which for apparently discomposed Theophilus. When left a widower he bade the lions at the foot of his throne. gems and embroidery. Amid the monks and the populace of Constan- .
212 THE END OF THE ICONOCLASTS. end of the persecution. but that no offence could possibly be given by the picture. engrossed in things religious. handed Byzantines for their holy over the education of her " young son to her brother Bardas. places of exile. The sole permanent result of the long struggle which they had kept up was a curious compromise in the Eastern Church on the subject of Statues were representation of the human figure. tinople she proclaimed the sent for the banished image-worshippers from their the Grammarian. teaching him his own vices of drunkenness and in the debauchery. but only It was apparently believed paintings and mosaics. that the actual image savoured too much of the idol. and led to many quaint and curious forms of superstition. who became her co-regent and was afterwards made Caesar. and deposed John the Iconoclastic patriarch who had served Theophilus. empress did not take any measures to persecute them it was only power and not security for life and limb that they lost. Nevertheless the veneration of the " Eikons became almost as grotesque as idol-worship. which served as a pious remembrance of the holy personage it represented. been taken have to seem Iconoclasts by surprise. Within thirty days of the commencement of the new reign the walls of images had appeared once more on the The the churches of Constantinople. and all made no resistance to the revolution : however the . He brought up the young Michael most reckless and unconscientious manner. never again erected in places of worship. Theodora. and ere he . but could heathen be nothing more. Michael was an apt pupil.
grand chamberlain purely by the Emperor's favour he rose from the lowest ranks and is said to have first entered Michael's service in the humble position of a groom.MICHAEL THE DRUNKARD. had the impudence and ingratitude to plan his off" murder. and appointed as Caesar and colleague his boon companion Basil the Basil had reached the position of Macedonian. and his sleeping low-born colleague seized the palace and proclaimed himself emperor might have been expected that the East-Roman world would have refused to receive as its lord a man It who owed his elevation to the freak of a drunkard. . and when he knew that his drunken benefactor had won the contempt of all the East-Roman world." firmed Some years after his majority he grew discontented with his uncle. the Byzantine empire must have gone to grew tired of spending on Presently Michael any time that he could spare from his orgies. in order that he might reign alone. Michael was stabbed while the effects of one of his orgies. Under the mask of a roisterer Basil concealed the most devouring ambition. still it came more unbearable civil and had His profligacy and intemperance beafter Bardas was dead. state affairs . won Michael's admiration. History knows him by the dishonourable nickname of " Michael the Drunkard. and slew him. 213 reached the age of twenty-one had become a con- dipsomaniac. combined with a head hard enough to withstand the effect of even the longest debauch. and so he came to be first chamberlain and then Caesar. His practical ability. not been for the splendid organization of service the administration of the pieces.
formed the code of the last days. even as Leo's compilation had superseded the more solid and thorough work of able to utilize the Justinian. The Saracens of Africa. like the Leo VI. where they took refuge with the Moslems and maintained themselves by plundering the borders of the many of empire. and had then become the assassin of his benefactor. was naturally an orthodox image-worshipper. He showed his bigotry by a fierce persecution of the Paulicians. an Asiatic sect of heretics accused of Man ichean ism. the only one deserving notice is the final loss of Sicily. being one of those fortunate men who are work of others when their own and knowledge fall short. But strangely enough Basil was destined to found the longest dynasty that ever sat upon the Constantinopolitan throne. .. which superseded the Ecloga of Leo the Isaurian.214 THE END OF THE ICONOCLASTS. powers Basil is mainly remembered for his codification of the laws of the empire. He turned out a far better ruler than might have been expected from his disgraceful antecedents. The Basilika of Basil with the additions made by his son Byzantine Empire down to its rearrangement being ever made. Basil. emperors had been wont to sion drove Basil's oppres- them over the Saracen frontier. Among the other transactions of his nineteen years of reign [867-886]. whom the Iconoclast tolerate. no further being of European birth and not an Asiatic preceding emperors. who had held a footing Michael Syracuse II. in the island ever since the time of their now finished work by storming in 878.
and have left behind them some of the most useful and interesting works the son Basil in If the 1 Byzantine literature. THE Basil the eighty years which followed the death of Macedonian were the most uneventful and in monotonous the whole history of the empire. They wrote no annals with their sword.XVII. times had been harder it is doubtful whether This name was given him because he was born in the Purple Emperors Chamber. . 1 and grandson of the founder of the dynasty.) TIME. had been a mere adventurer. 886-963. Constantine VI. and inoffensive men of literature. born in their father's reign had been scarce of late. though the times were not unpropitious for military enterprise. and Michael the Drunkard were the only two in the no years before Constantine VII. the room in the palace set aside for the Empress.D. an ignorant and uneducated but capable upstart His successors strange issue from such a stock were a pair of mild. but devoted themselves to the pen. THE LITERARY EMPERORS AND THEIR (A. easy-going. They are entirely taken up by the two long reigns of Leo the Wise and Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
But the period 880960 was less troubled by foreign wars than any other corresponding period in Roman state. The armies and fleet of the empire would have availed to rescue the town When its fall had been delayed a few weeks. realm was exposed were piratical raids of the Russians on the north and the Saracens of Africa on the south. would have been strong enough to protect their throne. and for a great raid of Saracen pirates on Thessalonica in 904. The empire the history of the Eastof the Caliphs was break- ing up in the East the empire of Charles the Great had already broken up in the West the Bulgarians and other neighbours of the realm on the north were being converted to Christianity. but not dangerous. which failed through the mismanagement of the generals. attempt if only . booty. had taken it the Saracens fled with their they and made no to hold its walls. These were vexatious. and caused much outcry and sensation. unenterprising men. and stormed from the side of the sea where no attack had been expected. and Constantine VII. and seldom or never took the field. An active and warlike emperor would probably have found the time propitious for conquest from his neighbours.2l6 THE LITERARY EMPERORS AND THEIR TIME. but Leo and Constantine were quiet. Leo's reign of twenty-six years was only diversified by an unfortunate invasion of Bulgaria. The capture of the second city of the empire by a fleet of African adventurers was an incident disgraceful to the administration of Leo. But it is fair to say that it was taken almost by surprise. and settling down into The only troubles to which the East-Roman quiet. Leo VI. who dwelt contentedly in the palace.
The mob and the guards joined to sweep away the presumptuous They were Lecapenus and his brother. books and painting pictures nearly forty that he came to success . was not till he was Even then his . fourth wife of For many years he was under the tutelage of guardians his father's brother Alexander ruled as his first Some years colleague. and administered the The life of Romanus was protracted into realm. in despite of the rights of But when they declared themselves Constantine.regent.REIGX OF CONSTANTINE VII. neither obstinate nor tyrannical made worse rulers. the offspring of the Leo the Wise. emperors and made their old father abdicate. The chief achievements tine administer the empire for twenty was somewhat weak and ineffective. were their books. but to . and became emperor. extreme old age. some theological treatises. but the ambitious veteran held tight to the sceptre. and kept the rightful heir in the backConstantine consoled himself by writing ground. Romanus Lecapenus usurped declared the same position. and the child of his old was only seven when his heritage fell to him. long after Constantine had reached himself emperor. age. his majority . was not owing to his own energy the sons of the aged Romanus had resolved to succeed their parent on the throne. it his own. and Constantine immured in monasteries. emerged from Stephen his seclusion He years. after Alexander had died an ambitious admiral named . many abler men of both Leo and ConstanThose of Leo consist of a manual on the Art of War. . an outburst of popular wrath was provoked. 217 Constantino Porphyrogenitus.
officers of good birth and private means. muster such as those Phocas. of which every province had one. They were raised from subjects of the empire and officered by the Byzantine nobility. tactics. and strategy to Leo's own time. Comnenus. Kerkuas. and many more. and a book of prophecies. made as late as 1560. Bryennius. Hunand Slav. 1 The first-named work is most valuable and interesting. after generation in the imperial of Ducas. a collection of political enigmas. It . they should be fought and beaten. whose origin made them respected by the soldiery. over and above their pay. There is a splendid copy of this book in the Bodleian Library. any foe against Saracen. this implied a corresponding increase in the troops. for as Leo There was no difficulty in obtaining observed.2l8 THE LITERARY EMPERORS AND THEIR TIME. and giving us a perfect picture of the Byzantine army and its tactics. where all the prophecies are applied to the Turks and Venetians. . as well as incidental sketches of all The backthe enemies with which it had to contend. while their " money enabled them to win the good graces of their men by many gifts of small creature comforts. which were long the puzzle and admiration of the East. 1 . Turk. Diogenes. instant and decisive action is advised when caught." The names of some of the great noble houses are found for generation rolls. The pages of Leo's work breathe an entire confidence in the power of the army to deal with garian. The number of the provinces had been much increased and since the days of the emperors of the house of Heraclius. " " bone of the force was still the" themes or " turmae of heavy cavalry. bringing down the history of military organization.
There was none of that variety in arms and organizations which was . but they could . armed. find It whom it brought till would be hard to any similar care shown for the wounded it. and a provision of surgeons and ambulances.LEO'S TACTIC A. the days of our own The Byzantine century. The regiments had each attached to them an elaborate military train. as Leo describes had for its chief object the maintenance of the police of the seas Its in the Aegean. and more especially the troublesome Corsairs of Crete. three fleets. enemies were the Saracens of the Syrian and African coasts. the Franks and Lombards. the bane of mediaeval armies. and South Italian waters. Leo tells us that the bearer company was given a gold piece for every disabled soldier off the field after a lost tattle. preferring to wear the enemy down by cutting We off his supplies and harassing his marches. This was composed of sixty dromonds. a small body of engineers. who were often beaten but never subdued till The empire maintained Black Sea and in Nicephorus Phocas exterminated them in 961. but the largest " in the Aegean. Levant. and supplied in a manner that has no parallel till modern Each regiment possessed its special uniform. To encourage the saving of wounded men. gather a very favourable impression of the Byzantine army from Leo's book it was organized. small ones in the Western waters ." or war-vessels of the largest rating their great depot was in the arsenal at Constantinople. is 219 only when dealing with the men of the West. fleet. that Leo recommends caution and deprecates any rash engagement in a general action. and was equipped with regularity. . times.
and still more to their employment of the celebrated Greek fire. which rendered all mediaeval commerce so dangerous. couched in had dealings. Still more important is the book. a manual of etiquette and precedence. and containing elaborate directions for the conduct of state ceremonials and the interior economy of the royal household. Owing they could never suppress the petty piracy by isolated sea-robbers. the imperial fleets generally had the better of the Saracen. their boundaries. Samos. and resources. His books show him to have been a man of no great originative faculty. Basil the terms of respect which that hardy usurper was far from deserving. On far this comparatively trifling topic Constantine spent more pains than on the works of larger interest which he composed. Porphyrogenitus are even more interesting than those of his father. Thessalonica. but though they checked his larger squadrons. characteristics. and several to their superior size.220 THE LITERARY also be refitted at EMPERORS AND THEIR TIME. other ports. describing the official hierarchy of the empire. His " On the Themes " is invaluable to treatise called the historian. its duties and privileges. his grandfather. But his longest and most ambitious work was on Court Ceremonies. and sketches the condition and resources cf the various nations with whom the Constantinopolitan government Constantine also wrote a biography of Macedonian. On the Administration of the Empire. as it The works of Constantine gives a complete list of the Themes." which contains directions for the foreign policy of the realm. with some other incidental notices of " value. but . inhabitants.
trace the existence of a find a By the ninth much larger and few really first-rate authors. or Romances of . who powers of a careful and methodical loved details and never shirked trouble. The fact that two successive emperors devoted themselves to literary work is a sufficient sign that by the end of the ninth century the times of intellec- and destitution which had so long were now at an end. The to improve. like Theodore Studita. From the death of prevailed to the end of the Heraclian dynasty matters Justinian from the rise of Leo the grew gradually worse tual dearth . His care for court pageants was very characteristic of the peaceful emperor. and whose library-catalogue is the envy of modern scholars. darkest age in Byzantine literary history was from about 600 to 750. and forced to compensate himself by ceremonial for the want of real power.DECAY OF LETTERS. Perhaps the most interesting development of Byzantine literature were the epics. who had long been kept at home by his guardian. a period in which we have hardly Isaurian onward they began slowly any contemporary annalists. but the quickening influence of the reforms of the great Leo seems to have been felt in that province as in every other. many of them were only anti. gifted with the 221 compiler. accession of the Isaurians. whose learning and width of culture was astonishing. century we can literary class. such as the patriarch Photius (857-69). and very little even of Literature seemed absolutely dead at the theology.Iconoclastic controversialists. no poetry save the lost Heracliad of George of Pisidia. By the end though of the eighth century writers were far more numerous.
or Visigoth piece could not be much more unsightly. It tells of the adventures the in love and war of Basil Digenes Akritas. to use a modern analogy) who infested the border. But perhaps the most interesting episode is the story of his elope- ment with the fair Eudocia Ducas. It was in a state of decay for the first century and a half.222 THE LITERARY EMPERORS AND THEIR TIME we feel more inclined to call them. and led many a foray into Syria. may serve as a type of the class. Apelates (or moss-troopers. he rode them down one by one at vantage points in the passes. or Constantine V. He is even credited with the slaying of an occasional dragon by his admiring bard. put down the both hunter. whom he carried off in despite of her father and seven brethren. and the surviving works of that time are often grotesquely rude. warden of " the Cilician Marches. Art followed much the same course as literature in the period 600-900. For sheer bad and bad execution can be worse than drawing nothing a coin of Constans II. He was a mighty of bears and of Saracens. a work of the end of the tenth century. cession of his bride. which the end of the times of the toward were written Macedonian dynasty. but spared their lives. and was reconciled to them at the " " inter- Digenes Akritas is the best as well as the earliest of the class which it represents. Pursued by the irate family. daughter of the general of the Cappadocian theme. celebrating Chivalry as praises of a hero who lived in the reigns of Nicephorus Phocas and John Zimisces [963-80]. a Prankish . The epic of Digenes Akritas." as would have run. . or his official title Clissurarch of Taurus.
LEONTIUS).///. (From a Byzantine L'Arl Hyzantin" J'ar Charles fain V..) . 1883. (>u<2titin. Fresco.) /'.A WARRIOR-SAINT (From '' (ST.
Theophilus deserves a word of mention as the first great builder since Justinian. and mosaic. persecuted by the the art of sacred portraiture became reemperors. a though corresponding. but The few manuscripts which even here seventh and eighth century work rare. Several stimulated of the most prominent " Iconodule martyrs were painters.] one more point in the history of the empire in the ninth century to which attention must be called.224 THE LITERARY EMPERORS AND THEIR TIME. so closely Roman troversy style. all There is good evidence that these were condition in his time. classical of painting revive in the best manuscript illumination of the period many of them might have been executed in the fifth or even the tradition fourth century. silver work. survive from that period not an equally great. tortured. stantinople during this and the two succeeding All other commerce than that of the . is very In the ninth century everything improves wonderfully. It is most astonishing to see how the old . display Mosaic work perhaps showed less decline in art. This is the unique commercial importance of Conis There centuries. and as a patron of the minor arts of jewellery. above all others spected by the multitude. It do they reproduce the old seems that the Iconoclastic con- painting. decline than other branches of the decoration. of whom it is recorded that their works were " no less beautiful than edifying : those of Lazarus. are especially cited as triumphs of art as well as sanctity. in a very flourishing [829-42. whom the Emperor Theophilus Though a persecutor of painters.
and the only touch between Eastern and Western Christendom was kept up under the protection of the imperial navy. The Eastern products which found or France were all their way to Italy passed through the warehouses of It was East.Roman ships that the Bosphorus. 22$ empire had been swept off the seas by the Saracen pirates in the preceding hundred years. save a few Italian ports. much money and goods passed through it that a rather harsh and unwise system of taxation did no permanent harm. such as carried all the trade .THE COMMERCE OF CONSTANTINOPLE. This monopoly of the commerce of Europe was one of the Amalphi and the new So greatest elements in the strength of the empire. . no place seems even to have possessed merchant ships. city of Venice.
then by the Caliphate under the two dynasties of the Ommeyades and the Abbasides.D. crisis had come in 951 A. WHILE Constantine Porphyrogenitus had been dragging out the monotonous years of his long reign. who had seized on the sovereignty of Persia.XVIII. broke into Bagdad and The the made dence.. the Caliphate had at last broken up. Now. when the armies of Buhawid prince Imad-ud-din. and preserved a mere nominal sovereignty which did not extend beyond the walls . the Caliph a prisoner in his own royal resiFor the future the Caliphs were no more . however. MILITARY GLORY. of their palace in Bagdad. and the descendants of Abdallah-es-Saffah and Harcun-al-Raschid had become the vassals of a rebellious subject. events which completely changed the aspect of affairs in the Moslem East had been following each other in quick succession on the Asiatic frontier of his realm. Ever since it first came into existence the Byzantine Empire had been faced in Asia by a first single powerful enemy by the Sassanian kingdom of Persia.
while the lands beyond them. and were generally at war with each other. Thus the Byzantines found on their eastern frontier no longer one great centralized power. but also the man. who Egypt and South Syria. along the Mahometan frontier. An unparalleled opportunity had arrived for the empire to take its revenge on its ancient enemies and to move back the Mahometan boundaries from the line along the Taurus where they had so long been fixed. and the Buhawid rulers used their names as a mere form and pretence. with the Buhawid and Ikshidite kingdoms in their rear. 22? than puppets. only Persia and the Lower Euphrates obeyed them. His father and grandfather before him had been dis- . The Emirs of Aleppo and Mosul. at moment the best soldier that it had this disposal possessed since the death of Leo the Isaurian.DECAY OF THE SARACEN POWER. ruled respectively in North Syria and in Mesopotamia. lands in Cappadocia. Nicephorus Phocas was the head of one of those great landholding families of Asia Minor who formed the flower of the Byzantine aristocracy he owned broad . became the immediate neighbours of the East-Roman Empire. Other dynasties rose and . The four Moslem states were all new and precarious creations of the sword. Fortunately it was not only the hour that had The empire had at its arrived. But the conquerors did not gain possession of the whole of the Caliphate Valley fought for the more western provinces of the old Moslem realm. but the comparatively weak Emirates of Aleppo and Mosul. formed the dominions of the house of the Ikshides.
tinguished officers. but a military author : Tlapa^po^^ TroXe/uof. and The whole island then submitted. fixed his choice. the son and heir of Constantine VII. The tered the pestilent galleys that preyed on the trade of the empire with the West.228 MILITARY GLORY. Tlepl capacity. dealing with the of armies. and took an enormous booty the hoarded wealth of a century of piracy. and all the best of the booty of the island [961 A. Several expeditions against it had failed during the last half-century. and given command of an army destined to open a campaign next year against the great frontier of the Saracens in Asia Minor. but Nicephorus far surpassed them. Kurup the captive Emir of Crete. Nicephorus sailed back to Constantinople to present to his sovereign. It was on Nicephorus then that Romanus II. and shel- hometan powers. stormed that city. still survives to testify to his organization his book. the dangerous haunt of Corsairs which lay across the mouth of the Aegean. chief He drove the Saracens into their town Chandax (Candia).. Nicephorus was duly honoured for his feat of arms. Destrongholds the scending by passes of the Central Taurus into in the .D." Complete success followed the arms of Nicephorus. and the land force was chosen from the flower of the Asiatic themes. The vessels are said to have been " numbered by the thousand.]. in bonds. when he resolved to commence an attack on the Mapoint selected for assault was the island of Crete. but this one was fitted out on the largest scale. not only a practical soldier.. for the whole race lived by the He was sword.
aged seven. the young and empress-dowager Theophano. There followed the form of regency that custom had made usual. who ruled from Mount Lebanon to the The Emir was routed. Sixty captured forts and castles in Cilicia and North Syria were the permanent fruits of his campaign.D. and had himself crowned as their colleague. who was only two. There he took the great town of Hierapolis. 963-969. very unexpectedly. and marched siege to Aleppo. ere he had reached his twenty-sixth little He left a young wife. claimed the guardianship of the two young Caesars. his joint reign of Nicephorus Phocas and wards. battle. lasted six The regent behaved with scrupulous years.CONQUESTS OF NICEPHORUS PHOCAS. and its protracted resistance gave time for the Moslems of South Syria and MesoEuphrates. Nicephorus. the to loyalty young princes. and then forced into Northern Syria. with all its wealth. Basil II. But the citadel still held out. and Constantine VIII. and Constantine. the emperor Romanus II. the most and powerful popular subject of the empire. and two boys. Basil. the walls of his were stormed. and Aleppo. fell into the hands of the Byzantine general. 22Q Phocas stormed Anazarbus. great an army appeared before the walls of Aleppo that Phocas determined not to risk a So booty and his numerous prisoners into the defiles of Taurus [962 A.]. To secure his place he married their mother. and laid Mount Amanus. the capital of the Emir Seyf-uddowleh. and retreated with his The next year year. and made no attempt to beautiful The . capital potamia to combine for the relief of their northern compatriots. Cilicia. died.
230 encroach on their MILITARY GLORY. the conquest of Cilicia and North Syria. which he had commenced as general. and spent more of his reign in the field than in the palace. which lay nearest his heart When he left the city in 968 for a new campaign against the Saracens. His end in life was to complete. pomp and ceremony which shows and led the Byzantine populace to style him a niggard and an He suppressed sports. rights. where his administration was less popular than in the camp. The stern old soldier was not a friend of either priests or courtiers. or to supplant them by any of his numerous nephews. which made him detested by the clergy. The years 964 and 965 were spent in achieving the former object three long sieges made him master of the great Cilician frontier fortresses. Nicephorus was an indefatigable soldier. . as emperor. he was all a it much in less popular ruler than when he had entered in triumph 966 after the conquest of Cilicia. and in his public life he dis- played a dislike for extortioner. and turned the public revenues into the war budget. For two years after this Phocas was employed at home. who had looked forward to his accession as likely to lead to their own promotion to imperial power. : Adana. after having passed seventy-seven years in the power of the Saracens. and set up again in the archways of the imperial palace. Mopsuestia. A few months later the tale of victories was completed by the news that Cyprus also had fallen back into Byzantine hands. Their rich bronze gates were sent as trophies to Constantinople. and Tarsus. He had several quarrels with the patriarch Polyeuctus.
Nicephorus dismissed both his generals from the service Burtzes for having acted against orders. All the North Syrian cities fell into his hands Emesa. in the tower he had won. the residence of the Emir : Damascus bought off the invader by a great tribute. His last Syrian expedition was no less glorious than his earlier campaign in the same quarter six years before. Theophano had learnt to hate her grim and stern husband. John Zimisces. Peter. however. through the daring of an officer named The story of its fall is curious. who had . refused to send him aid. and with them Aleppo. her eyes in love on the Emperor's favourite nephew. main body entered. Hierapolis. who. His wife. and for more than two days Burtzes maintained himself unaided the At last. 231 In the camp. in fear of the Emperor's orders. with orders not to risk an assault Burtzes. peror had general left named a blockading army before it under a Peter. the ancient capital of the land. Laodicea. Peter for having obeyed them too slavishly. Only Antioch. displayed none of the graces. and allowing an important advantage to be imperilled Nicephorus returned to Constantinople in the following year. however. to meet his death at the hands of those who should have been his nearest and dearest. and the Saracens fled from the town.CAPTURE OF ANTIOCH. the second in command. and Antioch also was taken in the winter by escalade. though he possessed all the She had cast virtues. The EmBurtzes. disobeyed orders and stormed a corner tower on a snowy night at the head of a small band of 300 men. a young cavalry officer. held out. Nicephorus was as well loved and as successful as ever.
The loyal KKICKN OK A VICTORIOUS EMPEROR. (From an Embroidered (From " L? Art Roth'. So John and Theophano conspired against their best friend. but by ambition he had hoped that his uncle would make him heir to the throne. distinguished himself in the Zimisces listened to her tempting. but he : Syrian war. to the detriment of the young emperor Basil. was not swayed by lust.} Byzantin." Par Charles Bayet. Paris. Quantin. and resolved to gain by murder what he could not gain by favour. 1883. and basely murdered him in the palace .232 greatly MILITARY GLORY.) old soldier had no idea of his nephew wronging his wards.
giving away half his private fortune to found hospitals for lepers. But the Nemesis of the murder of his uncle rested upon him in the shape of a long civil war. whose great Balkan Peninsula falls within the reign. wed the partner of his guilt. John threw him to the ground. and ultimately but Theophano. ! ! " " slaughter of his uncle. for Phocas. and the others stabbed him. emperors Basil and Constantine as scrupulously as his uncle had done. sent her to a monastery. Thechie! feat forwhich John Zimiscesis remembered his splendid victory over the Russians. and stirred up troubles among his last He a favourable specimen of an respected the rights of the young for is Cappadocian countrymen for several years. the empress refused to see her face. till at he was captured and immured in a monastery. God grant me Thy mercy Thus ended the brave and virtuous Nicephorus His murderers succeeded in their end. He showed some contrition for the base agony. The Emperor was awakened from sleep to find a dozen of the assassins forcing his door.MURDER OF NICEPHORUS one / 233 December night in 969. and force the patriarch to crown him emperor. We have not yet had much occasion invasion of the limits of his . His cousin Bardas Phocas took arms to revenge the death of the old Nicephorus. Zimisces was able to seduce the guards. overJohn a\ve the ministers. and proved that as an adminstrator and a soldier he was not unworthy to sit in the seat of Phocas. while he cried in his death- Oh. and the other half to be distributed among the poor of the city. did not If the He manner of his accession could but be forgiven John might pass emperor.
The Viking blood of the new Russian princes drove them seaward. Its capital lay at Kief on the Dnieper. to mention the Russian tribes. Nor should we hear of them now. and it had proved a formidable neighbour to all the barbarous tribes around. but for the fact that their scattered tribes had been of late unified into a single horde by a power from without. within the tenth century. all the Slavonic tribes of the great forest-land. by the waters of the Dnieper and the Duna. a Viking band from Sweden. come some hundred years before the reign of John Zimisces [862 A. the ancestor of all the princes and The descendants of these adventurers from the north had gradually conquered and subdued Tzars of Russia. in a land of forest and marsh.]. the Russians provinces.234 MILITARY GLORY. and landed their plundering crews within a few miles of the Bosphorus. headed by Rurik. far remote from the boundaries of the empire. had returned home laden with plunder. and formed them into a single powerful kingdom.D. and begun to vex the northern borders of the Byzantine Empire with raids and ravages like those which the Danes inflicted on Western Europe. had large fleets of light Russia row-boats they were copies on a smaller scale of the Viking ships of the North stolen down from the Dnieper mouth to the shores of Thrace. and urged forward intoacareer of conquest by araceof ambiInto the land of the Russians there had tious princes. and ere many generations had passed they had forced their way down the Dnieper into the Euxine. Twice already. but on the . in who for many centuries had been dwelling obscurity and barbarism. for a hurried raid on the rich suburban On the first occasion in 907.
They even sacked the considerable town of Philippopolis before the imperial troops came to its aid. second. Swiatoslaf. great square Roman : axe they wore mail like the shirts and peaked helmets. which 235 fell in 941. war-galley urged by But the attack which John Zimisces had to meet 970 was far more formidable than either of those which had preceded it. He conquered the whole and soon his marauders were crossing the country.000 men set out to cross the Balkans and drive The struggle which the Russians into the Danube. which could not resist for a moment its the impact of the heavy hundred oars. to whom their The shock of their columns was princes were akin. and the bowmen and slingers who were the incredible. Balkans and showing themselves in the plain of Thrace. just of Western Europe. king of the Russians.000 men. who had been absent in Asia Minor. two great The tale of John's flower of the Byzantine infantry. This roused Zimisces. in 4 ensued was one of the most desperate which EastThe Russians all fought on history records. caught revenged the harrying of Thrace by sinking sco res of their light boats. armed with spear and in columns. and had thrown himself on to the kingdom of Bulgaria which was at the moment distracted by civil war. Normans terrible. the Byzantine fleet had them at and sea. battles with the Russians at Presthlava and . and in the early spring of 971 an imperial army of 30.JOHN ZIMISCES DEFEATS THE RUSSIANS. had come down the Dnieper with no less than 60. and their constancy in standing firm almost Against these warriors of the North Zimisces led the mailed horsemen of the Asiatic themes. foot.
) . Quantin. Paris." Par Charles Bayet. 1883. (From "L'Art Byzantin.ARABESQUE DESIGN FROM A BYZANTINE MS.
their civilization. as in Sussex. We learn how the Emperor. of arrows to which they had no missile weapons to oppose.TRIUMPH OF ZIMISCES. clad in nothing but a white shirt. and forced to yield h mself. Soon after Swiatoslafs death the majority of the Russians became Christians. They bade each other adieu. a chronicler who seems to have been present at the scene. and the Russian departed. while the burly Viking rowed to meet him in a boat. and ere long ceased to trouble the empire by their raids. on . The contrast between the two monarchs struck Leo the Deacon. and with his long moustache floating in the wind. the fearful slaughter in the Swiatoslaf escaped with his life and the relics of his army. and made a broken phalanx. the sturdy axeman long beat off the desperate cavalry charges of their opponents. More fortunate than Harold Godwineson at the field of Senlac. But he was beleaguered within the walls of Silistria. They became faithful adherents of the Eastern Church. King ranks.inak Tartars of the Southern Steppes. and caused him to describe the meeting with some vigour. on the terms that he and his men might take their way homeward. only to fall in battle ere the year was out. at the hands of the Pat/. sat on his great war-horse by the river bank. and when once the archers had thinned their Byzantine cavalry burst in. a small alert fair-haired man. But they could not resist the hail Hastings. Silistria 237 of reads much like the tale of the battle In Bulgaria. The swearing never to molest the empire again. oven their . and drew their learning. Russian swore the oath and took a solemn farewell of Zimisces. in his golden armour with his guards about him.
} (Front "L'Art Byzantin.RUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE FROM BYZANTINE MODEL. I88 3 . (Church at Vladimir.) ." Par Charles Bayet. Paris. Quantin.
. But the tale cannot be verified. II. and the list of their names Michael. which his uncle Nicephorus had pushed forward to Antioch and Aleppo was advanced by him as far as Amida and Edessa in Mesopotamia. But in the midst of his conquests Zimisces was cut off by death..J. more territory in The border Northern Syria from the Saracens.DEATH OF ZIMISCES. Nicholas. Alexis sufficiently witnesses to their Byzantine godparents. and Norsemen of all sorts were incorporated. and all that is certain is that John died after a short illness. Report whispered that he had been poisoned by one of his ministers. John Zimisces survived his great victory at Silistria for five years. ere he died. John.D. and won. Peter. English. Alexander. whom he had threatened to displace. 239 names and titles from Constantinople. Russian mercenaries were ere long enlisted in the formed the nucleus of the imperial army. and " Varangian guard. Danes. while still in the flower of his age. The Tzars are but Caesars misspelt. young ward Basil who leaving the throne to his had now attained the age of twenty years [976 A." in which at a later day.
. Basil seemed to have : modelled himself on the elder of his two guardians. though it did not keep him from the commission of many deeds of shocking cruelty . was by no means unJohn had BASIL worthy to succeed them. His piety was exaggerated into bigotry and fanaticism. is one continuous record of wars. II. and almost entirely of wars brought to a successful termination. he showed from the first a love for war and adventure. but it : was undoubtedly real. THE END OF THE MACEDONIAN DYNASTY. the stern Nicephorus Phocas.XIX. Probably the deeds of John and his long reign Nicephorus excited him to emulation at any rate from 976 till 1025. Unlike his ancestors of the Macedonian house. He gave throne. His earliest years on the indeed. and always wore the garb of a monk u ider his armour and his imperial robes. who now sat in his own right on the which his warlike guardians Nicephorus and throne so long protected. himself up entirely to war and religion he took a vow of chastity. were spent in the pursuit of but ere he reached the age of thirty a pleasure. sudden transformation was visible in him.
But after Phocas had died and Skleros had surrendered." Basil's life-work was the moving back of the East- border in the Balkan Peninsula as far as the Danube. The whole interior of the Balkan Peninsula formed at this period part of the dominions of Samuel King of the Bulgarians. he accomplished little. and Bardas Skleros. who reigned over Bulgaria. Basil reserved all his energies for war in Europe. Servia. and other districts around them. three hundred and fifty years before. for the old royal house had ceased out of the land during Swiatoslaf's invasion of Bulgaria ten years before. In the first years of his reign. The main power of Samuel lay not in the land between Balkan and Danube. It was a strong and compact kingdom.. being much harassed by two rebellions of great Asiatic nobles Bardas Phocas. but ness and His justice was equally often degenerated into mere harshindifference to suffering.THE BULGARIAN WARS. Roman paying comparatively little attention to the Eastern conquests which had engrossed Nicephorus Phocas and John Zimisces. who had won his way to the throne by sheer strength and ability. but in the . "the Slayer of the Bulgarians. the general of the Armeniac theme. No one could have been more unlike his gay pleasure-loving father. a line which it had not touched since the Slavonic immigration in the days of Heraclius. in 241 the course of his wars. indeed. inland Macedonia. than the grim emperor who won from posterity the title of Bulgaroktonos. or his mild literary grandfather. administered by an able man. which gave his kingdom its name. the nephew of Nicephorus II. it renowned.
four years. for Samuel was not a foe to be despised he was no mere barbarian. and had specially studied It was the desperate defences of his fortification. The : to follow out suffice details of the struggle are too long it to say that after some defeats in his earlier years. he had chosen as his capital a strong town situated There on a lake among the Macedonian hills. But at last. The Slavonic districts further West and South. and from thence he started forth to attach either Thessalonica or Adrianople. about Ochrida and Uskup. as far as the Danube. in his Macedonian strongholds. struggle taxed all the Bulgarian king died This long and unremitting the energies of the . but had learnt the art of war from his Byzantine neighbours. numerous hill-castles that made Basil's task such a long one. The old Bulgarian was so overcome . and his relentless slaughter of captives after the day was won. after which he took 1 5. which of fortress centre of his realm was the Ochrida. till The duel between Basil and Samuel lasted no less than thirty. a beaten man in 1014. For twelve years more the enemy held out in the Central Balkans. Basil's constant victories in the field. Basil accomplished the conquest of Bulgaria proper. broke the force of the Bulgarian king. in 1002. in the In 1014 the Emperor gained a crowning victory.242 THE END OF THE MACEDONIAN DYNASTY. as the opportunity might come to him. the last of Samuel's strongholds North surrendered to him. Samuel mustered his armies. the year in which Widdin.000 prisoners he put out the eyes of all save one man in each hundred. and sent the : poor wretches with their guides to seek King Samuel in his capital. empire.
His successors Gabriel and Ladislas could make no head against the stern and relentless emperor. without attempting to exterminate the Slavonic tribes that had so often defied him. Basil treated the vanquished foe with mildness. indulged in no massacres. and died on the spot. and made it touch the Magyar kingdom of Hungary. for Servia no less than Bulgaria and Macedonia formed part of his conquests.DEATH OF KING SAMUEL. and contented himself with repairing the old discretion. and acquired an ascendency over its neighbours. at the horrible sight that 243 he was seized with a fit. The Byzantine border now ran from Belgrade to the Danube mouth. had come to the front. Roman roads and fortresses of the Central Balkans. His arms were entirely successful. and the Iberians and Abasgians who dwelt beyond them to the north. the Fatimite dynasty in Egypt. Basil's last campaigns. in IO2I-2. and in 1018 the last fortress of the kingdom of Ochrida surrendered at Contrary to his habit. " the Slayer justly earned his grim title of " of the Bulgarians his series of victories in long by Having Europe. There the Moslem states were still weak and divided though a new power. . His conquests rounded off the empire on its northern frontier. of rage and grief. and he added many Armenian districts to his Eastern provinces but it may be questioned whether these . till the great rebellion of Bulgaria against Isaac Angelus in the year 1086. were directed against the princes of Armenia. a line which it was destined to preserve for nearly two hundred years. Basil turned in his old age to continue the work of John Zimisces on the Eastern frontier. .
a votary of the table and the wine cup. being a Christian state it was friendly to A the empire. He had won more the since the days of the great Belisarius. but did not annex the whole country. had been his col- league in reign. His successors were to be unworthy of his throne. or establish in it any adequate provision against the ultimate danger of attacks from the East by the Mahometan powers. useful neighbour to the Byzantine realm . There was to be no one after him who could boast that he had fought thirty campaigns in the open field with harness on his back. whose only redeeming tastes were a devotion to music and literature. and had never turned aside from any enterprise that he Basil's brother Constantine had ever taken in hand. and acted as a Basil against Moslem attacks from Persia. Basil died in 1025 at the age of sixty-eight. provinces for the empire than any general and at his death Byzantine borders had reached the furthest extension which they ever knew.244 THE END OF THE MACEDONIAN DYNASTY. and were destined to lose provinces with as constant regularity as he himself had shown in gaining them." Constantine was a mere worlding. just as he was preparing to send forth an expedition to rescue Sicily from the hands of the Saracens. broke up the Armenian power. Armenian kingdom was a usually barrier strong conquests were beneficial to the empire. a man of pleasure. He had dwelt little surrounded by a in his corner of the palace court of eunuchs and flatterers. . name No through the half century of his one could have been more unlike the ascetic all and indefatigable " Slayer of the Bulgarians.
actively sovereign. and pretended. and perience led to much weak and futile was a cause of wild whose inexgovernment during his short reign. to wed the princess. and left no heirs save his elderly unmarried daughters whose education and moral training he had grossly neglected. was more than forty years of age. at an hour's notice. and gave her unwilling spouse many an evil hour. Only two days later Romanus found himself left. She was his father in-law's death. by head of the empire. house. a clever. and forced him. Now Constantine found himself the heir of his childless brother. however. kept the reins of authority in her own hands. and devoted himself to such affairs of state as he was allowed to manage.THE EMPRESS ZOE. the eldest. and unscrupulous woman. he sent for a middle-aged noble named Romanus Argyrus. at the age of sixty to take up the of He an idle and inempire. Constantine died in 1028. to be the mistress of all hearts long Her after she was well advanced in middle age. and was forced His worst act was to hand over the administration of the chief offices of state to six of his old courtiers all eunuchs whose elevation anger to the great noble families. obstinate. Zoe. husband let her go her own way. proved responsibilities but not an mischievous competent. titular inordinately vain. His interference with warlike matters was most un- . but her father had never found her a husband. like Queen Elizabeth of England. after a very brief taste of He was the last male of the Macedonian empire. But Zoe. On his death-bed. and excluded by the stern Basil from lot in 245 all share and the administration of the empire.
was fearfully afflicted with which sapped his health. The attempt to subdue the whole island failed. who won many towns and defeated sent the Moslems in two pitched battles. happy. The object of Zoe's anile affection was a capable man. the volatile empress she was now over fifty had chosen and wedded another partner. the best general of the day. to from the Moors.246 THE END OF THE MACEDONIAN DYNASTY. a young courtier who had been Gentleman of the Bedchamber to Romanus he was twentyeight years of age and noted as the most handsome man in Constantinople. reign of six years Romanus died of a lingering disease. Venturing a campaign in Syria. and the conquests of Maniakes were lost one after the other. and so enfeebled him that he died a hopeless invalid ere he reached the still a fits.. and saw several towns on the border After a fall into the hands of the Emir of Aleppo. burst out into He also failed in a revolt. though epileptic young man.. and to his own surprise he found himself seated on the throne by his elderly admirer . and could not quell it. The new emperor was Michael the Paphlagonian. now again a widow. Michael IV. The irrepressible Zoe. But in his last years he saw Servia. one of the conquests of Basil II. he led his army to defeat. His good looks had won Zoe's fancy. Almost before the breath was out of her husband's body. age of thirty-six. He beat back the Saracens from Syria and put down a Bulgarian rebellion with success. took a few days to decide whether she would . and Zoe was left a widow. and justified his rather humiliating elevation by good service to the empire. though he project reconquer Sicily : against the island George Maniakes.
Frequent rebellions broke out both in Asia Minor and in the Balkan Peninsula. were dead." the last Byzantine possession to the West of the Adriatic. while a new enemy. 3. conquered the theme of Langobardia. and caught and blinded Michael. But the young man proved ungrateful. the city mob. once more at the head of the state. She first the former alternative. routed the soldiery. The Seljouk Turks were now commencing a career of conquest in Persia and the lands on the Oxus. Their joint reign was unhappy both at home and abroad. She chose as her partner Constaritine Monomachus. and crowned as her colleague her late spouse's nephew and namesake Michael V. at the age of sixty-two. who loved the Macedonian house. and laughed at rather than reprobated the foibles of Zoe. and established in its stead the duchy of Apulia . The Patzinaks : sent forays across the Danube. took arms to defend their mistress. But this danger was not yet a pressing one. or marry a third husband. " the Normans of South Italy. tried of and strove to deprive the aged empress of the control affairs. In 1048 the advance guard of their hordes began to ravage the Armenian frontier of the empire.ZOE'S THIRD MARRIAGE. When he announced his intention of removing her from the capital. now made her third marriage. In a fierce fight between the rioters and the guards of Michael V. A still more dangerous foe began also to be heard of along the Eastern frontier. an old debauchee who had been her lover thirty years ago. 247 adopt a son. When Zoe and Constantine IX..000 lives were lost but the insurgents had the upper hand. the . Zoe.
and her two years of power were not troubled by rebellions or vexed by foreign war. Basilian dynasty pass 1057. the " third anarchy in the history of the Byzantine Empire. an old woman of seventy. and that with its extinction the troubles of a disputed succession were doomed to come upon the empire. who had spent the best part of her days in a nunnery. and led them to let the last days of the . away in peace.sole remaining scion of the Macedonian house was This was Theodora. Theodora died on the 3<Dth of August. Then commenced " the reign of trouble. the younger sister of Zoe. and the fact that she was the last of her house. . saluted as ruler of the empire. Her austere virtues won her some respect from the people. She was as sour and ascetic as her sister had been vain and amorous but she does not seem to have been the worst of the rulers of Byzantium. seems to have sobered her subjects. having on her death-bed declared that she adopted Michael Stratioticus as her successor.
(I057-I08I. Domestic troubles were the first inevitable conse- quence of the extinction of the Macedonian dynasty. The aged Theodora had named as her successor on the throne Michael Stratioticus. the elements of discord seemed and the double scourge of civil war and unchained. In the twenty-four years between 1057 and 1081 were pressed more disasters than had been seen in any other period of East-Roman history. MANZIKERT. THE moment began to afflict the empire.) that the last of the Macedonian was dynasty gone. was grown aged and years back. the blow that was destined to foreign invasion away beyond any shear half its strength. a contemporary of her own who had been an able soldier twenty-five But Michael VI. For now came the second cuttingshort of the empire.XX. incompetent. and the empire was full of ambitious on the generals. and leave it maimed possibility of ultimate recovery. save perhaps the reign of Heraclius. who would not tolerate a dotard .
in The its safety of the realm was entirely well-disciplined the hands of national impaired the efficiency the deadliest peril. . their hordes had overrun Persia and extinguished the dynasty of the Buhawides. and the most popular general of the East. Ducas. which had been sorely wasted since the death of Basil II. and retired to a monastery to die. Before a year had passed a band of great Asiatic nobles entered into a conspiracy to overturn Michael. His mind was set on nothing but finance. His crown was . he neglected save all To money he the other departments of state. another Cappawas docian noble. This was sheer madness. reigned for seven troubled years. But a curse seemed to rest upon the Isaac was stricken down by disease when usurpation he had been little more than a year on the throne. when there was impending over the empire the most terrible military danger that had been seen for four centuries. and dispossessed the aged Michael of his throne with little chief of one of the ancient difficulty.. and that and army. for he proved but a sorry administrator. Isaac Comnenus and his friends took arms. Pressing on from the Oxus lands. and disappointed all transferred to Constantine his supporters. and in the endeavour to build up again the imperial treasure.250 throne. MANZIKERT. disbanded no inconsiderable portion of the army. and replace him by Isaac Comnenus. the Cappadocian houses. who supposed to be second only to Constantine Isaac in competence and popularity. anything of the army was fraught with well-paid The Seljouk Turks were now drawing near. and cut down the pay of the rest.
with his population. but slew off the whole Meanwhile." Armenia had next been overrun. they had penetrated to Bagdad. a Michael. 25! In 1050. The usual result To secure her son's life and throne. a Tartar tribe from the Euxine shore. in 1067. and made him guardian of the young Michael. Ducas died Empress-dowager Eudocia took a new husband. Anatolic. had declared himself "defender of the faith and protector of the Caliph. who had burst into Bulgaria. sometimes they eluded the imperial But whether troops and escaped with their booty. an invasion of the Uzes. and the bulkwark which protected the Byzantine Empire from Eastern invasions. far surpassing successful or unsuccessful. and caused it to forget that caution and ability are far more regal virtues than . the followed.THE COMING OF THE SELJOUKS. .. Togrul Beg. and still obeyed independent princes. Constantine X. The new Emperor-regent was Romanus Diogenes. and Cappadocian themes. they displayed a reckless anything that the Saracens had Wherever they passed they not merely plundered to right and left. The reign of Constantine Ducas was troubled by countless Seljouk invasions of the Armeniac. leaving the throne to his son. In that year fell Ani. and their great chief. the ancient Armenian capital. proved incompetent to hold them back all the more so that his operations were distracted by ever shown. had been conquered by 1064. boy of fourteen years. Sometimes the invaders were driven back. reduced army. cruelty. an Asiatic noble. whose brilliant courage displayed in the Seljouk wars had dazzled the world. and those portions of it which had not been annexed to the empire.
hand with the
greatest vigour the task of repelling the Turks, which
had so grievously neglected.
into the field every man that could be collected from the European or Asiatic themes, and for three successive years
was incessantly marching and countermarching in Armenia, Cappadocia, and Syria, in the endeavour to hunt down the marauding bands of the
not entirely un-
Alp Arslan, the Sultan of the Seljouks, contented himself at first with dispersing his hordes
bands, and attacking many points of the frontier at once. Hence the Emperor was not unin scattered
frequently able to catch and slay off one of the minor divisions of the Turkish army. But some of them his heavy cavalry always contrived to elude him
bowmen, who generally escaped and rode back home by a long detour, burning and murdering as they went. Cappadocia was already desolated from end to end, and the Turkish raids had reached as far as Amorium,
light Seljouk horse
come up with the
In pursuing the
Seljouk plunderers, Romanus was drawn far eastward, on the Armenian frontier. There he
found himself confronted, not by a flying foe, but by the whole force of the Seljouk sultanate, with Alp
Arslan himself at
harassed by long marches, and though two large divisions were absent, the Emperor was eager to fight The Turks had never before offered him a fair field,
OUR LOKU BLESSING ROMANUS DIOGENES AND EUDOCIA.
an Ivory at Pan's.} CharUs Bayet. Parii, Quanlin,
on the power of his cuirassiers
great, of the light
down any number, however
The decisive battle of Manzikert, which it is not too much to call the turning-point of the whole course of Byzantine history, was fought in the early summer of
For a long day the Byzantine horsemen roll back and break through the lines of horse bowmen. But fresh hordes kept coming Turkish on, and in the evening the fight was still undecided. As the night was approaching, Romanus prepared to draw his troops back to the camp, but an unhappy misconception of orders broke up the line, and the Seljouks edged in between the two halves of the army. Either from treachery or cowardice Andronicus Ducas,
who commanded the reserve, led his men The Emperor's division was fighting.
by the enemy, and broke up
Romanus himself was wounded, thrown from his horse, and made prisoner. The greater part of his men were cut to pieces.
Alp Arslan showed himself more forbearing to his It is true prisoner than might have been expected. that Romanus was led after his capture to the tent of
the Sultan, and laid prostrate before him, that, after the Turkish custom, the conqueror might place his foot on the neck of his vanquished foe. But after
ceremony the Emperor was treated
with kindness, and allowed after some months to ransom himself and return home. He would have
fared better, however, if he had remained the prisoner of the Turk. During his captivity the conduct of
MISFORTUXES OF ROMANUS DIOGENES.
hands of John Ducas, uncle of the young emperor Michael. The unscrupulous regent was determined that Romanus should not
fallen into the
NICEPHORUS BOTANIATES SITTING IN STATE.
(From a contemporary MS.) (From "L'Art Byzantin" Par Charles Bayet. Paris, Quantin,
supersede him and mount the throne again. When the released captive reappeared, John had him seized
work was so roughly done
died a few days later. Asia Minor was lost
that the unfortunate
After this fearful
there was no chief to take the place of Romanus, and the Seljouk hordes spread westward almost unop-
ten years were a time of chaos and While the Seljouks were carving their way deeper and deeper into the vitals of the empire, the wrecks of the Byzantine army were employed not in resisting them, but in carrying on a desperate series of
After the death of Romanus, every general empire seemed to think that the time had come him to assume the purple buskins and proclaim
himself emperor. History records the names of no less than six pretenders to the throne during the next
nine years, besides several rebels
who took up arms
The young without assuming the imperial title. when he came of Michael Ducas, proved, emperor, is he to a vicious remembered in be nonentity age,
Byzantine history only by his nickname of Para" pinakes, the peck-filcher," given him because in a
year of famine he sold the measure of wheat to his His subjects a fourth short of its proper contents.
that of Nicephorus Botaniates, the rebel who overthrew him, cover in the list of emperors a space of ten years that would better be represented by a
for the authority of the
nominal ruler scarcely
extended beyond the walls of the capital, and the themes that were not overrun by the Turks were in
the hands of governors
eyes. to the
who each At last a man
did what was right
of ability worked was Alexius
CHARACTER OF ALEXIUS COM HEM'S.
Comnenus, nephew of the emperor Isaac Comnenus, whose short reign we related in the opening paragraph
of this chapter.
Alexius was a man of courage and ability, but he displayed one of the worst types of Byzantine character. Indeed, he was the first emperor to whom the " epithet Byzantine," in its common and opprobrious sense could be applied. He was the most accomplished
liar of his age, and, while winning and defending the imperial throne, committed enough acts of mean treachery, and swore enough false oaths to startle
even the courtiers of Constantinople. He could fight when necessary, but he preferred to win by treason and perjury. Yet as a ruler he had many virtues,
it will always be remembered to his credit that he dragged the empire out of the deepest slough of degradation and ruin that it had ever sunk into.
he was not
cruel, and seven ex-emperors unharmed in Constantinople
under his sceptre, bore witness to the mildness of
tale of his reign sufficiently bears witness
practical ability in his character.
THE COMNENI AND THE CRUSADES.
found himself, in 1081, a almost as difficult and perilous position placed as that which Leo the Isaurian faced in 716. Like
Leo, he was a usurper without prestige or hereditary claims, seated on an unsteady throne, and forced to
imminent danger from the Moslem enemy withIt may be out, and from rival adventurers within. added that the Isaurian, grievously threatened as he was by the enemy from the East, had no peril impending from the West Alexius had to face at one and the same time the assault of the Seljouks on Asia Minor, and the attack of a new and formidable foe in his western provinces. We have already mentioned the manner in which the Byzantine dominion in Italy had come to an end. Now the same Norman adventurers who had stripped the empire of Calabria and Apulia were preparing to cross the straits of Otranto, and seek out the Emperor
provinces of his realm. The forces of the Italian and Sicilian Normans were united under
in the central
their great chief
Robert Guiscard, the hardy and unof Apulia. Just ten years before he scrupulous had captured Bari, the last Byzantine fortress on his own side of the straits now he was resolved to take advantage of the anarchy which had prevailed in the
empire ever since the day of Manzikert, and to build
up new Norman principalities to the east of the Adriatic. There seemed to be nothing presumptuous in the scheme to those who remembered how a few
hundred Norman adventurers had conquered all Southern Italy and Sicily, and swelled into a victorious army fifty thousand strong. Nor could the
remember how, but
Norman duke had far West, and won by
fifteen years crossed another
his strong right
hand the great kingdom of England. Alexius Comncnus sat like Harold Godwinson on a lately-acquired and unsteady throne, and Duke Robert thought to deal with him much as Duke William had dealt with
the Englishman. In June, 1081, the
landed, thirty thousand
Durazzo, the maritime
guarded the Epirot
active hopeful be able to beat
once flew to
he trusted that he might off the new invaders, whose military worth he was
He patched up Suleiman, Sultan of the Seljouks, by surrendering to him all the territory of which the Turk was in actual possession, a tract
from appreciating at
a hasty pacification with
which now extended as far as the waters of the Propontis, and actually included the city of Nicaea,
however. and . The new army contained quite a small proportion of national troops. and the Norman duke was able to turn his whole force Robert's army. Servian. whose courage had won the confidence of so many emperors. With them marched Turkish. had led against the Turks ten years before. Its core was the imperial guard of Varangians the Russian. and South-Slavonic many auxiliaries the native element comprised the regulars of the three provinces of Thrace. they charged the Normans before the rest of Alexius's troops had line of battle. The Emperor's bad tactics were the main cause of his failure : his army came upon the ground in successive detachments. Danish. . disordered their ranks. and only seventy miles from Constantinople. Their they success. Thessaly. and the van was cut to pieces before the main body had reached the field. formed their Rushing on the wing of commanded by the Count of Bari. and English mercenaries. and suffered a crushing defeat at his hands. The military organization of the empire had gone to pieces. Alexius brought Robert Guiscard to battle in front of Durazzo. The brunt of the battle was borne by the Varangians carried : away by their fiery courage. all that now remained in Alexius' hands of the ancient East-Roman realm. The army with which Alexius had to face the Normans was the mere wreck and shadow of that which Romanus IV. close to the Bithynian shore. and we no longer hear of the old " " Themes of heavy cavalry which had formed its backbone. Macedonia. Prankish. drove it horse and foot into the sea.260 THE COMNENI AND THE CRUSADES.
and for some time beat off . his rewarded by the dispersion of the Norman army. But Robert shot them down with his archers. against them ere the 261 to cavalry charge cut off the greater part of the Varangians the rest collected on a mound by the sea-shore. save a small remnant who defended themselves in a ruined chapel. and lingered last was the and surrounded. which Guiscard had finally to burn before he could make an end of its obstinate defenders. field. mans overran all a more cautious campaign. fought badly. the it a severe defeat at Larissa. Catching it while divided. last. It was cowed by the fled loss of its best corps. Alexius himself. and at arm. The rest of Alexius's army only came into action when the Varangians had been destroyed.BATTLE OF DURAZZO. . A Emperor was near enough fierce the Normans with their axes. but Alexius was not Norman danger destined to win peace. as King Harold's men had done at Senlac on the last occasion when English and Norman had met. only escaped by upon the speed of his horse and the strength of his sword- in haste. who and in the next year the NorEpirus and descended into Thessaly. give them aid. They fell. after patience was slackened. Alexius risked two more engagements with them. on inflicted Emperor After this the war into back and forced it Epirus. Durazzo fell. Disaster taught him to avoid pitched battles. in 1083. Constant rebellions at home. Thus one foe was removed. and then sent more cavalry against them. but his inexperienced troops were defeated in both. and the when Robert Guiscard died in 1085 passed away.
begun by St Stephen in 1000. which had taken its place among the other nations of the Roman Catholic faith. and at the end of the time had held his own and lost no more territory. The second pheno- . became for the first time possible. and the Seljouks filled the next ten years. the western pilgrims to the Holy Land had been suffering grievous things at the hands of the barbarians. four years after Manzikert. Two series of events had made free communication between East and West possible in the end of the eleventh century. and ere long the route grew popular. on the empire. The first of these was the conversion of Hungary. Alexius. while his throne was growing more secure. But all the wrath that their ill-treatment provoked would have been fruitless. The Crusades were on the eve of their commencement Ever since the Seljouks had taken : Jerusalem in 1075. if the way to Syria had of not been opened late to the nations of Western Christendom. " was never discouraged eking out the lion's skin with the fox's hide. which was destined to exercise unsuspected influence. Communication down the Danube. and wars with the Patzinaks. lied and negotiated. in a measure which had never before been seen. and completed about For the future there lay between the Byzan1050.262 THE COMXENI AND THE CRUSADES. however. but a semi-civilized Christian kingdom. both for good and evil. the Slavs." he fought and intrigued. tine Empire and Germany not a barbarous pagan state. But in the fifteenth year of his reign a new cloud began to arise in the west. between Vienna and the Byzantine outposts in Bulgaria.
and then by the Normans. The Emperor had little confidence in the could purity of the zeal of the Crusaders . whose occupation of Sicily made the voyage from Marseilles and Genoa to the East safe and sure. waters where no Christian war-galleys save those of Byzantium had ever been seen before. both by land and sea. whose fleets Corsica conquered and Sardinia from the Moslems. of armed Prankish pilgrims began to arrive. Suffice it to say. It was the fact that free access to the East was now to be gained. and the had developed themselves and now their fleets swept the importance. his wily mind not comprehend their enthusiasm. that in 1095 news came to the Emperor Alexius that the nations of the West were mustering by myriads. and were drawn into the peasantry and the imwith bloody fights left upon garrisons.THE CRUSADES. This was carried out first by the Pisans and Genoese. Of the preaching of Peter the Hermit and the efforts of Pope Urban we need not speak. that made the Crusades feasible. his fears were right justified : the new-comers pillaged his country and many perial their way. Four new maritime powers the Genoese. and he that dreaded some unforeseen circumstance might When the hordes turn their arms against himself. which might have ended in open . with and directing their the expressed intention of driving the Moslems from Palestine. march towards his frontiers. as it had never in the Venetians into Adriatic been before. and Normans in the open sea. 263 menon which made the Crusades possible was the destruction of the Saracen naval power in the Central Mediterranean. Pisans.
the frontier fortress of the Seljouk Sultan. At length they went on their way. and never till the Holy City was reconquered. THE COMNENI AND THE CRUSADES. others he bribed. the This nearly led to the strife between Crusaders. whose troops they secretly admitted within the walls.264 war. and in two marches found themselves within Turkish territory. but to Alexius. from Godfrey of Bouillon and Hugh of Vermandois down to the smallest barons. were induced to swear him allegiance. In the spring of 1097 the Crusaders began to cross the Bosphorus. are shifts of tales of the ingenious by which he brought the stupid and arrogant Franks to reason. and there was ample scope for his talent for intrigue and insincere diplomacy. Some he flattered. and encouraged his promise that he would aid them with his troops. They at once laid siege to Nicaea. and to swear to restore to him all the old dominions of the empire which they might reconquer from the Turks. But Alexius set himself to work to smooth and patience were needed. down all his tact : into compliance. who had been reckoning on the plunder of the town but Alexius Emperor and . who regarded his full powers of cajolery with greater respect than any other part of his character. . abandon them continue to supply them with provisions. The pages of the history written Anna Comnena. He had resolved to induce the crusading chiefs to do him homage. by his daughter. Encompassed by so great a host the Turkish garrison soon lost heart and surrendered. by with Alexius's gold in their pockets. not to the Franks. After long and tedious negotiations he had his way the leaders of the Crusade. others he strove to frighten matters .
since the Seljouk hordes were drawn away eastward. and sent to ask for instant help. till they reached North Syria. and the pilgrim host rolled forward once more into the interior of Asia Minor. but in the foundation of new Frankish states. like the jackal behind the lion. .CONQUESTS OF ALEXIUS. Hence there resulted a bitter quarrel between the Emperor and the Franks. reconquering Western Asia Minor almost without a blow. Alexius despatched no troops to Syria. Antioch. While the Sultan was with them Alexius engaged despoiled him of Smyrna. . and accused the rein not ended Crusade it resulted that the party. broke the establishment of the Byzantine power in Syria. When they were crushing the Turks he followed in their rear at a safe distance. compact signed at ConstanHence other of treachery. and the more important kingdom of Jerusalem.' It was the same in the next year when the Crusaders were fighting hard round Antioch against the princes of Mesopotamia. the principalities of Edessa. Ephesus. 265 appeased them with further stores of money. Alexius had undertaken to help them in their campaign. beating back the Seljouks at every encounter. and Tripoli. and Sardis. picking up the spoil which they left. In 1097 tne Crusaders forced their way through Phrygia and Cappadocia. the tinople. in fact. but gathered in a number of Lydian and Phrygian fortresses which lay nearer to his hand. but he was set on playing an easier game. for since he to hand over to him gave them no help they refused Each other their and Antioch Syrian conquests. where they laid siege to Antioch.
} Par Charles Bayet.BYZANTINE IVORY-CARVING OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY. (From (From the British "V Art Byzantin. 1883. Paris.) ." Museum. Quantin.
they were beaten off with ease. the feats which Robert Guiscard had accomplished in 1082. tried to repeat. and now the empire had of the recovered all Lydia and Caria with much hard fight hit. Owing. to the fearful blow inflicted by the Crusades on the Moslem powers of Asia Minor and Syria. It paid them much . The reign of Alexius might have been counted a been for period of success and prosperity if it had not two considerations. The first was the rapid decline of Constantinople as a commercial centre. had it been handed over to him. between 1100 and 1118. and forced to conclude a disadvantageous peace. 267 real loss to Alexius he would not have been strong enough to hold it. to reign. That he did not recover Syria was no . constant rebellions which had vexed his early years ceased. in 1 107. the later years of Alexius were free from the danger which had overshadowed the beginning of his He was able. they began to visit Constanfar less tinople than before. and for well-nigh Phrygian inland.SECOND NORMAN WAR. The actual profit which he made by the Crusade was enough to content him frontier in the Franks had rolled back the Turkish Asia not less than two hundred miles : : instead of the Seljouk lying at Nicaea. the strengthen his position at home and abroad . under Bohemund of Tarentum. he was chased back behind the Bithynian hills. and when the Normans. When the Genoese and Venetians succeeded in establishing themselves in the seaports of Syria. then. The Seljouks were a century were reduced to on the defensive. which was brought about by the Crusades.
: commerce of the West with Persia. The effect of this decline on the coffers of the state was deplorable. the rapid Alexius and his two successors the complaints about fall in the imperial revenue grew more and more noticeable. Egypt. denied to his his empire without the payment own . could be more easily bullied and defrauded than the powerful ruler of In his own seaports he possessed Constantinople. ceased to pass through the Bosphorus. Italy. hardly a shadow of authority the Italians traded Hence the there on such conditions as they chose. Syria. who began to bestow excessive commercial privileges to the Italian republics. in return for their aid in war. nomic lunacy give to foreigners a boon subjects was the height of ecothe native merchants complained that To the Venetians were enabled to undersell them in every . This system commenced in 1081. for it was ultimately on its commercial wealth that the Byzantine All through the reigns of state based its prosperity. and Genoa India. then in the full stress of his first Norman war. granted the Venetians the free access to of most of the ports of any customs dues. It is probable that the trade of Constantinople fell off by a third or even a half in the fifty years that followed the first Crusade. the on the Bosphorus. and Venice became the marts at which France. Acre or Tyre than better to conduct their business at The king of Jerusalem. of feudal weakest sovereigns. and Germany. sought their Eastern goods. when the Emperor. This dangerous decay in the finances of the empire was rendered still more fatal by the political devices of Alexius.268 THE COMNENI AND THE CRUSADES.
peace of his long reign. and the rapid falling off in little John however was one of those prudent and economical princes who stave off for years the inevitable day of distress. seem to have been at fault since he preferred to reconquer the coast districts of Northern and Southern Asia Minor. Neither of them won any support from people . But his strategy would at the expense of the Turks. owing to this exemption from import and export duties. the son of Alexius. and during his rule the frontier of the empire in Asia continued to advance. Matters were made yet worse in 1 1 1. [i 1 18-1 143. When we remember that he was his father's son it is astonishing to find that his honesty and good faith were no less His subnotable than his courage and generosity. he is the only one of whom no detractor has ever said an evil word.] John was a good soldier. when Alexius bestowed a similar. " the named him and their Good. Of all the rulers who ever sat upon the Byzantine throne. though less exten1 sive. When he 1 There were two palace intrigues a7ainst him. II. resources of the realm attracted attention. the When John was less fabric strong than it appeared to the outward to eye. grant of immunities on the Pisans." John apprejects ciation of his virtues was sufficiently marked by the fact that no single rebellion x marred the internal . succeeded in iiiSto the empire which his father had saved.REIGN OF yOHA' COMNENUS. own family. Territorial extension seemed imply increased the financial strength. 269 market.. both headed by mem- bers of his or army. rather than to strike at the heart of the Seljouk power on the central table-land.
1883. when he perished by accident while on a hunting expedition. He was preparing a formidable expedition HUNTERS (From a Byzantine MS. Pisidia. and Pontus. and died of the wound. whose strength and weakness combined to give a deathblow to the empire. should then have been John's task to finish the reconquest of Asia Minor. had reduced all Cilicia. and allowed his passion for excitement and adventure to He pierced himself by misadventure with one of his arrows. Manuel was a mere knighterrant. John the 1 Good was succeeded by his son Manuel. who still retained It all the Cappadocian and Lycaonian plateau.270 THE COMNENI AND THE CRUSADES. but he preferred to plunge into Syria.) (From "L'Art Byzantin. 1 own poisoned . where he forced the Frank prince of Antioch and the Turkish Emir of Aleppo to pay him tribute." Par Charles Bayet Paris. but left no permanent monument of his conquests.) against the Franks of the kingdom of Jerusalem. who loved fighting for fighting's sake. Quantin. surrounding on three sides the realm of the Sultan. his dominions became a narrow fringe of coast.
entered into levity. he swept ofF the field every enemy that ever dared to face him. and drove the Doge and his galleys out of the ^Egean. while tion of justice . and his fiery courage and At untiring energy made him the idol of his troops. His most desperate struggle. 2J1 only guide. overran Servia. was a naval war with Venice. to whose king he dictated terms of peace.WARS OF MANUEL be his I. roads and bridges went to decay. and ling revenue. the administra- was impaired. was so appalling that the Emperor concluded peace in 1174. and abandoned with equal Yet for the most part they were successful wars. The main fault of Manuel's wars was that they were conducted in the most reckless disregard of all financial considerations. invaded Hungary. With a realm which was slowly growing poorer. however. But the damage done to the trade of Constantinople by the Venetian privateers. the head of the veteran squadrons of mercenary horsemen that formed the backbone of his army. and beat off with success He an invasion of Greece by the Normans of Sicily. His whole reign was one long series of wars. he persisted in piling on devoting every bezant that could be screwed out of his subjects to the support of the civil army alone. for Manuel was a good cavalry officer if he was but a reckless statesman. The service fell into grave disorder. who swarmed in the Levant after their main fleet had been chased away. and with a constantly dwindwar on war. in which his fleet was successful enough. docks and harbours were neglected. restoring to the enemy all the disastrous commercial privileges which his grandfather Alexius had granted them eighty years before.
energies. But he was a consummate hypocrite. who allowed his army to be caught in a defile from which there was no exit. a first cousin of the Emperor Manuel. He had once attempted to assassinate Manuel. was a boy of thirteen. was proclaimed Caesar. Andronicus was an unscrupulous ruffian. the one necessary struggle to which he should have devoted all his This was the contest with the Seljouks. whose past life should have nicus been sufficient warning against putting any trust in his professions. by professions of piety and austere No sooner was he seated by the side of . ensued. the Emperor ill. Syria. His son and heir. which always accompanied a minority. which ended in 1176 by a disastrous defeat at Myriokephalon in Phrygia. and took over the guardianship of the young Alexius. or Italy. So long and their his as the ranks of his mercenaries were full pay forthcoming. and left the Seljouks alone for the rest of his reign. Manuel's wars only one went how but that was the most important of them all. and won his way to the throne virtue. and the inevitable contest for the regency. and twice deserted to the Turks. brought about by the inexcusable carelessness of Manuel himself. cared not Of all realm might fare. then made peace. Alexius. and routed piecemeal by an enemy who could Manuel have made no stand on the open plains. and with him died the good House of Comnenus.272 the THE COM N ENI AND THE CRUSADES. 80 Manuel died. After two troubled years AndroIn 1 1 fortune of the Comnenus. money which should have supported them was wasted on unprofitable expeditions to Egypt.
till The Emperor men almost began to believe that his mind was affected. like our own Richard III. and when the Emperor returned in haste. and felt himself secure. for Andronicus was absent from the capital. than he seized and strangled his young relative . arms all over the empire to avenge the murdered Alexius. being accused of treason. Conspiracies were rife in the capital. Isaac Angelus reigned in . But. was arrested at his own door by the emissaries of the tyrant. Instead of surrendering himself.PALL OF ANDRONICUS I. The mob swelled into a multitude. and the Normans of Sicily seized the opportunity of invading Macedonia. plunged into the most reckless cruelty. A mob came to his aid.. and the executions which followed their detection were so numerous and bloody Rebels rose in that a perfect reign of terror set in. Alexius II. his stead. Ere An inoffensive nobleman named long the end came. the guards would not fight. he was seized and torn to pieces without a sword being drawn in his cause. and met no immediate opposition. Andronicus found that the moment of his accession to sole power was the moment of the commencement of his troubles.. Isaac Angelus. Isaac drew his sword and cut down the official who laid hands on him.
THE state which had been drained of its resources by the energetic but wasteful Manuel. who Among described all in the periods which we have hitherto the tale of the East.Roman Empire.XXII. With ordinary courage and prudence it might have been held together. there is no reason to doubt that would have been parried. that covered by the reign of the two wretched Angeli may be pronounced the most shameful. The peculiar disgrace of the period lies in the fact that the condition of the empire was not hopeless at the time. But it fell in the times of two incompetent triflers. whose reigns cover the years 1185-1204. THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. for the attacks directed against it were not more formidable than others which had been a beaten off with ease. who conducted the state it .. If the blow had fallen when hero like Leo I. now passed into the hands of the two creatures most feeble and despicable ever sat upon the imperial throne the brothers Isaac and Alexius Angelus. or even a statesman like Alexius was on the throne. and disorganized by the rash and wicked Andronicus. III.
275 Let us eat and drink. sovereigns Each was competent to ruin an empire already verging on its decline. while those two Earthly Angels (as a to contemporary chronicler called them) were charged Isaac Angclus put the finishing touch with its care. if it allows to provide them stress they grow disorderly and inefficient. power the empire had never recovered the effects of the Seljouk invasions. Isaac's taste lay in the direction of " and the collecting of miraculous eikons." Isaac and Alexius gorgeous raiment Alexius the of the table. morrow we die.MISFORTUNES OF THE ANGELI. The brilliant campaigns Manuel Comnenus had been made at the head of a soldiery of whom two-thirds were not born-subjects of the empire. on the principle " of. and resignedly fell back on personal enjoyment. He. had kept them within the bounds of strict discipline. After that loss the use of mercenaries had become of more and more prevalent." disaster which the Angeli brought on their realm was rendered possible only by its complete The As a military military and financial disorganization. it is true. Angeli were able neither to find money nor to maintain discipline. and contrived at all costs But the weak and thriftless their pay. In times of mutiny instead of fighting. Considered as preferred pleasures there was little to choose between them. A state which relies for its defence on foreign mercenaries is ruined. for tofelt in themselves no power of redeeming the empire from the evil day. The civil administration was in almost as deplorable " " a condition. which had robbed it of its great recruiting-ground for its native troops in Asia Minor. .
they were as douceurs to men of local influence. Instead posts them forth without purse or scrip. like the apostles of to administrative abuses. who 1 the rebellion grow to a iii. since its conquest by Basil II. who managed all patronage.276 THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. . to of merit. In 1187. He was surrounded by a ring of rapacious favourites. John. "Isaac Angelus. three brothers stirred named and Azan treated it up rebellion among them. But the Bulgarians had not merged in the general body of the subjects of the empire. They preserved their national language and customs. It is only necessary to point out how the responsibility for the disasters of the period is to be divided between The them. which had already been rife the under Comneni. and never forgot their ancient independence. and dispensed it in return for When high posts were not sold. by exposing offices and enough of paying his officials he "sent to auction. Nicetas. 8. The former country had now been the loss of Bulgaria and in the hands of the Byzantines for nearly two hundred years. but proved in reality as bad as Isaac." J his accession to make all appointments on the ground old. Isaac's share consists in Cyprus. make what profit they could by extortion from His brother Alexius promised on the provincials." book ch. bribes. whose given rebellion was dreaded. But Isaac first appointed let incompetent generals. 6. history of the twenty years covered by the of the two Angeli is cut into two equal halves reigns at the deposition of Isaac by his brother in 1 195. Peter. If firmly might have been crushed with ease by the regular troops of the empire.
and in when Branas. and made such head that there was no longer much Isaac took the apparent chance of subduing them. He held out for six years. vasion of barbarian hordes. and would have taken it. Sophia. his lieutenant took the oppor- army for revolt. only to see the great his towns of Naissus. or the rebellion of subject But that a native rebel should sever a nationalities.. While a national revolt deprived the Emperor of Isaac Bulgaria. Emperor II. Marquis of Montferrat. and reign as Emperor of Cyprus. Conrad. slew the usurper. raised rebellion among the Cypriots and defeated the fleet and army which his namesake of Constantinople sent against him. Manuel of the a relative distant Comnenus." was a new phenomenon. and Varna taken before eyes. Cyprus was lost to a meaner force. tunity of using his at last he placed an able officer. the Bulgarians were left unchecked. and appeared in the island. By the imperial theory th" idea of an independent . Alexis command. likely to establish a permanent kingdom the empire.CYPRUS AND BULGARIA LOST head. The gallant Lombard routed the forces of Branas. field against them in person. Branas marched against Constantinople. and preserved the throne for his brother-in-law. civilized " This revolt was of the worst augury to It had often lost provinces by the in- Greek province from the empire. He bribed an able adventurer from the West. had not Isaac committed the charge of the troops that remained faithful to him to stronger hands than his own. by the offer of his sister's hand and a great sum of money to become his saviour. But while the civil war was going on.
however. if he had not quarrelled with Richard Coeurde-Lion. the crusading King of England. He continued the Bulgarian war with the same illsuccess that had attended Isaac's dealings with it. never showed any other proof of energy save this skilful coup d'etat aimed against his brother. Isaac Comnenus might. had hatched a plot against him. and he quarrelled with the Emperor Henry VI. When he maltreated some shipwrecked English crews. who called in Frank adventurers to settle up the land. and no instance had been known of a rebel maintaining himself by any other way than the capture of Constantinople.278 " THE LATIN CONQUEST OP CONSTANTINOPLE. He plunged Sultan of into a disastrous struggle with the Seljouk Iconium. The successful Comnenus pointed to the possibility of a general breaking up of the Byzantine dominion into fragments. While Isaac II. have founded a dynasty in Cyprus. and made it into a feudal kingdom of the usual Western type. and misconducting it with his usual fatuity. Alexius Angelus.. His own brother. of " Empire Cyprus was wholly monstrous rebellion of Isaac and abnormal. and immured in a monastery long before his adherents knew that he was in danger. was in the midst of his Bulgarian war. blinded. dungeon. Alexius III. Richard punished him by landing his army in Cyprus and Isaac was thrown into a seizing the whole island. Till now the provinces had always obeyed the capital. he was suddenly dethroned by a palace intrigue. and the English king gave his dominions to Guy of Lusignau. a danger that had never appeared before. who would certainly have . which worked so successfully that Isaac was caught.
The Venetians had contracted to supply them with vessels for the Crusade. a new and unexpected danger arose to scare him from his His blind brother Isaac feasting. Flemish. the ill-success abroad of his arms and escaped Constantinople to Italy. were lying idle at Venice. permitted to enjoy the pleasures of the table in his villas on the Bosphorus. which threw the whole trade with the distant realms of India into Venetian hands. who had taken arms at the command of the Pope. But in 1 203. The opportunity was not hard to seek. fall on the shore for which it had been They were on very good terms with the Egyptian sovereign. Sultan of Egypt. Fourth Crusade proved unable to pay the full sum which they had contracted to give the Venetians as ship-hire.THE FOURTH CRUSADE. Just at this moment a large body of French. They had marched down intention to the great Italian seaport with the of directing a blow against Malek-Adel. who had granted them valuable commercial privileges at Alexandria. and this was made an excuse for keeping other The against some leaders of the . and Italian Crusaders. Philip had married a daughter of Isaac Angelus. who from his do something to help his young brother-in-law. the new Emperor of the West. and took refuge with Philip of Suabia. 279 invaded his dominions if death had not intervened to But as long as Alexius was prevent it. and determined to diplomacy vexed him but little. but for reasons of their own had determined that the attack should not destined. Accordingly they had determined to avert the blow from Egypt and turn it enemy of Christendom. had a young son named Alexius.
The Dalmatian town of Zara had lately revolted and done homage to the King of Hungary if the Crusaders would recover . While they wintered on the Dalmatian coast the young Alexius Angelus appeared in their camp. carrying out their original purpose But conscientious men had been among them as single-hearted The more scrupulous chiefs were over- persuaded by their designing companions. and to rescue his blind father from the dungeon into which he had been cast by his cruel brother Alexius III. them camped on the unhealthy till islands in the Lagoons their patience and their stores were alike exhausted. escorted by the ambassadors of his brother-in-law. the aged but wily doge. but another and a more important was then placed before the Crusaders. the Venetian state would wipe out their debts and transport them whither they wished to go. The exiled prince more before they them to turn once aside besought sailed to the East. and would have insisted against in Egypt. growing more and more rare among the Crusaders for the last hundred years. to the Crusaders that Henry Dandolo. They were now invited to turn aside against a Christian town and interest themselves in Venetian politics. There were as many greedy military adventurers pilgrims. then proposed they should pay their way by doing something in aid of Venice. and the expedition against Zara was undertaken. If they would drive out the enterprise . Zara fell.280 THE LATIN CONQUEST OP CONSTANTINOPLE. the Emperor Philip of Suabia. The Crusaders had taken arms for a holy war against the Moslems. Conscientious men would have refused to join in such an unholy bargain. it.
Baldwin flexible. and against the Greeks. Italian Republics stood in incarnate. The three chiefs of the Crusade were the Doge Henry Dandolo. pious and debonnair. though they knew that thereby they were calling down on themselves All now the terrors of a Papal excommunication. depended on the leaders. they should have anything that the Byzantine Empire could afford to help them for their Crusade money in plenty. good or evil. by any means. had already been storming at the adventurers for shedding Christian blood at Zara. They hesi- tated and began to treat with Alexius. . a war fleet. and tampering with their Crusader's oath. are perfect representations of the two types of crusader. the two secondary figures in the camp of the Franks. and Baldwin Count of In Dandolo the ruthless energy of the Flanders. but clear-headed and in- man on revenging an ancient grudge on furthering. stores. The Fleming.THE LEADERS OF THE CRUSADE. the fortunes of his native city. he was the one the crusading army who knew exactly what he wanted. gallant and generous. he was set and Boniface. 281 usurper and restore the rightful ruler to his throne. and among them the abler minds were the set on the acceptance of the proposal cf young Byzantine exile. and his own presence as a helper in the war with Egypt Pope Innocent III. Boniface Marquis of Montferrat. and the desire of keeping the war away from Egypt ruled the minds of the Venetians. worthy of a more righteous was a true enterprise and a more honourable death. Old and blind. a force of mercenary troops. But the prospect of Byzantine gold seduced the needy Western barons.
the half-piratical seamen of Venice. after a treaty had been signed which bound Alexius Angelus and his blind father. successor of Godfrey of Bouillon.282 THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. Boniface of Montferrat talked and Doge Dandolo gradually over the more scrupulous Baldwin and his friends. and acknowledge the supremacy of the Pope over the Eastern Church. good. to pay the Crusaders 200. He cared little for the Holy Sepulchre. Isaac II. and the heroes of The Lombard. crowd of the feudal world soldiery of the West. was simply seeking for wealth and fame in the realms of the East. unlike earlier emperors. and the brutal . was attacked by . force to whom and fraud seemed equally schemer. and trusted to the strength of its walls to deliver him. for the Danes and English of the Varangian Guard beat back the assault of the Franks on the land-wall.. The slothful and luxurious emperor let things slide. But Alexius III. In these conditions lay the germs of much future trouble. his hopes might have been justified. and had not even a He fleet ready to send against them in the Aegean.000 marks of silver. a deep and hardy the First Crusade. and much for his own private advancement Behind these three leaders we descry the motley relic-hunting abbots in coats of mail. and many more of his predecessors had been delivered. as Heraclius and Leo III. If the siege had been conducted from the land side only. shut himself up in Constantinople. wrangling barons and penniless knights. and the crusading fleet was launched against Constantinople. send ten thousand men to Palestine.. The Crusading armament reached the Dardanelles without having to strike a blow.
and urged on his men again and again till they had won a lodgment in some towers on the port side of the sea-wall. . officers of the bowed to necessity. leaving his troops. by the Venetians the shore. was driven to imbein proteges. every bezant that could be scraped together. and a fearful conflagration followed. and to beg Prince Alexius to enter the city and join his out of his cloister prison restoration to the throne. without a leader or a cause to fight for.284 a THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. The garrison and the chief II. and expedient throwing flying bridges from the towers on to the top fleet to resistance. his galley close under the wall. the cowardly Alexius III. army drew the aged Isaac and proclaimed his to the Crusading camp to announce that hostilities had ceased. already blind and gout-ridden. which he could oppose no adequate naval Though the Crusaders were driven off on stormed the sea-wall. a prospect over which they had been gloating ever since they left Zara. They spent the next three months phant endeavouring to wring out of their triumIsaac and Alexius. expedition of the Crusaders had but it may safely be asserted that the chief feeling in their ranks was a bitter disappointment at being cheated out of the sack of Constantinople. Hearing that the enemy was within the ramparts. of building light towers on the decks. The Venetians then fired the city. The old emperor. The blind Doge pushed of the Byzantine ramparts. who were not yet half beaten. mounted his horse and fled away into the inland of Thrace. They sent father in the palace. The end of the now been attained.
nor frank. named by frequently family name of " Ducas. and only reigned in order to subject the Eastern Church to Rome. They were not long without a leader a fierce and unscrupulous officer named Alexius Ducas put himself at . stripped its eikonostasis of its rich metal plating. 1204. head and determined to in seize the throne. Thus the Angeli ceased out of the land. Sophia. growing seriously frightened. The populace and troops shut the gates of the city. nor dignified in dealing with any one. cility 285 his son was a raw. and to pour the hoarded wealth of the ancient empire Italian republics.RISING AGAINST THE FRANKS. inexpecould neither be firm. ." reigned in their stead. and requisitioned the jewelled eikons and reliquaries of every church in the city. Isaac his son died of fright the midst of the tumult Alexius was caught and strangled by the usurper. their II. till Alexius. the storm burst. and Alexius V. They would not serve an emperor who had sold himself to the Franks. The on his subjects which drove them to revolt When he seized and melted down the golden lamps and silver candelabra which formed the pride of St. into the coffers of the upstart In January. and the Greeks by their demands : rienced youth who schemes for extracting money from winter of 1203-4 was spent in ceaseless wrangling about the subsidy due to the Crusaders. He is less chroniclers under his . He angered the Franks by insincere diplomacy. and fell on the isolated Latins who were within the walls. the populace would stand his proceedings no longer. began exactions by his reckless them. than under his nickname of Murtzuphlus.
The received some of the arrears due to them. a far better fight than his despicable predecessor and namesake. Little good was got out of and raw levies new these they swelled the numbers . Angelus had laid in ordinary. so drained had the that treasury nothing Angeli remained in it. . the discredit of the Byzantines this order was received with many murmurs the citizens : To complained that they paid taxes to support the regular army. He was a mere usurper. Nevertheless Murtzuphlus made their own pockets. and that they therefore ought to be excused personal service. He collected a little money by confiscating the properties of the unpopular courtiers and ministers of the Angeli. Alexius Ducas had everything against him. the enrolment of a compelled the nobles burghers of Constantinople to take arms and national militia. He strengthened the sea-wall. whose weakness had army been proved so fatally four months ago. and Alexius spent every spare moment in seeing to their drill and endeavouring to improve their discipline. and and man the walls. He ordered.286 THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. Twenty years of indiscipline and the fleet was nondisaster had spoilt the army for admirals of Alexius the existent. by erecting wooden towers along it. too. and building platforms for all the military engines that could be found in the arsenal. and sold the stores to fill up the vessels . and used it to the best advantage. whose authority was hardly The recognized beyond the walls of Constantinople. drawn from the bushy overhanging eyebrows which formed the most prominent feature of his countenance.
and get to work with rams and scaling The attack was made on April 8th. at more ladders. But he could not counteract the work of twenty years of decay and disorganization. which they felt would be a far more formidable affair than the attack in the preceding autumn.SECOND ASSAULT ON CONSTANTINOPLE. but hardly added anything appreciable to its strength. and left the formidable land-wall alone. Flying bridges were again prepared. They directed their chief efforts against the sea-wall. and felt that his throne rested on the most fragile of foundations. that the fire of his engines swept off all who attempted to gain a footing on the ramparts. each destined to attack a particular section of the wall. in the field. and landing parties were directed to leap ashore on the narrow beach between the wall and the water. The Crusaders took two months to prepare for their second assault on Constantinople. and retired his made . and when not rode round the city superintending the works. 287 of the garrison. he ought to have held his own. The ships were much damaged. arrangements so well. which they had found vulnerable in the previous siege. and covered with as many military engines as they could carry. Alexius Ducas had but it was beaten off with loss. than a hundred points along two miles of sea-wall. If courage and energy command success. inspecting the guard-posts. and at noon the whole fleet gave back. into The ships were told off groups. to cut off the foraging parties of the Franks. Alexius Ducas himself with his cavalry scoured the country round the Crusading camp every day. and haranguing the soldiery.
the best corps moment to demand . the military engines its crossbowmen cleared a single tower of its defenders. The Crusaders fired the city to cover their advance. and to prepare Emperor for a street-fight next day. But the army was cowed many regiments melted away and the Varangian While the fire the tried to rally his troops . and on April I2th a second attack was delivered. the quarter of the palace of Blachern. it as best could to the opposite side of the Golden Horn. Three days were spent in repairing the fleet. fight within the walls. and by night were in possession of the north-west angle of Constantinople. Guard. At last. after much fighting.288 THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. they thought their defeat was a judgment for turning their arms against a Christian city. was keeping the combatants apart. and the attack was concentrated on a comparatively small front of wall. This time the ships were lashed together in pairs to secure stability. Many of the Crusaders were now for returning . the troops of Alexius Ducas retired back into the streets. A bridge was successfully lowered on to it. . and a footing secured of the fleet and the bolts of by a party of Crusaders. and wished to sail for the insisted Holy Land. in the garrison. chose this that their arrears of pay should be liquidated they would not return to the fight without their money The twenty years of disorganization under the Angeli was now bearing its ! fruit. and deeply was the empire to rue the next day. But Dandolo and the Venetians upon repeating the assault. . who then threw open a After a short postern gate and let the main body in.
his in despair at 289 men being unable to night. . Next morning the Franks though found themselves in full possession of the city. the general Theodore Lascaris. make soon fight. Quantin. left the city by He was followed by the last Greek officer who kept his head. Paris. who endeavoured to (From " L'Art Byzantin. Alexius Ducas.THE FRANKS ENTER CONSTANTINOPLE. Bayet.) make one his final attack on the Crusaders even after master had departed. they had been expecting to face a hard day of streetfighting before this end could be attained." BYZANTINE REUQUARY ParC. 1883.
no less than displayed. the Crusaders proceeded with great deliberation to sack the place. " The Franks. and dealt as he chose with its inmates. But there was no general massacre it was lust and greed rather than bloodthirstiness that the army All the Western writers. Churches and nunneries fared no better than private dwellings. the soldiery. they devoted themselves to plundering the treasuries of the churches of all the holy their bones and relics that were stored in them. but instead of endeavouring to check the sacrilegious doings of countrymen. twelve hours after all fighting had ended. In cold blood. The drunken soldiery in the patriarchal chair in St. behaved far worse than Saracens the infidels when a town has surrendered at any rate . and three or four thousand unarmed citizens were slain. Every knight or soldier seized on the house that he liked best. and every atrocity that attends the storm of a great city was soon in full swing." remarked a Greek writer who saw the sack of Constantinople.290 THE LATIN CONQUEST OF COXSTAXTIXOPLE. " respect churches and women. ribald altar. . testify to the horrors of the three days' carnival of rape and plunder that now set in. took life recklessly." After private plunder had reigned unchecked for . and made her rehearse indecent dances before the high songs and There were plenty of clergy with the Crusading army. the Greeks. Sophia. not hold back their The leaders could not or would men. the orgies that were enacted in the holiest places caused even the Pope to exclaim that no good could ever come out enthroned a harlot of the conquest. Though no resistance was made. and especially the Venetians.
the leaders of the Crusaders collected such valuables as could be found for public division. " Such was the greatest conquest that was ever or Charleseen. the ancient Roman bronze of the Wolf with Romulus and Remus. the mother of churches. emperors were metal. Helen of Troy. while the Greeks grew " the eye of in lamentation.PLUNDER OF THE CITY. the ornament of nations. to be recast into wretched copper money. her squares and palaces were still crowded with the art-treasures stored up. or by any that have lived before a Western chronicler wrote. 2<)l three days. who was an eyewitness of all. The monuments of Christian art fared no better the tombs of the . The Heracles of Lysippus. that Constantine and his sons had Xicetas. greater than any made by Alexander or after. Everything was left bare and desolate. the brass figures which Augustus set up after Actium. so much had been stolen and concealed. the spring whence . the fairest sight on earth." as magne. Down to 1204 still Constantinople ancient contained the monuments of Greek art in enormous numbers. and dozens more all went into the melting-pot. The sum was afterwards supplemented by the use of a resource which Though makes the modern own historian add a special curse of his to the account of the Crusaders. In spite of the wear and tear of 900 years. they were able to produce no less than ^800. as they saw hyperbolical the world. has left us the list of the chief statues that suffered.000 in hard gold and silver for distribution. the altars carefully stripped of everything in and screens of the churches scraped to the stone. the great Hera of Samos. Paris with the Golden Apple.
the seat of the sciences. the ports along the west coast of Greece and Albania. Four-fifths of the population had fled. They elected Baldwin of Flanders Emperor of the East.THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. and the land about the entrance of the Dardanelles. draining the cup mixed for her by the hand of the Almighty. The rest of the empire was parcelled out among the minor leaders of the Crusade. Mysia. they had first to conquer their fiefs. the " and took out their Ionian Islands. but left the inland alone . and inland The Venetians claim :d "a quarter and Epirus. Most of them never lived to . half-a-quarter share by receiving Crete. Boniface of Thessalonica. With the capital Baldwin was given Thrace and the Asiatic provinces Bithynia. nearly the whole of the islands of the Aegean. half of it devoured by the flames of the conflagrations that attended the two sieges. and handed over to him the ruined city of Constantinople. the mistress of Orthodox doctrine. and His Lydia. colleague. of the empire. flowed the waters of faith." and did homage to Baldwin for a fief consisting of Macedonia. and con- sumed by fires as devouring as those which ruined the five Cities of the Plain. and were then to do homage for them to the Emperor Baldwin. sea- They seized on every good harbour fortress. and strong commerce rather than annexation was their end. all of which had still to be conquered. Thessaly." At last the Crusaders sat down to divide up their conquests. " of was made King Montferrat. and all of it plundered from cellar to attic. and no one had remained save beggars who had nothing to save by flight.
which had long puzaled the brains of the oracle. accomplish 2Q3 the scheme.mongers. Meanwhile a Venetian was appointed patriarch of Constantinople. was tried for the murder of the young Alexius Angelus. by the forcible extinction of the Greek patriarchate. Greeks saw in this strange end the fulfilment of an obscure prophecy about the last of the Caesars. . He fell into the hands of the Crusaders. It only remains to speak of Alexius Ducas. and suffered death by being taken The to the top of a lofty pillar and hurled from it. prelate and news was sent to the Pope that the union of the Eastern and Western Churches was accomplished.THE END OF ALEXIUS DUCAS. the fugitive Greek emperor.
" It is not too much strength of the its to say that but for the unequalled walls of Constantinople the new power must have ceased to exist within ten years of establishment But once fortified within the ramparts of Byzantium the Franks enjoyed the inestimable advantage which their Greek predecessors had possessed they were masters of a fortress which as military science then : . Far more than any government which has since held sway on the same spot did the Latin Empire of Romania deserve the name of " the Sick Man. the course of its inglorious protracted death-agony. The whole period was one Thirty thousand men can take a city.XXIII.) NICAEA. THE LATIN EMPIRE AND THE EMPIRE OF (I2O4-I26I. and at no date within it did there appear any reasonable prospect of recovery. but they cannot subdue a realm 800 miles long and 400 broad. SELDOM years Latin in has any state dragged out fifty-seven such constant misery and danger as the in Empire experienced existence.
and Baldwin himself was taken prisoner. if only it was defended with ordinary skill. was not was the to be carried first out The new emperor himself to discover this. the brother of Baldwin. From the first year of its existence the Latin Empire was marked out by unfailing signs as a power not destined to continue. after he had worn the imperial crown only one year . charged gallantly enough. when joined to the armed burghers of the Italian quarters. 295 stood was practically impregnable. But near Adrianople he met Joannicios. As long as the Venetians kept up their naval supremacy in Eastern waters.BALDWIN SLAIN IN BATTLE. and then put him to death. evident that the its conquest of the broad provinces which the Crusaders had distributed among themselves by anticipation. became . The Bulgarian kept him in chains for some months. army was cut to pieces. the Bulgarian The Franks king. to defend the tremendous land field wall. The intention of its founders had been to replace the centralized despotism which they had overthrown by a great feudal corresponding in territorial it state. Henry of Flanders. but they were simply The larger part of the overwhelmed by numbers. He set out with his chivalry to drive from Northern Thrace the Bulgarian hordes. and even the very limited force which the Latin emperor could put into the sufficed. and adequately guarded on the front facing the sea. the city was safe on that side. who had flocked down into the plains to profit by the plunder of the dismembered realm. extent to But within a few months became predecessor. with a vast army at his back.
infant. and one battle sufficed to give William all the coast-plain of Elis and Messenia. the able Theodore Angelus. Nor was the chief of the minor Latin states any better off. pushing the Bulgarians back over the Balkans. By the time that he died the empire was practically confined to a narrow slip of land along the Propontis. one after another. The resistance of the natives in this district was particularly weak. evident that the kingdom of Thessalonica was no more able to conquer all the old Byzantine provinces in its neighbourhood than was the empire of ConBoniface's son and heir was a mere stantinople. during his minority the lands of his kingdom were lopped away. but he could do nothing towards conquering the provinces of Asia. and the kingdom of Thessalonica came to an end. The Latin states in the southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula fared somewhat better. and had organized there a small state with twelve baronies and 136 knights fees. William of Champlitte had contrived to hew out for himself a principality in the western parts of the Peloponnesus. or conciliating the subject Greek population. Boniface of Montferrat had fallen in 1207. slain in battle by the same Bulgarian hordes which had cut off the army With his death it became of his suzerain Baldwin. He was an honest and able man. reaching from Gallipoli to Constantinople. AND EMPIRE OF NICAEA. At last the capital itself was retaken by the Greeks in 1222. by the Greek despot of Epirus.296 THE LATIN EMPIRE his successor. All his reign he had to fight on the defensive against his neighbours to the north and south. Yet he did not succeed in .
state was set up by Otho de Roche in Central Greece. He treated his Greek subjects with more consideration than any la Another small Latin of his fellow Crusaders. organism. or a landholder of local influence. provinces had hitherto been accustomed to accept without a murmur the ruler whom the capital The obeyed. they stood up to defend themselves.so that the Greeks still had some foothold in the peninsula. hated companions . 2Q7 subduing the mountaineers of the peninsula of Maina. been shorn off. Meanwhile it is time to speak of the fortunes of those parts of the Eastern Empire which the Franks did not succeed in seizing when Constantinople fell. the duchy of Athens was undoubtedly the most prosperous of the new creations of the conquest of 1204. Wherever a had though its head centre of resistance could be found the people refused to submit to the piratical Frank. The Byzantine Empire. whether a member of one of the ex-imperial or an houses. tion of the Byzantine Empire. like some creature of low showed every sign of life in its limbs. where as " Duke of Athens " he ruled Attica and Boeotia. had not so thoroughly crushed the individuality of the provinces as to make them submit without resistance Wherever the provincials found to the Latin yoke. Though the smallest.THE SMALLER LATIN STATES. great as it a leader. and to his yet more the priests of the Roman Church. or the coast towns of Argolis and Laconia. But in 1204 it was found that the centraliza- was. energetic governor. and was rewarded by obtaining a degree of respect and deference which was not found in any other Latin state.
frontiers of the coast-land at the south-east corner of the Black Sea. the last who had attempted to strike a blow against He might the Franks when Constantinople fell. who aspired like himself to pose as the rightful heir to the imperial throne.. and sent his 1 See page 289. Of these the most important was Theodore Lascaris. which successfully repelled Henry of Flanders. they found Theodore waiting to receive them with His defence of the strong town of Prusa. Theodore had to officer . Theodore had himself solemnly crowned at Nicaea. 1 claim some shadow of hereditary right to the imperial crown as he had married the daughter of the imbecile Alexius III. from the mouth of the Phasis to Sinope. the nine or ten leaders Of who put themselves at the head of provincial risings three were destined to carve out kingdoms for themselves. Alexius Comnenus. . conquests. and obtained possession of Trebizond and the long slip of I. The wrecks of the old Byzantine army rallied around him. but his true title was his well-approved courage and energy. a grandson of the wicked emperor cope with another Andronicus had betaken himself to the Eastern empire when Constantinople fell. put a limit to the extension of the Frank Empire beyond a few castles on the Bithynian coast they made no Having thus checked the invaders.298 THE LATIN EMPIRE AND EMPIRE OF NICAEA. and when the Latins crossed into Asia to divide up the land into baronies and knights fees. Having beaten off the Latins. the sword. and assumed imperial state .. He aspired to conquer the whole of Byzantine Asia. the cities of Bithynia opened their gates.
) beset the empire of greater danger of the Seljouks came sultan Nicaca when the warlike down from his plateau to ravage its borders.SUCCESSES OF THEODORE LASCARIS. success .M-. (From " LArt Byzantin" far C. 1883. territory from him. lint the over this valour of Theodore Lascaris triumphed Trcbizond. In the battle of Antioch-on-Maeander his he slew Sultan Kaikhosru with own hand in single . brother David 299 Comnenus his to attack Theodore defended newly won realm with But Bithynia. A enemy also. Paris. Bayet. Quantin. where his descendants reigned in Comnenus gained no obscurity for three hundred years as emperors of IINIAL FROM A BYX-AMIM. and was constrained to content himself with the narrow bounds of his Pontic realm.
birth. he maintained his position with success. 1 and Theodore of Thessalonica by his son John Angelus. He died early. had been succeeded in Asia by his son-in-law John Ducas. conqueror. Raising an army among the warlike tribes of Albania. The Latin Empire was obviously destined The only doubt was. to fall before on-e of them. Henry of Flanders had died in 1216 . he was followed by Peter of Courtenay. He was but left who succeeded him on a compact heritage to his brother Theodore. existence in the far West. At Constantinople the succession of Latin emperors had been much more rapid.300 THE LATIN EMPIRE AND EMPIRE OF NICAEA. It was soon evident that there would be a trial of strength between the two Greek emperors who claimed to succeed to the rights of the dispossessed Angeli. put in a claim to their third Greek though he was disqualified by his illegitmate recognized as ruler by the cities of " " and proclaimed himself despot of that land. Meanwhile a of Alexius III.. the throne. . and within a few years conquered the whole of the Frank kingdom of Thessalonica. and discomfited the Franks of Athens and Thessalonica when they took arms against him. when the two powers met in decisive conflict. By this time Theodore LascanV. state had sprung into Michael Angelus. a cousin and Isaac II. who 1 Sometimes known as John Vatatzes. combat. Epirus. whether the Epirot or the Nicene was to be its This question was not settled till 1241. and the Turks were beaten back with such slaughter that they left the empire alone for a generation. heritage.
but when Angelus died. Emperor was constrained for its was not yet ripe Recognizing that Constantinople to measure himself resolved Ducas fall. Ducas laid siege fall time of its was not yet arrived. The young Courtenays were both thoroughly incapable. Not only was he a good soldier -and an able administrator. troops in while of Southern Thrace. a hundred years In 1230 the before. a very worthy heir to his gallant father-in-law. John He beat with his rivals the Angeli of Thessalonica. Franks out 1235 John But the to Constantinople itself. of vassal of the ruler of emperor. but by constant supervision and strict frugality he had got the financial condition of his empire into a more hopeful condition a state of things which had never been seen in Romania since the time of John Comnenus. of Nicaea was an excellent sovereign." This satisfied Ducas Nicaea.. four years later. Then John Angelus engaged call to himself no more than resign the title " to and acknowledge himself as the despot of Epirus. was slain 30! by the Epirots in less than a year. for a time. The heir of the Angeli escaped . and when Robert died in 1228 his brother Baldwin II. drove the and into crossed Nicaea of Europe. reigned in his stead.JOHN VATATZES CONQUERS THRACE. forces their capital in 1341. to their laid and the of siege out field. he seized Thessalonica and united it to the imperial to Albania crown. John III. To him succeeded Robert his son. it and when a the Venetian fleet approached to succour to raise the siege. and saw their empire melt away from them till nothing was left beyond the walls of Constantinople itself.
till at last an able and unprincipled . was destined to repeat same game in England two centuries later. his to played young loyalty that Richard III. 303 fraction only of his ancestral John Ducas died in 1254. This was a dreadful misfortune for the empire. who bid fair to continue the prosperous career of his father and He drove the Bulgarians out of grandfather. penned the Albanians into their to epileptic fits. the son and heir of Theodore. He cleared away from the capital the relatives and adherents of the in their little prince. was a child of eight years. named Michael Paleologus." Michael was as ambitious as he was unscrupulous. and given the Despot.. and minorities were always disastrous have seen in the history of previous to the state. was no exception to the rule the ministers of his father fought and intrigued to gain possession of the helm of affairs. We frequently the infancy of a prince led to a violent contest for the place of regent. thrusting himself to the front. But he became subject the age of thirty-eight .USURPATION OF MICHAEL PALEOLOGUS. and succeeded in retaining a small dominions . before he had reached hills. and died after a reign of only four years. placed creatures of his own . and Macedonia. for John Ducas. or even to centuries how The case of John IV. a usurpation of the throne. leaving the throne of Xicaea to his son Theodore II. and he determined to seize the throne. general. was named tutor to the Emperor. of though he had steeped himself to the lips in oaths the much He master. The place of regent was far from satisfying his title of " ambition.
awaiting his and Baldwin of Courtenay had long been doom. where he spent thirty years in darkness and misery. and complete the reconstruction of the empire. great victory that a Byzantine army was ever destined to achieve. and the necessity for a strong hand at the helm. troops last the Franks and Epirots. emperor of Constantinople stirred up the Venetians But in 1260 the to ravage his neighbours' borders. Presently the partisans of Michael began to declaim against the dangers of a minority. After much : The usurpation of Michael tempted all the enemies of the Greek Empire to take arms. The field of Pelagonia decided the lot of the house of Paleologus. persuasion and mock reluctance the was induced to allow himself to be crowned. Michael was now able to turn against Constantinople. and conciliated the clergy by large gifts and hypocritical piety. AND EMPIRE OF NICAEA.304 THE LATIN EMPIRE places. The Epirot despot allied himself with the Prankish lords of Greece. invaded Macedonia moreover the Latin . for Michael's enemies were so crushed that they could never afterwards make head against him. Freed from all danger from the West. The city was ripe for its fall. and their united armies. regent From that moment the boy John Ducas was thrust aside and ignored ere he had reached the age of ten his wicked guardian put out his eyes and plunged him into a dungeon. over Michael the of allied armies of the won. reign is The long of the last Constantinople sufficiently Latin sovereign of characterized by the . aided by auxiliaries from Italy.
His son and heir was in pawn to the Venetian banking firm of the Capelli. was admitted l>y Before this formidable treachery within the walls. remaining power of empire. the of Crusaders heirs the array . including the rod of sum of Moses. the city fell before a sudden and unpremeditated attack. striving to stir up deliver him from the his realm. with eight hundred regular troops and a few scores of half-armed volunteers. fled in base dismay. who had taken him as the only tangible security that could be found for a modest loan which they had advanced to With the government in the imperial exchequer. such a desperate condition there was no longer any resistance left in Constantinople. and burning the beams of his outhouses in default of money to buy fuel. away at sea. he got from St. 305 fact that rule outside the Baldwin spent nearly half the years of his bounds of Romania. When the sole of the defence the Venetian fleet. it for a few zecchins to the Venetians. was gopulus. in commander made by Alexius StrateThrace under the emperor Alexius. in little West. Michael. his greatest success being 1244. as he wandered in the from court to court inevitable destruction some champion who would gained that. and our Lord's crown of thorns. In 1261 Baldwin was in worse straits than ever. He was to sell stripping off the lead of his own palace roof. Louis a considerable by ready money in acknowledgment of the liberality with which he had presented the holy king with a choice selection of relics. impending over He his tours. the jawbone of John the Baptist.THE FRANKS DRIVEN FROM CONSTANTINOPLE.
one : of the stock figures in the Romances of his day. Its monarch resumed his habitual mendicant tours in Western Europe. . and he survives as the prototype of the dispossessed sovereigns of fifty legends of chivalry.306 THE LATIN EMPIRE AND EMPIRE OF NICAEA. and the Empire of Romania came to an inglorious and a well-deserved end. At last Baldwin passed away his sole memorial is the fact that he made a distressed and itinerant emperor in search of a champion. and never ceased to besiege the ears of popes and kings with demands for aid to recover his lost realm. No one in Western Europe was ignorant of his tale.
DECLINE AND DECAY.
THERE was now once more a Byzantine empire, and to an unobservant reader the history of the
reigns of the Paleologi looks like the natural continuation and sequel of the history of the reigns of Isaac Angelus and his brother. If the annals of
Michael VIII. and his son were written on to the end of that of Alexius Angelus, the intervening gap of the Latin Conquest might almost pass unperceived,
and the reader might imagine that he was
gating a single continuous course of events. The Frank dominion at Constantinople, and the heroic
episode of the Empire of Nicaea, would pass equally unnoticed.
need not insist on the perniciousness of such a view. Great as may seem the similarity of the Byzantine Empire of 1204, and that of 1270, it had really suffered an entire transformation in that period. To commence by the most obvious and external sign
be observed that the lands subject
DECLINE AND DECAY.
Michael Paleologus were far more limited in extent than those which had obeyed Alexius Angelus. The loss in Asia was less than might have been
Theodore Lascaris and John Ducas had expected kept back the Turk, and only two districts of no great extent had fallen into Moslem hands the Pisidian
coast with the seaport of Adalia on the south, and the Paphlagonian coast with the seaport of Sinope on the north. Besides these the distant Pontic pro-
the empire of Trebizond.
In Europe the loss was far more serious: four great blocks of territory had been lost for ever. The first
along the southern slope of the Balkans,
Northern Thrace and Macedonia which had fallen hands of the Bulgarians, and become comThe second was the district pletely Slavonized. which is represented by the modern land of
the Angeli of Thessalonica fell bea younger member of the house Ducas, John retired to the original mountain house of the dynasty,
and preserved the independence of the " Despotate of Epirus." Here the Angeli survived for some
maintaining themselves against the of Emperors Constantinople by a strict alliance with the Latin princes of Southern Greece.
Old-Byzantine territories which never recovered, we must place Greece proper, now divided between the Princes of Achaia, of the house of Villehardouin, and the Briennes, who
in the list of
had succeeded to the Duchy of Athens.
Peloponnesus, and were destined to encroach ere
WEAKNESS OF THE RESTORED EMPIRE.
long on their Prankish neighbours. Lastly, we must mention the islands of the Aegean, of which the large majority were held either by the Venetian govern-
ment, or by Venetian adventurers, who ruled as independent lords, but subordinated their policy to
that of their native
But the territorial difference between the empire of 1204 and the empire of 1261 was only one of the causes which crippled the realm of the
of the dominions of Alexius
government had been, there
some hope of recovery. The old East-Roman administrative economy,
though neglected, were not lost, and might have been revived by an emperor who had a keen eye to
discover ability and a ready hand to reward merit. New blood in the personnel of the ministry, and a
keen supervision of details by the master's eye, would have produced an improvement in the state of the empire, though any permanent restoration of strength
was probably made impossible by the deep-seated But by the time of Michael decay of society. Paleologus even amelioration had become imposemperors who reigned at Nicaea, though they had preserved their independence against Turk and Frank, had utterly failed in
restoring administrative efficiency in their provinces. John Vatatzes, himself a thrifty monarch, who could
even condescend to poultry-farming to fill his modest exchequer, found that all his effcrts to protect native of industry could not cause the dried-up springs fiscal and admin i.swhole flow The to again. prosperity
DECLINE AND DECAY.
machinery of government had been thrown
hopelessly out of gear. It was the commercial decline of the empire that made a reform of the administration so hopeless.
The Paleologi were never able to reassert the old dominion over the seas which had made their predecessors the arbiters of the trade of Christendom.
wealth of the elder Byzantine Empire had arisen from
that Constantinople was the central emof the trade of the civilized world. All the porium caravan routes from Syria and Persia converged thither. Thither, too, had come by sea the commodi-
of Egypt and the Euxine. All the Eastern products which Europe might require had to be sought in the storehouses of Constantinople, and for centuries the nations of the West had been contented to go
But the Crusades had shaken this monopoly, when they taught the Italians to seek the hitherto unknown parts of Syria and Egypt, and buy their Eastern merchandize from the producer and not from the middleman. Acre and Alexandria had already profited very largely at the expense of
thither for them.
Constantinople ere the Byzantine Empire was upset in 1204. But the Latin conquest was the fatal blow.
threw the control of the trade of the Bosphorus into the hands of the Venetians, and the Venetians had no desire to make Constantinople their one
central mart: they
were just as ready to trade through
To them the city was no more than an important half-way house for the Black Sea trade, and an emporium for the local produce of the countries round the Sea of Marmora.
the Syrian and Egyptian ports.
From 1204 onward Italy rather than Constantinople became the centre and starting-place for all European trade, and the great Italian republics employed all
Greek fleet from reHenceforth the Byzantine covering \\ was and without a war-navy ar-navy insignificant, the Paleologi could not drive away the intruders and
their vigilance to prevent the
restore the free navigation of the
The emperors who succeeded each
other on the
restored throne of Constantinople were, without exception, men more fitted to lose than to hold together
an exhausted and impoverished empire. Their lot was cast, it is true, in hard times but hardly one of them showed a spark of ability or courage in endeavouring to face the evil day. The three monarchs of the house of Lascaris who ruled at Nicaea had been keen soldiers and competent administrators, but with
return of the emperors
springs of energy began to dry up, and the gloom and decay of the ruined capital seemed to affect the spirit and brain of its rulers. Michael Paleologus, though it was his fortune to recover the city which his abler predecessors had failed to take, was a mere wily intriguer, not a states-
man or general. Having usurped the throne by the basest treachery towards his infant sovereign, he always feared for himself a similar fate. Suspicion
and cruelty were
care for his
own person he
of the State.
quite forgot the interests contemporary chroniclers saw
setting himself to
BYZANTINE CHAPEL AT ANI, THE OLD CAPITAL OF ARMENIA. " L'Art Byzantin." Par Charles Bayet. Paris, Quanlin, 1883.)
RISE OF THE
the empire, because he dreaded the resentment of his
the native Greek-
troops, and refrained as far as possible from employing Greek generals. One of his minor acts in this direction may be said to have been the original circumstance which set the
Ottoman Turks, the
future bane of the empire, on
their career of conquest. The borders of the empire in Asia were defended by a native militia, who held
under condition of defending the castles and passes of the Bithynian and Phrygian mountains. The institution, which somewhat resembled a simple form of European feudalism, had worked so well that the Byzantine Empire had for a century and a half
Asiatic frontier practically intact, in spite of the pressure of the Seljouk Turks of the Sultanate
But the Bithynian militia were known be attached to the house of Ducas, which Michael had dethroned, and he therefore resolved to disarm
The measure was
bloodshed, but the disbanded levy were not replaced by any adequate number of regular troops. Michael's
him to keep under was required to such as large force, of forts after the abolition eastern line his garrison Ten years of defence. of the previous machinery Ottoman of the the father only before Othman,
financial straits did not permit
arms a very
Turks, succeeded to the petty principality which was destined to be the nucleus of the Turkish Empire, the way for him had been thrown open by Michael's
disarmament of the guards of
DECLINE AND DECAY.
Michael lived for twenty-one years after the recovery of Constantinople, but he did not win a single
important advantage in all the rest of his reign. In Europe he barely held his own against the Bulgarians,
the Franks, and the fleets of Genoa and Venice. The troubles which befell him at the hands of the two
own creation, for he from one to the other with such levity and suddenness that both regarded him as unfriendly. Though all through his reign he was at war either with Genoa or Venice, yet such was the
naval powers were largely of his
shifted his alliance
him that, when at war with one of the he could not rivals, always secure the help of the other. Venice had been the mainstay of the Frank emperors of Constantinople, and Michael might, therefore, have been expected to remain staunch to the Genoese.
distrust felt for
the other hand, the Genoese had designs on the Black Sea trade, which touched the Emperor's pocket very closely, while the Venetians were more con-
with the distant commerce of Syria and which did not concern him. Egypt, Balancing one consideration with the other, Michael played false to both the powers, and often saw his coast ravaged and
his small fleet
compelled to take refuge in the Golden while the Horn, enemy's vessels swept the seas. On land he was less unlucky, and the Duke of Athens
and the despot of Epirus were both kept in check, though neither of them were subdued. But it was in Asia that Michael's rule was most
In the second half of his reign the Seljouks, though split into several principalities owing to the break up of the Sultanate of Iconium, united unfortunate.
itself. and cruelty. While Andronicus was quarrelling with his patriarchs the empire was going to ruin. though Tralles and several other towns made a vigorous resistance. 315 to assail the borders of the empire. where the Turks forced as far as the river Sangarius. and making their way to the very gates of Ephesus and Smyrna. "Sicilian Vespers" 1302 the long war of the and of houses the Aragon came to an between Anjou of all nations mercenaries of end. levity.TURKISH WARS OF ANDRONICUS II. A similar Eastern Bithynia. The Seljouk chiefs from the plateau of Asia Minor were pressing down more and more towards the coast. and threatened the resolved to make an unwonted effort to beat them back. and the hordes In . They conquered the Carian and Lydian inland. nicus II. of his reign he deposed no course in the and long. the Turks appeared on the shores of the Propontis walls of Nicaea and Prusa. less than nine of them. with others added from which Michael had been free cowardice and superThe main interest which Andronicus took stition. AndroThis prince had all the faults of his father. perfidy. At last the growing seriously alarmed when emperor. their way But the ruin of Byzantine Asia was reserved to fall into the times of Michael's son and successor. and in reduced Michael's dominion South-western Asia Minor to a mere fate befell strip along the coast. it in life was concerned with things ecclesiastical would be wrong to say things religious and he spent his life in making and unmaking patriarchs of No prelate could bear with him Constantinople.
r s $ u s II .
and a certain amount of ready money. Constantinople in 1303 with other bodies were soon to 6. but instead of putting the emperor into pos- session of the reconquered land. " Roger himself was given the title of Grand Duke. There can be little doubt . the "Grand Company" spent the winter of 1303-4 quarters along the southern coast of Propontis. with most cruel and as many of his followers as could be Roger accepted with and came to alacrity. Accordingly the emperor applied to Roger de Flor. with unlimited promises. In the next year Roger moved south with his host. It occurred to Andronicus that he might hire of enough the veterans of the Sicilian war to enable him to beat back the Turks into their hills. Andronicus loaded the "Grand Company.000 men at his back follow." and married to a lady of the imperial house. All Europe acknowledged that they were the hardiest and best-disciplined troops in Christendom. and offered to take him into his service." as Roger de Flor styled his men. and raised and appro- priated the imperial taxes. induced to accompany him. and drove the Turks out of Lydia and Caria .ROGER DE FLOK. Their plundering habits and their arrogance soon in free brought them into ill odour with the inhabitants. After clearing the Turks out of the Bithynian coast-land . the commander of the mercenaries who had served Frederic of Aragon. 317 which the two pretenders to the crown of Sicily had maintained were turned loose on the world. a renegade Templar. though they were also the lawless. who complained that they were well-nigh as great a curse as the Turks. he garrisoned every fortress with his own men.
and the" mercenaries spread themselves all over Thrace and plundered it up to the gates of the capital. they had stripped the country so bare that they were driven away by famine. harrying the land far and wide with fiendish cruelty. " Grand Compromptly punished. Assembling themselves in haste. and certainly refused in to arrest its perpetrator . admit him within their gates. Emperor in two fights young prince was disgracefully beaten at Gallipoli and Apros. and in his very presence the great condottiere was assassinated by George the Alan. Drifting southward and westward they ravaged Macedon and Thessaly. The son his Michael sent but the against them. raised a corps of Turkish and occupied Thrace for two years.3l8 DECLINE AND DECAY. after two years of plunderauxiliaries. and abandoning Asia Minor to the Turks. and to reign at Ephesus as an independent At last Roger went so far as to lay formal to siege Philadelphia. for the leaders of the Grand Company He was got succour from Europe. The was not the loss of its leader. they marched on Constantinople. an officer whose son had been slain a brawl by Roger's soldiers. disorganized pany" by and thought of nothing but revenge. The Emperor had probably arranged the murder. It almost looked as if a second Latin Conquest of Constantinople was about " " to take place. because its inhabitants preferred to obey orders from Constantinople. and would not prince. and at last. But could not storm the walls of Constantinople they or Adrianople. . Andronicus then lured him to an interview at Adrianople. ing. that he was plotting to seize on the provinces he had regained.
Then at last did the wandering horde settle down they seized the duchy. throne. 319 and Greece. destined to a fame very different from that of his long-forgotten compeers. Minor. in Lydia. Duke of Athens. and established a new dynasty on the Athenian . at last reached The empire was at last quit of them. for when once they ceased to wander the " Grand Com" pany ceased to be dangerous. and bounded by the Bithynian hills to the south. dominions on the east of the straits to a narrow strip. and then advanced yet further north to siege Mysia and By 1325 they had reduced the Emperor's Bithynia. was busied in a war even more uncalled for \\-ished to He than that with the mercenaries.ASIA MI\OR LOST. cope with the reaching from the Dardanelles to the northern exit of the Bosphorus. but was the cause of the final loss of the Byzantine provinces of Asia While Andronicus was feebly attempting to " Grand Company." the Seljouk chiefs had conquered Lydia and Phrygia once more. and Saroukhan in Aidin south. Karasi in Mysia. exclude from the succession to the throne . While Othman and the rest were turning the once countries of Western Asia Minor into thickly-peopled a desert sparsely inhabited by wandering nomads. Five Seljouk leaders had carved out for themselves principalities Menteshe in the the conquered districts. Here they fell into a with Walter de quarrel Brienne. slew him in battle and took his capital. This disastrous war with the mercenaries not only ruined Thrace and Macedonia. Andronicus II. divided its fiefs among themselves. and in the Bithynian borderland Othman.
when the old man acknowledged Andronicus the younger as his heir. and raised armed bands. but he took no further part in the rule of the empire. In 1332 he died. . grandson and heir. of the size that it had been at his accession. to defend his rights. and assumed control over every The name of Andronicus function of government. Grandfather and grandson were ere long engaged in a long but feebly-conducted war. II. was still associated with that of Andronicus III. lamented by no single individual in the realm which he had ruled for fifty At his death the empire was only two-thirds years. which was only terminated in 1328. on the coinage and in the public prayers. and made him his colleague on the throne. not contented with this measure of success. who bore the same name as But the younger Andronicus took measures himself. made him retire from the conduct of affairs. at a good old age. But his grandson.320 his DECLINE AND DECAY.
was a .XXV. along the shrunken frontier of his dominions. was man whom IN EUROPR incapable old deceit. being a mighty hunter. Though his house to treachery and a shade Comnenus. If he had not the brains to keep in his empire together. and a great spender of money. It was now with the Ottomans almost exclusively that he had to deal the other Seljouk hordes had no longer any marchland father while everything . THE TURKS ANDRONICUS III. the entire loss of the Asiatic provinces of the empire to the Turks. he was at any rate active and He may be energetic. the termination of the process which had begun under Andronicus II. a bold spear both the tournament and on the battle-field. he was given like all and though his life was loose and luxurious. he at any rate fought his best. Othman. the son of Ertogrul. and did not sit apathetically at home like his grand- was going to rack and ruin. described as a weak reflection or copy of Manuel better than the he supplanted. These new foes of the empire deserve a word of description. Andronicus III. was destined to see Nevertheless.
323 THE TURKS IN EUROPE. instead of having and gone. till the day when they were so perhills Before versely stripped of their de enders r by the action of Michael Paleologus. the disastrous reign of Andronicus II. easy for them. found oppose them only inadequate garrisons of regular troops at long intervals. to face an fighting to protect its to own fields. Alaeddin . Gaiaseddin. armed population.. nor could they have pushed on if Michael had not made the way But after 1270 the native militia was the followers of Othman. owned nothing in the hills. in battle against the last prince who III. Seljouks. at Constantinople. of Sultan. country of and uplands already occupied by the it were the Bithynian mountains. with their passes protected by forts. and his father Ertogrul before him. Othman's life covered two series of great events. the Sultan of Roum. and garrisoned by local militia. title not take the Othman's field of operation from 1281 to 1326 was the Byzantine borderland of Bithynia and Mysia. fell and in 1307. contenting himself with the humbler name of Emir. and in Asia Minor the no less disastrous break-up of the power of his own suzerain. who had been granted a tract in the Phrygian highlands under the His condition of military service against the Greeks. Othman. fief lay in the north-west angle of the great central Behind it lay the rolling plateau of Asia Minor. In 1294. He was by no means the strongest of the Seljouk . vassal of the Seljouk Sultan of Roum. the last undisputed sovereign of the Seljouk rebels . died in exile. This made Othman an independent prince but he did line. claimed to be supreme Sultan.
and Othman heard of the news on his death-bed. till at last a large force was required to march out time that a convoy was expected. which his father had begun. and only strength. lasted ten years. which it had not reached since the Crusaders thrust it back inland in 1097.ORKHAN THE TURK. a beleaguered town undergoing slow Prusa surrendered in 1326. with that Andronicus all the surrounding territory. almost coincided the second with that of Andronicus III. within their strong Roman walls. . Only once did he have to meet the Emperor in pitched battle this was at the fight of Pelekanon . the capital of the region. towns. The Turks The around it and gradually made the introduction of provisions more and more difficult. Emir of the Ottomans. and key siege of Prusa [Broussa]. He took Nicomedia in 1327 and Nicaea in 1333. At length the every inhabitants could find no advantage in spending their built a chain of forts whole lives in starvation. The Turkish frontier now once again touched the Sea of Marmora. the conquest of Bithynia. chiefs 323 who made a lodgement within the borders of it took him twenty years before he conquered one large town. All that the one lost the other life-work was the completion of Orkhan's gained. so retained nothing but Chalcedon and the district immediately facing Constantinople beyond the Bosphorus. again. The reign of Othman's son Orkhan. were unassailable by the light cavalry which formed his armed the empire. His wild horsemen harried the open sea-coast plain of Bithynia again and till at last the wretched inhabitants emigrated. or acknowledged him as their But the sovereign.
and his army. Christian subjects in Mysia and Bithynia a tribute. acted not only the military and conventual discipline to which they were subject. but the dazzling prospect educated of future o greatness. but of male children. the first steady infantry that any Eastern He imposed on his power had ever possessed. The Ottoman sovereigns o made it and governors. their courtiers and personal attendants from the ranks of It was calculated that more the tribute-children.324 THE TURKS IN EUROPE. Andronicus was wounded early in the day. and moved in compact masses. Orkhan taught the fight Janissaries to fight on foot with bow and sabre. their rule to select their generals than two-thirds of the Grand-Viziers of Turkey. in the strictest and most fanatical Moslem and trained to the profession of arms. which for many ages no foe proved competent to sunder and disperse. This was the date of the institution of his famous corps of the Janissaries. placed in barracks. After his recovery from his wounds again. Orkhan subdued his nearest neighbours among the other Seljouk Emirs. that it was almost unknown for one of them to turn back from his career and relapse into ChrisTo keep them firm in their allegiance there tianity. in . The boys were taken over while very young. So thorough was the physical and moral discipline to which the Janissaries were subjected. the Emperor never faced the Ottomans After conquering Bithynia. Having horse enough and to spare. in 1329. They were well drilled. not of money. code. and then turned to organizing his state. deprived of its leader went to pieces and was severely beaten.
as in 1258. Cantacuzenus was ripe. " New Soldiery " [for generation of the the meaning of the word Janissary] grew up to the military age during the latter half of the reign The first such is of Orkhan. He was a clever. he had read the tale of the of the Paleologi to some purpose. and left his shrunken dominions to the risks of a minority. He had his scruples and superstitions..REVOLT OF CANTACUZENUS. intriguing courtier. for his son and If anyheir. Andronicus III. it was the arrival of such a contingency. 325 the fourteenth. was only nine years of age. and sixteenth centuries. had begun their career as Janissaries. died in 1241. and it was he who first utilized them on the European shore of the Bosphorus. with a turn for literature. party in the state. not of the stuff of which successful usurpers are made. The but had the abilities neither of a general nor of a statesman. John III. rise However. Cantacuzenus did his best to repeat the doings of Michael on He bribed and inMichael's great-great-grandson. had been to aid in the destruction of thing wanting the empire. and had resolved to imitate the career of Michael VIII. The usual troubles soon set in. and the inevitable civil war was not evil spirit far off. fifteenth. Now. made himself a trigued. and prepared for a coup d\*tat when the time should be Unfortunately for himself. shifty. and showed a fatal habit of procrastination which always . there was the best of chances for an unscrupulous minister to make himself first the colleague and then the supplanter of his young master. of the time was John Cantacuzenus. the prime minister of the deceased emperor.
though he mustered an army under its walls.) himself emperor he found himself unable to seize the capital. 1883. Quantin. (From a Contemporary MS. /"ar C.326 led THE TURKS TN EUROPE. The Empress Dowager. of Savoy. him to act a day too late. 5ajr/. /"arzV. ) (From " UArt " Byzantin. succeeded in raising a party against him. and when he threw off the mask and declared Anne %= JOHN CANTACUZENUS SHT1NG IN STATE. .
and his rival. and to the misfortune realm a extending from the Danube to the leaving . and a little later the Turkish princes from across the Aegean Orkhan the son of Othman. made Uscup in Macedonia his capital. the result been so his aid first The usurper summoned to Stephen Dushan. Most of this country was lost for ever to the imperial crown. have been a single great power in the Balkan Peninsula. It was for the last time that this was done in Byzantine history. Amour. But Dushan was not strong enough to take the great of Europe he died in 1355 city. and made the despot of Epirus do him homage. but never before had fatal." It would perhaps have been well for Christendom Stephen had actually conquered Constantinople and In that case there would of the empire. if made an end ready to meet the oncoming assault of the Turks. These allies kept the cause of John Cantacuzenus from destruction. conquered Thessaly. except Thessalonica and a few other towns. but it was by destroying the empire that John had coveted. and it seemed as if a Servian domination in the Balkan Peninsula was about to begin. He then pushed further south. The Byzantine government retained little more than the capital. Cantacuzenus took the usual step of calling in the national enemy to aid him.CONQUESTS OF THE SERl'/AXS. 327 Finding that he was playing a losing game. and the districts round Adrianople and Thessalonica. for Stephen moved south from Servia. and occupied the whole countryside. Emir of Aidin. the king of the Servians. and proclaimed himself " Emperor of the Servians and Romans. King Stephen entered Macedonia and Thrace.
the town of ThessaConstantinople lonica and the Byzantine province in the Peloponnesus. and the Servian Empire broke up as rapidly as it had grown together. But his young son Urosh was pass of Thermopylae. soon assassinated. . to be sold in the slave-markets of Smyrna and Broussa. He took over into Thrace a large body of Turkish horse. when after six years of war the party of the Empress Anne consented to recognize the usurper as the colleague and guardian of the rightful heir. and on them he more than on the Servian. and that Thrace was utterly ruined by the Turks.328 THE TURKS IN EUROP. and the two Johns could take stock of their dilapidated realm . Cantacuzenus certainly deserves a notable place by the side of Isaac and Alexius Angelus. the aspect of a desert under the incursions of the Ottoman mercenaries of Cantacuzenus. For seven . to be in when he immured Thrace was rapidly assuming the Turk's harem. There was nothing left that all that remained was could be called an empire and Adrianople. But the depth of John's degradation was reached gave his daughter Theodora to Orkhan. as the third of the great destroyers of the Eastern Empire. A dozen princes were soon scrambling heritage. But his evil work was not yet done. their civil The net result of war had been that Macedonia and Thessaly were in Servian hands. A hollow peace was patched up. . for the remnants of Stephen's The other allies were the Turks depended far whom John Cantacuzenus called in Amour and Orkhan. and allowed them to harry the country-side and carry away his subjects by thousands.
and took arms to dethrone his guardian. it was not long to remain In 1359 Orkhan died. having attained the age of twenty-four. But in 1354 the young emperor. Two . and made it a permanent settlement. resolved to assert himself. Gallipoli Turkish families. 329 years he ruled in conjunction with John Paleologus. who crossed into Thrace and drove the adherents of the Paleologi out of several fortresses. Murad I. the son of for seized himself. but thanks to Cantacuzenus he had far Ic :ces years of fighting sufficed to put Thrace in the hands of Murad from than even they had possessed. and try the fortune of his arms. filled it with Orkhan. The of his eyes. and by a fortunate chance he got Cantacuzenus himself into usurper was. tonsured and placed in a monastery by exceptional good fortune he was spared the loss his hands. in accordance with the usual practice. but his successor. Suleiman. But a night surprise from the side of the sea put John Paleologus in possession of Constantinople. waging an unsuccessful war against Servia in the hopes of winning back Dushan's conquests. and sent over to Asia for the troops of his son-in-law Orkhan. and isolated. John Paleologus was not a worse man than his immediate predecessors on the throne. This was the first Ottoman foothold in Europe. .. The Ottomans had come as auxiliaries in the war. determined to cross over into Europe. and was able to spend the remainder of his life in writing a history of his own time. but they were resolved to stop as principals. Cantacuzenus resisted. But it was of little while Orkhan's Turks were use to sweep away Cantacuzenus in Thrace.THE TURKS CROSS INTO EGYPT.
But a siege pressed firmly to an end must at last have triumphed over the mere inert resistance of stone and by an adequate garrison within.330 sea to sea. Best remembered among the tribulations of John is the siege of Philadelphia. the Bulgarians. and the Seljouk Emirs of Southern Asia Minor. and spent his life in incessant and successful wars with the Servians. However. and beyond the walls of Constantinople no land acknowledged John V. In a reign of thirty years he extended his borders to the Balkans on the north. did not finish the task he had begun. The Turk was a hard master. unsupported . and rejoiced in giving his vassal unpalatable tasks. and annexed large tracts of Seljouk territory from his brother Emirs in Asia Minor. That had a place preserved precarious independence after all the other cities 01 Byzantine Asia fell into the mortar. After a vain attempt to get help from the Pope. Its walls were still formidable. in THE TURKS TN EUROPE. Murad preferred to press on against worthier adversaries than the weak Paleologus. John Paleologus was his humble vassal and slave. A decisive battle in front of Adrianople 1361 was the finishing stroke. Why Murad I. it is hard to discern. this emperor without an empire resolved to make what terms he could. and take Constantinople itself. and the Genoese and Venetians could still protect it on the side of the sea. and rejoiced when he found that Murad was prepared to grant him peace. and the empire became a mere head without a body its last home. as sovereign save the district of Thessalonica and the Peloponnesus. province had been lopped away.
wishing to subdue it. and his son Manuel to march in person against the last Christian stronghold in Asia. degradation. compelled John V. and surrendered when it saw the imperial Philadelphia banner hoisted among the horse-tails of the Turkish to The Emperor submitted the pashas above the camp of the besiegers.SIEGE OF PHILADELPHIA. Murad. . The humiliation of the empire could go no further than when the heir of Justinian and Basil Bulgaroktonos took the field at the behest of an upstart Turkish "Emir. and had become a free town. 331 Being far away in the Lydian hills. in order to extinguish the last relics of freedom his among own compatriots. hands of the Turkish Emirs. it lost touch with Constantinople.
THE END OF A LONG (1370-1453. last seventy-five years of the Byzana mere Empire piece of local history. by their base subservience to the Turk. and no an forms important thread in the web of the longer Murad the Turk might have of Christendom.) TALE. there are only two history would have been commercial resources of have been straitened ways somewhat modified. without altering in any measure the course of events in Eastern very great the next For after 1370 the century. history THE tale of the is tine taken Constantinople in 1370. fifty If Constantinople had fallen in in 1370." That duty now fell to the Servians and Hungarians.XXVI. Europe during to exercise its old function of " bulempire ceased wark of Christendom against the Ottomite. who continued to discharge it for the next hundred and years. The Paleologi. protracted the life of the empire long after all justification for its existence had disappeared. The Genoa and Venice would before the appointed time. and which European . instead of 1453.
REIGN OF JOHN PALEOLOGUS. His reign was protracted I. plotted a similar treason against his But Murad easily quelled the and sent put out the eyes of his own son. son to be blinded But disobey. While Murad for over half a century. the determined to deprive him of his succes- aged John in 1391. if the dispersion of the Greeks had taken place before Italy was quite fitted to receive them and turn their learning to account. the Renaissance Cape route would have been shorn of some of its brilliance in the next century. But in it is hard to see that much harm would have resulted from the fall of Constantinople in the end of the fourteenth rather than the middle of the other respects fifteenth century. ere the 333 to India enabled Europe to disthe use of Constantinople as half-way house pense with to the East. And. and once succeeded in seizing the Andronicus allied himself throne for a short space. unto Saoudji. we may add. Andronicus bidding him to John The follow his example. and ordered his the operation was so ineffectually performed that Andronicus retained a measure of sight. a son of Murad father L. he left the throne to sion. who the Emir. His son Andronicus twice rebelled against him. was conquering the Servians and Bulgarians. to chains in II. Emperor did not dare to rebellion. and when he died not to his eldest bora his second son Manuel.. In consequence of his heir's unnatural conduct. but his later years were much vexed by the undutiful behaviour of his children. and . and was even able to venture on a second rebellion against his father. John Paleologus was dragging out a long and unhonoured old age.
that Manuel was able to sell his aid to to each of the . one moment in Manuel's life which the liberation of the empire from the Ottoman suzerainty appeared possible and even In 1402. if he played owner The control of the Straits was of Turkish pretenders. Prince Eesa Nicaea. the queror Timour [Tamerlane]. Bayezid died in captivity. and showed some signs of capacity. rightful his own. Thessalonica. there burst into Asia Minor a probable. his The Tartars light horsemen scattered to the winds. and could only wait on the course of events. and the might perchance come again to his cards well. This was a rare opportunity for Manuel Paleologus the thieves : had fallen out. under the celebrated conSultan Bayezid. and each declared himself Sultan. he suffered a crushing defeat. was above the average of the Paleologi. occupied Broussa.. but of what use was it to a prince whose sole dominions were Constantinople. the capital. and his sons began to fight over the remains of his empire Prince Suleiman seized Adrianople. and restored to their thrones all the Emirs whose dominions Murad : I. likely to perish and the Ottoman Empire seemed by the sword. great horde of Tartars. had annexed. Bayezid was cap- tured. at There was. and the Peloponnesus ? He had neither military strength nor money to justify rebellion against the Turk. swarmed Ottoman Seljouk all over Asia Minor.334 THE END OF A LONG TALE. however. But at Angora in Galatia. went forth to withstand the invader. successor of Murad I. his trusty Janissaries were cut to pieces. Manuel II. great importance so much so.
OT." Par C. 1883. the holder of the European MANTKI. J/.) half of the Ottoman realm ceded to the Emperor .TURKISH CIVIL WARS. I'AI F. Quantin.rS AM> HIS FAMILY. Pans.OI.V.) (/><?/// a Contemporary (/*w " Z'^r/ Bvzantin. 335 Suleiman for a heavy price. In order to keep from crossing the water. Bayet.
of the sons of Bayezid. byA. lasted ten years The : strife of Suleiman was the the sons of Bayezid slain by his brother the two Musa. the lower valley of the Strymon. and so long as the Ottomans were occupied in civil war he contrived to in retain his gains. was the on whom the of sovereign duty leading the attackto fallen. triumphed : the remnants of the Ottoman realm to the Seljouk that remained. and his ally let him enjoy the dominions he had recovered by his original treaty with Suleiman in lost Much had been 1403. and all the seaports of the BlackSea from the mouth of the Bosphorus up to Varna. the youngest breaking asunder. have But ought Sigismund was now engaged in his great struggle with the Hussites in . Emirs in Asia and to the Servians and Manuel Minor. was a man of genius he over the last of his and united all brothers. Eesa by supplanters his brother continued Mohammed. for it is very much easier to build up a new state in the East than to keep together an old one which is But Mohammed. 1421. Between 1402 and 1421. the coast of Thessaly.D. Europe had an unparalleled Unforopportunity to rid herself of the Ottomans. Paleologus in but the rest was back in Mohammed's hands Europe. By all Oriental analogies their empire ought to have fallen to pieces. tunately Sigismund. Emperor. king of and same at the time Hungary. and war. For a moment Manuel once more ruled what might courtesy be called an empire. it was not taken. Thessalonica.THE END OF A LONG TALE. Manuel had very luckily cast in his lot with Mohammed during the later years of the Turkish civil war.
MCKAD II. one the This uncle. by supporting against him two claimants to the Ottoman Sultanate. and from time to time tried to conof arms. could do nothing towards driving the Turks from the Balkans. and evil days at once set in for Constantinople and for Christendom. and save under the direct pressure of fear of a Moslem invasion they would not act together. He tried to make trouble for Murad. had been which fate drew down on the empire the on delayed since 1370: the Sultan declared war Manuel. then seen for the first time in the East. The Hungarian kings had always laid claim to a suzerainty over the crown of Servia. though they recovered their own liberty as a result of the battle of Angora. each named Mustapha. This wretched religious war directed the strength of Hungary northward when it was wanted in the south. took one after another all the fortresses which had been recovered by the peace of 1403. ATTACKS CONSTANTI. launched and his shelter to towers troops. came to the throne. ( Though Murad levelled against them built nnon. 337 Bohemia. the other the brother of the new ruler. he could not his terrible Janissaries . Manuel Paleologus was one of the first to feel the change in the times. There was never any sympathy between Serb and Magyar. movable to the assault. when his ambitious son Murad II. Mahomet the Unifier died in 1421.\OPLE. walls of the city proved strong enough to repulse an assault. vert their neighbours to Roman Catholicism by force Hence there was no love lost between them. and finally For the last time the laid siege to Constantinople. Without such a power to back them the Servians. and a crusade to expel the Turks was never concerted.
" ARABESQUE DESIGN PROM A BYZANTINE MS. Quant iu.(From " L'Art Byzantin. Par Charles Bayet. . Paris.
began to stir up such trouble in Asia Minor. encouraged the Greeks to resist with a better spirit than might have been expected. succeeded his son John VI. As Manuel II. that the Sultan determined to raise the siege and march against him. and alliances were not for him all that he could do was to try to save a little money." Treaties. wars. \\TEL If. He granted Manuel peace.DEATH OF succeed. The report of who vouchsafed a miraculous vision of the to reveal herself as the defender of the city. on the condition that he ceded all his dominions save the cities of Constantinople and Thessalonica and Thus the empire once more sank back into a state of vassalage to the Ottomans . unless backed by aid from without. 339 Virgin. stantinople fortune. once observed. without an attempt to shake off the Turkish yoke such an attempt indeed would have been hopeless. "the empire now requires a bailiff not a statesman to rule it. in of Constantinople the fifteenth century. bear witness to a state of . whose whole reign was passed in peace. whether written by Greek natives or by Western travellers. the Peloponnesian province. and to keep his walls in good repair. whom Manuel had supplied with money to cause a revolt against his brother. At last the pretender Mustapha. : these All humble tasks were not always the descriptions feasible. M. He was the last sovereign of Con- who won even a transient smile from The tale of the last thirty years of the one of unredeemed gloom. at the age of seventy -seven. Manuel II. died three years after.. and eviti empire is To Manuel .
was destined to see the empire lose most important possession beyond the walls of See Bertrandon de la Broquiere quoted in Finlay. which had once been the wonder of East and West. iii. side the walls was a desert.340 THE END OF A LONG TALE. 1 John avoided its 1 all VI. had shrunk to such modest dimensions that a Burgundian traveller noted with surprise that no more than eight attendants accompanied the empress when she went in state to worship in St. which sheltered so many generations of emperors. the city had shrunk to about a hundred thousand most of them dwelling in great poverty. nople had passed almost entirely into the hands of the Italians of Genoa and Venice. vol. p. exhaustion and debility which make us wonder that The country outthe empire did not collapse sooner. whose fortified factories at Galata and Pera now contained the bulk of the wares that passed through the city. Such commerce and wealth as still survived in Constantisouls. The great palace by the Augustaeum. Sophia. The of the was composed of military strength empire about four thousand mercenary troops. had grown so dilapidated that the Paleologi dwelt in a mere corner of it. . and covered only by ruins which testified to ancient magnificence. Within them more than half the ground was unoccupied. 493. The splendid court.. Part of the porticoes of St. in spite of the caution with which he action. a very interesting passage. and the Greeks could not afford to repair even the The population of greatest sanctuary of their faith. of whom many were Franks and hardly any were born subjects of the empire. Sophia had fallen down.
the pope of his own day. Eugenius IV. of Thessalonica. This was a poor return for his journey and conversion.JOHN VI. the Ottoman Empire . and was solemnly received into the Roman Church in the Florentine Duomo. and had little thought or power to spend on aiding the Eastern Christians. It had apparently escaped John's notice that Eugenius IV. chief feature of the reign of the last John Paleologus was his attempt to win aid for the empire The He by enlisting sympathy in Western Europe. which was attempt- ing to depose him.000 zecchins. on July 6. governor Constantinople. determined to conform to Roman Catholicism and to throw himself on the generosity of the Pope. All that John could get from him was a sum of money and a body of three hundred mercenary troops.. 341 His brother Andronicus. was a very different personage from the great pontiffs of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Since the Great Schism the papacy had been hopelessly discredited in Christendom. was engaged in waging a defenwar against the Council of Basle. expelled the Venetians and annexed Thessalonica to \vithout his permission. who were able to depose sovereigns and send forth Crusades at their good pleasure. Only one thing of importance was accomplished by . 1439. with the Patriarch of Constantinople and many bishops in his train. AT FLORENCE. incensed at a transfer of Greek territory having taken place pounced down on the place. Accordingly he betook himself to Italy in 1438. He appeared at the Councils of Ferrara and Florence. The Sultan. traitorously sold that city to the Venetians for 50.
seemed as if the gallant king of Poland and Hungary. Warden of the Marches. the majority of the Greeks was summed up in the exclamation of the Grand-Duke John Notaras " Better the turban of the Turk in Constantinople than the Pope's Tiara. and appeared But the fatal battle of Varna in triumph at Sophia. Emperor struggle the apostasy of the the at outbreak of a venomous ecclesiastical Constantinople between the conformists who had taken the oath at Florence. who disowned the treaty of union. He was too cautious to stir a finger to aid the Hungarians. ceased to pray for him. and Sultan Murad The one was succeeded by his brother 1451. backed by restore his great the were obviously fated to accomplish without a check. the career of King Ladislas in an ended  and after that fight the Ottomans untimely death. for he kne\v that if he once offended the Sultan his days would be numbered. .342 THE END OF A LONG TALE. coincided vith the great campaigns of Huniades and Ladislas last The For a moment it of Poland against the Turks.the sovereign of Byzantium. passed away in 1448. last Christian Constantine. might Balkan lands to Christendom. John Paleologus their watched destiny the struggle without movement if not without concern. when it had been profaned by The opinion of the celebration of the Roman Mass. and the bulk of the clergy. back over the Balkans. in John VI." years of the reign of John VI. John was practically boycotted by the majority of his subjects the Orthodox priests . and the populace refused to enter St. They thrust Murad II. Sophia again.
ATTACKS CONSTANTINOPLE. Constantine was a Romanist like his elder brother. Mohammed among heart from the II. for whom Mohammed paid a considerable subsidy. pious. Like King generous. not dare to remonstrate. but when the Turks began to pull down utilize its a much-venerated church. for all the sins and follies of his long line of prede- cessors. Some excuse had to be found for falling on his vassal : the one that he chose was a rather unwise request which Constantine had made. at the narrowest the approach point of the Bosphorus. and was therefore treated with great suspicion and coolness by his handful of subjects. the natural centre of his empire. Some unhappy inspiration impelled Constantine to ask for an increase in the subsidy. and to hint that Orkhan had claims to the Sultanate. a few Greeks took . and began : four miles away from Constantinople." yet was destined to bear the penalty brave. so as to block The Emperor did to the city from the Black Sea. only engineers. the most the whole race of commanding personality Ottoman Sultans. and forgiving. 343 the other by his young son Mohammed the Conqueror. There dwelt at Consta'ntinople a Turkish prince of the royal house named Orkhan. and making it his capital. without This was excuse enough for Mohammed out he sent war to declare the trouble troops and taking on Greek forts erect to soil. set his first on seizing Constantinople.. in order to stones in the new fort. "he did not evil as the kings that were before him. on condition that he was kept out of the way of mischief and plotting. He was the best man that the house of Paleologus had ever reared.MAHOMET IT. Hosea of Israel.
in The empire was now death agony. Nicholas was V. now that the Emperor willing enough to help . and to build a large fleet of war galleys in the in the ports of Asia its : the siege was to begin ensuing spring. having : fairly picked his wolf-and-lamb quarrel with his un- fortunate vassal. and then Mohammed. counting both trained mercenaries and armed burghers. factory at Galata to Venetians as were with him for bailiff of its arm such able-bodied t'he protection of the city. Giovanni Giustiniani no more than two galleys and three hundred brought men. Yet either Genoa or Venice . were not more than three thousand strong. and Con- stantine recognized the fact. Venice and Genoa could have done much more. only commissioning the extent. Altogether the Franks. a moderate sum of money. who co-operated in the defence of Constantinople. but they had so was a convert to Catholicism often heard the cry of " Wolf" raised that they did not realize the danger to their Eastern trade at its true From Genoa. and a few hundred soldiers of fortune hastily hired in Italy. Venice did even less. He spent the winter in frantic to the making appeals Pope and the Italian naval powers to save him from destruction. arms and drove the masons away. something must be done But all that the Pope could send was a to aid him. commenced open hostilities [Autumn HS2-] Turkish light troops at once appeared to blockade the city while the Sultan began to collect a great train of cannon at Adrianople.344 THE END OF A LONG TALE. They were at once cut down by the Turkish guards Constantine demanded redress. cardinal.
He issued a passionate appeal to his subjects to join in saving have thrown a hundred galleys and twenty thousand men into the scale if they had chosen. the centre of Eastern Christendom. SOPHIA.APATHY OF THE OKI could 345 by general levy of the male population of the city. but he hoped to recruit them a i DETAILS OK ST. . and from the whole population of the city only two thousand volunteers were enlisted. the holy city. They stood aside in sullen apathy. But the Greeks only remembered that he was an apostate. Constantine's own troops were about four thousand strong. who had foresworn the faith of his fathers and done homage to the Pope.
their recoil shook the fabric in such a dangerous way that the fire was soon obliged to cease. and it was soon seen that the tough old Roman mortar and stone that had blunted the siege engines of so resist the force of gunpowder. could not be for a The end moment doubtful . while a fleet of several hundred war galleys beset the Bosphorus. laid formal siege to the city on the land side. 1453. did all that brave and skilful men it was rude. nine thousand men could not hope to defend the vast circuit of the land and sea-wall against a veteran army urged on by a young and fiery general. and organized by endeavoured to drive off the siege artillery of the might. was heavy and numerous ere long come down in flakes. Constantine XIII. They led sorties. attacks water on Turkish the fleet. with seventy thousand picked troops at his back. when forced their way in through the fleet. Mohammed set his cannon to play on the walls. in enemy by a counter fire of cannon. In April. after sinking many of their assailants.346 THE EXD OF A LONG TALE. but the walls began to protracting the siege. At sea the Christians won one Aegean four galleys from the great success. the young Sultan. and reached Golden Horn in safety. and breaches commenced to show themselves in several places. and where any were hoisted up and brought to bear. Theological bitterness led the blind multitude to cry with Notaras that it preferred the Turk to the Roman. many foes could not The Sultan's artillery . and his second in command. But it was found that the old walls were too narrow to bear the guns. the Genoese Giustiniani. But the Turks had as great a numerical the whole Turkish .
He left the breach at midnight. and snatched a few hours of troubled sleep in his half-ruined palace. H is round his horse as he started on what all to the ministers and attendants crowded knew to be his last journey. Romanus. as well as the outer. sea-face of the city was beset by enemies. The storm was obviously at hand. he rose to ride back post of danger. Next morning. Sophia. Thus the inner. and launching them in the inland waters just above Galata. Greek historians dwelt with loving sorrow on the last hours of the unfortunate prince. and with the sounds of woe ringing in his ears Constantine rode slowly off to meet his death. Looking steadfastly on them he offence that prayed one and all to pardon him for any he might wittingly or unwittingly have committed The crowd answered with sobs against any man. and wails. partook of the sacrament according to the Latin rite in St. The end came on May 29. The against assault commenced at dawn . The Sultan had opened several practicable breaches. Mohammed even suc- ceeded in getting control of the harbour of the city. . 347 superiority on the water as on land.LAST HOURS OF CONSTAXTIXE XIII. three main attacks and several weak spots secondary ones were directed But the chief stress in the wall. and the inevitable could only be delayed. with the dawn. by dragging light galleys on rollers over the neck of land between the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. and the doomed Emperor was obliged to face his fate. above its mouth. of which the chief lay in the north-west angle of the city by the gate of St. 1453. where two whole towers and the curtain between them had been battered down and choked the ditch.
half expecting that God would interfere to save the queen by a miracle. his galley to die. had crowded into the and were churches. sabre in hand. . scanning from within the streets that so had in vain desired to see. and descended into the city. and the worshippers were dragged out in crowds. Romanus. They fell by hundreds before the swords of the mailed men in the breach. *-ode through the breach after his men.348 THE END OF A LONG TALE. and taken on board the oncoming assailants. at last forced their way The Emperor and his companions over the wall. passing the fatal hour in frantic of Christian cities prayer ! The shouts of the victorious enemy soon showed them how the day had gone. and opposed a barrier of steel to Twelve thousand Janissaries. The Greeks. was on the great breach by the gate of St. and the victorious army rushed into the desolate streets of Constantinople. Mohammed II. were trodden under foot. . seeking in vain for foes to fight. many Eastern conquerors He bade his men search . There the Emperor himself and Giustiniani at his side stood in the midst of the yawning gap with their best men around them. formed successive columns of attack as soon as one was beaten off another delivered its assault. to be claimed as slaves and divided among the conquerors. and a forlorn hope of Janissaries headed by one Hassan of Ulubad. for their felt caps and unarmoured bodies were easy marks for the ponderous weapons of the fifteenth century. whom Turkish zhroniclers delight to honour. But the ranks of the defenders grew thin and weary Giustiniani was wounded in the face by an arrow. Const antine at last stood almost alone in the breach.
. 1 standing where Constantine the Great had placed it eleven hundred years before. St. so gashed and mauled that it was only identified by the golden The Turk struck off his eagles on his mail shoes. only of Xerxes but of Chosroes and Moslemah and many another Oriental potentate. 24. erected in the first days of Grecian greatness. Mohammed noted the Delphic tripod with three snakes. At last the Sultan came to St. or merely because he wished to try the strength of his arm. the Sultan rose in his stirrups and smote away the jaws of the nearest snake with one blow of his mace. to celebrate the turning back of the Persians on the field of Plataea. There was something typical He had in the deed though Mohammed knew it not. Either because the menacing heads of the serpents provoked him. 349 Emperor.VS7 l. where the first great victory of the successor in spirit not the He. and his soldiery.VOPLE.FALL OF for the CO. who had failed where he succeeded. and the corpse of Constantine was found at last beneath a heap of slain. bade a mollah ascend the pulpit and repeat there the formula of the Moslem faith. crowd of wailing captives was being divided among He rode in at the eastern door. head. its it round their chief cities as a token of Riding through the hippodrome towa: Sophia. could not better signalize the end of Greek freedom than by dealing a scornful blow at that ancient memorial. So the cry that God was great and Mohammed 1 his prophet rang through See pp.Vf/. 25. defaced the monument of the West over the East. and sent triumph. Sophia.
1883. dome where thirty generations of patriarchs had celebrated the Asia knew Mysteries. Quantin.) . Paris. and all Europe and the end was come of the longest tale of Holy Empire that Christendom has yet seen.350 the THE END OF A LONG TALE." ANGEL OF THE NIGHT. Par Charles Bayet. (From " VArt Byzantin.
.................. 1028-34 Mi......... 685-695 Romanus II Basil II. Rhangabe ..... 695-697 Tiberius III...... the Wise 886-912 Constantine VII..... Argyrus. Bulgaroktonos 958-963 963-1025 [Co-regent Emperors Xici-'phorus II...... the Amorian 820-829 Theophilus Michael III I........ 582-602 Phocas .... Phocas 963-969 ....t Isaac I........ Michael VI...... 395-408 Theodosius II ... Mono... 45-457 Stauracius 811 Michael Leo I .. Lecapenus 99-945l and Heracleonas .... Xinii-ccs 969-976] Constantine VI 1 1 1025-28 7"-73 Artemius 7I3-7I5 7I5-7I7 I...... Constantinus 578-582 Mauritius ............. 610-641 Constantinus 829-842 842-867 Basil I...... . 1034-42 1042 1042-55 1055-57 mus LeoIV Constantine VI Irene 740-775 775-779 779-797 797-802 machus ............... (restored) .................... < omnenus Nicephorus I ">57-59 ........... 811-813 Leo V...... Apsimarus 697-705 Justinian II.. Su.................................. Porphyrogenitus 912-958 [Co-regent Emperors Alexander 912-913 Komanus I... 641-2 Constans II ........... Justinus I ....... 474-491 Anastasius I ... .... Constantine IX.... 867-886 Leo VI.... 457-474 Zeno ......f> III............ Heraclius Heraclius ............. John I.. Anastasius II...... had IV. 518-527 527-565 565-578 Tiberius II.. Arcadius ...... Justinianus I .......... the Isaurinn 717-740 Constantine \ ....... the Macedonian......TABLE OF EMPERORS................ the PaphUgonian Michael V.............. the Armenian ............ Theodosius III ........ 642-668 Constantine IV .... 705-711 Philippicus ... 408-450 Marcianus ...... Romanu* III.... 602-610 Justinus II ................. 668-685 Justinian II .......... 813-820 Michael II.............. Leontius .
John Manuel I. Io8i-ni8 John III.. Lascaris Nicephorus ates III. Angelus. Baldwin 1 Cantacu1347-54] 1204-5 Henry Peter 1205-16 1217-19 Manuel II John VII Constantine 1391-1425 1425-48 XI 1448-53 .. 1067-71] genes Theodore I. 1195-1203 Isaac II.. Ducas 1204-22 1222-54 1254-59 1259-60 1118-43 1143-80 Alexius II. .. Dio- NICAEAN EMPERORS... zenus 1341-91 LATIN EMPERORS.. Comnenus Comnenus EMPIRE RESTORED..... Ducas 1204 II.. Paleologus 1260-82 Andronicus II. Ducas Michael VII. Ducas Theodore II.. Comnenus 1183-85 Isaac II.... Paleolo- 1328-41 John V....... Paleologus [Co-regent John VI. Botani- Alexius I... Constantine X. Angelus 1185-95 Alexius III. 1180-83 Andronicus I. Ducas John IV. (restored ) 1 203-4 Alexius V... 1078-81 Comnenus.352 TABLE OF EMPERORS. Comnenus... Ducas 1059-67 1067-78 Robert Baldwin II 1219-28 1228-61 [Co-regent Emperor Romanus IV.. Paleologus Andronicus gus 1282-1328 III. Michael VIII.
murdered. 1 1 Androniciis (Con. 167 is murdeisl'onstanI. Anatolic theme. 188 taken by Nicephorus Ailana. (Angelus). Amalphi. UMirjiation . attacks the empire. Turkish Emir. 282 . attacked by Crusaders. 287 . 268 21. and Theodore of .ilioloj. 206 Acroinon.. 279. takes refuge in Germany. defends Constantinople. usurpation of. rei^n of.5 . Sultan of the Seljooks. the Caliph. stormed by the Ar. wars with the \orman>. short reign and murder of. 217 Alexandria. conquered by Ik-lisarius. conquests of in Asia Minor. 47 wars . 272-3 Andronicus II. B 322 Alboin the Lombard invades and conquers Italy. defeats Komanus IV'. . (Angelus). 225 Amorium. 6l iSi \II. 270 Alexander.. ins II.il>->. captured by the Turks. stormed by the 2IO . (l'. 327 Amrou conquei> Anustasiiis . Stilicho. slain. with Ik-radius.u*i. besieged by the Goths. with Justinian II. commerce of. Sultan of the Seljouk Turks. Frank principality of. I Alexius III.eiit. 116 Aleppo. Alexius IV.INDEX. 160 Achaia. the Caliph. I Amour. rci^n of.T. made emperor. 329 Africa. queen. Fhocas.piru- 259. 48 . 284 . flies. 293 Alexius Comnenus. iii-i. 227 attacked by Nicephorus 'hocus 231 tributary to the empire. with departs to Italy. I. 298 Alp Arslan. 230 Adrianopie. battle of. 82 49 Alaecldin. . 174-6 Abubekr. wars of. 315-20 IIIil AndrooKM Angel HIS I-. 257. battle of. murdered... emperor-r< j. 278. 285 V. (Comnenus). usurpation the of.. 280 . I KM' 1 - '66 <>\. persuades the Crusaders. Alexius murders iDucas). 41 . battle of. of. 252 . 272 II. commercial policy of. Emirate of. J2I-2 'f. tet Isaac II Alexius (Comnenus). wars of. Aijnadin. 40. 84-5 176 . 284 Alexius IV. emperor of Trebi/ond.IO. III. overrun by the Saracens. 162 Alaric the Goth. 66 Alexius I. 1 ami fall of. 254 Gothic AmalaMintha. 285 . Abdalmelik.
22. 281 . tributary to the Comneni. 334 racter. Gothic king. wars of with Constans II. Ravenna. 6 . 129. 240 his Bulgarian victories. 16* Branas." 319 Altila. 100 . 150 . wife of Belisarius. 134 . 1-2 Bostra. schools of. 244 Bayezid. Angora. 296 Bosphorus. 60 Athalaric. Turkish Sultan. 251 Army. 306 Bardas Caesar. Sophia.. by Maurice. . 52 Armenia. . taken a second time. 117. emperor. defeats the Huns. 57 Augustaeum. . his Arcadius. 163 . 48 quarrels with Chryso. 169 Black Sea.. Bohemund with the empire. house of. 127 the Norman. acts against Persia. 19 Avars. battle of. the 122 war of. battle of. 270 Antioch-on-Maeander. taken by the Turks. made Caesar. 47-54 dealings with the Goths. architect of St. besieged by the Crusaders.. Tiberius. . . murdered by Michael III. with Heraclius. 281-2. Frank duchy " of. executed by Leo L. 76-7 . 61 Art. armed factions. 74 Apsimarus. 92 . 89 . 213. 218 Artemius Anastasius. 226-7 Bulgarians. assassinates Michael III. Persian victories of.. 73 .. rebellion of. 277 Brienne. 243 dies. 243 Turks.. conquered by the Byoverrun by the zantines. 259 Basil I. 163 .. 334 Ani. in tenth century. Persian dynasty. 167-8 Buhawides. 256. . 2 " Blues and Circus Greens" . . 292 slain by the Bulgarians. 213. his chacrowned. victories of. reign of. 91 : recalled. 44 Athens. 75 . taken by the Persians. 42 visits great riot of. closed by Justinian. 8l Athanarich. 301 his travels. 92 .354 INDEX. Antioch. king of the Huns. reign of. slain in battle. 229 . 94 . 54-5 Anthemius. description of the. Grand conquered by the Company. stormed by the Saracens. lost to the Turks. 251 Anthemius. 137 B Baanes. Lombard duchy of. : Baldwin . besiege . 305 expelled from Constantinople. 107 95 I." 319 Broussa. " expelled by the Grand Company. 79 quers Africa. 104 . Greek trade with. 295 Baldwin II. ascends the throne. retaken by Nicephorus Phocas. decay and revival of. 61 Beneventum. . slain in battle. at Athens. Constantinople. 212 . takes Rome. assumes the full power. Alexius. 267 Boniface of Montferrat. Anne 326 of Savoy. 222-4 . Gothic king. 299 Antonina. prime minister of Theodosius II. laws of. Baduila. reign of. 265 .. 241-3 cam paigns in Asia. Belisarius. reformed by Leo and Zeno. takes . stormed by the Saracens. rebel in Syria. the. against Justinian. empress-regent. 105 description of.stom. disgraced. 99. invade and settle in Constantinople. Gothic king. 292 . wars of 297 . invasions of. Aspar. taken by the Normans. early Byzantines at war with.. wars of with Alexius I. takes Palermo. 84 . 231. 214 Basil II. conquells the Nika riots. made king of Thessalonica. see Prusa Bucellarian Theme. 88 takes Rome. 179 see Saracens Arabs. 177 executed. 308 . 213 Bari. . emptror.
John. seeks a capital. of the Hippodrome. his work in literary copying. centralization of.. 308 subdued by the Turks. 3 . death . conquered . 267 .. ntine MM. history Romans. lit . 203 . John. sacked.- IX. 164 . defeated by the Saracens. persecutes the Image-worship|>ers. 251 Constantine XI cession of. the Saracens. 220.INDEX. Commerce. slay Baldwin I. Byzantium. murdered. of. reign of. 177 .ntine VIII. wars of with the 170. 10 Carthage. defeats <>f Montferrat reign of. 355 Cilicia. 9-12. 169 inline I. David. of with C Candia taken by Nicephorus Phocas. lost to the 236. usurpation 325-8 Caracalla. 330 II. 343 Christianity. 228 Cantacuzenus. X. 176 Cassiodorus.ntinc VI. 199 Cherson. 196. wars 167 . defeat Leo VI. defeat Constantine VI. Anna. reconquered by the I ' 270 Column.. under the of. 276-7. 196.. Justinian II. 245 hus). 14. short reign of. founded. 72-4. William of. 230. wards undtr Constantinople see after- 166 .. 16 . aid Justinian. founded. 165 Constantine I v\ (Pogonatus). 171.. 25 >tantinople. Moesia. early 2-8 . conquest^ <. revolt II. 198 . grants privileges to By- zantium. : Branas. founds Constantinople. (Copronytnut). 231 I . 180 Chosroes I. life. see under John sostom Tut! death hour. 216 . :lvS of. king of Persia. Chrysostom. 187 . 247 . blinded by his mother.mtinnple founded by Con- . defeated by Tustinian II. chosen as Constantine's capital. 149 Chalcedon. influence of. conquered by N rephorus Phocas. reign of. 348 . wars of. at 224 the Comneni. 12 .f. 216. 25 of Constantine. . G>mnena... at war with Constantine V. 14 . conquered by the Russians. master of the world. besiege Constantinople. 235 . 138 Chosroantiocheia. 295 . 17 .. under Burtzes storms Antioch. 250. cline of. taken by the Persians.. 296 Charles the Great crowned emperor. of. on the < (Paleologus). 134 Champlitte. 205 . 221 ojeni- 217 . taken by Belisarius. effects of Fourth Crusade 241-3. bes eges Byzantium. Andronicus. .. 18 Constantine III. rei^n of. at. with Justinian.. by Basil on. ' 172 Constantine V. 129-135. under neni. warof. 198 slay Nicephorus I.. of. 198 ntine VII tus). 197 . 171 : the Council of Constantinople.. 90-100 Chosroes !l. of. 72 of... Isaac 1 Manuel. routed by Leo V. wars with 1 and Heraclius. reiyn <>f. 277 >.ns II. writes her father's 264 see dminenus. 179 defeat the Saraceas. Alexius. defeats Mnawiah. 85 taken by the Saracens. 310 against Isaac . 204 . founds principality of Achaia. 173. ac: attacked by the empire and society. reign foundation of. 'Ducas).
taken by Richard I. besieged ! Damascus. 251 defeated at at Manzikert. wife of Arcadius. 170 . 277 .356 stantine. 349 Delphic oracle. Dandolo. the. battle of. Theodore II. . 288 . . 136 Dastagerd taken by Heraclius. taken by the Saracens. besieged for the second time by the Saracen. taken by the Persians. 164 . 284. taken by the Venetians. conquered by the Saracens. 18 .8 by . 284 a second time. under Con-tantine V. topography of. 211 Emesa. 327 Eitogrul. 138 Cyprus. 341 Leo Ducas. 34. 10-29 . 301. at the storm of Con280. recovered by Heraclius. .. conquests of. un'ler 197 . Henry. the. Leo III. 254 slain. Sultan.. 172 . mutilated by Mahomet II. 300. . 292 Cross the Holy. under Constantine IV. 264 247 taken by the Franks and Venestormed and sacked tians. 322 Eudocia (Athenais). story of. 230. . 222 Diocletian makes Nicomedia his . 329 besieged by Murad II. 24 . wife of Theodosius II. 305 taken by John Paleologus. see uruier Constantine X. 299 13. 41 sieged by Avars and Persians. Komanus. INDEX. taken by Nicephorus Phocas. Stephen. Ecloga. 301 .. 163 . . orders foundation of Byzantium. 205 commercial riots in. Diogenes. 279 nople... be. 132 . of the Fourth Cru. John III.. 15 Corippus. Durazzo. 203 besieges Constantinople. 3 Digenes Akritas. wife of Romanus Dio- Ctesiphon. 205 Crusaders. 287. devastation of. king of Bulgaria. king of Servia. Heraclius at. monks banished to. doge of Venice. separated from the Caliphate. capital. 260 Dushan. 194 Eesa. 281 stantinople. besieged by John Ducas. 291 . the. 348 . 334-5 Egypt. . 278 genes. 264. poem of. recovered by Nicephorus Phocas. her disgrace. 265 .. defeats Nicephorus I. 163 by Bulgarians. the despotate of. Delphic tripod. 197 . 139 . 301 Crete. 208 recovered by Nicephorus Phocas. . their dealings with Alexius I.. Michael VII.. conquered by the Saracens. 327 Courtenay. by the Latins. importance of. seized by Isaac Comnenus. captured by the Persians. recovered by the Greeks.at.52 . 346 taken by the Turks. taken by the Saracens. . 163 Crumn. 224 the Crusaders at. 231 Epirus. 51. 337 last siege of. reign of. David Comnenus defeated Theodore I. 185. conquer Constanti- 298. 256 V.. 56 Eudocia. 228 . street fighting in.. besieged by the Goths. 263. conquered by the Persians. 227 Eikasia. /Elia.'s code of laws. . enter Syria. 288 . 186. of England. removed to Constantinople. epic of. the Turk. sade. 288 Dara taken in the Persian wars. 251 Eudoxia. besieged for the first *3&j *37 time by the Saracens. 134. 144 Council of Constantinople. house of at Constantinople.. 206 Council of FlorenceJohnVI. 131 .
with John VI. under Theodoric at war with . Si defeated and captured.. pope. 196 317. 341 Euphrosyne. 344 George the Alan. 91 . wars Alexius I. 48 . 135-7 . Eugenius IV. Fatimite dynasty in Egypt. 49. Council of. 35-7 . 51 Gallienus. 8l Hippodrome. 168 . 203 Helena.. Vandal king. 318 of PiM'lia. 133. Itattle of the. 196 Fritigern. besiege Constantinople. slays Phocas. 163 . against Leo III. mother of Constantine I." the. 165-6 Heraclius the Elder. 95 irand Company. 170. 50 Euphemitu.-. 329 Ganzaca burnt by Heraclius. 51 Guiscard. protect the Papacy. invaded by the Goths. 278 Heracleonas. summoned by Witiges. 156 Florence.INDEX. 47 . reign and fall of. 243 Ferrara. . 47 . benevolence of. 165 Hierapolis taken by Nicephorus -. 341 Flaccilla. 64 . king of the Vandals. invade Italy. 130 Heraclius I. Emperor. the . 344-8 Godfrey of Bouillon. rebellion of. hired by sarius. Gallipoli seized by the Turks. 125 conquered by the Crusader. Emperor of the West. .. 40 Fravitta defeats Gainas. 208 of Ravenna. last > 164 Heraclius Constant inus. rise of. attacked by Beliof. 50 slain. 62 . wife of Michael the Amorian. sails against Constantinople. 341 Franks. 37 defeat Valens. 267 . victory of over Valens. of the Danube. his Crusade.. 39 . Pope. his triumph. John. 42 . 121 . 32 . 221 .. the Ostrogoth-. deposed. . rebellion of. 220 Gregory the Great. protected by Chrysostom. cross . 295-6 Henry VI. allied to Michael Paleologus. '9 Hellas. at Council of.. 88-94 . Genoa. 48 <|uit the East. 3'9 Greece. 89 . Zeno. .. defeated. with H Haroun-al-Raschid. rebel in Sicily. 231 Hieroniax.l by the Byzantine fleet. poems of. sends aid to Constantine XL. 130. 318 II. 120. overrun by the Slavs. invented.. disasters of the Persian 132. 357 of. theme of. 119. of. 296. Kol>ert. kingdom 86 wars ( Andronicus Thrace. r conquer Athens. victorious campaign 139 1 . . 263 with the East. revolts Gainas. 297 Greek fire. Gothic ruler. 130. defeated and " destroyed.. attacked by the Sara Giustiniani. Visigoths under Alaric. 162 Hi) lerie. u-i-. with Nicephorus I. 136 Gelimer. 259-61 of. conquered by the Lombards. of. minister of Arcadius. short reign 60 of. 41 submit to Theodosius. defends stantinople. with Justinian. 207 Kutropius. treaty of. of Swabia. 314 . Exarchate. 264 Con- Goths. Byzantium destroyed 10 by. John VI. son Heraclius I. early history . the great. threaten Italy. wars of. 85 trade of. 22 . minister of Arcadius. 193 Henry of Flanders.
88-91 partly conquered by the Lombards. patriarch. 112 Justinian II. murders his John successful wars of. . Sultanate of. (Ducas Vatatzes). 91 . taken by the Saracens. 65 Justin II. 139 . 268-9 John HI. Emperor of Theszenus. 265 I. 239 John II. 57 ravage .. defeated by Beli. 172 Italy. misfortunes Jacobites. 169 central pirts of. minority of. Jerusalem. 71 nople. regency of.. 202 century. (Angelus). 1 16 Constans II. 192-9 Isperich. 66 sian of. king of Bulgaria. 342 Huniades. taken by Persians. 49 Hungary. 285 Isaac Comnenus. character marries Theodora. exiled. . 188-9 vigorous under the Isaurian emperors. rebels. John. 61 . . 179 . defeated by the Turks.. 300. 300 . restored. . general. superstitions . 232 234-7 Hies. Isaac II. 192-7. 132. threaten ConstantiSyria. 209. blinds her 197 deposed. 57 . reign of. reign and conquests of. 164 Kaikhosru. sarius. 32 Justin I. . battle of. conquered by Belisarius. . 250 . 284 dies. 324 Syria. Egypt and the. 301 Iconium. 341 John (Angelus). John. 295 John the Cappadocian. 277-8 Isaurians. the. 333 John VI. . . throne. 52 . (Comnenus). 212 Innocent III. King of Bulgaria.. 83-93 his Italian '> and recalls Belisarius. 65 . the movement. uncle. of. Michael Paleologus. 172 . 281 wrath of with the Crusaders. 117 276 deposed by his brother. lost. in janissaries. reconquers his 180 slain. John Huniades. conquers Thrace and Macedonia. (Paleologus). 304 203-10 . author. banished. 342 John Lydus. 5 INDEX. reign and wars of. Honorius slays Stilicho. connected removed by Leo 190 use of. Eudocia at. 76 John Chrysostom. 299 .. 212 patriarch. enlisted by Leo and Zeno. . 198 son and seizes the throne. .. salonica. patriarch. 175 . 342 Huns. reign of. 120 John the Grammarian. first Per- war of. ceases in the III. the empress. 278 . 258 . 276 conquers Baldwin I. his short . slain in battle. 255 John the Faster. Michael III. of Cyprus. . expels John Cantacu329 . 53 John Ducas. 330 later years of.358 Histiaeus holds Byzantium. 161 Kadesia. conquered by the Normans. 196 southern parts of. 105 (Zimisces). . finance minister. embraces Catholicism. 262 invaded by Manuel I 27 1 attacks the Ottoman Turks. . (Comnenus). 163 taken by the Crusaders. in. 212 Iconodules. in the ninth John V (Paleologus). 199 Isaac I. 192 East. 290 Irene. work. reign of.. ended by Images. (Ducas). see under John IV. under Attila. of. . 143 Julian. converted to Christianity. with.. 104. 325-8 . . Sultan. 106-9 ! his legal buildings. regent. African wars 71-4. . 273 his reign. Heraclius at. Justinian I. 339 . reign. dethroned by Seljouks Iconoclasm. dynasty of the.. sends out Fourth Crusade.
212. 254 Marcianus. reign and misfortunes of. ephemeral power of... 234 Louis IX. defeated by Constans II. 121 . (Comnenus). king of Bulgaria. 221-2 Lombards. 205 Mesopotamia. 224 I. 182 defends Constanti. Kobad. 299 Mahomet. 243 Ladislas. 336-9 ( Lazarus the painter. 292 . wars of Justinian Chosroes about. 194 . battle of. reunites the Ottoman Empire. 327 Maeander. 112 changes of Leo III. reign of. in hands of Boniface of Montferrat. 279 Mesembria. Karasi. dethroned by Con- stantine I. 192 .6 . short reign of. wars of. 246 V. 197 Leo V. 196 1 Melek-Adel. invaded by John Zimisces. (the Armenian) seizes the throne. the. discussed. gives money to Baldwin II. 184 . Sultan of Kgypt. Maniakes. taken by Bulgarians. victories of. niece and wife of Heraclius. decay of the. Emirs of. seizes the crown.. '53 Lazica. usurpation and of. 144 nople.. 121 Maurice. literary works of. 194 Leo IV. reign of. of France.ecky. Spain. of Basil I. Leo Bulgarians. see under Theodore I. Sultan.. 117.-y of. 71 125 . 213 Michael IV. 169. leave Pannonia. crowned emperor. king of Poland and Stephen Dushan..ar. 246 Manuel I. 214 .. battle of the. 12 Literature. conquers Constanti- Latin language.. 162 Khazars. murdered. (the minority <:. excesses and murder of. 137. (Kl. Mr. shelter Justinian II. 247 . (the Paphlagonian). 59 Martina. Mi. 27 j 1 Manuel II. 305 Lupicinus. Mahomet Mahomet I. 342 Larissa. overrun by Slavs. conquer Noith Italy. 237 Leontius. 24 Khaled. 205 . 204 battle of. 218 fall the Deacon. the Isaurian.gabe).. Leo Leo reign of. used in the Balkan Peninsula. wars of with i. 204 . 37 Lydus. political reforms of. 2. Russian capital. ha. Persian wars. nople. the prophet. 201 359 Kathisma. Roman.INDEX. John. 239 Michael I... short reign of. subdue the Exarchate. with Justinian.. 143 If Macedonia. Hungary. 15. 179 Lil>erius conquers South 175-7 .. religious reforms of. 120. 319 Karl the Great. 165 . 136. and Manzikert. codified by Justinian. conquered by L Ladislas. III. 178 Kief. 100 I. 216. conquered by II raclius. 96-7 Licinius. defeats the n Leo VI. wars of. (the Amorian). 60 III. ecclesiastical 208 -li. reign of. 343-5 Law. views of. 336 II. battle of. Paleologus). 261 Lascaris. the. 166 Marty ropolis. fall and death of. allied to Ueraclius. reign and wars of.piracy of. Maximmus II . 204 II. 206 (the Wise). 59 rise of. con. exiled. author. slain. 127 Maximinus Daza takes Byzantium. wars of. 207 . Drunkard). governor of Moesia. r'-iL'n and wars of. I l I 1 . 124.
256 Michael VIII. murdered by Zimisces. 88 . characteristics of the early. 197 Monophysites. the Byzantine. Monks. 149. 264. 314 Michael IX. 162 Obsequian theme. sends aid to Constantine XL. 248-9 Michael VII.9 wars of. overthrows the Latin Empire. 344 Nicomedia. 89-94 quests . attacks Constantinople. history of. 228 . dynasty of the. 321-23 277 Naples. Caliph. Gelimer flies to the. minority 251 . Emir of the Ottomans. visits Jerusalem. crushed.. invade the empire. 330. disbands the Asiatic militia. 267. wars of with Belisarius and Narses. 300 Moawiah.. 195. interference of the Pope with. conquer Italy. son and colleague of Andronicus II. .64 Conrad Morals. 210 Omar. 338 .. 88 . of. takes the Grand Company. (Paleologus). conthe Serbs. 337 makes peace with Manuel II. besieges . II. 332 quers I. 232 Nicholas V.. disastrous wars of. " feated. 95 . 329. N Naissus. Caliph. Constanti- nople.. 62 .. Goths beaten at.. 313 . dethrones Irene. 129 Navy. defeated by Phocas. by the Ottomans. (Ducas) Myriokephalon. 145-7. eunuch. under Theodoric in Moesia. 16. taken by the Crusaders. third invasion of. conof. 64 . (Stratioticus). burnt alive by 304. Palace. 75 Candia. see under Boniface and O Obeydah. taken by the Ottomans. 82 . the Amorium. wars of. Omeyades. invaded by the Goths. the Michael VI. Emir of the Turks. 95 Narses. 168 Odoacer. 259 second invasion of repelled. 155-6 Moslemah besieges Constantinople. 171 . 231 . 37 seized by the Bulgarians... 170 his armies de. suzerain of John V. emperor. attacked by Justinian. sacks 163 Murad Murad conquers Thrace. 219-20 Nicaea. 138 Normans. Saracen general. taken by the Bulgarians. 19 at Constanti- I2Q . taken by Belisarius. conquer Byzantine Italy. pope. battle of. usurpation of. short reign of. weakness of the kingdom of. 272 Pretender to the Sultanate. 2. Murtzuphlus. 303-4 . wars of. 323 Nicephorus I. Parses. the Caliph. 342 see Alexius V. battle of. (Ducas). 323-4 . 170 Orkhan. 305 . 203 Nicephorus II. 95 Othman. reign and successes of. John." 318 Michael Angelus. conquers Italy from the Goths. birthplace of Constantine I. nople. general character of Byzantine. Phocas. 63. 323 Nineveh. 150 Ostrogoths. favour image worship. 343 Orosius. effect of Christianity on. despot of Epirus. 171 Moesia. 247 . 85 Montferrat. disastrous reign of. conquered by Theodoric. 199 . General. Moors. 185-7 Motassem. 342 Nuceria. persecuted by Constantine Copronymus. imperial. 273 Notaras.36 INDEX. the.
house of. 2\6 . Nicephorus. verted to Christianity. slain. short reign of. Roger de Flor. attack Bulgaria. his usurpation. 333 . . assassinated. conquers Cyprus. 196 Rhangabe. I'hilippictis. attacks Byzan- IV.. 163 subdued by the Crusaders.. &c. 234 Russians. 119. 278 Robert Guiscard. see under Michael VI. conquered by the Persians. 164 IV r-ian Wars under Julian.. 228 9 Romanus III. 22830. long re217 Romanus 1 1. 361 I taken by the Turk sacked by the Mongols. helps Alexius Angelus the younger. 130-36 under N'icephorus Phocas.il I.D. Const.. 55 . taken by Belisarius. compiled by Justinian. Bardas. 246 Romanus gency of. 237. early invasions <>(. 256 Rome. 245 dies. brother Theodosius II. 59 Pelekanon. and VI. 21 Patriarchs. put to death by Theodosius II. general and Heraclius. I. Alexius pulse of. his learning. conquests of. the. final re- 261 . : rebels n. under Maurice. 221 patriarch. I2O . taken by Belisari\i exarchate of. the great of A. 199 Pri-rus general of Maurice. IOI rise of (he ]*>werof.. 265 Pandects. Michael. 233 . Sabatius. 542. 241 Phocas.INDEX. 57 Patzinak Tartars. tium. taken by the Lombards. father of Justinian. sect of the persecuted by Uaj. occupied l>y the Lombards. 7 Philip of Swabia. 231 . 65 Samuel. 'd I. . Andronicus II. the (ioths. marries Marcianus. 318. 230 R Ravenna. reign of. 214 Paulinus. and III. 2 39 : 233 Photius. cruelty of. 129 Phocas.. 32 under Justinian. call in the Franks.at. wars of. Charles the Great 89 . 130 127 . patriarch. 120 . murdered. 71. John V. 137 Richard Coeur de Leon. 94. d<-t. short reign of. see under John. married to Zoe. (Lecapenus). 279-8 dies.. 231. 254 Belisarius. 116 Persian Empire destroyed by the Arabs.. battle of. 204 Rhazates. emperor.. Gr at. 99. 121 . rebels against John Zimisces. taken by the Great usurpation and fall of. with her Kmpress. . 1 1 at. . 120 . 88 Palestine. Philip of Macedon. (Argyrusl. 242 !ji. Plague. gius. 169. '99 Ruric. founds the Russian kin^doin. hired by Andronicus II.. Ser- Paulicians. 323 Polyeuctus.. (Diogenes). 318 Peter. general. overrun by the 132 Arabs. 262 Pavia. estranged from the empire. 334 Pulcheria. Romanus 251 . 241 'ii<l death of. Constantine XI. against "Basil II. wars of with 112 Patriarchal palace of Constantinople. king of Brigufc.. besieged by taken by Baduila. reign of. Palermo. . 196 . . under Phocas . 234 conby John Zimisces. defeated by Turks. 237 wars of with Alexius I. 259-60 . . 317 I. 90. 180-1 Phocas. Paleologus. slain by Heraclius.
138 Sicily. 71 . 334-6 Stephen Lecapenus. 124-37 . rebel against Basil II. tinian II. wife of Theophilus. 246 . 271 overrun Macedonia. 229 subdued by the Crusaders. Theodahat. 87 . 204 Statues at Constantinople. the Persian. Sapor. wars of with the Comneni. 178 institution of the pro- vincial system of. 21. 349 . 166 conquer Persia. 265 . for later history. stans II. 133 Senate House at Constantinople.. . 167-8 129. Slavery. 1 66 . wife of Justinian. 159 . made tributary by Con. conquered by Basil II. king of Servia. 32 Saracens. 217 Stephen Dushan. murders his wife. usurpation of.. 265 . reign of. defeated by the Crusaders. subject to the Avars.47-8. first building of. 82 war of with Justinian. 73 conquered by Shahrbarz. 77 . condefeated quers Bulgaria. 252 conquer Asia Minor. cross the Danube. Sergiub. invaded by Maniakes. T ''agina. . 254 . conquer Persia and Armenia. daughter of Constantine VIII. 123 . Jerusalem. 9 . patriarch. 211. 66-8 death of. the. . career in the Nika riots. 214.. 330 Severus. . 160-2 conquer Egypt. Seljouk Turks. king of Bulgaria. 185 dies. . calls in the Franks. battle of. 186. ravages of the... 125. influence of Christianity on. murdered by Honorius. lem. burnt in 410 A. emperor. 162-3 conquests of Nicephorus Phocas in. Spain. 327 Stephen. 21 Servians.. with Theodore I.362 INDEX. converted l>y Mainvade Syria. 212 Theodora. .. Gothic king. . deposes his father Chosroes. 237 Syria. 164 . 265-7-72 . . 25 destruction of by the Crusaders. 169 lonica. 246 Siroes. Sophronius. conquered by Manuel I. civil wars of the. 123 . emperor. Gothic king. 298 . : . 171 besiege Thessa- Sophia.. 88 invaded by Saracens. short reign of. takes Byzantium. slain in battle. 243 rebel against Michael IV. 104 . South of. 241 230 Teia. . 250-1 invade the empire. 135 Turkish Sultan. aids Juscas. 132 . 95 Tarsus. pope. 147-8 Slavs. Constantinople. takes Shahrbarz. 107-9 5 desecrated by the Turks. defeated by Heraclius.. 1 291 Suleiman. 95 Telemachus. conquered by Jus 96-7 Stauracius. 196 Stilicho. invaded by the Huns. tinian's generals. king of Persia. wars of with Alaric. 88 Theodora. subdued by the Turks. rebuilding of by Justinian. 129-30 invaded and conquered by the Saracens. conquests of. regency of. Saracen j vizier.. . slain. invade the Balkan Peninsula. Bardas.D. 145 Terl>el. reign of. 327 . 248 . 163 patriarch of Jerusa- conquered by Belisarius. 53 burnt in the Nika riots. 27 . martyrdom of. invaded by Kobad. king of Russia. the. taken by Alexius I. Themes. . 79 of. 235 by Zimisces. 265 Scholarian Guards. taken by Nicephorus Pho- Skleros. 49 Swiatoslaf. St. 208 finally conquered by Saracens. . see under names of the Caliphs Sardis. homet. 103 Theodora. besiege^ .
42 dies. cuzenus. ii. .. \V 177. son slain. emperor at Nicaea. tinian. . 54-6 war with Attila. 44 Theodosius II. 292 with Michael VIII. .-en prince. \Vitiges. stormed by the Saracens.. pope. wars of with Zeno. 117 Tiberius III. with the empire.<.. 82 . and names of Ottoman Sultans Tuscany. deposed and of Justinian II. . 62 conquers dies. 260. recovered. short reign 303 Theodore. 64 Theodotus. 116 Tyana. submit* to sieges Re lisarius 91 Beg. retaken by the (i reeks. minister of Justinian Orkhan. at siege stantinople. 174 Theodosius I. caliph.ffr Seljouks. 41 Vandals. 85 Varangian guards. wars of. capital of Stephen Dushan. 57 Theodosius III. im. empire of. migrate to Italy.minister of Justinian II. with Alexius I. 336 . : 234 i.. slain battle by the Goths. I. Prankish king. emperor. 85 Turks. daughter married to of Canta- Trilionian. 182 i of. son of Triarius. .. 171 . 296 . sacked by Saracens.. 170 . U Uldes. reign and wars of. 221 Theodoric. 89 Thomas. 327 Valens. wars of. king of Servia. Constantinus. 225 commercial treaties of. abdicates. 251 Tot la.. battle of. Studita.INDEX. (Lascaris). 279 engages in war with Alexius III. wars with Manuel I. at Duof Conrazzo. rehellion slain. icf under Baduila Treliizurul. 6l Tiberius II. 52 Thi-ssalonica. 62-3 Theodoric. . 239. . wars of. . 298 Thrill i V . in Russia. Theodora.. 92 Venice. his love of art. Turkish chief. 292. Baduila at. rise of. 289 .. besieged by the Slavs. persecuted l>y his- 341 Theuderic. 182 IK-\\iliges. 208-11 . 314 . founded. Tricameron. 299 II. patriarch of Alexandria. 103 Vikings. Vijjilius. empress. 233 Theophilus. 112 328 Theodore siege made wars >f. 208 u: slay Valens. son of Theodemir. 330 . usurpation of. at the of Constantinople. rel>ellion of. 179 Tiberius. 49 Vitalian. V in reign of. 363 I. 224-5 Theophihis. wart of with the empire. 327 Uscup. the. kingdom of the.. 298 . short reign of. conquers Bagdad. 229. Crusading kingdom of. 183 Theophano. Visigoths the.. Apsimarus. attacks finally lost. 216. 268. murders her husband. conquered by the lords.. with the Goths. of in share 282 plunder of at war Constantinople. 114 . 36. 35. king of the Hui I'rosh.. 288 Verona. 41 48 . Gothic king. Rome. reign of. taken by the Turks.. in conquered by Be- 181 . . rebels against Zeno. 8l Italy. 271 aids the Fourth Crusade. Africa. Theodore (Ducas). 90. 282. of. 88. rebel in Asia. 180 Welid. lisarius.
233. 62 . reorganizes the army. 132 Zapetra. taken by Theophilus. John. Russian war Asiatic conquests of. 235-7 . baths of. 210 Zara. emperor. empress. 6 1 .. 19 Zimisces. Zeuxippus. Zachariah. of. her marriages and reign. 280 Zeno. 239 245-7 Zoe.364 INDEX. sends Theodoric to Italy. wars of with the Goths. murders Nicephorus I. taken by the Crusaders. 64 . patriarch of Jerusalem.
T. and struggled as they studied and wrote. In the story form the current of each national life is distinctly indicated. labored. intended to present in a graphic manner the stories of the different nations that MESSRS. and to faring them before the reader as they actually lived. \\jth which the history of all lands begins. so far as the labors of the accepted historical authorities The subjects of the different have resulted in definite conclusi volumes have been planned to cover connecting ana. Fisher Umvin.Stot^ of tbe "Rations. P. consecutive will epochs or periods. the myths. as far as politic. In carrying out this plan. though these will be carefully distinguished from the actual history. It is the plan of the writers of the different volumes to enter into the real life of the peoples. will not be < looked. in co-operation with Mr. a series of historical studies. so that the set when o-mpleteif in a comprehensive narrative the chief events in present . G. of London. take pleasure in that have in course of announcing they publication. PUTNAM'S SONS have attained prominence in history. and as they amused themselves. and its picturesque and noteworthy periods and episodes are presented for the reader in their philosophical relation to each other as well as to universal history.
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175 . will present picturesque and dramatic "stories" of the Men and of the events connected with them. OXFORD. A of a SEKIKS number of biographical studies of the lives and \voik of representative historical characters about whom have gathered the great traditions of the Nations to which they belonged.. FKI. KDITEH HY EVELYN A1JBOTT. and who have been accepted. in many instances. while thoroughly trustworthy as history. handsomely printed in large type. and. provided with maps and adequately il!u>uated according t<> the special requirements of the several : subjects.Iberoes of the "(Rations. With the life of each typical character will be presented a picture of the National conditions surrounding him of writers during his career.OW OF BALUOL CoLLEGR.I. Half morocco. The narratives are the work who are recog- nized authorities on their several subjects.A. . The $i 50 volumes will be sold separately as follows top Cloth extra . . uncut edges. M. To the Life of each "Hero" will be given one duo- decimo volume. gilt . as types of the several National ideals.
By C. P. Oxford.A. in France. To be followed by : Saladin. Oxford. Fellow of Merton College. Fellow of Balliol College. and the Rule of the Puritans in England. L. and the Military Supremacy of Revolutionary France. and the First Kingdom in England. Napoleon. Fellow of Queen's College. Fellow of Exeter College. HODGKIN. By Mrs. Fellow of All Souls College. R. A. By " THOMAS of and Her Oxford. and the Downfall of American Slavery. Oxford. M. By CHARLES FIRTH. By Prof. By NOAH BROOKS. Warrior and Ruler. Charles XII. and the Organisation of the Roman Empire.. Oxford. Lecturer on Ancient History in Golden Age of Athens.. F. Oxford. BEAZLEY. By Evelyn Abbott. BUTLER CLARKE. FLETCHER. Lorenzo de' Medicis. BURR. By C..A. STRAND . Fellow of Lincoln College. By \V. BBDFORD ST. M. Italy Sir Philip Sidney. Charlemagne. Senior Student of Christ Church College. and the Age of Discovery. and England as a Military Power. Balliol College. By W. STKACIIAN DAVIDSON. O'CONNOR MORRIS. By C. and the Struggle of Protestantism for Existence. Jeanne d'Arc. By H. Cicero. and the Henry of Navarre. Pericles. sometime Scholar of Oriel College. the Crescent and the Cross. By LEWIS SERGEANT. author of The Life of John Locke. YORK POWELL. Cornell University. Oxford. . Julius Cassar. By ALICE GARDNER.. M. By ARTHUR HASSALL. and the Last Struggle of Paganism against Christianity.. and the Chivalry of England. author Invaders. OMAN. Oxford..A. By H. author of "The Wreck of the Grosvenor. and the Huguenots Newnham Louis XIV. Julian the Philosopher." etc. L. Oliver Cromwell. author of Greece. Oxford. By STANLEY LANE-POOLE. Marlborough.A. WARDE FOWLER. By P.A. Prince Henry (of Portugal) the Navigator." etc. The Cid Campeador. By F. NISBET BAIN. 1682-1719. CI.. the Reorganiser of Europe. Oxford.. Alfred the Great. M. Abraham Lincoln. OLIPHANT. By W. and the Zenith of the French Monarchy. First of and of the Last the ReSchoolmen John Wyclif. R. Oxford. Oxford. PUTNAM'S SONS LONDON 24 NEW YORK 3J WKST TWKNTY-THIRD ST. W. Fellow of Balliol College. English " New formers. Oxford. M. R.AKK RUSSELL. Wadham College. and the Naval Supremacy of England. M. G.The first group of the Series comprises the following volumes: Nelson." etc. M. and the Fall of the Roman Republic. Theodoric the Goth. By J. M. By R.." etc. GEORGE L.. C. and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire. the Barbarian Champion of Civilisation. and the Waning of the Crescent in the West. By EDWARD ARMSTRONG. \YILLERT. FOX" BOURNE. late Fellow of All Souls College. A..A. Gustavus Adolphus. A Senior Student of Christ Church College.M. College.
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