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Thermochimica Acta 363 (2000) 7179

Differential thermal analysis: a means of identifying soil samples from Barbados, Trinidad, Tobago, St. Vincent, Jamaica and Guyana
Harold A.A. Gibbs*, Leonard W. O'Garro, Anthony M. Newton
Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, PO Box 64, Bridgetown, Barbados, WI, USA Received 31 March 2000; received in revised form 3 July 2000; accepted 4 July 2000

Abstract Thermo-analytical curves over the temperature range 5010008C were obtained for 66 soil types of which 37 were from Barbados, 15 from Trinidad, ve from Tobago, ve from St. Vincent, three from Jamaica, and one from Guyana. Endothermic and exothermic peak areas under these curves were determined and used as the basis of a system derived for identifying soil types. In this system curves for different soil types were unique with respect to occurrence of endothermic and exothermic peaks and the magnitude of their corresponding peak areas. On re-examination of a selected number of soil samples after 18 months storage, each soil showed the same number of peaks at the same temperature but with altered intensities and in most cases a reduction in peak size, changes consistent with desiccation and spontaneous decomposition. # 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Peak area; Endothermic; Exothermic; Wholesoil; Soil group

1. Introduction The major soil constituents including carbonates, organic matter, sand, clay and moisture all undergo thermal reactions when heated in the temperature range 5010008C. These reactions and the corresponding temperatures at which they occur can be determined by DTA. Some typical examples are shown in Table 1 [1]. Soils differing in constituents will generate thermal peaks reecting the uniqueness of each soil [2]. Accordingly, thermal peaks can be used for quantitative and qualitative assessment of soil constituents.
Corresponding author. Tel.: 1-246-417-4324; fax: 1-246-417-4597. E-mail address: hgibbs@uwichill.edu.bb (H.A.A. Gibbs).
*

DTA was rst applied to soil research as an analytical method in the determination of kaolinite content of clays [35]. One problem with the application of DTA for assessment of wholesoils is that exothermic peaks often associated with the presence of organic matter are superimposed on endothermic peaks associated with clay, sand and silt fractions. For example, it has been demonstrated by Smothers and Chang [6] that organic matter present in a Madison surface soil obscured endothermic peaks for clay fractions at 98 and 2708C. For this reason there is limited use of DTA in studies of whole soils [7,8]. Soils of the Caribbean territories of Trinidad, Tobago, St. Vincent, Jamaica, Guyana and Barbados have been classied based on pedogenic, topographic and drainage characteristics and colour, texture and chemical properties to a lesser extent [916]. Soils of

0040-6031/00/$ see front matter # 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 0 4 0 - 6 0 3 1 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 6 2 8 - 6

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Table 1 Summary of the activity associated with the differential thermal analysis of wholesoil Peak temperature (8C) 125 340 505 540 575 810 910 940
a

Thermal process of soil constituents Loss of adsorbed H2O from clay and organics Oxidation and combustion of soil organic matter Dehydroxylation of kaolinite and vermiculite Decomposition of vermiculite ab transformation of SiO2 Decarboxylation of clay-sized carbonate Recrystallization of illite and montmorillonite Recrystallization of kaolinite

Enthalpy of reactiona Endothermic Exothermic Endothermic Exothermic Endothermic Endothermic Exothermic Exothermic

Enthalpy changes associated with corresponding peak temperatures.

Trinidad and Tobago are derived from claystone, sandstone or alluvium deposits, all of which were also found among soils from Guyana and Jamaica which also possesses soil of volcanic, shale or igneous origin. Soils of St. Vincent are of the three latter types whereas soils from Barbados are derived from alluvial deposits and sedimentary limestone. Methods for determining physical and chemical properties for the purpose of soil classication or identication are cumbersome and time consuming as routine procedures [1719]. In contrast, DTA is a rapid technique requiring availability of small samples (3075 mg) only and when applied to soils, the data obtained are reproducible. In this study, the results of DTA of 66 soils obtained from six Caribbean territories are reported. A soil identication scheme based on these results is also proposed. 2. Experimental The soil identication scheme outlined by Vernon and Carroll [16] was used by the authors in conjunction with the Soil Map of Barbados to select 37 soil types which represent all soil associations found on the island. Composite samples of each soil type were obtained by mixing 30 randomly selected soil cores (3 cm diameter and 30 cm long). The depth of each core represents the Ap1 and Ap2 Horizons for all soils and the B, C and G Horizons, when present [20]. Samples of 29 additional previously identied Caribbean soil types, obtained from the Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, St. Augustine Campus, University of the West Indies were used in the present study also [913]. All soils were originally

obtained from lands under grass or sugarcane cultivation for 1520 years. Common soil associations of Barbados include red brown, yellow brown and St. John Valley, all resembling the Ustalts of the Alsol order, and St. George Valley, St. Philip Plain, grey brown and Black all of which are likened to Usterts of the Vertisol order [20]. Soil samples representative of the Vertisol order and are collectively referred to as alluvials, were among samples from Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago. The samples taken from Guyana and Jamaica were peats representing the Histosols order. Non-cracking, chocolate-coloured clays, assigned to the Mollisols order, were among the soil samples examined from Trinidad and Tobago. Samples from St. Vincent were young volcanic soils and yellow brown earths designated to the Insectisols order and Ultisols and Oxisols orders, respectively. Soil samples were air-dried, and sieved using a 0.2 mm mesh and then suspended in deionized water to facilitate removal of unwanted materials, including plant debris. Soils were air-dried again and then ground in a mortar until homogeneous mixtures were obtained [21]. Soil samples, ranging from 30 to 75 mg in weight, were placed in platinum crucibles and heated in the temperature range 5010008C using a Du Pont 910 DSC Thermal Analyzer equipped with platinumrhodium thermocouple and providing a heating rate of 208C min1 for observation of endothermic and exothermic peaks (Table 1). Heating was done under atmospheric conditions with no purge gas owing through the system. A total of 66 soil types were heated. The type and intensity of soil-based chemical reactions induced by temperature were identied by refer-

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ence to thermo-analytical curves generated by DTA. Heat treatment of selected soil types was replicated once and the experiment was done twice. The extent to which the occurrence and intensity of thermal reactions are affected by the duration of storage of soil was also investigated. In this investigation, two samples each of the 122-Joe's River Mud (normal), the 47-grey brown (sandy), the 64-St. John Valley (poorly drained) and the 65-St. John Valley (well drained) soil groups of Barbados were heated as previously described after 18 months storage to obtain thermo-analytical curves. The possibility that peak area of ensuing thermoanalytical curves was linearly correlated with soil mass was investigated. The investigation was conducted by determining the linear correlation coefcient of a plot between peak areas and mass of each soil type used in the present study. The relationship between peak area and sample mass was assessed also using CaCO3 (336 mg) of high quality (Analar BDH, UK) and in the form of limestone underlying most soils of Barbados. The calcium carbonate was prepared and heated as described for soils. The temperature reliability and calorimetric sensitivity of the unit were given as 18C and 0.2 m cal s1 in.1, respectively. The instrument was set at time base: 2.5; zero shift; range: 0.4 mV/cm; Y : zero shift; range: 20 mV/cm; and Y-axis at y and calibrated using pure potassium nitrate (Analar BDH, UK) and <2 mm calcined alumina. 3. Results and Discussions Thermo-analytical curves obtained for the 66 soil samples were interpreted in accordance with the characteristic peaks observed by Smothers and Chang [6] and Schritzer [22] who associated specic physical phenomenon and chemical reactions with up to four endothermic and four exothermic peaks observed (Table 1). The thermal notation developed in this study for identication of soils previously classied on the basis of chemical, physical and hydrological properties [16] requires conformation that all peaks identied in the present study relate to decomposition of specic minerals and soil constituents. Absence of characteristic peaks may be attributed to either the superimpo-

sition of exothermic and endothermic peaks on each other or the absence of specic soil constituents. All reactions associated with DTA curves which were previously described by Tan et al. [1] were recognized for curves of separate soil constituents including carbonate, sand, pure clays and organic matter (H.A. Gibbs, unpublished data). The exothermic peak at 5408C, which was not described by Tan et al. [1], was observed as a strong decomposition peak for humic acid extracted from selected Barbadian soil types (H.A. Gibbs, unpublished data). DTA curves of pure clays including vermiculite, illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite obtained from the Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, St. Augustine Campus, University of the West Indies were used to conrm peak assignment at 505, 910 and 9408C. In the present study, thermo-analytical curves of soils belonging to the same group shared many common features. Four curves, each representing a soil type of the grey brown association of Barbados and designated B, C, D and F and one representing a St. John Valley clay and designated E in Fig. 1, are presented as examples. Samples B, C and D, which appear similar in Fig. 1, all differ in the intensity of the endothermic and exothermic peaks at 810 and 9108C, respectively (Table 6). Each curve exhibited weak endothermic peaks associated with thermal reactions involving moisture and organic matter at 125 and 3408C, respectively. Organic matter content of all samples ranged from 0.57 to 6.69% [2] and was too low to reveal the double exothermic peaks associated with peats and other soils rich in organic matter. Large endothermic peaks at 8108C are present also and reveal the typical calcareous nature of these Barbadian soil types. Of the peaks of thermo-analytical curves obtained for 66 soil types used in the present study, only those occurring at 125 and 3408C were invariably present. None of the soil types were associated with all peaks. The distribution of peaks amongst the soil types is shown in Tables 2 and 3. Each soil sample used in the DTA was of a different mass and therefore the weight-related standardization of the thermo-analytical curves was done to allow direct comparison of thermal characteristics of each soil sample examined. Standardization consisted of converting peak areas of the curves to peak area per 100 mg soil.

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Fig. 1. (a) DTA patterns of an empty platinum crucible and ve Barbadian soil types obtained using the Du Pont 910 DSC Thermal Analyzer. Curves specically represent: A, empty crucible (baseline); B, 41-grey brown (normal); C, 40-grey brown (normal); D, 42-grey brown (very shallow); E, 65-St. John Valley (well drained); F, 103-grey brown (oceanic). (b) DTA patterns of four Trinidadian and one Tobagonian soil types obtained using the Du Pont 910 DSC Thermal Analyzer. Curves specically represent: A, 81Maracas SCL; B, 171-Talparo C; C, Tobago No. 1; D, River Estate; E, Cunupia.

Standardization was possible because of observation of a linear relationship between soil mass and peak areas of thermo-analytical curves as indicated by the linear regression coefcient of 0.975 obtained. Calcium carbonate which gave a large distinct exothermic peak at 8108C was used to conrm the linearity between mass and peak areas of DTA curves. Linear regression coefcients (r) of 0.979 and 0.999

for plots of square root of peak area versus mass were obtained for pure and limestone-derived calcium carbonate, respectively. The peak area data derived for soil samples from Barbados and the other Caribbean territories using standardized DTA curves are tabulated (Tables 2 and 3). The standardized endothermic and exothermic peaks, and their corresponding temperatures were used to develop a soil identication scheme. Each set of four standardized endothermic and exothermic peak areas associated with each soil type and denoted by E and X, respectively, were divided into class intervals designated as A, B, C and D. Class intervals were generated by dividing the range of the peak area associated with the corresponding temperature into four equal sectors as shown in Tables 4 and 5. Another class interval, O, was used to indicate the absence of a peak. The combination of class intervals associated with the endothermic and exothermic peak areas was then determined from the thermo-analytical curve of each soil type. The combination of class intervals, referred to as the ``EX'' notation in this study, was characteristically different for each soil type tested in the present study (Tables 6 and 7). The possibility that soil chemical and physical properties may inuence DTA curves was investigated. In an attempt to determine the inuence of chemical composition on peak size and in the absence of X-ray diffraction data, other soil parameters including TEB, CEC, percent organic carbon and percent clay were used to correlate with thermal properties. All statistical analyses were performed using the Minitab Microcomputer program (Making Data Analysis Easier, State College, PA). Linear correlation analysis showed that there is a signicant relationship between thermal properties and mineralogical composition of each Barbadian soil type. Peaks observed at 125 and 3408C were the only peaks present in all DTA curves and therefore it was on this basis that peak areas associated with these temperatures were selected for correlation with chemical and physical properties of each Barbadian soil type. A correlation coefcient (r) of 0.348 was obtained for the correlation of peak area at 3408C with percent organic carbon, whereas coefcients of 0.521, 0.498 and 0.587 were obtained for correlations of peak area

H.A.A. Gibbs et al. / Thermochimica Acta 363 (2000) 7179 Table 2 Peak areas (mm2 100 mg1) determined for 37 Barbadian soil types using differential thermal analysis Soil associationa Endothermic peak area 1258C 41-Grey brown (normal) 40-Grey brown (normal) 42-Grey brown 81-Coastal (association) 41/40-Grey brown (normal) 10-St. Philip Plain 30-Black (normal) 65-St. John Valley 64-St. John Valley 54-Yellow brown 103-Grey brown (oceanic) 110-Red brown (oceanic) 1l5-Bissex Hill (oceanic) 122-Joe's River Mud 173-Scotland sandstone 47-Grey brown (sandy) 48-Grey brown (leeward) 70-Red sand 42/40-Grey brown (normal) 32-Black (shallow) 80-Coastal (normal) 86-Coastal (south coast) 61-Red sand (shallow) 60-Red brown (normal) 131-Scotland sandstone 172-Alluvial 141-Alluvial 20-St. George Valley 12b-St. Philip Plain 171-Alluvial 13-St. Philip Plain 174-Alluvial 84-Coastal (leeward) 81-Coastal (shallow) 42-Grey brown (shallow) 50-Yellow brown 71-Red sand (dark)
a b

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Exothermic peak area 5758C 4.63 7.13 17.42 6.27 16.73 57.97 19.20 9.45 57.27 4.27 6.97 44.19 16.89 15.22 16.66 19.62 9.57 11.55
b

5058C 622.7 356.3 273.1 313.8 574.8 246.3 775.6 1358 1695 788.7 124.0 112.9 28.99 299.5 850.1 297.8 403.5 630.0 377.2 287.0 1621 1412 253.3 253.3 106.5 847.7 498.4 330.8 265.4 408.6 473.4 514.3 956.5 317.7

8108C 1821 22.91 2582 1564 1308 2588 478.3 163.4 957.7 3560 1533 903.4 384.0 188.9 34.36 2172 270.0 125.7 858.8 120.3 44.14 443.4 585.9 988.5 3275 1769 2043 1020 4105 1020 2304

3408C 1947 1222 1499 1783 1728 1095 5933 3441 2825 2599 876.2 2539 4548 2559 2087 1382 1850 580.4 1435 2440 2137 1894 2353 3443 1479 950.1 2276 2166 2166 5245 661.5 4738 2287 2552 2593 2071 2253

5408C 219.8 121.5 93.11 166.4 225.5 74.65 258.5 2169 53.33 81.93 121.7 247.5 85.49 58.55 190.5 98.56 96.15 139.7 153.8 156.0

9108C 34.01 74.33 37.32 25.85 105.6 71.19 12.80 45.82 85.40 48.22 140.8 119.4 25.75 100.5 100.5 71.08 63.77 51.43 163.2

9408C 34.01 27.76 49.66 26.15 37.17 246.3 240.1 141.7 287.7 271.0 94.76 34.28 40.44

596.5 555.3 825.6 1117 1065 472.8 1280 651.9 524.6 963.4 312.2 637.8 621.1 515.2 92.75 294.4 453.4 324.6 610.6 1273 2776 1929 592.7 849.7 99.41 186.8 273.9 273.9 955.2 471.2 529.4 568.7 235.3 636.0 185.2 303.5 286.0

Prexed mapping units and associated soil group as described by Vernon and Carroll [16]. Indicates no associated peaks were found at the temperatures indicated.

at 1258C with TEB, CEC and percent clay, respectively. These coefcients were all signicant (P ` 0X05). These results indicate that clay content and, to a lesser extent organic matter, have profound effects on Barbadian soil types differentiated on the basis of their thermal properties. When compared to the earlier scheme [812] used to identify soils of the Caribbean, the current thermal

approach is more objective and less time consuming. The notation developed above successfully differentiated the 37 soil types of Barbados and is therefore recommended for identication of these soils. In addition DTA also proved useful in the identication of 29 additional soils from ve other Caribbean territories. However, even though investigations were carried out on podzolic, lateritic and rendzina only,

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Table 3 Peak areas (mm2 100 mg1) determined by differential thermal analysis of 29 soil samples taken from ve Caribbean islands (Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, St. Vincent, Jamaica) Soil associationa Endothermic peak area 1258C 474/L Princestown C 41 Blanchissuse 233 River Estate 139 Cromaty C 81 Maracas SCL 143 St. Augustine 335 Sevilla C 68/L Monseratt C 55/241 Piarco/ Las Lomas FSL/FSC 278/L tarouba C 82/L Diego Martin FSL 575 Moruga FSC 177 Talparo FSL 33 Cunupia FSC 55 Piarco FSL 32 Crown Point Clay (05 in.) 32 Crown Point Clay (1629 in.) 30 Crown Point Clay (918 in.) 30 Crown Point Clay (09 in.) 32 Sereviche CL Soufrier Cindery Gravelly Greggs Clay Loam Akers SCL Claxton CL Montreal Morass Peat Linstead CL Cave Valley C Guyana Frontline Clay
a b

Exothermic peak area 5758C 11.98 12.76 66.64 31.07 17.49 9.22 54.65 16.96 25.84 31.00 7.22 11.29 46.37 14.14 10.48 7.08
b

5058C 801.8 280.7 50.50 46.28 194.2 297.8 112.0 97.15 142.1 103.4 108.4 626.8 162.2 147.3 146.6 869.2 33.17 431.7 165.6 877.6 211.5 726.5 81.28 141.7 364.3 712.2 394.4

8108C 1697 4884 18.77 6678 841.8 1105

3408C 1218 89.30 6331 1369 951.5 3289 6294 364.3 1119 3225 1424 2059 1045 632.0 3113 678.5 132.8 279.4 41.90 1655 1662 2731 306.7 1012 667 23456 1102 6528 499.5

5408C 167.7 325.3 25.89 50.72 15.18 11.30 113.7 25.19 26.49 15.90 18.81 79.15 36.12 169.6 26.92 262.4 48.77 337.4 32.38 101.7

9108C 12.72 5.19 111.6 161.7 28.85

9408C 55.86 15.18 104.1 7.78 86.34 33.86 57.66 44.53 56.52

545.7 183.6 255.2 720.7 362.8 284.8 472.3 1071 192.3 322.2 319.1 286.8 289.0 811.5 321.7 193.9 3381 924.4 869.2 30.73 561.2 1370 425.4 511.5 955.7 1560 1174 323.8 1145 828.1

Prexed land capability survey number and proles as described by Havord (1961). Indicates no associated peaks were found at the temperatures indicated.

Table 4 Ranks of class intervals derived from the endothermic peaks of thermo-analytical curves associated with wholesoils Assigned rank to Class interval of peak areaa (mm2 100 mg1) at class intervals corresponding temperature 1258C O D C B A 0 1700 7011400 14012100 21012800 5058C 0 1425 426850 8511275 12761700 5758C 0 130 3160 6190 91120 8108C 0 11051 10502100 21013150 31514200

Table 5 Ranks of class intervals derived from the exothermic peaks of thermo-analytical curves associated with wholesoils Assigned rank to class intervals Class interval of peak areaa (mm2 100 mg1) at corresponding temperature 3408C O D C B A 0 11500 15013000 30014500 45016000 5408C 0 1550 5511100 11011650 16512200 9108C 0 145 4690 91135 135180 9408C 0 175 76150 151225 226300

a Class intervals were generated by subdividing the range of peak areas from each temperature into four equal sectors.

a Class intervals were generated by subdividing the range of peak areas from each temperature into four equal sectors.

H.A.A. Gibbs et al. / Thermochimica Acta 363 (2000) 7179 Table 6 Relationship between ``EX'' notation derived from thermo-analytical curves and identication of 37 Barbadian soil types Sample stationa Edgecumbe (St. Philip) Hampton (St. Philip) National Hatcheries (St. Philip) Home Agricultural Station Bushy Park (St. Philip) Three Houses (St. Philip) Gov't Livestock (St. Michael) Sherbourne (St. John) Wakefield (St. John) Society Plantation (St. John) Mt. Cannel Heights (St. John) Bissex Hill (St. Joseph) Cambridge (St. Joseph) St. Sylvan's (St. Joseph) Chalky Mt. (St. Andrew) Seaview (St. James) Hope Plantation (St. Thomas) Sixmen's Plantation (St. Peter) Pickerings (St. Lucy) Forte George (St. Michael) Chanchery Lane NE (Christ Church) Chanchery Lane SE (Christ Church) Mount Wilton (St. Joseph) Easy Hall (St. Joseph) Haggatts (St. Andrew) Greenland (St. Andrew) Belleplaine (St. Andrew) Carmichael (St. George) River Plantation (St. Philip) Cattlewash (St. Joseph) Sterlin and Kirton (St. Philip) Cattlewash (St. Joseph) Sixmen's Bay (St. Lucy) Piecorner (St. Lucy) Mt. Gay Factory (St. Peter) Castle Estate (St. Lucy) Barrow's (St. Lucy)
a b

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``EX'' notation (E1234/X1234)b DCOC/CDDD DDDB/DDOD CDOB/DDOD CDOD/CDOD CCOC/CDCD DDDB/DDDO CCOD/ADDO DAOO/BOOA DAOD/COOA CCOD/CABO DOOA/DOCO DDOD/COOO DDOD/ADOO DODO/COOO DDCO/COOO DDDD/DDDO DBDD/COOC DDCD/DOCO DDDB/DDCO CCOD/CDCO ADOD/CDAO BDOD/CDBO DADD/COOA CAOD/BODA DDCO/DOOO DDDD/DOOO DDDO/COOO DCOD/COBO CCOD/COBO DODO/AOOO DDOA/DOOO DDOC/ADCC DDDC/CDOO DCDD/CDCO DCOA/CDCD DBOD/CDAO DDDB/CDOD

Soil type 41-Grey brown (normal) 40-Grey brown (normal) 42-Grey brown (very shallow) 81-Coastal Association 41/40-Grey brown (normal) 10-St. Philip Plain 30-Black (normal) 65-St. John Valley (well drain) 64-St. John Valley (poorly drain) 54-Yellow brown 103-Grey brown oceanic 110-Red brown oceanic 115-Bissex Hill oceanic 122-Joc's River mud (normal) 173-Scotland SS alluvial 47-Grey brown sandy 48-Grey brown leeward 70-Red sand 42/40-Grey brown (normal) 32-Black (shallow) 80-Coastal (normal) 86-Coastal (coastal variant) 61-Red brown (shallow) 60-Red brown (normal) 131-Scotland sandstone 172-Alluvial 141-Alluvial 20-0 St. George Valley 12b-St. Philip Plain 171-Alluvial 3-St. Philip Plain 174-Alluvial 84-Coastal (leeward) 81-Coastal (shallow) 42-Grey brown (shallow) 50-Yellow brown (normal) 71-Red sands (dark variant)

Location in Barbados where soil samples were obtained. 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicate endothermic (E) and exothermic (X) peaks of thermo-analytical curves of soil in the direction of increasing temperature (Table 1). O represents the absence of a peak whereas, A, B, C or D indicate the class interval or intensity of the corresponding peak (see Tables 4 and 5).

based on the above results it seem feasible to suggest that the method can differentiate major soil types found within the geographic region. In an attempt to test the effect of storage on the ``EX'' notation scheme, four samples were selected from the Barbadian soils and re-examined 18 months later. With the exception of peaks at 575, 810 and 9108C of the thermo-analytical curves associated with

the 122-Joe's River Mud (normal) and 47-grey brown (sandy) soil groups, there is a general decrease in peak areas of all other thermo-analytical curves obtained after 18 months storage (Table 8). According to Ahmad [23], this phenomenon is attributed to the spontaneous decomposition of clay minerals as well as loss of water during storage. Though storage had no apparent effect on the ``EX'' notation, differential

Table 7 Relationship between ``EX'' notation derived from thermo-analytical curves and identication of 29 soil types from ve Caribbean territories Sample stationa Trinidad ``EX'' notation (E1234/X1234)b DCOO/DOOD DODO/OOOO DDDA/DDOO CDOD/ADOO DDBO/DOOO DDDO/BOOO DDDO/BOOO CDDO/ADOO DDCO/DDOD DODO/DDDO DDDO/BDOO DDDO/CDOO CCOO/DDOC DDDO/DDOO DOCO/BODD DODO/DDOO CBOO/DOAO CDOO/DOBO DCOD/CDOC DDDA/DOOO CDOO/CDOD DBOO/CDOO DDOO/DDDO CCOO/DDOD BDOO/BDOO CDOO/ADOO DDDD/DDOD CCOO/ADOD CDOO/DOOO Soil type 474/L-Princestown C 41 Blanchissuse 223 River Estate 139 Cromaty C 81 Maracas SCL 143 St. Augustine 335 Sevilla C 68/L Monsteratt C 55/241 Piarco/Las Lomas FSL/FSC 278/L Tarouba C 82/L Diego Martin FSL 575 Moruga FSC 177 Talparo FSL 33 Cunupia FSC 55 Piarco FSL 32 32 30 30 32 Crown Point Clay (05 in.) Crown Point Clay (1629 in.) Crown Point Clay (918 in.) Crown Point Clay (09 in.) Sereviche CL (2932 in.)

Tobago

St. Vincent

Soufrier Cindery Gravelly Greggs Clay Loam Akers SCL Claxton CL Montreal Morass Peat Linstead CL Cave Valley C Guyana Frontline C

Jamaica

Guyana
a b

Location where soil samples were obtained. 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicate endothermic (E) and exothermic (X) peaks of thermo-analytical curves of soil in the direction of increasing temperature (Table 1). O represents the absence of a peak whereas, A, B, C or D indicate the class interval or intensity of the corresponding peak (see Tables 4 and 5). Table 8 Differential thermal analysis of four soils showing reduced peak areas after 18 months storage at room temperature Soil group showing first and second analysis 65-St. John Valley (wd)a,b 65-St. John Valley (wd)d 64-St. John Valley (pd)b 64-St. John Valley (pd)d 122-Joe's River Mud (n)b 122-Joe's River Mud (n)d 47-Grey brown sandyb 47-Grey brown sandyd
a b

Endothermic peak area 1258C 651.9 631.4 524.6 430.6 515.2 383.0 294.4 32.16 5058C 1358 1313 1695 1682 299.5 213.3 5758C c 16.73 18.42 19.20 15.17 8108C 163.4 83.36 384.0 407.7

Exothermic peak area 3408C 3441 3143 2825 2011 2559 2127 1382 646.0 5408C 81.93 22.75 9108C 12.80 39.82 9408C 246.3 236.9 240.1 228.3

Represent hydrological properties of soils: wd, well drained; pd, poorly drained; n, normal. First analysis of soil samples. c Second analysis of soil samples. d Indicate no associated peaks were found at the temperatures indicated.

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thermal analysis as a basis for soil identication seems better suited to freshly collected samples. 4. Conclusions Results for DTA of soils tested in the present study indicate that the ``EX'' notation can be used for easy and quick identication of the soil types in Barbados and other Caribbean territories. Signicant correlations for thermal properties with properties used in the soil classication scheme of Vernon and Carroll, namely chemical and physical properties, imply that this index can replace the current method of classifying these soils. This method of classication has an advantage over any scheme which employs chemical and physical analysis because it is less tedious and requires very small soil samples. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Dr. Selwyn Grifth of Faculty of Agriculture, University of the West Indies, Trinidad, for providing the soil samples representing soil groups of Trinidad, Tobago, St. Vincent, Jamaica and Guyana as well as the Du Pont 910 DSC Thermal Analyzer used in all thermal analyses. They also thank the School of Graduate Studies and Research for nancial support to Harold Gibbs. References
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