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Introduction to Offshore RBI

RBI Offshore Training Course Module 1


(Name, Organisation type of work, why interested in RBI, level of English )

Time 09:00 09:15 10:00 10:15 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 14:00 14:15 14:30 15:00 Day 1 Introduction Module 01 RBI Concept Break Module 02 Topsides Process Day 2 Module 4 Materials, Degradation & probability of failure

Lunch Module 03 Intro to Working process Break Module 6 Inspection methods & Planning

Case Study: Probability of failure screening Lunch Module 5 Consequence of failure

16:00 17:00 End of day

Case Study: Consequence of failure screening Module 7 Risk assessment End of day

Aims of the course

Understand where RBI Offshore sits in your business Understand RBI methods & technology for offshore Interpret RBI findings for inspection planning Execute RBI projects

Course content
The course will cover: RBI Concept Offshore process and equipment Working procedures and Software Materials, degradation and PoF calculation Consequence assessment Inspection methods and planning Risk evaluation Case study and examination

Module 1:RBI Concept

The module will cover:
What is RBI ? Scope of DNVs RBI RBI as part of integrity management Basic RBI definitions What can RBI do for you? RBI working process Basic statistics for RBI Relevant RBI documentation

Module 2: Offshore Process & Equipment

The module will cover: Process, utilities, marine & safety systems and their inter-relationships The documentation that describes the function and control of these systems A description of each system & function separately, with its major equipment. The layout of a typical offshore installation

Module 3:Working procedures & Software

The module will cover: The working process as developed by DNV An outline of the software tool Synergi RBI Offshore

Module 6:Inspection methods and planning

The module will cover: Usual inspection techniques found offshore Limitations of the methods Personnel qualifications Inspection planning

Module 7: Risk analysis and evaluation

The module will cover: Calculation of failure risk Evaluation of the results Sensitivity studies Incorporation of inspection results Simple reporting

Module 4: Materials degradation & PoF

The module will cover: Materials used in topsides process systems Degradation theory - corrosion, erosion, fatigue Description of how these are modelled in Synergi RBI Offshore

Module 5: Consequence assessment

The module will cover: Definition of risk Risk acceptance criteria The risk matrix Ignited consequence Unignited consequence

Scope of DNV RBI, especially Offshore

Complex Topsides Onshore Gas Terminal



Subsea Trunk Pipeline Interfield P/L


Downstream Refineries Petrochemicals Chemicals

Satellite Topsides

Interfield P/L


Scope of DNV RBI Offshore

DNV RBI is concerned with the pressure integrity of the following:
Process piping offshore Pressure vessels offshore

DNV have a methodology for RBI for pipelines, hulls and structures, and this is under separate application

Joint Industry Project (JIP)

Development of Base Resource Document for upstream RBI DNV Recommended Practice

Sponsored by major oil companies =>

BP/Amoco Norsk Hydro PPCoN Saga Statoil

Acknowledged by NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate-Norway regulator)

Some of DNVs Offshore RBI Projects in the 2000s

BG India BP CNOOC Conoco Indonesia Inc. CoPNo DNV Dong E&P Esso Norge/ Exxon-Mobil Esso Norge/ Exxon-Mobil Esso Norge/ Exxon-Mobil Esso Norge/ Exxon-Mobil Exxon Mobil Hess Danmark AS Hess Danmark AS Hess Denmark AS Norsk Hydro Norsk Hydro Norsk Hydro Norsk Hydro Norsk Hydro Norsk Hydro Petronas-PRSS Statoil Statoil Statoil Statoil Statoil Statoil Statoil Statoil, Norsk Hydro, CoPNo, DNV Teekay Petrojarl Production AS Teekay Petrojarl Production AS Tapti field & Others BP Greater Plutonio. Complete RBI including Topside Static Process and utility equipment. Bo Nan WHPN, WHPS, FPSO and APPA Hang Tuah / MogPu Facility Eldfisk 2/7 B, RBI analysis for piping related to MIC Internal research and development project of the RBI concept (ongoing). Siri, Quantitative RBI analysis and process piping and vessels Balder, Quantitative RBI analysis of process piping and vessels Jotun A, Update of RBI analysis for piping based on surface condition Balder, Up date of RBI analysis for piping and pressure vessels based on process changes, modifications and inspection results Jotun A, Up date of RBI analysis for piping and pressure vessels based on process changes, modifications and inspection results Kizomba A & B FPSO Syd Arne Syd date ofre-analysis RBI analysis on modification (SRP), process changes and inspection results Syd Arne, Arne. Up Complete of based Topside Static Process Equipment. This RBI is updated annually based on changes and inspection results. Snorre A, Quantitative RBI analysis of process piping and vessels Oseberg A, B, C, D, Sr, st, and Brage Snorre TLP / Vigdis Troll Njord, Quantitative RBI analysis for piping and vessels Ad-hoc RBI analysis for piping and vessels on system level for several installations incl. Oseberg, Heimdal, Brage Various Statfjord B/C, Quantitative RBI analysis of piping. sgard A FPSO, Quantitative RBI analysis of piping, qualitative of vessels. sgard B, Quantitative RBI analysis of piping, qualitative of vessels. Kvitebjrn, RBI screening. Statfjord B & -C, Up date of RBI analysis for piping based on process changes, modifications and inspection results Snorre TLP / Vigdis, Up date of RBI analysis based on process changes and inspection results 2003 1999/2004 2002 2003 / 2004 2005 2003 2000 2003 2008 2000/2003 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 - 2004 2001 1998/2003 2000/2001 2000/2002 2003 2003 / 2004 2004 2003 2006/2007 2004 2002 2004

Krst Gas receiving Plant 2000 Joint Industry Project (JIP) for development of RBI methodology and best practise. Participants are amongst other Statoil, Norsk Hydro, PPCoN, DNV 2009 Petrojarl Varg FPSO. Complete Re Analysis of Topside Static Process Equipment. RBI is updated annually based on changes and inspection results. 2007/2008 Petrojarl Varg FPSO. New RBI on topside pressure vessels. 2010


Some Older Offshore RBI Projects before 2000

Client Saga Petroleum Statoil ELF, Norway Statoil CONOCO, UK Schlumberger Statoil Statoil ADMA-OPCO, UAE Amoco/BP, Phillips, Norsk Hydro, Saga, Statoil, DNV Esso Hydro Kvrner/ ADNOC, UAE Phillips Petroleum Saga Petroleum Statoil Hess / Dong Conoco, SNS Statoil Statoil Statoil Statoil Installation / plant Snorre Frigg Statfjord A, Quantitative RBI of selected topside systems (pilot study.). Yme Norne Sleipner A, T & R Started 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996-1998 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998-1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999

Joint Industry Project (JIP) for development of RBI methodology and best practise. Jotun A FPSO, Jotun B WHD & Balder Khuff

Varg FPSO, Quantitative RBI analysis of piping. Varg Wellhead Platform; Qualitative RBI analysis of piping. Statfjord Syd Arne, Quantitative RBI analysis of process piping and vessels Viking B & LOGGS sgard FPSO Krst gas terminal Sleipner A/B/T, Quantitative RBI analysis of piping. Norne FPSO, Quantitative RBI analysis of piping.


Screening matrix
PoF 1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 D B Insignificant PoF Low Consequence High C Insignificant CoF

A Detailed RBI

Periodic review
The likelihood of failure will increase over time because of timedependent material degradation. Systems screened out may undergo a change in their process conditions, and so develop significant risk of failure. Consequently there should be a regular review of these screened-out items.

Likelihood of Failure A B C D E Consequence of Failure

Detailed RBI: Probability of Failure (PoF)

Calculation of PoF
Degradation Mechanism Damage Loads v. Strength Failure Mode

Cracks Wall loss

Material type Stress intensity Remaining wall

Fatigue Erosion

Brittle fracture Burst ..

Knowledge of Materials Tells Us What Failure Mode to Expect

Limit States

Corrosio n



Pinhole leak

PoF based on Load (S) and Resistance (R)

Probability Density
Applied stress is function of pressure load & remaining wall thickness

Resistance is a function of wall thickness & strength

Stress PoF = overlapping area

PoF example from Synergi RBI Offshore

Detailed RBI: Consequences of Failure (CoF)

Scope of Consequences Assessment

Hole size distribution modelling => depends on failure mode (i.e. degradation mechanism) Assessment of consequences for various hole sizes
safety economic/business impact environment

Safety Consequences
Expressed in Potential Loss of Life (PLL) Determine PLL contribution per equipment item Can use results from QRA, Safety Case or can use in-built Synergi RBI Offshore consequence model

Economic Consequences
Damage requires repair (costs + strategy)
Equipment damage Module damage after escalation Installation damage after escalation
For various hole sizes

Production loss
due to equipment damage due to module damage after escalation due to installation damage after escalation

Environmental Consequences
Can include clean-up costs, fines, pollution tax, damage to company reputation, loss of share value Environmental Impact Assessments usually look at large releases. These are mostly greater than would be lost from any one topside process segment, but are relevant to pipeline leaks, blow-outs etc

Four stages of a release

1 2



ignition (flammables)


CoF: Ignited
Process gas

Well fluid

Escalation to adjacent areas

Process condensate

Produced water

CoF Ignited
Ignited consequence will involve calculation of:
Loss of life due to fire and explosion Economic loss due to equipment damage and lost production Environmental damage to the surface may not be large, as the pollutant burns up. Damage to the air may be more important.

CoF Unignited
Unignited consequence will involve calculation of:
Economic consequence due to loss of production. This depends on repairing strategy and production profile during repair Loss of material assets from pipes are negligible, will be different for vessels if they have to be replaced Note that environmental damage may be significant

Safety consequence is rarely significant for nonhydrocarbon systems, but may be so when considering high pressures

Risk evaluation
PoF is calculated where the load probability exceeds the Resistance probability - i.e., the overlapping area of the two probability density functions. Synergi RBI Offshore will calculate PoF, CoF, risk, time to risk limit, and advise of degradation mechanism. We look at what is influencing the risks, and advise on how they are best monitored and controlled.

Deliverables from a DNV RBI Study

Equipment items ranked in order of risk Inspection plan per equipment item:
How to inspect or monitor (inspection technique, critical parameter) Where to inspect (location, coverage) How often to inspect (time to next inspection)

Quantitative model, enables:

Sensitivity analysis on:
Change of operating conditions, fluid composition Change of material, coating etc. Inspection frequency Inspection effectiveness of tool

Cost/Benefit analysis

Basic statistics for RBI

There are a few simple statistical concepts that are needed for RBI, covering the description of distributions of data The PoF models consider distributions of probability of an event, so there is no one fixed value as in deterministic modelling The distributions are described using the following parameters:
Mean Standard Deviation (SD) Coefficient of Variation (CoV)

Distributions used in Synergi RBI Offshore

The distribution will reflect the process generating the data, so when fitting distribution to data, be sure that the data is from only one statistical population. Relevant distributions are:
Most common form of probability density function of a continuous random variable

Log normal Exponential Weibull Gumbel

Normal distributions
0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


Standard Deviations 1.0 2.0


Log normal distribution

0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 5


Standard Deviations 1.0

10 15 20 25


Exponential distribution

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Series1 Series2 Series3

Weibull distribution
1.8 1.6

probability density function

1.4 1.2 W(1.0;0.45) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 W(0.4;0.8)

model uncertainty

Relevant documentation
DNV are have produced a Recommended Practice for upstream RBI DNV RP G101, with appendices API Recommended Practices RP 580, RP 581 ASME - Risk-based inspection guidelines

Safeguarding life, property and the environment