Cognitive radio

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

4 views

Cognitive radio

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Alarm & Hardware Investigation
- E&L fx5030 Manual
- Automatic Toll Tax
- WK7
- Empirical Study on Cognitive Radios and Cognitive Networks
- ORECK Weather Station Manual
- 9_nokia_cdg_diversity
- Advances in Cognitive Radio Networks a Survey
- 05350649
- RSS-DOA Based Localization Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Networks
- An Introduction to the Wireless Power Consortium Standard Ans TIs Compliant Solutions
- 33363-32962-2-PB
- 05351690
- 00818892
- Prats
- 5Plag Cellular Placement
- 100w Fm Amplifier
- [IJCST-V5I2P98]:M.Bobby, V.Ajantha Devi, C. Madhubala
- Node_In-Train_Coverage_Solutions_BR-103450.pdf
- 25141-9b0.doc

You are on page 1of 41

Vinod Sharma

Department of Electrical Communication Engineering

Indian Institute of Science

Bangalore, India

February 25, 2012

Outline

Introduction.

One shot detection.

Sequential detection.

Cooperative distributed detection.

DualCUSUM.

DualSPRT.

Conclusions.

Introduction

Detection of spectral hole in TV spectrum

Timing of TV broadcast in dierent frequency bands known

before hand.

Thus detecting hole in time not an issue.

Detection in space: Want to know in space where spectrum

is available even when TV station is broadcasting.

Issues involved

TV broadcast

Primary

Secondary

Secondary

transmitter

receiver

receiver

o Primary receiver should not get interference from secondary

transmitter when primary is also transmitting.

o Secondary receiver should not get interference from Primary

transmitter when secondary is transmitting.

o Secondary transmitter needs to know when it can transmit (it

should sense primary signal).

But primary signal at secondary receiver and secondary signal

at primary receivers are deciding factors.

o Secondary needs to detect primary signal at very low SNR

(upto -20 dB).

Detection in time

Sharing of spectrum by IEEE 802.11 and bluetooth in

unlicensed spectrum.

Secondaries using cellular spectrum.

t

lost opportunity

Primary

ON

OFF

to primary

Interference

detected change

Issues

Primary may have bursty trac.

Primary ON, OFF times may be in msec.

Thus secondary needs to detect onset of primary and

switching OFF in real time.

For low interference to primary and high spectral eciency for

secondary, detection delay for ON and OFF should be very

small.

Other general issues in spectrum sensing

Time varying channel gains cause variable received power.

Hidden terminal problem (Cognitive radio may be hidden from

primary transmitter).

Primary Signal and/or secondary receiver noise unknown.

Dierent primary users may use dierent modulation schemes,

transmit powers.

Receiver noise can vary in time due to other uncontrolled

electromagnetic disturbances in neighborhood.

Thus spectrum sensing algorithms should be fast, robust and

detect signal at very low SNR.

Other general issues in spectrum sensing

Signal detection by multiple cognitive users sensing signals at

various places and collaborating with each other is necessary.

Secondary

Primary

Secondary

Secondary

Secondary

fusion node

1

Primary 2

Sensing Techniques

Energy Detection

Matched Filtering

Provides optimal detection performance.

But requires prior knowledge of primary signal : even

information about pilots or preamble can be exploited.

Cyclo-stationary feature detection

The autocorrelation is periodic. This enables detection under

very low SNR.

Robust in low SNR and robust to interference.

Requires partial knowledge of primary signal and has high

computational cost.

Energy Detection is widely used: simple, optimal under no

knowledge of primary signal.

Statistical Inference Problems

1

Detection / Estimation.

Detection Problems:

1

Centralized / Decentralized.

2

One shot vs sequential.

3

Bayesian vs NonBayesian.

4

Detection of change.

Centralized Detection/One shot

Observations: X

1

, ..., X

n

.

Observations came from distribution P

0

, P

1

.

Hypothesis: H

1

: Primary present.

H

0

: Primary not present.

Performance Criterion: Problem of correct detection:

P[Decision H

i

| Observations from H

i

].

Problem of False Detection:

P[Decision H

i

| Observations from H

j

], j = i .

boundary

detection

NP Formulation

Maximize P[H

1

|H

1

]

subject to P

FA

= P[H

1

|H

0

]

Optimal Test: LRT:

Decide H

1

if

R

n

=

P[X

1

, ..., X

n

|H

1

]

P[X

1

, ..., X

n

|H

0

]

>

Otherwise H

0

.

is decided by constraint P

FA

= .

NP Formulation

Ex. Detecting spectral hole in space

Energy detector:

Observations : X

1

, ..., X

N

.

Under H

0

: X

i

= N

i

N(0, 1).

H

1

: X

i

= hS

i

+ N

i

N(h, 1).

E = Energy over N samples, collected by the energy detector

=

N

i =1

X

2

i

E f

0

= central chi-square of order N : H

0

f

i

= Noncentral chi-square of order N and parameter

Nh

2

: H

1

For NP test, compare

f

1

(E)

f

0

(E)

with .

Bayesian Formulation

Let p be a apriori probability of H

0

.

Compute aposteriori probability of H

0

:

= P(H

0

|X

1

, ..., X

n

)

=

p(X

1

, ..., X

n

|H

0

)p

p(X

1

, ..., X

n

)

Similarly for H

1

.

Decide H

0

if P(H

0

|X

1

, ..., X

n

) > P(H

1

|X

1

, ..., X

n

)

H

1

otherwise.

This minimizes Aposteriori probability of error.

Centralized sequential Detection (SPRT)

Used when taking each observation has a cost

X

1

, X

2

, ..., observations from P

0

or P

1

.

Stop sampling at N where

N = inf {n 1 :

R

n

=

P

1

(X

1

, ..., X

n

)

P

0

(X

1

, ..., X

n

)

A or B}

where A > 1 > B > 0 and A, B are chosen s.t.

P

0

[R

N

A] = and P

1

[R

N

B] =

Decide H

1

if R

N

A otherwise H

0

.

This test minimizes the number of observations needed under

H

0

and H

1

while satisfying constraints on the above two types

of error.

Centralized Sequential Detection

Extensions available to

Multiple hypothesis.

Composite hypothesis.

Nonparametric / Semiparametric

Centralized sequential Detection of change

Observations:

X

1

, X

2

, ..., X

. .

iid with dist P

0

, X

+1

, ..., X

n

. .

iid with dist P

1

Problem:

Detect if there is a change.

Estimate time of change.

Sequential Detection of change

Pages CUSUM test

N = inf {n : max

1kn

n

i =k

log

P

1

(X

i

)

P

0

(X

i

)

C

}

where C

is s.t. E

0

[N] = .

This rule minimizes the worst case expected delay:

Sup

1

ess sup E

[(T + 1)

+

|X

1

, ..., X

1

]

over the set of all rules T with E

0

[N] .

Above test is equivalent to (for iid observations) the recursive

formula :

inf

_

n : W

n

C

where W

n+1

=

_

W

n

+ log

P

1

(X

n

)

P

0

(X

n

)

_

+

_

Comment: Shiryayev addressed the Bayesian version of this

problem

Distributed (Cooperative) Sequential Detection

X

1n

X

1 M

Y

1n

Y

Fusion

center

Mn

Mn

M sensor nodes make observations X

in

.

Y

in

are transmitted based on X

i 1

, ..., X

in

Fusion center makes decision based on

Y

in

, i = 1, ..., M, n = 1, 2, ....

Distributed (Cooperative) Sequential Detection

For distributed algorithm various options available :-

Y

in

= g(X

in

, X

in1

, ..., X

i 1

)

Each sensor i makes a decision and sends to fusion node.

Sensor i can decide via

Past N observations

CUSUM

Shiryayev algorithm

Fusion node uses Y

in

, from all sensors and makes decision

based on one of above procedures

Dual CUSUM

CUSUM at sensor i:

W

i (n+1)

= (W

in

+ Z

in

)

+

(uses all past information)

Z

in

= log

_

P

1

(X

in

)

P

0

(X

in

)

_

Y

in

= b if W

in

>

i

(saves energy).

No transmission otherwise

Fusion node

Observation at fusion node :

X

n

=

M

i =1

Y

in

+ N

n

(Physical layer fusion)

CUSUM

W

n+1

= (W

n

+ Z

n

)

+

where Z

n

= log

_

f

I

(X

n

)

f

0

(X

n

)

_

Detection of change:

Declare change if W

n

>

Parameters

i

, b, , I selected to optimize performance.

Distributed (Cooperative) Sequential Detection

6 4 2

0

15

Shiryaev Centralized

LeenaRajesh

DualCUSUM

Figure: E[( T)

+

] vs. ln(P

FA

)

Analysis of EDD

Performance analysis of Dual CUSUM complicated.

Obtained approximate analysis.

L I EZ

k

P

FA

P

FA

E

DD

E

DD

Anal Sim Anal Sim

Gauss 2 1 15 18 0.005 -0.3 0.98e-4 1.09e-4 58.69 59.96

5 2 15 18 0.005 -0.3 1.224e-4 1.1e-4 42.48 41

10 2 15 18 0.005 -0.3 2.43e-4 2.28e-4 29.72 32

Laplace 2 1 16 16 0.005 -0.3 1.59e-4 1.6e-4 60.52 61

6 2 16 16 0.005 -0.3 2.57e-4 2.06e-4 41.81 40

12 3 16 16 0.005 -0.3 6.65e-5 5.5e-5 29.48 33.6

Lognormal 2 1 20 20 0.005 -0.3 8.98e-4 8.8e-4 75.9 78.5

5 2 25 20 0.005 -0.3 1.47e-4 1.76e-4 74.06 71.7

10 2 25 20 0.005 -0.3 2.97e-4 3.5-4 60.6 59.1

Pareto K = 50 2 1 20 25 0.005 -0.3 1.28e-4 0.99e-4 79.24 83.52

Pareto K = 10 2 1 10 12 0.005 -1 5.12e-4 6.77e-4 16.71 17.48

Pareto K = 2.1 2 1 30 35 0.0005 -2 4.2e-3 4.65e-3 37.74 37.1

Table: Comparison of P

FA

for various distributions at the fusion node. For E

DD

we

have used b = 1.

Comparison (for Energy Detector (chi-square)) with other

algorithms

Each secondary node computes the received energy of the last

N samples.

For comparison, simple energy detectors compare the energy

received with a threshold and decide between H

0

and H

1

. At

fusion center simple fusion rules are used.

EDD P

FA

= 0.1 P

FA

= 0.027 P

FA

= 0.01

OR 5.27 13.90 25.85

AND 4.55 9.32 15.31

MAJORITY 2.30 5.06 8.29

MAJORITY+CL 2.34 5.16 8.54

DualCUSUM 1.78 2.60 3.25

Energy Saving Comparison

A condence level based algorithm where each secondary

nodes transmit its decision only if the condence of its

decision is high enough

Energy ecient techniques for cooperative spectrum sensing

in cognitive radios, C.Lee and W.Wolf, IEEE CCNC, Jan 2008.

ETR-denotes the average number of transmissions by a

secondary node, till the fusion center declares a change.

ETR P

FA

= 0.1 P

FA

= 0.027 P

FA

= 0.01

Majority+CL 18.83 24.17 28.38

Linear Cooperation 18.75 21.62 23.48

DualCUSUM 2.38 2.15 1.98

Comments

DualCUSUM needs channel gains and noise statistics in each

secondary node.

SNR Wall: Using one shot algorithm when noise power is

uncertain, below a certain SNR, it is not possible to detect

Primary.

We modify DualCUSUM to use under uncertainty. This does

not have an SNR wall.

Modications of DualCUSUM for Parameter Uncertainty

X

kl

f

0

before change.

f

after change.

CUSUM declares change at

= inf {k : max

1tk

k

i =t

log

f

(X

k

)

f

0

(X

k

)

> }

If is not known ( parametric uncertainty after change) then

GLR declares change at

= inf {k : max

1tk

(sup

i =t

log

f

(X

k

)

f

0

(X

k

)

) > }

MGLR-CUSUM

If noise variance

2

_

1

2

n

,

2

n

_

S

l

N(0, p

l

)

Then

1

N

N

i =1

X

2

il

N(

2

,

2

4

N

) before change

N(P

2

l

+

2

, 2(P

l

+

2

)

2

/N] after change

Thus if

2

has uncertainty, the distribution before and after

change have unknown parameter).

This requires modication to GLR (we call it MGLR)

This algorithm works better than Lai, Fan, Poor (Globecom

2008).

We use this algorithm at local nodes and CUSUM at fusion

node (assuming noise variance at fusion node is known).

MGLR-CUSUM

Ex. Detecting a sequence of ON OFF ON changes in

a Primary via MGLR-CUSUM. SNR is below the SNR wall.

Comparison with Edge-detection algorithm in (Parsha, Gohari,

Sahai, IEEE DySPAN, Oct 2008)

EDD P

FA

= 0.12 P

FA

= 0.05 P

FA

= 0.03

-10dB -4dB -10dB -4dB -10dB -4dB

Edge-Detection 61.5 16.0 76.0 21.5 83.0 24

MGLR-CUSUM 27.0 3.3 40.0 4.6 51.0 5.1

Table: MGLR-CUSUM vs. Edge-Detection

MGLR-CUSUM

Figure: Detecting Sequence of ON-OFF

DualSPRT Algorithm

Decentralized sequential hypothesis testing

1

Node, l , runs SPRT algorithm,

W

k,l

= W

k1,l

+ log [f

1,l

(X

k,l

) /f

0,l

(X

k,l

)] , W

0,l

= 0.

f

1,l

density of X

k,l

under H

1

. f

0,l

density of X

k,l

under H

0

.

2

Node l transmits Y

k,l

= b

1

1

{W

k,l

1

}

+ b

0

1

{W

k,l

0

}

3

Fusion node receives

Y

k

=

L

l =1

Y

k,l

+ Z

k

, Z

k

noise.

4

Fusion center runs SPRT:

F

k

= F

k1

+ log [g

1

(Y

k

) /g

0

(Y

k

)] , F

0

= 0.

g

0

density of Z

k

+

0

and g

1

density of Z

k

+

1

.

0

,

1

constants.

5

FC decision at N = inf{k : F

k

1

or F

k

0

}.

0

< 0 <

1

. Decision H

1

if F

N

1

, otherwise H

0

.

Modication to DualSPRT: SPRT-CSPRT Algorithm

SPRT-CSPRT:Fusion center runs two algorithms,

F

1

k

= (F

1

k1

+ log [g

1

(Y

k

) /g

0

(Y

k

)])

+

F

0

k

= (F

0

k1

+ log [g

1

(Y

k

) /g

0

(Y

k

)])

F

1

0

= 0, F

0

0

= 0, (x)

+

= max(0, x), (x)

= min(0, x).

The fusion center decides about the hypothesis at time where

N = inf{k : F

1

k

1

or F

0

k

0

}

and

0

< 0 <

1

. The Decision: H

1

if F

1

N

1

, otherwise H

0

.

Local node decision can be quantized better.

Comparison

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

x 10

3

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

P

FA

E

D

D

DualSPRT

DSPRT

SPRTCSPRT

Meis SPRT

Asymptotic Optimality of DualSPRT is proved.

Meis SPRT: Y. Mei, IEEE Trans. Information Theory,May 2008.

DSPRT: G. Fellouris, G. V. Moustakides, IEEE Trans. Information Theory,Jan

2011.

Unknown Parameters

Problem:

H

0

: =

0

; H

1

:

1

.

Local node runs GLR:

W

n,l

= max

_

n

k=1

log

f

n

(X

k

)

f

0

(X

k

)

,

n

k=1

log

f

n

(X

k

)

f

1

(X

k

)

_

,

N = inf {n : W

n,l

g(cn)} ,

where g() is a time varying threshold and c is the cost

assigned for each observation.

FC runs SPRT.

Decentralized Multi-hypothesis problem

M Hypothesis, H

m

f

m

l

at local node l

Z

i ,j

l

(k) = max

_

k

t=1

log

f

i

l

(X

t,l

)

f

j

l

(X

t,l

)

, 0

_

Decision at local node l :

N

l

= inf{k : Z

i ,j

l

(k) > a for all j = i and some i }

Decision by node l = H

i

At time k N

l

, node l transmits

l

Instead of physical layer fusion, TDMA used.

FC uses the same test.

H

m

: X

k,l

N(m, 1), m=0,. . ., 4, No of local nodes=5

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

P

FA

E

DD

DualTestD1

MTestD1:TestD1

TestD1:MTestD1

DualMTestD1

Figure: Comparison among dierent Multihypothesis schemes

Summary

Surveyed spectrum sensing problem.

Shown sequential detection algorithms are superior.

Studied Dual CUSUM and DualSPRT.

Compared to existing algorithms.

Generalized to address parametric uncertainties.

References

1 T. Yucek and H. Arslan, A survey of spectrum sensing

algorithms for cognitive radio applications , IEEE

Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol.11, no.1,

pp.116-130, March 2009.

2 Ian F. Akyildiz, *Brandon F. Lo* and Ravikumar

Balakrishnan, *Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive

Radio Networks: A Survey, **Physical Communication

(Elsevier)* Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 40-62, March 2011.

3 S. Shellhammer, Numerical Spectrum Sensing

Requirements, IEEE Std.8022-06/0088r0, June 2006.

4 H. V. Poor and O. Hadjiliadis, Quickest Detection,

Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.

References

5 L. Lai,Y. Fan and H. V. Poor, Quickest detection in

Cognitive Radio: A sequential change detection framework,

in Proc of IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov 2008.

6 T. L. Lai, Sequential analysis: Some classical problems and

new challenges (with discussion), Statistica Sinica, vol.11,

pp.303-408, 2001

7 G. Fellouris, G. V. Moustakides, Decentralized sequential

hypothesis testing using asynchronous communication, IEEE

Trans. Information Theory, vol.57, no.1, pp.534-548, Jan

2011.

8 T. Banerjee, V. Sharma, V. Kavitha and A. K. JayaPrakasam,

Generalized analysis of a distributed energy ecient

algorithm for change detection, IEEE Trans. on Wireless

Communications, vol.10, no.1, pp.91-101, Jan 2011.

References

9 Jayaprakasam, A.; Sharma, V.; Murthy, C.R.; Narayanan, P.; ,

Cyclic Prex Based Cooperative Sequential Spectrum

Sensing Algorithms for OFDM, *Communications (ICC),

2010 IEEE International Conference on* , vol., no., pp.1-6,

23-27 May 2010

10 A. K. Jayaprakasam and V. Sharma, Cooperative robust

sequential detection algorithms for spectrum sensing in

cognitive radio, in Proc of ICUMT, Oct 2009.

11 K. S. Jithin and V. Sharma, Novel algorithms for cooperative

distributed sequential spectrum sensing, Proc. of IEEE

Wireless Communications and Networking Conference

(WCNC), April 2011.

12 K. S. Jithin and V. Sharma, Novel Algorithms for Distributed

Sequential Hypothesis Testing, 49th Annual Allerton

Conference on Communication, Control and Computing, Sept.

2011.

- Alarm & Hardware InvestigationUploaded bygfrghhhyrdd
- E&L fx5030 ManualUploaded byDeming
- Automatic Toll TaxUploaded byspatilinfotech
- WK7Uploaded byParameswara Reddy A
- Empirical Study on Cognitive Radios and Cognitive NetworksUploaded byeditor3854
- ORECK Weather Station ManualUploaded byMR X
- 9_nokia_cdg_diversityUploaded byKaran Singh
- Advances in Cognitive Radio Networks a SurveyUploaded bylaerciomos
- 05350649Uploaded byarv1216
- RSS-DOA Based Localization Algorithm for Cognitive Radio NetworksUploaded byijsret
- An Introduction to the Wireless Power Consortium Standard Ans TIs Compliant SolutionsUploaded byRoberto Delgado Webb
- 33363-32962-2-PBUploaded byskrtamil
- 05351690Uploaded bysuchi87
- 00818892Uploaded byDiablo
- PratsUploaded by108databox
- 5Plag Cellular PlacementUploaded bygorishsharma
- 100w Fm AmplifierUploaded byAntonio José Montaña Pérez de Cristo
- [IJCST-V5I2P98]:M.Bobby, V.Ajantha Devi, C. MadhubalaUploaded byEighthSenseGroup
- Node_In-Train_Coverage_Solutions_BR-103450.pdfUploaded byZamir Hussain
- 25141-9b0.docUploaded byalqousi_muhieddine
- 126523_F1 DAC 2202.pdfUploaded byIvaylo Ivanov
- WP Spectrum Paradigms-1Uploaded bykd kd
- EELab2 Exp7 FiberOpticUploaded byFAROUK GASMi
- 07017566Uploaded bymucahit
- Guida_TOGO+HAPPY_ENGUploaded bygoguxxl4
- 13913678-Cognitive-Radio-presentation.pptUploaded bygantayat
- Duplex r18 EnUploaded byFilipe Macome
- SM-5000_OM_ENG_EAG02X104Uploaded byChino Pacia
- To transmit and receive sound signals in matlabUploaded byEysha qureshi
- Universal Infrared AdapterUploaded byChadwick Barclay

- Waves A level physicsUploaded bysupniggas
- [H C Verma] Foundation Science Physics for Class 1(Z-lib.org)Uploaded byPavan Reddy
- What is a SupernovaUploaded byPavan Reddy
- vedic mathUploaded byPavan Reddy
- The Opportunity Analysis Canvas - Third EditionUploaded byjorge manuel
- Gyan Sutra Mathematics Formula Booklet IIT JEE , AIEEEUploaded byHemant Yadav
- Chapter-1Uploaded byManikandan Vasudevan
- Class10 Math Appendix1 NCERT TextBook English EditionUploaded byGopal Botadra
- International Gcse Grade Boundaries 1701Uploaded byAnonymous BGfWsn3GVf
- FAQsPhysicsCUploaded byPavan Reddy
- 314776980-MATHEMATICS-RESOURCE-MATERIAL-FOR-CLASS-9.pdfUploaded byAnji Karingu
- 2016 06 PLSC Boundary Marks FinalUploaded byPavan Reddy
- Time -96 Hrs for Mech&ElecUploaded byPavan Reddy
- 2013-06-PLSCUploaded byPavan Reddy
- 2013-06-PLSC.pdfUploaded byPavan Reddy
- 2012_June_Grade_Boundaries_-_International_Primary_Lower_and_Secondary_Curriculum.pdfUploaded byPavan Reddy
- 2012_June_Grade_Boundaries_-_International_Primary_Lower_and_Secondary_Curriculum.pdfUploaded byPavan Reddy
- Grade Boundaries Int Gcse Jan 18Uploaded byPavan Reddy
- Maths_SQP.pdfUploaded byNirvana Adithya Visiobibliophobiatic Guy
- AIEEE Maths ShortcutFormulaeUploaded byPavan Reddy
- imp important free Maths All Formulae pdf Class 9 10 11 12 IIT JEE MAIN ADVANCED Maths By Suhag Teko Classes.pdfUploaded byAbhiram Shaji
- Series FormulasUploaded bymanjuc4
- 9702_m16_qp_42Uploaded byPavan Reddy
- Fields.pdfUploaded bypaolo maldini
- 8 OpticsUploaded byDalia Mohamed
- Special focus; Mechanics&Energy.pdfUploaded byPavan Reddy
- AP Physics C: Mechanics Course DescriptionUploaded byNelson Nguyen
- Physics-Conservation-Concepts.pdfUploaded byengrroy

- mpeg7-090408135851-phpapp01Uploaded byShivam Gupta
- Application Notes 2006 2nd EditionUploaded byKiran Kumar
- 104613_Pulse Amplitude Modulation(Natural Sampling,Noise Performance,Spectrum of PAM Signal)Uploaded byJabeen Banu
- Heyser Lecture - AES131 (Final)Uploaded by3_scribd_magnum_innominandum
- ExamplesUploaded byhoanglonghvktqs
- KDI, Igor StambukUploaded bysvinaga
- The Fundamental of Signal AnalysisUploaded byFrancesco Vianello
- An Experimental Investigation of Higher Harmonic Forces on a Vertical Cylinder_99Uploaded byMaría Miranda
- Torque EstimationUploaded byKeerrthanaa Guptha
- Simulation Studies of Paper Machine Basis Weight Control. August 2010Uploaded byVidya Muthukrishnan
- Gearbox DegradationUploaded byMohd Asiren Mohd Sharif
- MCQSUploaded byMuhammad Salal
- Sound ReportUploaded byChandrashekhar Katagi
- SDR Website DataUploaded byabdullahnisar92
- Digital Com theory-Compiled-P.Nagaraju.pdfUploaded byprashanth_02
- 2012-TPC-212AzarhUploaded byPreetham Pj
- Dsp Lab ManualUploaded byRavi Ravikiran
- Ambardar Book ChaptersUploaded byJeffrey Hufford
- An Introduction to Processing and Music VisualizationUploaded byguenni42
- Fuzzy AutopilotUploaded byapi-26251207
- Ssp Pt Fourier Series and Fourier TransformUploaded byNaresh Mundra
- chapters 8 Oscillator.pptUploaded byTspi Ritzel
- Tissue Paper Manufacturingby Liu_jin_phdUploaded byFaiq Haidar
- Vmd Specden Used PaperUploaded bytumm1982
- Signal Processing Acoustic INSTRUCTIONUploaded byVinícius Favretto
- 7.1.2-RRU3952 Description 01(20150330)Uploaded byAh Kheang
- Numerical Investigation of Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Unsteady Flow Past a Row of Square CylindersUploaded bySogand Eskandarzadeh
- Quick Strip Theory Calculations in Ship DesignUploaded byRENGANATHAN P
- RPPUploaded bychaann
- Biosignal.pdfUploaded bykeputihutara