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Enameled Heating Elements

The optimum corrosion protection for... Regenerative Air Preheaters and Regenerative Gas-Gas Heaters

Air Preheater

Enameled Heating Elements for Air Preheaters and Gas-Gas Heaters

For more than 40 years, the Air Preheater Division of ALSTOM Power Energy Recovery GmbH formerly known as Abgastechnik GmbH has been one of the leading suppliers of regenerative-type air preheaters (APH) with enameled heating elements for the power station industry and has pioneered the development of Ljungstrm gasgas heaters (GGH) for reheating the flue gas from FGD plants working on wet processes. This has largely contributed to a continuous upgrading and optimisation of this competitive compound material. Used enameled heating elements can easily be disposed of without any negative impact on the environment.
Corrosion rate at steel surfaces as a function of H2SO4 concentration!

Enameled Cold End Layer

Air Preheater

Corrosion rate

characterised by a condensation of H2SO4 and - due to the encountered surface temperatures and the climatic conditions or flue gas moisture by a sulfuric acid concentration that may be less than 60 - 70%. Where to use enameled heating elements: Oil-fired plants mainly suffer from corrosion during plant shutdowns and water washing of the APH heating elements. We therefore recommend to use enamel at least for the APH cold end layer. An enameled surface will also help to reduce the plugging rate and the fire hazard. For coal-fired boilers with low flue gas temperatures and for plants with SCR catalysts

H2SO4 concentration at surface [wt %]

Why opt for enameled heating elements? An unprotected steel surface can easily suffer from a corrosion attack, in particular if exposed to diluted sulfuric acid. Using a proper coating/enameling will considerably extend the lifetime of those profiled steel heating elements exposed to a corrosive environment below the acid dew point, which is

installed upstream of the APH the use of the nowadays low-priced enameled heating elements will improve the availability and reduce maintenance costs. Because of the very low temperatures, the high moisture and the additional carry-over of droplets GGHs are always fitted with an enameled heating surface.

Surface temperature [C]




Corrosion attack at steel surface

H2SO4 concentration at element surface [wt %]

Higher Availability .....

Enameled Elements

What are the Enamel Criteria? In order to qualify for the use as heating element corrosion protection agent in Ljungstrm APHs or GGHs the enamel must meet the following criteria: High chemical resistance against the aggressive flue gas constituents (acid, water vapour, water); High mechanical resistance against erosive flue gas constituents (fly ash) and sufficient resistance during soot-blowing and water washing of the heating element packages;

High temperature resistance (>400C) in line with the boiler operating mode and temperature shock resistance, e.g. in case of on-line HP water washings of the heating elements; High elasticity and adhesion of the enamel coating onto the profiled elements in order to allow for sufficient packing pressure when pressing the plates into the containers; Homogeneous coating thicknesses irrespective of the profile geometry.

Packing of H/E Containers at Prinz Energietechnik GmbH

Comparison: H/E Service Life steel Corten enamel

H/E nge ha exc

new t star

service life years

Enameling Increases the Service Life! Compared to carbon steel or Corten heating elements, the enamel qualities available today are able to increase the service life quite considerably, thus drastically reducing the number of heating element exchanges required. Important Prerequirements: Sufficient base material thickness, in particular for the only slightly undulated and thus less robust elements Firm fixing of the enameled profiles in the container while observing the optimum packing pressure Adherence to the specified blowing parameters during cleaning of the heating surface.

Homogeneous Coating Thickness

Sectional View of an Enameled Heating Element

(magnified by 10)

..... Guaranteed by High Standards of Quality, Safety and Environmental Protection

Test samples after acid boiling

Extensive Quality Assurance Program The quality features and test sequence specified in our Test and Inspection Schedule (TIS) are discussed with our clients and comprise the following: Acceptance Inspection upon Delivery of the steel coil (DC 03 ED acc. to DIN EN 10209) and the enamel frit and additional checks of base material (fish-scale test, formation of burrs) Supervision at the Enamelers Shop of surface cleaning process, enamel slurry consistency and the oven conditions ... (certificates acc. to EN 10204-3.1.B) At the Enamelers Test Lab boiling tests for determination of the acid resistance (30% H2SO4) and water vapour resistance; bending (elasticity) and shock impact (adhesion) tests as well as penetration (pore) tests and temperature (water) quenching tests During Element Production the visual check of all enameled elements, coat thickness measureShock impact (adhesion) test: Quality: A1

Acid boiling test equipment acc. to DIN ISO 2733

Bend (elasticity) tests: No chippings

ments and extensive pore checks (phenolphthalein test) Final Check of H/E Containers incl. packing pressure control, dimensional check and final visual inspection Quality checks and acceptance inspections of enameled heating elements are extremely important. Not all of the enamel qualities offered in the markets meet the requirements of todays highly developed state of the art. This fact has been substantiated by comparative tests carried out by our clients.
Enamel coat thickness measurement

Integrated Management System Our Total Quality Management Program is a guarantee that our customers receive components with the highest quality standards. By means of audits, monitoring and acceptance inspections the compliance of all parts and services to the customers requirements is ensured. In 1993, we were awarded certification to the International Quality System Standard EN ISO 9001 by the German TV and in 1998 we for the first time carried out the environmental management system audit according to EN ISO 14001.

Superiority Achieved by Innovation

Enamel What Is It? ... a type of glass specifically produced for the corrosion protection of metals, with a particular chemical composition and particular physical features, which partly enriched with additives can be molten onto steel plates. Enamel is thus absolutely non-pollutive and a unique compound material made of glass and metal. Based on our vast experience and know-how gathered in more than 60 years of work as one of the leading suppliers of regenerativetype heat exchangers and on the continued research in cooperation with the enamel supplier we are able to offer you excellent enamel qualities at all times thus keeping the superior position which is so vital in todays global competition. The enamel used by ALSTOM Power Air Preheater does not just excel by its low corrosion values when exposed to the influence of sulfuric acid, water vapour or alkali. The results from boiling tests carried out in acc. with the latest enameling guidelines can be seen from the diagram below. The major characteristic of our enamel is that it offers excellent mechanical properties due to its inner bubble structure which is achieved with the wet application process and in addition allows for high minimum coat thicknesses. The continued improvement of the application techniques has yielded a good coverage of the edges while excluding the risk of thickening around the edges. Furthermore, we have developed a chemical high-tech type of top coat enamel for extremely corrosive conditions, and can offer the additional coverage of enameled elements with a dirt-repellant PTFE coat.

Solidified enamel from the melting furnace

Todays State of the Art!

Determination of acid resistance

Chemical Resistance*) of our standard enamel quality (measured values):

Erosion values g/m2

30% H2SO4 + 0,02% HF 2,5 hr

Weights by acid attack

18 hr


*) Tested with a new and more stringent method: ISO 2733 modified in acc. with Resolution CEN of 1996-10-11

24 hr vapour

ALSTOM Power Air Preheater Division Your Competent Partner for Heat Recovery!

Our Scope of Supply and Services: s Regenerative Air Preheaters (APH) s Regenerative Gas-Gas Heaters (GGH) s Heating Elements s APH & GGH Rehabilitation and Upgrades s Spare Parts

We give you expert advice, offer qualified erection personal and first-class service!

Air Preheater

ALSTOM Power Air Preheater A Division of ALSTOM Power Energy Recovery GmbH Industriestrasse 57- 61 D-69245 Bammental, Germany Telefon: (+49) 62 23/9 62-0 Fax: (+49) 62 23/9 62-999 e-Mail:

Publication No. D AGT 101001 E Printed in Germany