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Ipari automatizálási rendszerekben alkalmazott hibatűrő villamos gépekösszehosonlító vizsgálata Comparative study of fault-tolerant electrical machines used

in automated industrial systems Studiu comparative al maşinilor electrice utilizate în automatizări industriale
Ruba Mircea1, dr. Szabó Loránd1, dr. Biró Károly Ágoston1, Kovacs Ernó2
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Kolozsvári Műszaki Egyetem, Villamosmérnöki Kar, Villamosgépek Tanszék RO-400750 Cluj, P.O. Box 358, Románia Tel.: +40-264-401-827, Fax.: +40-264-593-117 e-mail: Lorand.Szabo@mae.utcluj.ro web: http://users.utcluj.ro/~szabol/index.htm 2 Pannon Egyetem, Műszaki Informatikai Kar, Automatizálás Tanszék H-8200 Veszprém, Egyetem u. 10., Magyarország Tel.: +36-88-624-461, Fax.: +36-88-624-545 e-mail: fodor@almos.vein.hu web: http://www.aut.vein.hu

Abstract: Nowadays the tendency in industrial automated systems is to implement equipments that can offer a continuous operation even in the event of fault occurrence. A system represents interconnection between feed bus bars, intelligent electronic devices and electromechanical assembles. The fault tolerance can be implemented in all the system’s levels. The result will be a safe and continuous operating system. The electrical machines involved in safe automated equipments are the subject of the present study. Switched reluctance machine (SRM), and a permanent magnet synchronous machine with two attached inverter topologies will be presented regarding them fault tolerance. The conclusions will present, according to applications, the optimal fault tolerant machines. Rezumat: Tendinţa actuală în domeniul automatizărilor industriale este de a oferi echipamente care au continuitate în funcţionare chiar după eventualele apariţii ale unor defecte. Sistemele sunt formate din zone de alimentare, zone de comandă şi control inteligente, respectiv din ansamble electromecanice. Toleranţa faţă de defecte poate fi implementată fiecărui nivel al sistemului rezultând în final un sistem ce oferă siguranţă şi continuitate în funţionare. Maşinile electrice implicate în sistemele de automatizare devin subiectul prezentei lucrări. Diferite structuri de maşini cu reluctanţă comutată, respectiv o maşină sincronă cu magneţi permanenţi cu două stricturi de invertor vor fi prezentate. Concluziile vor contrura alegerea optimă a maşinii electrice tolerante la defecte, funcţie de aplicaţie. Összefoglaló: Tendinţa actuală în domeniul automatizărilor industriale este de a oferi echipamente care au continuitate în funcţionare chiar după eventualele apariţii ale unor defecte. Sistemele sunt formate din zone de alimentare, zone de comandă şi control inteligente, respectiv din ansamble electromecanice. Toleranţa faţă de defecte poate fi implementată fiecărui nivel al sistemului rezultând în final un sistem ce oferă siguranţă şi continuitate în funţionare. Maşinile electrice implicate în sistemele de automatizare devin subiectul prezentei lucrări. Diferite structuri de maşini cu reluctanţă comutată, respectiv maşini sincrone cu magneţi permanenţi vor fi prezentate. Concluziile vor contrura alegerea optimă a maşinii electrice tolerante la defecte, funcţie de aplicaţie.

Any attempt of study in this area that exposes new results can become of important interest for all researchers working in the field of fault tolerance. It is apparent that certain functions such as electrically assisted steering and braking are of outermost importance and that their failure cannot be tolerated [4]. a 12/8 SRM structure was considered. The switched reluctance motor (SRM) can offer at lower costs a solution for the problem of fault tolerance. were increased to 24/18. The separate phase feeding and control of the machines allow an easier approach of the fault tolerant tasks. The drives attached to PMSM become widely used due to their high efficiency and power density. As errors are part of life. With the help of electrical power devices that evolved in the last years a combination between electric drives and machines pushed the limits of fault tolerance [3]. Nevertheless fault tolerant systems are not so easy to achieve. There the number of stator and rotor poles. the possibility of their appearance in a system must be taken into account. Permanent magnet synchronous machines involve higher manufacturing costs due to the permanent magnets embedded. A more complex structure was studied in [6]. The main idea was to shorten the flux paths in the new motor structure. Nowadays the tendency in electrical engineering is to develop applications as safe as possible. INTRODUCTION The concept of fault tolerance emerged in the field of information technology because of the demand of safety and reliability of a system. Later on more and more fields of engineering took over the concept. but these are an endless force source. For example in vehicles PMSM drives can replace traditional mechanical actuators to achieve advantages such as higher efficiency and improved dynamical performance. to serve an output for a given application. The meaning of system is the interconnection of components all reaching for the same goal. In order to develop an efficient fault tolerant electrical machine is important to take into account also its losses. hence the phase number.1. 1a. 2. The modified SRM has 14 rotor poles. Thanks to the improvements in the field of power electronics and also to digital signal processing nowadays intelligent solutions can be provided in designing a fault tolerant electrical drive system. A fault tolerant system must detect faults in its components and also must have the ability either to correct it (for example by switching to a backup unit when the main one fails) or to circumvent it (for example by reconfiguring the system) [2]. and the connection between fault tolerant equipments formed fault tolerant systems [1]. The concept of fault tolerant device became a purpose for a lot of researchers. offering better results [5]. As a starting point in the study. hence the shorter flux paths means lower iron losses. as shown in Fig. THE PORPOSED MACHINES IN STUDY Achieving a fault tolerant variant of a usual electrical machine requires modified topologies. . as that shown in Fig. hence they cannot suffer faults. 1b.

3. In case of a fault on one channel the second one still will contribute to the torque generation and by its independence. THE COUPLED SIMULATION PROGRAM The simulations were performed using the co-simulation technique. Obviously this special connection of the fault-tolerant PMSM needs a particular converter. Error: Reference source not foundb)[6]. The machines were built up using the Flux 2D finite element method (FEM) based electromagnetic field computation software. This consists in phases placed at an angle of 180 mechanical degrees. in order to create the correct force distribution in the machine. in other words each phase is doubled. but they have different rotors and different phase/channel connections. In order of obtain high level of fault-tolerance for the 9-phase PMSM a special connection of its phases will be applied (see Fig. the faulted phase is isolated by keeping open the corresponding two power switches. the fault tolerance is achieved. Both SRMs in study have the same stator.a) 1. 9-branches variant of the well-known H-bridge (full-bridge) converter (given in Fig. in means of feeding and control on each channel. Since the additional inverter leg is connected to the neutral point of the PMSM. Multiplication of rotor poles will increase the level of fault tolerance in means of torque development and safe operation. If a winding fault occurs in the PMSM. 2a) was proposed. The purposed SRM Structures a) b) b) 2. This connection can be used because the PMSM in study has Y-connected winding groups. In this special scheme the winding is divided in 9 phases. the neutral current caries the phase currents of the remaining phases. ábra. The 3 groups are connected to a common power supply. . assuring practically the normal current through the remained healthy phases. Y connections are created for each group of 3 windings. ábra. The purposed PMSM Inverter Structures The winding scheme is a six phase duplex type. The supplementary inverter leg will continue to drive the currents. To each of the three groups an extra inverter leg is added. Initially for the 9-phased PMSM in discussion a special. grouped 3 by 3. by coupling two simulation environments to work together. The starting point was the standard three-phase voltage source inverter.

In fig. by changing their resistance from a high value.3. As it can be seen (Fig. the difference being noticed in the feed system using AC sources. and attached to the FEM model of the machine. The attached circuit to each phase As the study is performed in transient with motion regime a mesh optimisation was required in order to reduce computation times. 4 the Simulink model of the entire SRM based fault tolerant drive system is given. Flux 2D's circuit editor. ábra. the Simulink model is nearly the same as for the 4. Practically these resistors will model the switches. The simulation of the power converter is performed by using an electrical circuit build up in Electriflux. The ON/OFF signals are . For the PMSM. The reverse current management is handled by the diodes. hence practically the first modulates the current. The input values of the block (practically the signals to be transferred to Flux 2D) are the resistance values corresponding to each power switch. The link between Simulink and Flux 2D is implemented by the Coupling Flux2D S-function type block. as for the OFF state of the switch. instead of DC like the ones for the SRM. corresponding to the "come and go" sides of the winding. and so on. the second one is held open for the whole conducting period. corresponding to the ON state of the transistor. the computation accuracy and the available hardware. The control strategy was implemented in SIMULINK. Using these values the parameters of the next simulation step will computed. the phase currents and the rotor position) and will transfer them to Simulink. The PWM technique is used only on one switch of one phase. 3) each channel of one phase is modelled using two electrical coils. This way the next step of simulation. the most widely used platform in dynamic simulations. to a low one. In the electric circuit model the power switches were replaced by resistors. The S-function block will receive the output signals after the field computation (the torque. will be computed step by step till the time limit is reached. These changes are obtained using the coupling of Flux 2D with MATLAB-Simulink. Flux to Simulink Coupling for the SRM study SRM. A compromise had to be made between the imposed mesh density. ábra.

than the ripples of the SRM in the same operational case. When more faults are simulated these are set to appear also at 0. as [7] proved that this is the optimal one from the two purposed topologies. The main problems were regarding the computation times. v.) open circuit of one phase.) Three faulty phases from three different groups v.) Two phases faulty from one group and 1-1 from two other groups.) Normal operating mode ii.) open circuit of two channels from different phases. For the SRM the electronic converter used was a typical H bridge one. The first fault is imposed at 0. using techniques applied in other categories of electrical machines. the PMSM will develop relatively high torque ripples due to the missing current in the windings. A compromise must be taken between the application’s demand and the budget of the project. The resulted structure will be a combination of two already existing machines . If. During the transient simulation the machine is started without any faults. the study cases involved in the paper were: i. In order to obtain precise results and reasonable computation time the quality of the FEM model's mesh had to be lowered. as more the costs are higher.) normal operating mode (reference case). considering its higher manufacturing costs too.) Two phases faulty from different groups iv. The coupled simulation program connecting two software environment (FLUX 2D and SIMULINK) was useful in studying the effects of different winding faults on the torque developing capacity of the SRM. 5a-5e) are the ones from the 12/14 structure. modelled by phase open circuit. These are compared to the torque characteristics from the Y connected electronic inverter for the PSMS (Fig. The characteristics for the SRM (Fig. 5) the effects of the faults.008 s and the other one 0. As the severity of the fault is increased. The 6-phase (12/14) machine was simulated 0. To obtain a high level of fault tolerance a complex control system is required and high number machine's pole.01 s. The study demonstrated that increasing the number of rotor poles. To create an image for the behaviour of the PMSM. The coupled simulation programs allow a high-quality simulation of closed-loop real time systems. separating the phases/channels. Different computation times were set for the two machines. 5f-5j). setting new connections between the existing windings. and new placing for the windings. Future ideas are regarding changes of the machine geometry. The torque ripples are lower in the case of PMSM in normal operating mode. The faults will be simulated by imposing OFF state for both switches of one phase.01 s. different cases were studied in order to check their fault tolerance capability: i. As more complex the inverter. The computing power of FLUX 2D thus joined the facilities of Simulink in simply describing the different working regimes of the machines and drives taken into study. the second one at 0.sent to the two switches: the resistance value of 100 kΩ (OFF state) or 0. In order to conclude and underline the best solution for an automate fault tolerant system. having open circuit iii.) One phase faulty.024 s. iii.) open circuit of one channel. CONCUSIONS For the two SRMs.004 Ω (ON state).02 s.) open circuit of one phase and one channel from a different phase (worst case in study). in the event of fault occurrence. A discussion regarding costs can be held about inverters too. RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS. in a way to be able to observe (see Fig. ii. and using a complex control system will provide the best solution for the fault tolerant SRM based electrical drive system. 4. The precision of the PWM is set by the hysteresis band around the imposed current. The increase is proportional with the severity for the PSMS too. using a SRM is optimal as the ripples are lower in case of fault. the ripples are more and more obvious in the SRM torque characteristic. the PMSM can be involved too. Against this case. the ripples are acceptable. iv. A fault tolerant SRM is intended to be built up.

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