Jing Li
, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New York, NY 10045, USA. Email: jing.li@ny.frb.org
Mingxin Xu, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Char
lotte, NC 28223, USA. Email: mxu2@uncc.edu
Abstract
ValueatRisk (VaR) and Conditional ValueatRisk (CVaR) are popular risk measures from academic,
industrial and regulatory perspectives. The problem of minimizing CVaR is theoretically known to be
of NeymanPearson type binary solution. We add a constraint on expected return to investigate the
MeanCVaR portfolio selection problem in a dynamic setting: the investor is faced with a Markowitz [23]
type of risk reward problem at nal horizon where variance as a measure of risk is replaced by CVaR.
Based on the complete market assumption, we give an analytical solution in general. The novelty of our
solution is that it is no longer NeymanPearson type where the nal optimal portfolio takes only two
values. Instead, in the case where the portfolio value is required to be bounded from above, the optimal
solution takes three values; while in the case where there is no upper bound, the optimal investment
portfolio does not exist, though a threelevel portfolio still provides a suboptimal solution.
Keywords: Conditional ValueatRisk, MeanCVaR Portfolio Optimization, Risk Minimization, Neyman
Pearson Problem
JEL Classication: G11, G32, C61
Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 91G10, 91B30, 90C46
1 Introduction
The portfolio selection problem published by Markowitz [23] in 1952 is formulated as an optimization problem
in a oneperiod static setting with the objective of maximizing expected return, subject to the constraint of
variance being bounded from above. In 2005, Bielecki et al. [8] published the solution to this problem in a
dynamic complete market setting. In both cases, the measure of risk of the portfolio is chosen as variance,
and the riskreward problem is understood as the MeanVariance problem.
The ndings and conclusions expressed are solely those of the author and do not represent views of the Federal Reserve
Bank of New York, or the sta of the Federal Reserve System.
1
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q

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i
n
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]
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3
Much research has been done in developing risk measures that focus on extreme events in the tail distribu
tion where the portfolio loss occurs (variance does not dierentiate loss or gain), and quantilebased models
have thus far become the most popular choice. Among those, Conditional ValueatRisk (CVaR) developed
by Rockafellar and Uryasev [26] and [27], also known as Expected Shortfall by Acerbi and Tasche [1], has
become a prominent candidate to replace variance in the portfolio selection problem. On the theoretical side,
CVaR is a coherent risk measure, a term coined by Artzner et al. [6] and [7] in pursuit of an axiomatic
approach for dening properties that a good risk measure should possess. On the practical side, the convex
representation of CVaR from Rockafellar and Uryasev [26] opened the door of convex optimization for Mean
CVaR problem and gave it vast advantage in implementation. In a oneperiod static setting, Rockafellar and
Uryasev [26] demonstrated how linear programming can be used to solve the MeanCVaR problem, making
it a convincing alternative to the Markowitz [23] MeanVariance concept.
The work of Rockafellar and Uryasev [26] has raised huge interest for extending this approach. Acerbi
and Simonetti [2], and Adam et al. [4] generalized CVaR to spectral risk measure in a static setting. Spectral
risk measure is also known as Weighted ValueatRisk (WVaR) by Cherny [10], who in turn studied its
optimization problem. Ruszczynsk and Shapiro [29] revised CVaR into a multistep dynamic risk measure,
namely the conditional risk mapping for CVaR, and solved the corresponding MeanCVaR problem using
Rockafellar and Uryasev [26] technique for each time step. When expected return is replaced by expected
utility, the UtilityCVaR portfolio optimization problem is often studied in a continuoustime dynamic setting,
see Gandy [15] and Zheng [33]. More recently, the issue of robust implementation is dealt with in Quaranta
and Zaaroni [25], Gotoh et al. [16], Huang et al. [18], and El Karoui et al. [12]. Research on systemic risk
that involves CVaR can be found in Acharya et al. [3], Chen et al. [9], and Adrian and Brunnermeier [5].
To the best of our knowledge, no complete characterization of solution has been done for the MeanCVaR
problem in a continuoustime dynamic setting. Similar to Bielecki et al. [8], we reduce the problem to a
combination of a static optimization problem and a hedging problem with complete market assumption. Our
main contribution is that in solving the static optimization problem, we nd a complete characterization whose
nature is dierent than what is known in literature. As a pure CVaR minimization problem without expected
return constraint, Sekine [31], Li and Xu [22], Melnikov and Smirnov [24] found the optimal solution to be
binary. This is conrmed to be true for more general lawinvariant risk (preference) measures minimization
by Schied [30], and He and Zhou [17]. The key to nding the solution to be binary is the association of the
MeanCVaR problem to the NeymanPearson problem. We observe in Section 2.1 that the stochastic part
of CVaR minimization can be transformed into Shortfall Risk minimization using the representation (CVaR
2
is the FenchelLegendre dual of the Expected Shortfall) given by Rockafellar and Uryasev [26]. Follmer and
Leukert [14] characterized the solution to the latter problem in a general semimartingale complete market
model to be binary, where they have demonstrated its close relationship to the NeymanPearson problem of
hypothesis testing between the risk neutral probability measure
P and the physical probability measure P.
Adding the expected return constraint to WVaR minimization (CVaR is a particular case of WVaR),
Cherny [10] found conditions under which the solution to the MeanWVaR problem was still binary or
nonexistent. In this paper, we discuss all cases for solving the MeanCVaR problem depending on a combina
tion of two criteria: the level of the RadonNikod ym derivative
d
P
dP
relative to the condence level of the risk
measure; and the level of the return requirement. More specically, when the portfolio is uniformed bounded
from above and below, we nd the optimal solution to be nonexistent or binary in some cases, and more
interestingly, take three values in the most important case (see Case 4 of Theorem 3.15). When the portfolio
is unbounded from above, in most cases (see Case 2 and 4 in Theorem 3.17), the solution is nonexistent,
while portfolios of three levels still give suboptimal solutions. Since the new solution we nd can take not
only the upper or the lower bound, but also a level in between, it can be viewed in part as a generalization
of the binary solution for the NeymanPearson problem with an additional constraint on expectation.
This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 formulates the dynamic portfolio selection problem, and
compares the structure of the binary solution and the threelevel solution, with an application of exact
calculation in the BlackScholes model. Section 3 details the analytic solution in general where the proofs
are delayed to Appendix 5; Section 4 lists possible future work.
2 The Structure of the Optimal Portfolio
2.1 Main Problem
Let (, T, (T)
0tT
, P) be a ltered probability space that satises the usual conditions where T
0
is trivial
and T
T
= T. The market model consists of d +1 tradable assets: one riskless asset (money market account)
and d risky asset (stock). Suppose the riskfree interest rate r is a constant and the stock S
t
is a ddimensional
realvalued locally bounded semimartingale process. Let the number of shares invested in the risky asset
t
be a ddimensional predictable process such that the stochastic integral with respect to S
t
is welldened.
Then the value of a selfnancing portfolio X
t
evolves according to the dynamics
dX
t
=
t
dS
t
+r(X
t
t
S
t
)dt, X
0
= x
0
.
3
Here
t
dS
t
and
t
S
t
are interpreted as inner products if the risky asset is multidimensional d > 1. The
portfolio selection problem is to nd the best strategy (
t
)
0tT
to minimize the Conditional ValueatRisk
(CVaR) of the nal portfolio value X
T
at condence level 0 < < 1 , while requiring the expected value
to remain above a constant z.
(X
T
) (1)
subject to E[X
T
] z, x
d
X
t
x
u
a.s. t [0, T].
Note that the nobankruptcy condition can be imposed by setting the lower bound to be x
d
= 0, and the
portfolio value can be unbounded from above by taking the upper bound as x
u
= . Our solution will be
based on the following complete market assumption.
Assumption 2.1 There is No Free Lunch with Vanishing Risk (as dened in Delbaen and Schachermayer
[11]) and the market model is complete with a unique equivalent local martingale measure
P such that the
RadonNikodym derivative
d
P
dP
has a continuous distribution.
Under the above assumption any Tmeasurable random variable can be replicated by a dynamic portfolio.
Thus the dynamic optimization problem (1) can be reduced to: rst nd the optimal solution X
to the
Main Static Problem,
inf
XF
CV aR
(X) (2)
subject to E[X] z,
E[X] = x
r
, x
d
X x
u
a.s.
if it exists, and then nd the dynamic strategy that replicates the Tmeasurable random variable X
. Here
the expectations E and
E are taken under the physical probability measure P and the risk neutral probability
measure
P respectively. Constant x
r
= x
0
e
rT
is assumed to satisfy < x
d
< x
0
x
r
< x
u
and the
additional capital constraint
E[X] = x
r
is the key to make sure that the optimal solution can be replicated
by a dynamic selfnancing strategy with initial capital x
0
.
Krokhmal et al. [21] showed conditions under which the problem of maximizing expected return with CVaR constraint is
equivalent to the problem of minimizing CVaR with expected return constraint. In this paper, we use the term MeanCVaR
problem for both cases.
4
Using the equivalence between Conditional ValueatRisk and the FenchelLegendre dual of the Expected
Shortfall derived in Rockafellar and Uryasev [26],
(3) CV aR
(X) =
1
inf
xR
_
E[(x X)
+
] x
_
, (0, 1),
the CVaR optimization problem (2) can be reduced to an Expected Shortfall optimization problem which we
name as the TwoConstraint Problem:
Step 1: Minimization of Expected Shortfall
v(x) = inf
XF
E[(x X)
+
] (4)
subject to E[X] z, (return constraint)
E[X] = x
r
, (capital constraint)
x
d
X x
u
a.s.
Step 2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk
(5) inf
XF
CV aR
(X) =
1
inf
xR
(v(x) x) .
To compare our solution to existing ones in literature, we also name an auxiliary problem which simply
minimizes Conditional ValueatRisk without the return constraint as the OneConstraint Problem: Step
1 in (4) is replaced by
Step 1: Minimization of Expected Shortfall
v(x) = inf
XF
E[(x X)
+
] (6)
subject to
E[X] = x
r
, (capital constraint)
x
d
X x
u
a.s.
Step 2 in (5) remains the same.
5
2.2 Main Result
This subsection is devoted to a conceptual comparison between the solutions to the OneConstraint Problem
and the TwoConstraint Problem. The solution to the Expected Shortfall Minimization problem in Step 1
of the OneConstraint Problem is found by Follmer and Leukert [14] under Assumption 2.1 to be binary
in nature:
(7) X(x) = x
d
I
A
+xI
A
c , for x
d
< x < x
u
,
where I
() is the indicator function and set A is dened as the collection of states where the Radon
Nikod ym derivative is above a threshold
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
. This particular structure where the optimal
solution X(x) takes only two values, namely the lower bound x
d
and x, is intuitively clear once the problems
of minimizing Expected Shortfall and hypothesis testing between P and
P are connected in Follmer and
Leukert [14], the later being wellknown to possess a binary solution by NeymanPearson Lemma. There are
various ways to prove the optimality. Other than the NeymanPearson approach, it can be viewed as the
solution from a convex duality perspective, see Theorem 1.19 in Xu [32]. In addition, a simplied version to
the proof of Proposition 3.14 gives a direct method using Lagrange multiplier for convex optimization.
The solution to Step 2 of OneConstraint Problem, and thus to the Main Problems in (1) and (2) as a
pure risk minimization problem without the return constraint is given in Schied [30], Sekine [31], and Li
and Xu [22]. Since Step 2 only involves minimization over a realvalued number x, the binary structure is
preserved through this step. Under some technical conditions, the solution to Step 2 of the OneConstraint
Problem is shown by Li and Xu [22] (Theorem 2.10 and Remark 2.11) to be
X
= x
d
I
A
+x
I
A
c , (TwoLine Conguration) (8)
CV aR
(X
) = x
r
+
1
(x
x
d
)
_
P(A
P(A
)
_
, (9)
where (a
, x
(x) = 0) in Step 2:
x
d
P(A) +x
P(A
c
) = x
r
, (capital constraint) (10)
P(A) +
P(A
c
)
a
= 0. (rst order Euler condition) (11)
6
A static portfolio holding only the riskless asset will yield a constant portfolio value X x
r
with CV aR(X) =
x
r
. The diversication by managing dynamically the exposure to risky assets decreases the risk of the
overall portfolio by an amount shown in (9). One interesting observation is that the optimal portfolio exists
regardless whether the upper bound on the portfolio is nite x
u
< or not x
u
= . This conclusion will
change drastically as we add the return constraint to the optimization problem.
The main result of this paper is to show that the optimal solution to the TwoConstraint Problem, and
thus the Main Problem (1) and (2), does not have a NeymanPearson type of binary solution, which we call
TwoLine Conguration in (8); instead, it has a ThreeLine Conguration. Proposition 3.14 and Theorem
3.15 prove that, when the upper bound is nite x
u
< and under some technical conditions, the solution
to Step 2 of the TwoConstraint Problem turns out to be
X
= x
d
I
A
+x
I
B
+x
u
I
D
, (ThreeLine Conguration) (12)
CV aR
(X
T
) =
1
((x
x
d
)P(A
) x
) , (13)
where (a
, b
, x
) is the solution to the capital constraint and the rst order Euler condition, plus the
additional return constraint (E[X(x)] = z):
x
d
P(A) +xP(B) +x
u
P(D) = z, (return constraint) (14)
x
d
P(A) +x
P(B) +x
u
P(D) = x
r
, (capital constraint) (15)
P(A) +
P(B) bP(B)
a b
= 0. (rst order Euler condition) (16)
The sets in equation (14)(16) are dened by dierent levels of the RadonNikod ym derivative:
A =
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
, B =
_
: b
d
P
dP
() a
_
, D =
_
:
d
P
dP
() < b
_
.
When the upper bound is innite x
u
= , Theorem 3.17 shows that the solution for the optimal portfolio
is no longer a ThreeLine Conguration. It can be pure money market account investment (OneLine), binary
(TwoLine), or very likely nonexist. In the last case, the inmum of the CVaR can still be computed, and a
sequence of ThreeLine Conguration portfolios can be found with their CVaR converging to the inmum.
7
2.3 Example: Exact Calculation in the BlackScholes Model
We show the closedform calculation of the ThreeLine Conguration (12)(16), as well as the corresponding
optimal dynamic strategy in the benchmark BlackScholes Model. Suppose an agent is trading between a
money market account with interest rate r and one stock
= E[X
], where X
is optimal. Let z be
the highest expected value achievable by any selfnancing portfolio starting with initial capital x
0
(see
Denition 3.2 and Lemma 3.3). When the return requirement becomes meaningful, i.e., z (z
, z], the
ThreeLine Conguration X
P
dP
is a scaled power function of the nal stock price which has a
lognormal distribution, the probabilities in equations (15)(16) can be computed in closedform:
P(A) = N(
T
2
ln a
T
), P(D) = 1 N(
T
2
ln b
T
), P(B) = 1 P(A) P(D),
P(A) = N(
T
2
ln a
T
),
P(D) = 1 N(
T
2
ln b
T
),
P(B) = 1
P(A)
P(D),
where =
r
and N() is the cumulative distribution function of a standard normal random variable.
From these, the solution (a
, b
, x
t
, the corresponding dynamic hedging strategy
t
, and the
associated nal minimal risk CV aR
(X
T
) are:
X
t
= e
r(Tt)
[x
N(d
+
(a
, S
t
, t)) +x
d
N(d
(a
, S
t
, t))]
+e
r(Tt)
[x
N(d
(b
, S
t
, t)) +x
u
N(d
+
(b
, S
t
, t))] e
r(Tt)
x
t
=
x
x
d
S
t
_
2(T t)
e
r(Tt)
d
2
(a
,S
t
,t)
2
+
x
x
u
S
t
_
2(T t)
e
r(Tt)
d
2
+
(b
,S
t
,t)
2
,
CV aR
(X
T
) =
1
((x
x
d
)P(A
) x
) ,
where we dene d
(a, s, t) =
1
Tt
[ln a +
(
+r
2
2
t ln
s
S0
) +
2
2
(T t)], d
+
(a, s, t) = d
(a, s, t).
It is straightforward to generalize the calculation to multidimensional BlackScholes model. Since we provide in this paper
an analytical solution to the static CVaR minimization problem, calculation in other complete market models can be carried
out as long as the dynamic hedge can be expressed in a simple manner.
8
Numerical results comparing the minimal risk for various levels of upperbound x
u
and return constraint
z are summarized in Table 1. As expected the upper bound on the portfolio value x
u
has no impact on the
OneConstraint Problem, as (x
, a
) and CV aR
(X
T
) are optimal whenever x
u
x
. On contrary in the
TwoConstraint Problem, the stricter the return requirement z, the more the ThreeLine Conguration X
(X
T
); while less strict upper bound (higher x
u
) decreases minimal risk CV aR
(X
T
). Notably,
under certain conditions in Theorem 3.17, for all levels of return z (z
, z], when x
u
, CV aR
(X
T
)
approaches CV aR
(X
T
), as the optimal solution cease to exist in the limiting case.
OneConstraint Problem TwoConstraint Problem
xu 30 50 xu 30 30 50
z 20 25 25
x
19.0670 19.0670 x
14.5304 14.5304 a
T
) 15.2118 15.2118 CV aR
5%
(X
T
) 15.2067 14.8405 15.1483
Table 1: BlackScholes example for OneConstraint (pure CVaR minimization) and TwoConstraint (Mean
CVaR optimization) problems with parameters: r = 5%, = 0.2, = 0.1, S
0
= 10, T = 2, x
0
= 10, x
d
= 0,
= 5%. Consequently, z
z
Figure 1: Ecient Frontier for MeanCVaR Portfolio Selection
3.1 Case x
u
< : Finite Upper Bound
We rst dene the general ThreeLine Conguration and its degenerate TwoLine Congurations. Recall
from Section 2.2 the denitions of the sets A, B, D are
(17) A =
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
, B =
_
: b
d
P
dP
() a
_
, D =
_
:
d
P
dP
() < b
_
.
Denition 3.1 Suppose x [x
d
, x
u
].
1. Any ThreeLine Conguration has the structure X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
+x
u
I
D
.
2. The TwoLine Conguration X = xI
B
+ x
u
I
D
is associated to the above denition in the case
a = , B =
_
:
d
P
dP
() b
_
and D =
_
:
d
P
dP
() < b
_
.
The TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
is associated to the above denition in the case
b = 0, A =
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
, and B =
_
:
d
P
dP
() a
_
.
The TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+ x
u
I
D
is associated to the above denition in the case
a = b, A =
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
, and D =
_
:
d
P
dP
() < a
_
.
Moreover,
1. General Constraints are the capital constraint and the equality part of the expected return constraint
10
for a ThreeLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
+x
u
I
D
:
E[X] = x
d
P(A) +xP(B) +x
u
P(D) = z,
E[X] = x
d
P(A) +x
P(B) +x
u
P(D) = x
r
.
2. Degenerated Constraints 1 are the capital constraint and the equality part of the expected return
constraint for a TwoLine Conguration X = xI
B
+x
u
I
D
:
E[X] = xP(B) +x
u
P(D) = z,
E[X] = x
P(B) +x
u
P(D) = x
r
.
Degenerated Constraints 2 are the capital constraint and the equality part of the expected return
constraint for a TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
:
E[X] = x
d
P(A) +xP(B) = z,
E[X] = x
d
P(A) +x
P(B) = x
r
.
Degenerated Constraints 3 are the capital constraint and the equality part of the expected return
constraint for a TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+x
u
I
D
:
E[X] = x
d
P(A) +x
u
P(D) = z,
E[X] = x
d
P(A) +x
u
P(D) = x
r
.
Note that Degenerated Constraints 1 correspond to the General Constraints when a = ; Degener
ated Constraints 2 correspond to the General Constraints when b = 0; and Degenerated Constraints
3 correspond to the General Constraints when a = b.
We use the TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+ x
u
I
D
, where the value of the random variable X takes
either the upper or the lower bound, as well as its capital constraint to dene the BarSystem from which
we calculate the highest achievable return.
Denition 3.2 (The BarSystem) For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< , let a be a solution to the
capital constraint
E[X] = x
d
P(A) + x
u
P(D) = x
r
in Degenerated Constraints 3 for the TwoLine
11
Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+ x
u
I
D
. In the BarSystem,
A,
D and
X are associated to the constant a in
the sense
X = x
d
I
A
+ x
u
I
D
where
A =
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
, and
D =
_
:
d
P
dP
() < a
_
. Dene the
expected return of the BarSystem as z = E[
X] = x
d
P(
A) +x
u
P(
D).
Lemma 3.3 z is the highest expected return that can be obtained by a selfnancing portfolio with initial
capital x
0
whose value is bounded between x
d
and x
u
:
z = max
XF
E[X] s.t.
E[X] = x
r
= x
0
e
rT
, x
d
X x
u
a.s.
In the following lemma, we vary the x value in the TwoLine Congurations X = xI
B
+ x
u
I
D
and
X = x
d
I
A
+ xI
B
, while maintaining the capital constraints respectively. We observe their expected returns
to vary between values x
r
and z in a monotone and continuous fashion.
Lemma 3.4 For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< .
1. Given any x [x
d
, x
r
], let b be a solution to the capital constraint
E[X] = x
P(B) + x
u
P(D) = x
r
in Degenerated Constraints 1 for the TwoLine Conguration X = xI
B
+ x
u
I
D
. Dene the
expected return of the resulting TwoLine Conguration as z(x) = E[X] = xP(B) + x
u
P(D).
Then
z(x) is a continuous function of x and decreases from z to x
r
as x increases from x
d
to x
r
.
2. Given any x [x
r
, x
u
], let a be a solution to the capital constraint
E[X] = x
d
P(A) + x
P(B) = x
r
in Degenerated Constraints 2 for the TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+ xI
B
. Dene the
expected return of the resulting TwoLine Conguration as z(x) = E[X] = x
d
P(A) + xP(B). Then
z(x) is a continuous function of x and increases from x
r
to z as x increases from x
r
to x
u
.
From now on, we will concern ourselves with requirements on the expected return in the interval z [x
r
, z]
because on one side Lemma 3.3 ensures that there are no feasible solutions to the Main Problem (2) if we
require an expected return higher than z. On the other side, Lemma 3.3, Lemma 3.4 and Theorem 3.11 lead to
the conclusion that a return constraint where z (, x
r
) is too weak to dierentiate the TwoConstraint
Problem from the OneConstraint Problem as their optimal solutions concur.
Denition 3.5 For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< , and a xed level z [x
r
, z], dene x
z1
and x
z2
to be
the corresponding x value for TwoLine Congurations X = xI
B
+x
u
I
D
and X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
that satisfy
Degenerated Constraints 1 and Degenerated Constraints 2 respectively.
Threshold b and consequently sets B and D are all dependent on x through the capital constraint, therefore z(x) is
not a linear function of x.
12
Denition 3.5 implies when we x the level of expected return z, we can nd two particular feasible
solutions: X = x
z1
I
B
+x
u
I
D
satisfying
E[X] = x
z1
P(B)+x
u
P(D) = x
r
and E[X] = x
z1
P(B)+x
u
P(D) = z;
X = x
d
I
A
+ x
z2
I
B
satisfying
E[X] = x
d
P(A) + x
z2
P(B) = x
r
and E[X] = x
d
P(A) + x
z2
P(B) = z. The
values x
z1
and x
z2
are welldened because Lemma 3.4 guarantees z(x) to be an invertible function in both
cases. We summarize in the following lemma whether the TwoLine Congurations satisfying the capital
constraints meet or fail the return constraint as x ranges over its domain [x
d
, x
u
] for the TwoLine and
ThreeLine Congurations in Denition 3.1.
Lemma 3.6 For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< , and a xed level z [x
r
, z].
1. If we x x [x
d
, x
z1
], the TwoLine Conguration X = xI
B
+x
u
I
D
which satises the capital constraint
E[X] = x
P(B) +x
u
P(D) = x
r
in Degenerated Constraints 1 satises the expected return constraint:
E[X] = xP(B) +x
u
P(D) z;
2. If we x x (x
z1
, x
r
], the TwoLine Conguration X = xI
B
+x
u
I
D
which satises the capital constraint
E[X] = x
P(B) + x
u
P(D) = x
r
in Degenerated Constraints 1 fails the expected return constraint:
E[X] = xP(B) +x
u
P(D) < z;
3. If we x x [x
r
, x
z2
), the TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
which satises the capital constraint
E[X] = x
d
P(A) + x
P(B) = x
r
in Degenerated Constraints 2 fails the expected return constraint:
E[X] = xP(B) +x
u
P(D) < z;
4. If we x x [x
z2
, x
u
], the TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
which satises the capital constraint
E[X] = x
d
P(A) + x
P(B) = x
r
in Degenerated Constraints 2 satises the expected return constraint:
E[X] = xP(B) +x
u
P(D) z.
We turn our attention to solving Step 1 of the TwoConstraint Problem (4):
Step 1: Minimization of Expected Shortfall
v(x) = inf
XF
E[(x X)
+
]
subject to E[X] z, (return constraint)
E[X] = x
r
, (capital constraint)
x
d
X x
u
a.s.
13
Notice that a solution is called for any given real number x, independent of the return level z or capital
level x
r
. From Lemma 3.6 and the fact that the TwoLine Congurations are optimal solutions to Step 1 of
the OneConstraint Problem (see Theorem 3.11), we can immediately draw the following conclusion.
Proposition 3.7 For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< , and a xed level z [x
r
, z].
1. If we x x [x
d
, x
z1
], then there exists a TwoLine Conguration X = xI
B
+ x
u
I
D
which is the
optimal solution to Step 1 of the TwoConstraint Problem;
2. If we x x [x
z2
, x
u
], then there exists a TwoLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+ xI
B
which is the
optimal solution to Step 1 of the TwoConstraint Problem.
When x (x
z1
, x
z2
), Lemma 3.6 shows that the TwoLine Congurations which satisfy the capital
constraints (
E[X] = x
r
) do not generate high enough expected return (E[X] < z) to be feasible anymore. It
turns out that a novel solution of ThreeLine Conguration is the answer: it can be shown to be both feasible
and optimal.
Lemma 3.8 For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< , and a xed level z [x
r
, z]. Given any x (x
z1
, x
z2
), let
the pair of numbers (a, b) R
2
(b a) be a solution to the capital constraint
E[X] = x
d
P(A) + x
P(B) +
x
u
P(D) = x
r
in General Constraints for the ThreeLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
+x
u
I
D
. Dene
the expected return of the resulting ThreeLine Conguration as z(a, b) = E[X] = x
d
P(A)+xP(B)+x
u
P(D).
Then z(a, b) is a continuous function which decreases from z to a number below z:
1. When a = b = a from Denition 3.2 of BarSystem, the ThreeLine Conguration degenerates to
X =
X and z( a, a) = E[
X] = z.
2. When b < a and a > a, z(a, b) decreases continuously as b decreases and a increases.
3. In the extreme case when a = , the ThreeLine conguration becomes the TwoLine Conguration
X = xI
B
+x
u
I
D
; in the extreme case when b = 0, the ThreeLine conguration becomes the TwoLine
Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
. In either case, the expected value is below z by Lemma 3.6.
Proposition 3.9 For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< , and a xed level z [x
r
, z]. If we x x (x
z1
, x
z2
),
then there exists a ThreeLine Conguration X = x
d
I
A
+ xI
B
+ x
u
I
D
that satises the General Con
straints which is the optimal solution to Step 1 of the TwoConstraint Problem.
Combining Proposition 3.7 and Proposition 3.9, we arrive to the following result on the optimality of the
ThreeLine Conguration.
14
Theorem 3.10 (Solution to Step 1: Minimization of Expected Shortfall)
For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< , and a xed level z [x
r
, z]. X(x) and the corresponding value
function v(x) described below are optimal solutions to Step 1: Minimization of Expected Shortfall of
the TwoConstraint Problem:
x (, x
d
]: X(x) = any random variable with values in [x
d
, x
u
] satisfying both the capital constraint
E[X(x)] = x
r
and the return constraint E[X(x)] z. v(x) = 0.
x [x
d
, x
z1
]: X(x) = any random variable with values in [x, x
u
] satisfying both the capital constraint
E[X(x)] = x
r
and the return constraint E[X(x)] z. v(x) = 0.
x (x
z1
, x
z2
): X(x) = x
d
I
Ax
+xI
Bx
+x
u
I
Dx
where A
x
, B
x
, D
x
are determined by a
x
and b
x
as in (17)
satisfying the General Constraints:
E[X(x)] = x
r
and E[X(x)] = z. v(x) = (x x
d
)P(A
x
).
x [x
z2
, x
u
]: X(x) = x
d
I
Ax
+xI
Bx
where A
x
, B
x
are determined by a
x
as in Denition 3.1 satisfying
both the capital constraint
E[X(x)] = x
r
and the return constraint E[X(x)] z. v(x) = (xx
d
)P(A
x
).
x [x
u
, ): X(x) = x
d
I
A
+ x
u
I
B
=
X where
A,
B are associated to a as in Denition 3.2 satisfying
both the capital constraint
E[X(x)] = x
r
and the return constraint E[X(x)] = z z.
v(x) = (x x
d
)P(
A) + (x x
u
)P(
B).
To solve Step 2 of the TwoConstraint Problem (5), and thus the Main Problem (2), we need to
minimize
1
inf
xR
(v(x) x),
where v(x) has been computed in Theorem 3.10. Depending on the z level in the return constraint being
lenient or strict, the solution is sometimes obtained by the TwoLine Conguration which is optimal to the
OneConstraint Problem, and other times obtained by a true ThreeLine conguration. To proceed in this
direction, we recall the solution to the OneConstraint Problem from Li and Xu [22].
Theorem 3.11 (Theorem 2.10 and Remark 2.11 in Li and Xu [22] when x
u
< )
1. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
1
. X = x
r
is the optimal solution to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional
ValueatRisk of the OneConstraint Problem and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(X) = x
r
.
15
2. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
>
1
.
If
1
a
P(
A)
1
P(
A)
(see Denition 3.2 for the BarSystem), then
X = x
d
I
A
+ x
u
I
D
is the optimal
solution to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk of the OneConstraint
Problem and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(
X) = x
r
+
1
(x
u
x
d
)(P(
A)
P(
A)).
Otherwise, let a
P(A)
. Associate sets A
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
and B
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() a
_
to level a
. Dene x
=
xrx
d
P(A
)
1
P(A
)
so that conguration
X
= x
d
I
A
+x
I
B
] = x
d
P(A
) +x
P(B
) = x
r
.
Then X
) = x
r
+
1
(x
x
d
)(P(A
P(A
)).
Denition 3.12 In part 2 of Theorem 3.11, dene z
P(
A)
; dene
z
= E[X
P(
A)
.
We see that when z is smaller than z
and
X provided in Theorem 3.11 are
indeed the optimal solutions to Step 2 of the TwoConstraint Problem. However, when z is greater than z
,
these TwoLine Congurations are no longer feasible in the TwoConstraint Problem. We now show that
the ThreeLine Conguration is not only feasible but also optimal. First we establish the convexity of the
objective function and its continuity in a Lemma.
Lemma 3.13 v(x) is a convex function for x R, and thus continuous.
Proposition 3.14 For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< , and a xed level z (z
, z].
Equivalently, (a
, x
) can be viewed as the solution to the capital constraint and the rst order Euler condition in equations
(10) and (11).
16
Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
>
1
. The solution (a
, b
, x
) (and consequently, A
, B
and D
) to the equations
x
d
P(A) +xP(B) +x
u
P(D) = z, (return constraint)
x
d
P(A) +x
P(B) +x
u
P(D) = x
r
, (capital constraint)
P(A) +
P(B) bP(B)
a b
= 0, (rst order Euler condition)
exists. X
= x
d
I
A
+x
I
B
+x
u
I
D
(we call the DoubleStar System) is the optimal solution to Step
2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk of the TwoConstraint Problem and the associated
minimal risk is
CV aR(X
) =
1
((x
x
d
)P(A
) x
) .
Putting together Proposition 3.14 with Theorem 3.11, we arrive to the Main Theorem of this paper.
Theorem 3.15 (Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk When x
u
< )
For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
< .
1. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
1
and z = x
r
. The pure money market account investment X = x
r
is the
optimal solution to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk of the TwoConstraint
Problem and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(X) = x
r
.
2. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
1
and z (x
r
, z]. The optimal solution to Step 2: Minimization of Condi
tional ValueatRisk of the TwoConstraint Problem does not exist and the minimal risk is
CV aR(X) = x
r
.
3. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
>
1
and z [x
r
, z
).
If
1
a
P(
A)
1
P(
A)
(see Denition 3.2), then the BarSystem
X = x
d
I
A
+ x
u
I
D
is the optimal
solution to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk of the TwoConstraint
Problem and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(
X) = x
r
+
1
(x
u
x
d
)(P(
A)
P(
A)).
17
Otherwise, the StarSystem X
= x
d
I
A
+x
I
B
dened in Theorem 3.11 is the optimal solution
to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk of the TwoConstraint Problem
and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(X
) = x
r
+
1
(x
x
d
)(P(A
P(A
)).
4. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
>
1
and z (z
= x
d
I
A
+x
I
B
+x
u
I
D
dened in Proposition 3.14 is the optimal solution to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional Value
atRisk of the TwoConstraint Problem and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(X
) =
1
((x
x
d
)P(A
) x
) .
We observe that the pure money market account investment is rarely optimal. When the RadonNikod ym
derivative is bounded above by the reciprocal of the condence level of the risk measure (ess sup
d
P
dP
1
), a
condition not satised in the BlackScholes model, the solution does not exist unless the return requirement
coincide with the riskfree rate. When the RadonNikod ym derivative exceeds
1
P
dP
1
P
dP
>
1
. The StarSystem X
= x
d
I
A
+ x
I
B
dened in Theorem 3.11 is the
optimal solution to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk of the OneConstraint
Problem and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(X
) = x
r
+
1
(x
x
d
)(P(A
P(A
)).
We observe that although there is no upper bound for the portfolio value, the optimal solution remains
bounded from above, and the minimal CV aR is bounded from below. The problem of purely minimizing
CV aR risk of a selfnancing portfolio (bounded below by x
d
to exclude arbitrage) from initial capital x
0
is feasible in the sense that the risk will not approach and the minimal risk is achieved by an optimal
portfolio. When we add substantial return constraint to the CV aR minimization problem, although the
minimal risk can still be calculated in the most important case (Case 4 in Theorem 3.17), it is truly an
inmum and not a minimum, thus it can be approximated closely by a suboptimal portfolio, but not
achieved by an optimal portfolio.
Theorem 3.17 (Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk When x
u
= )
For xed < x
d
< x
r
< x
u
= .
1. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
1
and z = x
r
. The pure money market account investment X = x
r
is the
optimal solution to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk of the TwoConstraint
Problem and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(X) = x
r
.
2. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
1
and z (x
r
, ). The optimal solution to Step 2: Minimization of Condi
tional ValueatRisk of the TwoConstraint Problem does not exist and the minimal risk is
CV aR(X) = x
r
.
3. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
>
1
and z [x
r
, z
]. The StarSystem X
= x
d
I
A
+x
I
B
dened in Theorem
3.11 is the optimal solution to Step 2: Minimization of Conditional ValueatRisk of the Two
19
Constraint Problem and the associated minimal risk is
CV aR(X
) = x
r
+
1
(x
x
d
)(P(A
P(A
)).
4. Suppose ess sup
d
P
dP
>
1
and z (z
) = x
r
+
1
(x
x
d
)(P(A
P(A
)).
Remark 3.18 From the proof of the above theorem in Appendix 5, we note that in case 4, we can always
nd a ThreeLine Conguration as a suboptimal solution, i.e., there exists for every > 0, a corresponding
portfolio X
= x
d
I
A
+ x
I
B
+
I
D
which satises the General Constraints and produces a CV aR level
close to the lower bound: CV aR(X
) CV aR(X
) +.
4 Future Work
The second part of Assumption 2.1, namely the RadonNikod ym derivative
d
P
dP
having a continuous distri
bution, is imposed for the simplication it brings to the presentation in the main theorems. Further work
can be done when this assumption is weakened. We expect that the main results should still hold, albeit
in a more complicated form.
The outcome in its format resembles techniques employed in Follmer and Leukert [14] and Li and Xu [22] where the point
masses on the thresholds for the RadonNikod ym derivative in (17) have to be dealt with carefully.
20
5 Appendix
Proof of Lemma 3.3. The problem of
z = max
XF
E[X] s.t.
E[X] = x
r
, x
d
X x
u
a.s.
is equivalent to the Expected Shortfall Problem
z = min
XF
E[(x
u
X)
+
] s.t.
E[X] = x
r
, X x
d
a.s.
Therefore, the answer is immediate.
Proof of Lemma 3.4. Choose x
d
x
1
< x
2
x
r
. Let X
1
= x
1
I
B1
+ x
u
I
D1
where B
1
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() b
1
_
and D
1
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() < b
1
_
. Choose b
1
such that
E[X
1
] = x
r
. This capital
constraint means x
1
P(B
1
) +x
u
P(D
1
) = x
r
. Since
P(B
1
) +
P(D
1
) = 1,
P(B
1
) =
xuxr
xux1
and
P(D
1
) =
xrx1
xux1
.
Dene z
1
= E[X
1
]. Similarly, z
2
, X
2
, B
2
, D
2
, b
2
corresponds to x
2
where b
1
> b
2
and
P(B
2
) =
xuxr
xux2
and
P(D
2
) =
xrx2
xux2
. Note that D
2
D
1
, B
1
B
2
and D
1
D
2
= B
2
B
1
. We have
z
1
z
2
= x
1
P(B
1
) +x
u
P(D
1
) x
2
P(B
2
) x
u
P(D
2
)
= (x
u
x
2
)P(B
2
B
1
) (x
2
x
1
)P(B
1
)
= (x
u
x
2
)P
_
b
2
<
d
P
dP
() < b
1
_
(x
2
x
1
)P
_
d
P
dP
() b
1
_
= (x
u
x
2
)
_
b2<
d
P
dP
()<b1
dP
d
P
()d
P() (x
2
x
1
)
_
P
dP
()b1
dP
d
P
()d
P()
> (x
u
x
2
)
1
b
1
P(B
2
B
1
) (x
2
x
1
)
1
b
1
P(B
1
)
= (x
u
x
2
)
1
b
1
_
x
u
x
r
x
u
x
2
x
u
x
r
x
u
x
1
_
(x
2
x
1
)
1
b
1
x
u
x
r
x
u
x
1
= 0.
21
For any given > 0, choose x
2
x
1
, then
z
1
z
2
= (x
u
x
1
)P(B
2
B
1
) (x
2
x
1
)P(B
2
)
(x
u
x
1
)P(B
2
B
1
)
(x
u
x
1
)
_
x
u
x
r
x
u
x
2
x
u
x
r
x
u
x
1
_
(x
2
x
1
)(x
u
x
r
)
x
u
x
2
x
2
x
1
.
Therefore, z decreases continuously as x increases when x [x
d
, x
r
]. When x = x
d
, z = z from Denition
3.2. When x = x
r
, X x
r
and z = E[X] = x
r
. Similarly, we can show that z increases continuously from
x
r
to z as x increases from x
r
to x
u
.
Lemma 3.6 is a logical consequence of Lemma 3.4 and Denition 3.5; Proposition 3.7 follows from Lemma
3.6; so their proofs will be skipped.
Proof of Lemma 3.8. Choose < b
1
< b
2
b = a a
2
< a
1
< . Let conguration
X
1
= x
d
I
A1
+ xI
B1
+ x
u
I
D1
correspond to the pair (a
1
, b
1
) where A
1
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
1
_
, B
1
=
_
: b
1
d
P
dP
() a
1
_
, D
1
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() < b
1
_
. Similarly, let conguration X
2
= x
d
I
A2
+xI
B2
+
x
u
I
D2
correspond to the pair (a
2
, b
2
). Dene z
1
= E[X
1
] and z
2
= E[X
2
]. Since both X
1
and X
2
satisfy the
capital constraint, we have
x
d
P(A
1
) +x
P(B
1
) +x
u
P(D
1
) = x
r
= x
d
P(A
2
) +x
P(B
2
) +x
u
P(D
2
).
This simplies to the equation
(18) (x x
d
)
P(A
2
A
1
) = (x
u
x)
P(D
2
D
1
).
22
Then
z
2
z
1
= x
d
P(A
2
) +xP(B
2
) +x
u
P(D
2
) x
d
P(A
1
) xP(B
1
) x
u
P(D
1
)
= (x
u
x)P(D
2
D
1
) (x x
d
)P(A
2
A
1
)
= (x
u
x)P(D
2
D
1
) (x
u
x)
P(D
2
D
1
)
P(A
2
A
1
)
P(A
2
A
1
)
= (x
u
x)
P(D
2
D
1
)
_
P(D
2
D
1
)
P(D
2
D
1
)
P(A
2
A
1
)
P(A
2
A
1
)
_
= (x
u
x)
P(D
2
D
1
)
_
_
_
_
_
b1
d
P
dP
()<b2
dP
d
P
()d
P()
P(D
2
D
1
)
a2<
d
P
dP
()a1
dP
d
P
()d
P()
P(A
2
A
1
)
_
_
_
_
(x
u
x)
P(D
2
D
1
)
_
1
b
2
1
a
2
_
> 0.
Suppose the pair (a
1
, b
1
) is chosen so that X
1
satises the budget constraint
E[X
1
] = x
r
. For any given
> 0, choose b
2
b
1
small enough such that P(D
2
D
1
)
xux
. Now choose a
2
such that a
2
< a
1
and
equation (18) is satised. Then X
2
also satises the budget constraint
E[X
2
] = x
r
, and
z
2
z
1
= (x
u
x)P(D
2
D
1
) (x x
d
)P(A
2
A
1
) (x
u
x)P(D
2
D
1
) .
We conclude that the expected value of the ThreeLine conguration decreases continuously as b decreases
and a increases.
In the following we provide the main proof of the paper: the optimality of the ThreeLine conguration.
Proof of Proposition 3.9. Denote =
d
P
dP
. According to Lemma 3.8, there exists a ThreeLine congu
ration
X = x
d
I
A
+xI
B
+x
u
I
D
that satises the General Constraints:
E[X] = x
d
P(A) +xP(B) +x
u
P(D) = z,
E[X] = x
d
P(A) +x
P(B) +x
u
P(D) = x
r
.
where
A = : () > a , B =
_
:
b () a
_
, D =
_
: () <
b
_
.
23
As standard for convex optimization problems, if we can nd a pair of Lagrange multipliers 0 and R
such that
X is the solution to the minimization problem
(19) inf
XF, x
d
Xxu
E[(x X)
+
X X] = E[(x
X)
+
X
X],
then
X is the solution to the constrained problem
inf
XF, x
d
Xxu
E[(x X)
+
], s.t. E[X] z,
E[X] = x
r
.
Dene
=
b
a
b
, =
1
a
b
.
Then (19) becomes
inf
XF, x
d
Xxu
E
_
(x X)
+
+
b
a
b
X
_
.
Choose any X T where x
d
X x
u
, and denote G = : X() x and L = : X() < x.
Note that
b
a
b
> 1 on set A, 0
b
a
b
1 on set B,
b
a
b
< 0 on set D. Then the dierence
E
_
(x X)
+
+
b
a
b
X
_
E
_
(x
X)
+
+
b
a
X
_
= E
_
(x X)I
L
+
b
a
b
X (I
A
+ I
B
+ I
D
)
_
E
_
(x x
d
) I
A
+
b
a
b
(x
d
I
A
+xI
B
+x
u
I
D
)
_
= E
_
(x X)I
L
+
_
b
a
b
(X x
d
) (x x
d
)
_
I
A
+
b
a
b
(X x) I
B
+
b
a
b
(X x
u
) I
D
_
E
_
(x X)I
L
+ (X x) I
A
+
b
a
b
(X x) I
B
+
b
a
b
(X x
u
) I
D
_
= E
_
(x X) (I
LA
+ I
LB
+ I
LD
) + (X x) (I
AG
+ I
AL
) +
b
a
b
(X x) I
B
+
b
a
b
(X x
u
) I
D
_
= E
_
(x X) (I
LB
+ I
LD
) + (X x) I
AG
+
b
a
b
(X x) I
B
+
b
a
b
(X x
u
) I
D
_
= E
_
(x X) (I
LB
+ I
LD
) + (X x) I
AG
+
b
a
b
(X x) (I
BG
+ I
BL
) +
b
a
b
(X x
u
) (I
DG
+ I
DL
)
_
= E
_
(x X)
_
1
b
a
b
_
I
BL
+
_
x X +
b
a
b
(X x
u
)
_
I
DL
+ (X x) I
AG
+
b
a
b
(X x) I
BG
+
b
a
b
(X x
u
) I
DG
_
0.
The last inequality holds because each term inside the expectation is greater than or equal to zero.
Theorem 3.10 is a direct consequence of Lemma 3.6, Proposition 3.7, and Proposition 3.9.
24
Proof of Lemma 3.13. The convexity of v(x) is a simple consequence of its denition (4). Realvalued
convex functions on R are continuous on its interior of the domain, so v(x) is continuous on R.
Proof of Proposition 3.14. For z (z
inf
xR
(v(x) x)
is the minimum of the following ve subproblems after applying Theorem 3.10:
Case 1
1
inf
(,x
d
]
(v(x) x) =
1
inf
(,x
d
]
(x) = x
d
;
Case 2
1
inf
[x
d
,xz1]
(v(x) x) =
1
inf
[x
d
,xz1]
(x) = x
z1
x
d
;
Case 3
1
inf
(xz1,xz2)
(v(x) x) =
1
inf
(xz1,xz2)
((x x
d
)P(A
x
) x) ;
Case 4
1
inf
[xz2,xu]
(v(x) x) =
1
inf
[xz2,xu]
((x x
d
)P(A
x
) x) ;
Case 5
1
inf
[xu,)
(v(x) x) =
1
inf
[xu,)
_
(x x
d
)P(
A) + (x x
u
)P(
B) x
_
.
Obviously, Case 2 dominates Case 1 in the sense that its minimum is lower. In Case 3, by the continuity
of v(x), we have
1
inf
(xz1,xz2)
((x x
d
)P(A
x
) x)
1
((x
z1
x
d
)P(A
xz1
) x
z1
) = x
z1
.
The last equality comes from the fact P(A
xz1
) = 0: As in Lemma 3.8, we know that when x = x
z1
, the Three
Line conguration X = x
d
I
A
+ xI
B
+ x
u
I
D
degenerates to the TwoLine conguration X = x
z1
I
B
+ x
u
I
D
25
where a
xz1
= . Therefore, Case 3 dominates Case 2. In Case 5,
1
inf
[xu,)
(v(x) x) =
1
inf
[xu,)
_
(x x
d
)P(
A) + (x x
u
)P(
B) x
_
=
1
inf
[xu,)
_
(1 )x x
d
P(
A) x
u
P(
B)
_
=
1
_
(1 )x
u
x
d
P(
A) x
u
P(
B)
_
=
1
_
(x
u
x
d
)P(
A) x
u
_
inf
[xz2,xu]
((x x
d
)P(A
x
) x) .
Therefore, Case 4 dominates Case 5. When x [x
z2
, x
u
] and ess sup
d
P
dP
>
1
. Since we restrict z (z
, z] where
z
= z by Denition 3.12 in the rst case, we need not consider this case in the current proposition. In the
second case, Lemma 3.4 implies that x
< x
z2
(because z > z
inf
[xz2,xu]
((x x
d
)P(A
x
) x) =
1
((x
z2
x
d
)P(A
xz2
) x
z2
)
inf
(xz1,xz2)
((x x
d
)P(A
x
) x) .
Therefore, Case 3 dominates Case 4. We have shown that Case 3 actually provides the globally inmum:
1
inf
xR
(v(x) x) =
1
inf
(xz1,xz2)
(v(x) x).
Now we focus on x (x
z1
, x
z2
), where X(x) = x
d
I
Ax
+xI
Bx
+x
u
I
Dx
satises the general constraints:
E[X(x)] = x
d
P(A
x
) +xP(B
x
) +x
u
P(D
x
) = z,
E[X(x)] = x
d
P(A
x
) +x
P(B
x
) +x
u
P(D
x
) = x
r
,
and the denition for sets A
x
, B
x
and D
x
are
A
x
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
x
_
, B
x
=
_
: b
x
d
P
dP
() a
x
_
, D
x
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() < b
x
_
.
Note that v(x) = (x x
d
)P(A
x
) (see Theorem 3.10). Since P(A
x
) + P(B
x
) + P(D
x
) = 1 and
P(A
x
) +
26
P(B
x
) +
P(D
x
) = 1, we rewrite the capital and return constraints as
x z = (x x
d
)P(A
x
) + (x x
u
)P(D
x
),
x x
r
= (x x
d
)
P(A
x
) + (x x
u
)
P(D
x
).
Dierentiating both sides with respect to x, we get
P(B
x
) = (x x
d
)
dP(A
x
)
dx
+ (x x
u
)
dP(D
x
)
dx
,
P(B
x
) = (x x
d
)
d
P(A
x
)
dx
+ (x x
u
)
d
P(D
x
)
dx
.
Since
d
P(A
x
)
dx
= a
x
dP(A
x
)
dx
,
d
P(D
x
)
dx
= b
x
dP(D
x
)
dx
,
we get
dP(A
x
)
dx
=
P(B
x
) bP(B
x
)
(x x
d
)(a b)
.
Therefore,
(v(x) x)
= P(A
x
) + (x x
d
)
dP(A
x
)
dx
= P(A
x
) +
P(B
x
) bP(B
x
)
a b
.
When the above derivative is zero, we arrive to the rst order Euler condition
P(A
x
) +
P(B
x
) bP(B
x
)
a b
= 0.
To be precise, the above dierentiation should be replaced by lefthand and righthand derivatives as detailed
in the Proof for Corollary 2.8 in Li and Xu [22]. But the rst order Euler condition will turn out to be the
same because we have assumed that the RadonNikod ym derivative
d
P
dP
has continuous distribution.
To nish this proof, we need to show that there exists an x (x
z1
, x
z2
) where the rst order Euler
condition is satised. From Lemma 3.8, we know that as x x
z1
, a
x
, and P(A
x
) 0. Therefore,
lim
xxz1
(v(x) x)
= < 0.
27
As x x
z2
, b
x
0, and P(D
x
) 0. Therefore,
lim
xxz2
(v(x) x)
= P(A
xz2
)
P(A
c
xz2
)
a
xz2
.
This derivative coincides with the derivative of the value function of the TwoLine conguration that is
optimal on the interval x [x
z2
, x
u
] provided in Theorem 3.10 (see Proof for Corollary 2.8 in Li and Xu [22]).
Again when x [x
z2
, x
u
] and ess sup
d
P
dP
>
1
. Since we restrict z (z
, z] where z
< x
z2
(because z > z
P(A
c
xz2
)
a
xz2
< 0.
We have just shown that there exist some x
(x
z1
, x
z2
) such that (v(x) x)
[
x=x
= 0. By the convexity
of v(x) x, this is the point where it obtains the minimum value. Now
CV aR(X
) =
1
(v(x
) x
)
=
1
((x
x
d
)P(A
) x
) .
Proof of Theorem 3.15. Case 3 and 4 are already proved in Theorem 3.11 and Proposition 3.14. In Case
1 where ess sup
d
P
dP
1
and z = x
r
, X = x
r
is both feasible and optimal by Theorem 3.11. In Case 2, x
arbitrary > 0. We will look for a TwoLine solution X
= x
I
A
+
I
B
with the right parameters a
, x
] = x
P(A
) +
P(B
) = z, (20)
E[X
] = x
P(A
) +
P(B
) = x
r
, (21)
where
A
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
, B
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() a
_
,
28
and produces a CVaR level close to the lower bound:
CV aR(X
) CV aR(x
r
) + = x
r
+.
First, we choose x
= x
r
. To nd the remaining two parameters a
and
) +x
r
P(B
) = x
r
,
x
r
P(A
) +x
r
P(B
) = x
r
,
and conclude that it is equivalent to nd a pair of a
and
) + (
x
r
)P(B
) = ,
P(A
) + (
x
r
)
P(B
) = 0,
where we denote = z x
r
. If we can nd a solution a
to the equation
(22)
P(B
)
P(B
)
=
+
,
then
= x
r
+
P(A
P(B
)
,
and we have the solutions for equations (20) and (21). It is not dicult to prove that the fraction
P(B)
P(B)
increases continuously from 0 to 1 as a increases from 0 to
1
(0,
1
)
where (22) is satised. By denition (3),
CV aR
(X
) =
1
inf
xR
_
E[(x X
)
+
] x
_
_
E[(x
)
+
] x
_
= x
.
The dierence
CV aR
(X
) CV aR(x
r
) x
+x
r
= .
Under Assumption 2.1, the solution in Case 2 is almost surely unique, the result is proved.
29
Proof of Theorem 3.17. Case 1 and 3 are obviously true in light of Theorem 3.16. The proof for Case 2
is similar to that in the Proof of Theorem 3.15, so we will not repeat it here. Since E[X
] = z
< z in case
4, CV aR(X
) is only a lower bound in this case. We rst show that it is the true inmum obtained in Case
4. Fix arbitrary > 0. We will look for a ThreeLine solution X
= x
d
I
A
+ x
I
B
+
I
D
with the right
parameters a
, b
, x
] = x
d
P(A
) +x
P(B
) +
P(D
) = z, (23)
E[X
] = x
d
P(A
) +x
P(B
) +
P(D
) = x
r
, (24)
where
A
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() > a
_
, B
=
_
: b
P
dP
() a
_
, D
=
_
:
d
P
dP
() < b
_
,
and produces a CVaR level close to the lower bound:
CV aR(X
) CV aR(X
) +.
First, we choose a
= a
, A
= A
, x
= x
, where we dene =
P(A
)
. To nd the remaining two
parameters b
and
] = x
d
P(A
) +x
P(B
) = z
E[X
] = x
d
P(A
) +x
P(B
) = x
r
,
and conclude that it is equivalent to nd a pair of b
and
) P(D
)) + (
)P(D
) = ,
(
P(B
)
P(D
)) + (
)
P(D
) = 0,
where we denote = z z
. If we can nd a solution b
to the equation
(25)
P(D
)
P(D
)
=
P(B
+P(B
)
,
30
then
= x
+
_
P(B
P(D
)
1
_
,
and we have the solutions for equations (23) and (24). It is not dicult to prove that the fraction
P(D)
P(D)
increases continuously from 0 to
P(B
)
P(B
)
as b increases from 0 to a
(0, a
(X
) =
1
inf
xR
_
E[(x X
)
+
] x
_
_
E[(x
)
+
] x
_
=
1
(x
x
d
)P(A
) x
.
The dierence
CV aR
(X
) CV aR(X
)
1
(x
x
d
)P(A
) x
(x
x
d
)P(A
) +x
=
1
(x
x
d
)(P(A
) P(A
)) +
_
1
P(A
_
(x
) = .
Under Assumption 2.1, the solution in Case 4 is almost surely unique, the result is proved.
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