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Operating Manual

B025D201-00.INDD Edition 07/2005

a-eberle

Transformer Monitoring Module


TMM
Software-Version 2.07

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual Inhaltsverzeichnis 1


1.1
1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3

TMM

Basics of the TMM Transformer Monitoring Module...................... 4


Monitoring ....................................................................................................... 8
Oil level (TC/transformer) ........................................................................................... 9 Oil temperatures (TC/transformer ............................................................................. 9 Winding currents and winding temperature ................................................................ 9

1.2
1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3

Lifetime ........................................................................................................... 9
Operating time -1........................................................................................................ 9 Operating time -2...................................................................................................... 10 Reduction in lifetime ................................................................................................. 11

1.3 1.4
1.4.1
1.4.1.1 1.4.1.2 1.4.1.3 1.4.1.4

Statistics ........................................................................................................ 12 Setup ............................................................................................................. 12


Setup 1: Regulation .................................................................................................. 12
Transformer parameters ........................................................................................................ 12 Regulation basis .................................................................................................................... 13 Temperature limits.................................................................................................................. 13 Parameterisation of the control inputs and outputs................................................................ 14

1.4.2
1.4.2.1

Analogue inputs ....................................................................................................... 15


Analogue inputs and outputs ................................................................................................. 15

1.4.3
1.4.3.1 1.4.3.2 1.4.3.3 1.4.3.4

Setup 2: Regulation .................................................................................................. 16


Type of Cooling ..................................................................................................................... 16 Fan assignment ..................................................................................................................... 16 Number of fans ...................................................................................................................... 16 Current measurement ............................................................................................................ 16

1.4.4
1.4.4.1 1.4.4.2 1.4.4.3 1.4.4.4

Setup 3: Alarm .......................................................................................................... 17


Water contents ....................................................................................................................... 17 Gas contents .......................................................................................................................... 17 Oil temperature (TC) .............................................................................................................. 18 Oil level (TC) .......................................................................................................................... 18

1.4.5
1.4.5.1 1.4.5.2 1.4.5.3 1.4.5.4

Setup 4: Oil alarm limits ........................................................................................... 18


Oil level (transformer) ............................................................................................................ 18 Oil temperature (alarm) .......................................................................................................... 18 Winding temperature (alarm) ................................................................................................. 19 Winding temperature (triggering) ........................................................................................... 19

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual Inhaltsverzeichnis


1.4.6
1.4.6.1 1.4.6.2 1.4.6.3 1.4.6.4

TMM

Setup 5: Lifetime .................................................................................................... 19


Transformer lifetime ............................................................................................................... 19 Tap-changer lifetime............................................................................................................... 19 Oil pump................................................................................................................................. 20 Fans ....................................................................................................................................... 20

2.0

Upgrade of analogue inputs and outputs (only TMM 03) ............ 21

3.0
3.1 3.2 3.3

Increasing hardware system resources ....................................... 23


Additional analogue inputs and outputs ........................................................ 23 Additional binary inputs and outputs ............................................................. 24 Combinations of analogue and binary interfaces .......................................... 24

4.0
4.1

Temperature measurement ......................................................... 25


Accuracy ....................................................................................................... 25

5.0

Scope of delivery ......................................................................... 25

6.0

Guarantee ................................................................................... 25

7.0

Test report ................................................................................... 26

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
1.0 Basics of the TMM 03 Transformer Monitoring Module
Power transformers are key components for electricity supply systems. The breakdown of a transformer not only brings a lot of economical disadvantages for the energy supplier, but can also result in extreme losses for the consumer. For this reason, close monitoring of the transformer is recommended as well as a recording of its temperature curve (thermal image) to gain information on the present load and the remaining lifetime. This task can be solved - based on IEC standards - by using electronic measuring and calculation equipment. This operating manual describes how the software and hardware of a REG-D can be upgraded to enable TMM functionality in addition to performing its role as a voltage regulator. Also the steps required to set up the transformer monitoring functions are detailed. The temperature of the oil is an important measurement quantity for the determination of the hotspot temperature of the winding as is the value of

TMM
the current passing through the winding. The oil temperature can be supplied to the regulator either as a mA signal or directly as a PT100 signal. Appropriate input modules are available for both types of signal. If the oil level and other quantities such as the humidity, H2 or CO content of the oil are to be measured, the appropriate analogue input channels must be available. These channels can be added later to the REG-D. Alterations at a later point are not allowed due to security and guarantee reasons, therefore it is not possible to upgrade the REG-DA. If the REG-DA is to be equipped with transformer monitoring, this should be specied at the time of ordering. NB: It is not possible to upgrade REG-DA at a later date therefore if TMM is required this must be specied at time of ordering. For safety and warranty purposes disassembly of REG-DA is not permitted. Signicant parameters of the transformer are monitored in monitoring mode. Besides the statistics for the tap-changer operations and the current, the oil temperature can also be measured. The hot-spot

Temp-Trafo

I
REG-DA
Status
SERVICE BLOCKED

U
a-eberle
F1 F2 F3 F4

REG - D
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
F5

<U >U >I

Fan 1 to fan 6

Tapchanger (TC)

Oil-Temp (0/4...20mA) Hot-Spot-Temp (0/4...20mA)


Indicator

AUTO

local remote

AUTO

REMOTE

ESC

MENU
LOCAL

COM1

ESC

MENU

ACK

Hydrocal Syprotec etc.

Fibre optic

DNP 3.0 IEC 101 IEC 103 IEC 104 MODBUS SPA-BUS LON Profibus DP

Figure 1 Theory of Operation The addition of TMM enables the regulator to monitor a variety of transformer parameters, display these and output the measurements to scada and/or drive separate displays
A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG 4

Operating Manual
temperature according to CEI/IEC 354:1991 is calculated from the oil temperature and the current and then extrapolated to determine the reduction in the lifetime of the transformer. VDE-0536/3.77 corresponds to the German version of IEC 60354. Up to 6 cooling levels can be activated depending on the winding temperature. The system monitors the operating times of the fans and controls the individual fan groups so that the duration for which they are switched on is as balanced as possible when the whole operating time is considered. Each individual fan can be assigned to a specied cooling level, if desired. Additional alarms such as Buchholz alarm and/or Buchholz tripping can be monitored by the regulator as binary input signals, and then be displayed and processed for SCADA systems (see Figure 1). The following communication protocols are available for REG-D and REG-DA. IEC 60870-5-101 IEC 60870-5-103 IEC 60870-5-104 DNP 3.0 IEC 61850 MODBUS SPABUS The thermal characteristic of a transformer can be displayed diagrammatically (see gure 2). Please note that this is a simplication of a very complex situation. The following assumptions are required: a) the oil temperature inside the tank increases linearly from bottom to top b) the average temperature of the winding also increases linearly, parallel to the oil temperature rise with a constant temperature difference gr (rated gradient) from bottom to top c) the hot-spot temperature (P) which is higher than the winding temperature at the top (hot) end of the winding. The temperature increase between the hot-spot in the winding and the oil temperature at the top in the tank is dened as the constant Hgr (hot-spot temperature to top oil gradient).
5

TMM
Research has shown that the hot-spot factor H may vary from 1.0 to 2.1 depending on transformer size, short-circuit impedance and winding design. The abbreviations used in Figure 1 are explained below. Measured values are indicated with a lled square ( ), calculated values with a lled circle ( ).
Y/mm Hgr R

A B gr C

P Q

D E

x/k

Figure 2

A: Temperature of the upper oil level B: Temperature of the oil in the transformer tank at top end of the winding C: Temperature of the oil in the tank in the middle of the winding D: Temperature at the bottom of the winding E: Represents bottom of the tank P: Hot-spot temperature Q: Average winding temperature R: Points which one assumes to have the same temperature X: The X-axis of the diagram indicates the temperature Y: The Y-axis indicates the relative position of each point There is only one single phase current input available in the standard version for calculating the hot-spot temperature. In most cases, this leads to good results because one can assume that the transformer is approximately evenly loaded on all three phases. For this operation case, the following applies: I1 ~ I2 ~ I3 The calculation of the hot-spot and the temperature, as well as the controlling of the cooling devices, is achieved as shown in Figure 3.
A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
The oil temperature and the operating current are the important measured quantities for estimating and/or calculating the hot-spot or hot-spot temperature h. The values of the measured oil temperature together with the current and characteristic values of the transformer are put into the equation to obtain a thermal image of the transformer. Based on this calculation, the hot-spot temperature as well as the reduction in lifetime of the insulation can be predicted. Up to 6 banks of fans, an oil pump and a heater can be controlled to regulate the temperature of the transformer. The particular outputs to be chosen for controlling the fans and the inputs through which the temperature signals are to be transferred to the voltage

TMM
regulator is carried out using the menu guided parameters. Standard parameter settings are supplied and only small changes need to be made if necessary. If additional analogue inputs or outputs and/or additional binary inputs or outputs are required, interface components (ANA-D and BIN-D) can be connected to the REG-D voltage regulator via COM3. This allows an increase in the hardware resources to the standard unit (see 4.0 below). The hardware conguration must be specied at the time of ordering for the REG-D. Providing the appropriate transformer data is used, the utilization of the transformer can be increased signicantly, for a relatively low investment cost, by using the TMM function.

Block diagram of the calculation of the hot-spot temperature and the control of the cooling levels.

HgrKy h

h(t)

+
hp

h display and lose of life calculation

(cooling level comparison, time delay)

fan management

Smart Control on / off

Figure 3

K 0 Hgr h h hp y

: : : : : : :

Load factor = I / IN Oil temperature (measured) Hot-spot temperature to top oil gradient Hot-spot temperature increase Hot-spot temperature Expected hot-spot temperature Winding exponent
6

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual

TMM

Direct connection

lower

raise

U
a-eberle

oil temp. (transf.) 0/4...20mA

REG-D
Status <U Display X = 78,15 y = 72,95 B = 68 mm H = 68 mm

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

Oil temperature (0.4 ... 20mA)

>U >I

Fan 1 to fan 6

tapchanger
Hot-point temperature (0.4 ... 20mA) Display on transformer

AUTO

local remote

ESC

MENU

COM1

Figure 4

If a temperature measurement transducer is already available for measuring the oil temperature, the signal can be supplied to the regulator via a mA input. Alternatively if the temperature sensor is a 3 wire Pt100 /RTD type then direct connection is possible with the appropriate option installed. If a separate temperature display is to be operated, both the hot-spot temperature and the oil temperature can be supplied as a mA output. Up to six fan groups, an oil pump and a heater can be controlled as a function of the oil or hot-spot temperature.

Direct connection

lower

raise

U
a-eberle

oil temp. (transf.) 0/4...20mA


oil temperature (TC)

REG-D
Status <U Display X = 78,15 y = 72,95 B = 68 mm H = 68 mm

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

0/4...20mA

>U >I

Fan 1 to fan 6

Direct connection
AUTO
local remote

tapchanger

ESC

MENU

COM1

hot-spot temperature

Figure 5

A second mA or PT100 input must be available if the oil temperature in the tap-changer tank is also to be measured.
7 A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual

TMM

Direct connection

lower

raise

U
a-eberle

oil temp. (transf.) 0/4...20mA


oil temperature (TC)

REG-D
Status <U Display X = 78,15 y = 72,95 B = 68 mm H = 68 mm

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

0/4...20mA

>U >I

Fan 1 to fan 6

tapchanger

Direct connection oil level 0/4...20mA (transformer)

AUTO

local remote

ESC

MENU

COM1

oil level (tapchanger) 0/4...20mA hot-spot temperature

Figure 6 In addition, the oil level of the transformer and/or the tap-changer can be measured and supplied to the regulator. The information can be shown on the regulator display and also output to a SCADA system via a serial interface (see Figure 1).

1.1 Monitoring
If the REG-D voltage regulator is upgraded, the TMM rmware module must be loaded rst. Please read the readme le on the CD or oppy disk and follow the instructions. Then continue with the parameter settings as described below. In the main menu (press <Menu>), select the monitor function with the <F4> function key.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

or the winding temperature is selected as the basis for the temperature regulation.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

Each transformer is usually tted with several fan groups according to its type. As the fans have similar cooling capacities, a higher level of cooling can be achieved by operating several fans at once. Cooling level 3 means that three fan groups are working at the same time. Cooling level 1 indicates that only one fan is working. Press to show the next monitor screen. Depending on what has been selected as the basis of the temperature regulation either the oil temperatures of the transformer and the tap-changer is shown or the hot-spot temperature of the winding and the present current in the winding is shown.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

Press F1 to select the monitor indication (transformer status) in which either the oil temperature or the winding temperature are displayed numerically and as a bar chart. Information on the present cooling level is also displayed. The oil temperature is always shown when the oil temperature is selected as the basis of the temperature regulation for the control of the fans and oil pumps. The winding temperature is displayed when either the Smart Fan Control (SFC) function
A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG 8

Operating Manual
Press once more to either display the oil temperature in the transformer and in the tap-changer or the hot-spot temperature in the winding and the current in the winding, depending on which has been chosen as the basis for temperature regulation.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

TMM
You can reach the main MONITOR menu from the present menu by pressing the < ESC > button. The number of times you need to press < ESC > depends on which menu is currently displayed.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

By pressing again the next screen of the monitor function (windings ) provides information on the oil level of the transformer and the tap-changer tanks (TC tap-changer).

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

1.1.1 Oil level (TC/transformer)

The oil levels of the transformer and the tap-changer can only be displayed if the voltage regulator is supplied with level sensors on both the transformer and the tap-changer. In the simplest case, the oil level is transmitted to the voltage regulator via analogue signals. The necessary scaling can be carried out in the Setup menu. The monitoring of the oil level can also be displayed as a graphic chart via a binary signal. If limit values are violated, the bar ashes. A black column which is not ashing indicates oil level O.K..

1.2.1 Operating time -1

In the Operating time 1 display mode the acccumulated operating times of the transformer, the tap-changer and the oil pump are indicated. The operating times for the transformer and tapchanger usually vary because in the case of the tap-changer, it is only the time that the motor drive in operation that is measured. The time in which the tap-changer is in operation is used as an indicator for the running time of the tap-changer motor drive. Note: the counter for the operating time of the tap-changer is only activated if a binary input has been congured (07: tap-changer in operation). However, if there is no Tap-changer in operation signal available from the transformer even though an input has been congured, the counter remains unchanged. If no binary input has been congured, the maximum time set in the tap-changer in SETUP 5 (functions..., F1) will be used. In this case, the set time of the counter for the lifetime of the tap-changer will be incremented whenever the regulator issues a raise or a lower command. The operating times of the transformers are normally recorded by equating one voltage on the secondary side with the information transformer in operation. This procedure can lead to inaccurate results depending on the installation site of the voltage transformer (see Figure 7).
9 A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

1.1.2 Oil temperatures (TC/transformer)

The temperature can either be displayed as bars or numerically. With the help of the setup menue the maximum temperatures for the transformer and the tap-changer can be set. If the temperature in the tap-changer tank is required, a mA value has to be supplied to the voltage regulator via an analogue input.

1.1.3 Winding currents and winding temperature

The windings display mode provides information on the present current circulating through the windings and the hot-spot temperature calculated from it.

1.2. Lifetime

The LIFETIME menu in which all lifetimes (transformer, fan, pump) are summarised, can be reached from the main menu MONITOR by pressing < F2 > to access the LIFETIME sub-menu.

Operating Manual

TMM

Uoperating time
REG-D
a-eberle

REG-D
F1

a-eberle

T1

Status <U >U Display X = 78,15 y = 72,95 B = 68 mm H = 68 mm

F2 F3 F4 F5

T2

T1

Status <U >U >I Display X = 78,15 y = 72,95 B = 68 mm H = 68 mm

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

T2

>I

AUTO
local remote

AUTO

local remote

ESC

MENU

COM1

ESC

MENU

COM1

Umeas+ Uoperating time

Umeas+

SS

SS

Figure 7 When measuring the primary voltage of the transformer, correct results are supplied in each case. With the help of the Three-winding transformer rmware feature it is possible to activate a second voltage channel which measures the primary voltage. The second voltage input is always available for this task when the regulator is equipped with hardware feature M3 or M9. In all other cases the voltage regulator needs to be returned to the manufacturer for an upgrade if measurements with the primary voltage are intended. If the three-winding transformer software feature is activated (only possible in connection with the hardware characteristic M3 or M9!), the operating time is calculated from the primary voltage. However, if the three-winding transformer feature is not activated, the operating time is deduced from the secondary voltage of the transformer. This can lead to faulty results in certain cases depending on the installation site of the voltage transformer as mentioned above. For a better understanding Figure 7 shows an application with two transformers feeding on one bus bar. If the voltage transformer is installed near the bus bar, the regulator still measures the voltage even when transformer T1 is switched off on the secondary side, since the bus bar and thus the voltage transformer are supplied by the second activated transformer T2.

Figure 8 In Figure 8, however, the control voltage is measured on the secondary side whereas the voltage for calculation of the operating time is measured on the primary side of the voltage transformer. This version gives a correct calculation of the operating time in any case. The I2t quantity provides a method for judging the amount of contact erosion in the tap-changer. Two parameters are required in order to measure it - the arc current and the duration of the arc, t. The current that is owing at the time of the tap change is used as the current I, and the time t can be entered for each tap-changer. Please note that it is very difcult to measure the changeover time accurately, and it is also not constant for the duration of the tap-changers lifetime. Despite this, the value of I2t enable the condition of the tap-changer to be deduced qualitatively. If the value of t is set to one, the value of I2t simply corresponds to I2 (refer also to 1.4.3.4.3). If the oil pump is controlled by the regulator, the operating time of the oil pump is calculated and displayed in the menu.

1.2.2 Operating time -2

In operating time -2, the different operating times of the fans are recorded. Fan operation is controlled by an algorithm that ensures that the fan with the least total operating time is switched on. In this way, all fans are used almost equally. In the menu, however, certain fans can also be allocated to a specic cooling group. However, the oil pump is always connected to and therefore controlled by the same output relay.
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A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
1.2.3 Reduction in lifetime
The reduction in lifetime information derives from the formula stipulated in CEI/IEC 354 / VDE 0536. Reduction in lifetime should not be mixed up with the previously described operating times. The Operating time sub-menu only records the time of the transformer ON Load, whereas the thermal ageing is taken into consideration in the reduction in lifetime. The relative thermal ageing of the insulation which takes both temperature and time into consideration is determined by the equation of Arrhenius: Lifetime = e (+) / T and T constants determined by tests with the concerning insulation material. thermodynamic temperature in K

TMM
These temperature conditions correspond to the normal ageing of the insulation. From equation (1) with hN = 98 C the following equation can be formed with a common logarithm. V = relative reduction in lifetime = 10(Qh - 98) / 19.93 (2) This context is shown in the table below: h in C 80 86 92 98 104 110 116 122 128 134 140 Relative reduction in lifetime V 0.125 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 16.0 32.0 64.0 128.0

Within the temperature range of 80..140 C, the rule according to Arrhenius can be expressed using a simpler relation dened by Montsinger: Lifetime = e -p P is a constant is the temperature in degrees Celsius

According to scientic publications, the transformers reduction in lifetime doubles if the temperature rises by 6 K within a temperature range of 80...140 C. The relative thermal reduction in lifetime at an ambient temperature h compared with the normal reduction in lifetime at an ambient temperature hN can be determined by another equation. V= Reduction in lifetime at h Reduction in lifetime at hN

Example: 10h at 104 C and 14 h at 86 C consume (10 h x 2) + (14 h x 0.25) = 23.5 h Lifetime during a 24 h operation. Please note that the reduction in lifetime can be ignored at a temperature below 80 C. If the load and the ambient temperature are constant, the relative reduction in lifetime is equal to V x t. t means the time under load and V the relative reduction in lifetime from equation (1). Generally, when operating conditions and ambient temperature change, the transformers reduction in lifetime is calculated according to the following equation:


The reference value hN for a transformer is set at 98 C according to CEI/IEC 354 / VDE 0532 part 1/11.71. This temperature corresponds to the operation of a transformer with a nominal power when the cooling medium is at 20 C and the hot-spot temperature is 78 C, i.e. 13 K above the average temperature of 65 C.
11

where

n : is the number of a time interval; N : is the total number of equal time intervals.

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual 1.3


Press < ESC > to return to the main monitor menu. All the tap-changers activities are recorded in Statistics < F3 >.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 F2 F1 F3 F2 F4 F3 F5 F4 F5

TMM
The data is taken from the recordings in STATISTICS 1.

Statistics

1.4 Setup

Press < ESC > to return to the main monitor menu and then press < F5 > to enter the setup.

1.4.1 Setup 1: Regulation

The sub-menus can be accessed using the <F2....F5> keys.

The total number of tap changes (28 in the example) and the total number of tap changes under load (9 in the example) are recorded in STATISTICS 1. This mode also provides information about which tap has been changed and how often. These statistics give detailed information on the transformer setting. Example: If there are only three or four tap positions in use, it usually indicates that either the permissible deviation or the time factor for the control is not optimally adjusted. An improvement in the settings leads to a reduction of the switching operations and therefore to longer maintenance intervals under certain circumstances. The situation shown above can be analysed as follows: 1. The tap-changer was in operation 28 times in total, where only 9 switching operations were carried out under load. 2. The tap-changer is currently in level 0 and a current is owing which is larger than 5% of the set current. Please note: The double arrow symbol turns into a single arrow symbol if the current is below 5% of the nominal current. 3. The control range extends over 3 taps. In single operation with an assumed tap change of 1.0%, the control range will be +/- 1.5%. A second type of display can be selected by pressing < F5 >. The historical graphics in STATISTICS -2 give the operator an idea of the quality of the tap-changes.
A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG 12

1.4.1.1 Transformer parameters


F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

A set of parameters is available for each cooling level. The number of sets depends on how many cooling levels/fan groups have been assigned to the transformer. The number of cooling levels can be set in the menu. To access the next set of parameters for the cooling levels press <F1>.

1.4.1.1.1 Nominal current

The nominal current of the winding may vary depending on the type of cooling. Please note that when measuring the primary current, primary values are also used for the nominal current. The nominal current listed in this menu should not be confused with nominal value of the current that is used for the measurement tasks in the regulator (SETUP 5, F2 etc.). The setting of the nominal current there is either 1A or 5A. The nominal value of the current in connection with the transformer monitoring is the current which can be transferred to the transformer with a certain cooling method. The display for the current can be adjusted between 0..3000A. To enter the corresponding nominal current, rst press < F2 >. Use the function keys < F1..F5> to enter the values. Conrm the input with <enter>.

Operating Manual
1.4.1.1.2 Thermal time constant of the winding

TMM
If there is no data for the winding exponent y available, it is recommended that the values from the norm be used. The norm uses different values for the winding exponent y according to the cooling method for medium and high capacity transformers. Cooling method: y ON... 1.6 OF... 1.6 OD... 2.0

The thermal time constant is a specic characteristic of the transformer and can be obtained from the transformer datasheet. Range of values: 0..50000 s Further information from the manufacturer may be necessary. The time used as the time constant of the winding is that which, when multiplied by 5, then corresponds to the time at which the hot-spot has reached its steady statec value. Example: a time constant of 3000 seconds implies that the stationary nal value of the hot-spot temperature will be reached after 5 x 3000 s = 15 000 s (i.e. approximately 4 hours). The number of sub menus is dependent on the number of specied cooling levels. Cooling level 0 means there is no cooling. Cooling level 0 (Oil pump) is only shown if either ON/OF or ON/OD is specied. The transformer parameters of the corresponding cooling level (fan group) are entered in the Cooling level 1,2,.. menus.

An exponent of 1.6 is recommended for distribution transformers with the ONAN cooling method.

1.4.1.2

Different reference temperatures can be selected for individual fans. Since both the oil temperature and the winding temperature are connected in the formula, both temperatures can principally be used as basis temperatures. The regulation basis can be selected to help the operators to stick to their prefered philosophy. The basis can be selected via F3 in SETUP 1 Regulation. The operator can choose between: Oil(oil temperature which generates the limit value) Winding (winding temperature which generates the limit value) SmrtCtrl (Smart Fan Control). The expected winding temperature is calculated in this mode and used to control the cooling

Regulation basis

1.4.1.1.3 Hot-spot temperature rise Hgr

The hot-spot temperature rise is a specic characteristic of the transformer and can be obtained from the transformer datasheet. Further information from the manufacturer may be necessary. If there is no data for Hgr available, it is recommended that values from the norm be used. The norm provides different values for the hot-spot temperature increase Hgr for medium and large power transformers that should be used according to the type of cooling. Cooling method Hgr ON... 26K OF... 22K OD... 29K

1.4.1.3 Temperature limits

A value of 23 K is recommended for distribution transformers with the ONAN cooling method.

1.4.1.1.4 Winding exponent y

The winding exponent y is a specic characteristic of the transformer and can be obtained from the datasheet. Further information from the manufacturer may be necessary.
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An individual limit value can be set for each cooling level, the heating and the oil pump. The number of menus depend on how many cooling levels/fans are set via the menu (refer to 1.4.3.3). When the temperature exceeds the set limit value, the corresponding fan group will be activated. The limit value can be specied in the range -30 C to 200 C using the F1 to F5 function keys. The selected limit value must be conrmed by pressing < Enter >. To reach the parameter settings for the next cooling level, press <F1>.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
1.4.1.3.1 Time delay
To get a balanced operating prole for the fans, the dened temperature has to exceed its limit value for a certain period of time before the fan is switched on. The time delay can be set to a value between 0900 s. The sensitivity of the fans can be controlled with the help of the time delay. Short temperature increases caused by faulty transfers can be suppressed in this way. 57 : OilstTC-

TMM
(Oil below min value in the tap-changer) 58 : OilstTC- (Oil above max value in the tap-changer) 59 : OilstTC- (Oil below min value in the transformer) 60 : OilstTC- (Oil above max value in the transformer) 61 : Water (Limit value for H2 or humidity exceeded) 62 : Gas (Gas limit value exceeded) 63 : BuchAlm (Buchholz alarm) 64 : BuchTrip (Buchholz trip) 74 : Oil pump (pump on) The assignment of a specic control function (e.g. oil pump or fan group) to a particular relay output must be carried out using the Relay Assignment function on the regulator menu. The parameterisation can naturally also be carried out very easily using the WinREG parameterisation software. The set up of a few relay outputs using combinations of buttons on the regulator is described below to explain the procedure. Example: To program the regulator as follows: The Oil pump should be controlled by relay output 8 on the REG-DA. Fan group 1 via the output relay 9, Fan group 2 via output relay 10 and Fan group 3 via the output relay 11. To do this, press <ESC> repeatedly until you reach the main menu of the regulator. Press the menu keys or the arrow buttons <,> until you reach Setup 5.

1.4.1.3.2 Hysteresis

If the temperature oscillates around the set limit value, the fan would continuously switch itself on and off, if there was no hysteresis applied. As this behaviour would worsen the efciency of the whole system, a hysteresis of some K is recommended. The hysteresis can be set to a value between 030 K.

1.4.1.4

Both the REG-D and the REG-DA voltage regulators can receive various control signals as binary signals and also output control signals via relay outputs. The following input functions are available: 15 : BuchAlm (Buchholz alarm) 16 : BuchTrip (Buchholz trip) 20 : Oil pump (Signal: oil pump is switched on) The Buchholz alarm and Buchholz trip signals must be supplied to the regulator via a separate Buchholz relay and can then be output to a higher-level system via a corresponding control centre coupling. The following output functions are available: 49 : Heater 50 : Cooler 1 51 : Cooler 2 52 : Cooler 3 53 : Cooler 4 54 : Cooler 5 55 : Cooler 6 56 : TempTC (Heater on) (Fan group 1 on) (Fan group 2 on) (Fan group 3 on) (Fan group 4 on) (Fan group 5 on) (Fan group 6 on) (Temperature limit value reached in tap-changer)

Programming/Setupof the control inputs and outputs

F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

In SETUP 5, select the Relay assignments using the F4 function button. Press the <F1> button to display the relay outputs Rel 9 Rel 12. Press <F2> to assign the oil pump output function to a relay. To do this use the function buttons F1, F2, F4, F5
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

14

Operating Manual
to select output function 74: oil pump on, and conrm the selection by pressing enter. The oil pump is now permanently assigned to relay output 9. Proceed in the same manner for output relays 10 and 11. Please note that fan groups 1,2 and 3 are only permanently assigned to the specied relay outputs when xed is selected in the fan assignment menu. If the fans are cyclically controlled, the assignment alters according to the individual fan running times. The set up of the input functions is carried out in the same way by using SETUP 5 of the menu.

TMM
information about this, please refer to the REG-D or REG-DA operating manuals.

1.4.2.1.1 Input and output functions

The assignment of a specic analogue input or output to a specic measurement value is achieved using input and output functions. The following Input functions are available: OFF: ANA: iOilTp-TR: iOilTP-TC: iOilL-TR: iOilL-TC: iWasser: iGas: Switched off, no function Programmable, analogue input is evaluated using background program Oil temperature (transformer) Oil temperature (tap-changer) Oil level (transformer) Oil level (tap-changer) Water in oil Gas in oil

1.4.2 Analogue inputs


F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

The following output functions are available: OFF: ANA: Switched off, no function Programmable, analogue input is evaluated using background program oOilTemp: Oil temperature oWindTemp: Hot-spot temperature of the winding The ANA input function is always selected when a measurement other than those available as standard analogue input functions is to be used. In principle, any physical quantity that can be represented as a mA measurement quantity can be supplied to the regulator, processed and displayed. Naturally, limit values can also be derived from non-standard inputs and output via relays, if that is required. For further information please contact A. Eberle GmbH.

1.4.2.1

The physical quantities of temperature (transformer, tap-changer) or oil level (transformer, tapchanger), water contents, gas in oil etc. can be input to the regulator as mA signals. Each REG-D regulator can be equipped with up to three analogue modules, each of which can in turn be equipped with either two analogue inputs or two analogue outputs. The REG-DA can have up to eight analogue inputs and up to seven analogue outputs. However, the number of channels required must be specied at the time of ordering, since changes to the equipment later are not possible in the eld. The analogue modules can be positioned on any of the available insert locations on the REG-CPU card ( refer page 22.) The regulator automatically detects the type of equipment per terminal and adaptively displays the corresponding menus. The set up of analogue inputs and outputs can be carried out even better using the WinREG parameterisation software. In principle, it can also carried out using the front panel keys. For more
15

Analogue inputs and outputs

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual 1.4.3 Setup 2: Regulation


Setup 2 is reached by pressing the arrow button or the < F1 > button in SETUP 1.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

TMM
level. Based on the operating times, this algorithm ensures a nearly balanced running time for all the fans.

1.4.3.3

1.4.3.1

The following options are available: ON OF OD ON/OF ONAN or ONAF cooling OFAF or OFWF cooling ODAF or ODWF cooling Switching between ON and OF cooling. In this case an oil pump is available. ON/OD : stands for Switching between ON and OD cooling. In this case a device for th targeted control of the ow of the oil is available. When activating the ON/OF and ON/OD types of cooling, there is an additional programming tab for the oil pump in the Transformer parameters and the Temperature limits menus. : : : : stands for stands for stands for stands for

Type of Cooling

Since the number of fan groups varies according to the type of transformer, the present number can be set via the menu. Subsequently, all related menus and settings for fan controlling and life-time monitoring will be changed accordingly. 6 fan groups are available in total, and are designated by the numbers 1: to 6: in the menu.

Number of fans

1.4.3.4

The hot-spot in the transformer is influenced by various transformer parameters (Hg r, y, time constant) and the measurement quantities oil temperature and current through the winding. Different sources of the current measurement are available for the various applications. The required congurations can be carried out in the Current measurement setup.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

Current measurement

1.4.3.4.1 Transformer connection

1.4.3.2

To give the operator the free choice of assigning a certain fan to a certain cooling level or of leaving it up to the system to decide which fan should be activated for which cooling level, the transformer monitoring module offers the following two options: xed and cyclic If the assignment of the fans to a certain cooling level is set in the parameters, fan 1 will always be activated in cooling level 1. Over a long period of operation, the running time of fan 1, and hence its wear and tear, will be very large, whereas the running time and the wear and tear of the higher cooling levels is very small. However, if a cyclic fan assignment is chosen, the regulator decides which fan should be switched on next depending on the cumulated operating times for each cooling
A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG 16

Fan assignment

The CT mounting sub-menu can be used to specify where the current is measured from. If Secondary is chosen, the current that is connected to the 1st transformer set is used for the calculation. If primary is selected, the current at the 2nd transformer set is selected. Primary can only be used if the three-winding transformer characteristic is activated with hardware characteristic M9. Furthermore, the current required to calculate the hot-spot temperature can be supplied via an analogue mA input. If this option is required, please contact A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG.

1.4.3.4.2 Transformer ratio

In order to correctly measure the load of the tapchanger using a secondary current measurement, the current on the primary side is calculated using the transformer ratio of the power transformer. This setting is only required for secondary current measurements.

Operating Manual
1.4.3.4.3 Switching time of tap-changer
The quantity I2t is suitable for the qualitative recording of the contact load in the tap-changer. The current for the calculation of I2t is taken from the continuously measured current, whereas the switching time t is a specic quantity of the tapchanger. If no precise information about the tap-changer is available, a switching time in the range 0.02 to 0.06 s should produce adequate results. Press the <F5> button to enter the guess-timated switching time of the tap-changer. If the time t is set to one, the I2t measurement quantity becomes I2. This is used to estimate the contact load and in certain circumstances it can also provide useful information. The entered information must also be conrmed by pressing <Enter>. 1.4.4.1 Water contents
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

TMM

1.4.4.1.1 Limit value

Species when the alarm signal will be activated. Range of values: 010000 ppm

1.4.4.1.2 Time delay

Species the time delay for the alarm signal. Range of values: 0900 s

1.4.4.1.3 Hysteresis

Species the hysteresis of the switching point. Range of values: 0100 ppm

1.4.4 Setup 3: Alarm

1.4.4.2.

Gas in Oil Concentration.


F1 F2

To reach SETUP 3, press the or the < F1 > key in SETUP 2. SETUP 3 Alarm is provided for the monitoring of the water in Oil and Gas in oil concentrations, as well as for the oil level and the temperature (transformer, tap-changer). With <F2..F5>, additional sub-menus can be selected in which limit values, time delays and hysteresis can be chosen. As the logic of all of the sub-menus is the same, the comments about each SETUP screen are kept to a minimum here. However, please note that specic hardware requirements are needed to enable the regulator to record measured quantities. These are usually a mA signal from an external transducer. The total number of six analogue channels can be extended with analogue interface cards (ANA-D) at any time (see 4.0).
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

F3 F4 F5

1.4.4.2.1 Limit value

Species when the alarm signal will be activated. Range of values: 010000 ppm

1.4.4.2.2 Time delay

Species when the alarm signal will be activated. Range of values: 0900 s

1.4.4.2.3 Hysteresis

Species the hysteresis of the switch point. Range of values: 1100 ppm

17

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
1.4.4.3 Oil temperature (TC)
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

TMM 1.4.5 Setup 4: Oil alarm limits


To reach SETUP 4, press the or the < F1 > key in SETUP 3. Setup 4 can be used to specify the limit values for the oil level (transformer), the oil temperature and the winding temperature.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

1.4.4.3.1 Maximum value

Species when the alarm signal will be activated. Range of values: 0150 C

1.4.5.1

Oil level (transformer)


F1 F2 F3

1.4.4.3.2 Time delay

Species the time delay for the alarm. Range of values: 0900 s

1.4.4.3.3 Hysteresis

F4 F5

Species the hysteresis of the switch point. Range of values: 130 K

1.4.4.4

Oil level (TC


F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

1.4.4.5.1 Minimum value

Species when the alarm signal oil level too low will be activated. Range of values: 0150 %

1.4.4.5.2 Maximum value

Species when the alarm signal oil level too high will be activated. Range of values: 0150 %

1.4.4.4.1 Minimum value

Species when the alarm signal oil level too low will be activated. Range of values: 0150 %

1.4.4.5.3 Time delay

Species the time delay of the alarm signal. Range of values: 0900 s

1.4.4.4.2 Maximum value

1.4.4.5.4 Hysteresis

Species when the alarm signal oil level too high will be activated. Range of values: 0150 %

Species the hysteresis of both switch points. Range of values: 130 %

1.4.5.2

Oil temperature (alarm)


F1 F2 F3

1.4.4.4.3 Time delay

Species the time delay of the alarm signal. Range of values: 0900 s

1.4.4.4.4 Hysteresis

F4 F5

Species the hysteresis of both switch points. Range of values: 130 %

1.4.5.2.1 Limit value

Species the switch point of the alarm signal. Range of values: 0150 C

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

18

Operating Manual
1.4.5.2.2 Time delay
Species the time delay of the alarm signal. Range of values: 0900 s

TMM 1.4.6 Setup 5: Lifetime


To reach SETUP 5, press the or the < F1 > key in SETUP 4. The Lifetime sub-menu enables users to enter the maximum lifetime and the present total operating time of the various devices. This is required when the monitoring system is to be connected to a transformer already in operation. The Lifetime parameters in this menu can be adjusted accordingly if single components are replaced.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

1.4.5.2.3 Hysteresis

Species the hysteresis of the switch point. Range of values: 130 K

1.4.5.3

Winding temperature (alarm)


F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

1.4.5.3.1 Limit value

1.4.6.1

Transformer lifetime
F1 F2 F3

Species when the alarm signal will be activated. Range of values: 0200 C

1.4.5.3.2 Time delay

F4 F5

Species the time delay of the alarm signal. Range of values: 0900 s

1.4.5.3.3 Hysteresis

Species the hysteresis of the switch point. Range of values: 130 K

The expected maximum lifetime (refer to the manufacturers details) can be entered via <F3>. Range of values: 0..999999h

1.4.6.1.1 Maximum lifetime

1.4.5.4

Winding temperature (triggering)


F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

1.4.6.1.2 Elapsed operating time

This can be used to adjust the number of operating hours of the transformer (see 1.2.1). The elapsed operating time parameter becomes important when the TMM system is installed on existing transformers that have already been in service a number of years. In connection with revisions both parameters have to be adjusted if necessary. Range of values: 0..999999h

1.4.6.1.3 Elapsed operating time (IEC)


1.4.5.4.1 Limit value Species when the alarm will be activated. Range of values: 0200 C

This can be used to adjust the operating time according to IEC specications.

1.4.6.2

Tap-changer lifetime
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

1.4.5.4.2 Time delay

Species the time delay of the alarm signal. Range of values: 0900 s

1.4.5.4.3 Hysteresis

Species the hysteresis of the switch point. Range of values: 130 K


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A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
1.4.6.2.1 Switching load
This can be used to adjust the present switching load of the tap-changer. Range of values: 0..3000 A2S

TMM
1.4.6.4.1 Maximum operating time
The elapsed lifetime parameter becomes important when the system is not installed at the same time as the transformer and the fan groups. In connection with revisions, both parameters have to be adjusted if necessary. Range of values: 0..999999h

1.4.6.2.2 Maximum operating time

The expected maximum lifetime (refer to the manufacturers details) can be entered via <F4>. Range of values: 0..999999h

1.4.6.4.2 Elapsed operating time

1.4.6.2.3 Elapsed operating time

The elapsed operating time parameter becomes important when the system is not installed at the same time as the tap-changer. In connection with revisions, both parameters have to be adjusted if necessary. Range of values: 0..999999h

The current age of the fans can be input via <F5>. Range of values: 0..999999h

1.4.6.3

Oil pump
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

1.4.6.3.1 Maximum operating time

By pressing <F4>, the expected maximum lifetime of the oil pump (refer to manufacturers details) can be entered. Range of values: 0..999999h

1.4.6.3.2 Elapsed operating time

The elapsed lifetime parameter becomes important when the system is not installed at the same time as the transformer and the oil pump. In connection with revisions, both parameters have to be adjusted if necessary. Range of values: 0..999999h

1.4.6.4

Fans
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

Several settings are required dependent on the number of fans used.

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

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Operating Manual
2.0 Upgrade of analogue inputs and outputs (only TMM)

TMM
The module is automatically detected and correspondingly processed when the analogue double module has been inserted. The assignment is as follows: Module 1.1 Channel 1 Module 1.2 Channel 2 Module 2.1 Channel 3 Module 2.2 Channel 4 Module 3.1 Channel 5 Module 3.2 Channel 6 Now using the download programme, download rmware version 2.07 (please pay attention to the installation instructions readme le). Download additional background programmes and/or P-programmes (update32.exe) onto the regulator, if required.

The rmware module and analogue inputs and outputs can only be upgraded for the REG-D voltage regulator due to the safety and guarantee reasons explained earlier. If the REGDA is to be equipped with these functions, these features must be specied at the time of ordering. The procedure for upgrading analogue inputs and outputs can be carried out as described below. Please note: the work must be done by qualied personnel according to ESD guidelines. Procedure: Remove the REG-D from the mounting rack or the casing Place the analogue module on the REG-CPU CPU board. Please refer to Figures 10 and 11. Place the REG-D back in the mounting rack or the casing

Please check that the required wiring is available in your mounting rack and casing using the conguration documentation. If this is not the case, please contact A. Eberle GmbH.

Pin assignment for analogue modules

Analogue - Channels
module 1 + + input or output module 2 + + module 3 + + -

-20 ... 0 ... +20 mA

-20 ... 0 ... +20 mA

-20 ... 0 ... +20 mA

-20 ... 0 ... +20 mA

b 2

b 4

z 2

-20 ... 0 ... +20 mA

-20 ... 0 ... +20 mA

4 14 16 14 16 26 28 26 28

pin board

Figure 9

21

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
Location of the analogue modules

TMM

LP-REG-REL 1 LP-REG-EA 2

LP-REG-NTZ 3
15.24

142.2

LP - 4 LP-REG-STU 5

Analog-Module LP-REG-CPU 6
12 173,5

Figure 10

Insertion locations for the analogue modules REG-CPU board

battery

Figure 11

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

22

module 3 module 2 module 1

45.72

40.64

20.32 20.32 7.62

Operating Manual
3.0 Increasing hardware system resources 3.1

TMM
Additional analogue inputs and outputs

In order to increase the number of channels, several interface cards can be connected to the regulator via the COM 3 (RS485) interface. Interface cards are available for analogue inputs and outputs (ANA-D) and for binary inputs and outputs (BIN-D). Additional channels for information are usually assigned via BIN-D and ANA-D by using a background programme. For performance reasons, the maximum number of interfaces on COM 3 should not exceed six.

The ANA-D interface card can either be supplied with eight analogue inputs or eight analogue outputs. Combinations of inputs and outputs on one card are not possible (see Figure 14).

E-LAN
raise lower

E-LAN COM 2

COM 3

REG-D

a-eberle

I
Status F1 Display X = 78,15 y = 72,95 B = 68 mm H = 68 mm F2 F3 F4 F5

U mA mA

<U >U >I

AUTO

local remote

ESC

MENU

COM1

ANA-D

ANA-D

8 x mA - inputs (characteristic E1)

8 x mA - outputs (characteristic E2)

Figure 12

23

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
3.2 Additional binary inputs and outputs

TMM

The BIN-D interface card can be supplied either with eight relay outputs or with sixteen binary optically isolated inputs. Combinations of inputs and outputs on one card are available on request.
E-LAN
raise lower

E-LAN COM 2

COM 3

REG-D

a-eberle

I
Status F1 Display X = 78,15 y = 72,95 B = 68 mm H = 68 mm F2 F3 F4 F5

U mA mA

<U >U >I

AUTO

local remote

ESC

MENU

COM1

BIN-D

BIN-D

16 binary inputs (characteristic E3)

8 binary outputs (characteristic E2)

Figure 13

3.3

Combinations of analogue and binary interfaces

Interface cards of the type ANA-D and BIN-D can be used in any combination on COM 3.
E-LAN
raise lower

E-LAN COM 2

COM 3

REG-D

a-eberle

I
Status F1 Display X = 78,15 y = 72,95 B = 68 mm H = 68 mm F2 F3 F4 F5

U mA mA

<U >U >I

AUTO

local remote

ESC

MENU

COM1

BIN-D

BIN-D

ANA-D

ANA-D

16 binary inputs

8 binary outputs

8 analogue inputs

8 analogue outputs

(characteristic E3) (characteristic E2) (characteristic E3) (characteristic E2)

Figure 14

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

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Operating Manual
4.0 Temperature measurement

TMM
when using the suggested temperature measurement transducer is:

Two methods are available to measure the temperature of the oil, as mentioned earlier: 1 The temperature signal is supplied as a 420 mA signal by an upstream temperature measurement transducer. 2 The temperature signal is supplied by a PT100 measurement sensor via a 3-conductor connection. In the rst case, a current less than 4 mA indicates an equipment fault whereas a current of 21.6 mA means that it is likely that a sensor wire is broken. The information temperature reading error appears on the regulator screen . This information is always displayed, regardless of the selected operating mode. When this message is displayed an output relay can be acitivated or the message can be transferred to a master station via the scada interface. Please refer to the detailed operating manual for further details on the installation of the transducer.


The mean deviation is: Fn = 0.26% The maximum deviation is: Fmax = 0.1 % + 0.20 % + 0.15 % Fmax = 0.45 % If the PT100 module is installed, the average error is: 0.13% and the maximum error is: 0.35% Please note: All deviations refer to the upper value of the measuring range.

5.0

Scope of delivery

The scope of delivery of the transformer monitoring module TMM for REG-D includes: CD with rmware update ( V 2.07) Analogue module for two mA inputs Operating manual The scope of delivery of the transformer monitoring module TMM 02 for REG-DA consists of: CD with rmware update ( 2.07) Operating manual

4.1

Accuracy

The accuracy of the hot-spot temperature evaluation is mainly inuenced by the measurement of the oil temperature. Calculation of the hot-spot temperature from the measured oil temperature supplies no additional errors. The measuring chain:
Temperature transducer

6.0

Guarantee

REG-D A D P

PT100

hotspottemp.

0.1% 0.2% 0.15%

loss of life

Determination of the fault Deviations Assuming that the error in the PT100 resistance thermometer is not more than 0.1% in the temperature range 20 to 140 C, the average total error
25

The guarantee period for the REG-D voltage regulator covers 3 years. If the regulator is modied in a non-authorised place, no claims will be accepted. However, if the regulator is returned to A. Eberle for modication, the guarantee remains intact. If regulators are modied, which have been in operation for more than two years, A. Eberle grants full guarantee for another year. This guarantee does not apply to regulators which have been in operation for more than 13 years.

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

Operating Manual
7.0 Test report

TMM

A test report of the Measuring the hot-spot temperature and Determining the reduction in lifetime basic functions can be viewed on our website, www.a-eberle.de.

Aalener Str. 30/32 * D-90441 Nrnberg * Tel.: +49 (0)911 / 62 81 08-0 * Fax: +49 (0)911 / 62 81 08 96
A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG 26

e-mail: info@a-eberle.de

A. Eberle GmbH & Co. KG

http://www.a-eberle.de