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Opening on Walls: WINDOW

Introduction
Wall Openings ___________________________________________________________________

An opening in an external wall consists of a head, jambs or reveals & a sill or threshold. Some of the terms associated with openings in walls:

Head: The area of wall above an opening. The function of a head is to carry the load of brickwork over the opening & transmit this load to the jambs at the sides. Jambs: The area of wall either side of an opening. In solid walls these are bonded to give the required profile & strength. Sill: The area of wall below a window opening. The function of a sill is to shed the rain water, which has run down the face of the window/ door & collected at the base, away from the opening & the face of the wall.

Introduction
Wall Openings ___________________________________________________________________

Threshold: the area of wall below a door opening. Soffit: the horizontal area within the thickness of a wall below the head of an opening. Reveals: the vertical areas within the thickness of a wall at the jambs of an opening. Lintel: a beam which spans an opening & carries the load of the wall & other structure above the opening.

Terms used in Wall Openings


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Wall Openings

Arches
Wall Openings ___________________________________________________________________

An arch is a means of spanning an opening by use of small units such as bricks or stones.

Lintels
Wall Openings ___________________________________________________________________

A lintel is a beam which spans an opening & provides support for the wall, roof & other loads that might bear on it. Most lintels today are made of concrete or steel.

Jambs
Wall Openings ___________________________________________________________________

The jamb is rebated, that is, the outside face of the wall projects slightly into the window openings, as was often the case when when sliding sash windows were installed.

Sills & Thresholds


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Wall Openings

Sills & thresholds are required to prevent the ingress of water at the bottom of a window or door opening.

Definition
Window ___________________________________________________________________

An opening in the wall of a building for a admitting light & air, usually fitted with a frame in which are set operable sashes containing panes of glass.

Functional Requirements
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Window

1. Daylight

The amount & quality of daylight entering a room will depend largely on: The size & shape of the windows The size & distribution of the members of the window frame The position of the window in relation to the room The effects of internal & external light reflection
Where

the effect of daylight in a room is important, calculation may be made to ensure an adequate level of daylight in various parts of the room.

Functional Requirements
Window ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Ventilation Ventilation may be achieved by use of operable portions of the window, and in some cases by doors. The Building Regulations require the total area of operable window (and in certain instances, doors) for habitable room, to be equivalent to at least 1/20 of the floor area of the room.

Functional Requirements
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Window

3. Thermal & Sound Insulation Windows are weak link in the ability of an external wall to provide good thermal & sound insulation. The used of two separate sheets of glass, with an air space between ~ will improve the thermal & sound insulation of the window. An air gap of 150-200mm is usually necessary for improving sound insulation, whereas an air gap of 20mm will usually provide a suitable improvement in thermal insulation. Providing a good seal between the operable portions & the fixed portions of the window frame will reduce the heat lost through the window & improve sound insulation ~ this may achieved by fitting metal/plastic sealing strips around the rebates of the frame.

Functional Requirements
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Window

4. Weather Resistance Window frames are designed to prevent the passage of water to the inside of the frame. Design features which are often incorporated in a frame include:

Weathering ~ where rain-water would lay on horizontal surfaces, the top surface of a sill is sloped or to spill water off the surface. Anti-capillary grooves ~where rain might be driven between the frame & the window opening, or between fixed & operable portions of the window frame ~ anti-capillary grooves will be necessary. These grooves prevent the passage of rain-water. Throatings ~ grooves which are made in the underside of projecting portions of the frame to prevent water from being driven beneath them.

Functional Requirements
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Window

Features of a timber window frame designed to prevent rain penetration

Functional Requirements
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Window

5. Security

All operable portions of windows should be fitted with suitable latches, catches or stays which prevent them from being opened from outside ~ where security is particularly important, special security fittings may be installed.

Window Terminologies
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Window

Methods of Window Openings


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Window

Top-hung & Side-hung casement windows

Usually fixed to the frame with a pair of hinges.

Top-hung casement

Side-hung casement

Methods of Window Openings


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Window

Pivot-hung casement windows

Window is hinged at the centre of each style with a pivot friction hinge which enables fastener fastens the window in the closed position.

Pivot-hung casement

Methods of Window Openings


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Window

Louvred window

Window is hinged

Louvred window

Methods of Window Openings


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Window

Horizontal sliding sashes

Each sash slides in a horizontal channel fitted in the head & sill of the frame. Security may be provided by such means as a security bolt which fits to the stile of the sash & locks in the sill of the frame.

Horizontal sliding

Methods of Window Openings


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Window

Vertical sliding sashes

Traditional & vertical sliding windows required a system of cords, weights & pulleys which were placed in the frame fixed to the jambs of the reveal.

Vertical sliding

Types of Window Frames


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Window

TIMBER WINDOW FRAME

Types of Window Frames


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Window

STEEL WINDOW FRAME

Types of Window Frames


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Window

PLASTIC WINDOW FRAME

Types of Window Frames


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Window

ALUMINIUM WINDOW FRAME

Detailing
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Window

SINGLE GLAZING WINDOW

Detailing
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Window

Detailing
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Window

DOUBLE GLAZING WINDOW

Detailing
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Window

Detailing
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Window

Detailing
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Window

Detailing
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Window

References
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Ashcroft, Roland. (1985) Construction for Interior Designers. Longman, London Barry, R. (1984) The Construction of Buildings Vol. 2. 3rd Ed. ELBS, UK Ching, D.K. & Adams, C. (2001) Building Construction Illustrated 3rd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. NY Chudley, Roy. (1999) Construction Technology 3rd Ed. Addision Wesley Longman Ltd. UK