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CAB2012: HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Tutorial 7

Instructions: MCQ Questions: 1. Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps in an accident investigation? A. Identify witnesses, isolate the accident site, record all evidence, interview witnesses. B. Isolate the accident site, record all evidence, identify witnesses, interview witnesses. C. Identify witnesses, interview witnesses, record all evidence, isolate the accident site. D. All the above sequences are practicable. Who could be involved in an accident investigation? A. The supervisor B. The health and safety officer C. The government D. All of the above According to the Iceberg Model for costs of accidents, A. accidents result in direct and indirect costs. B. direct costs include medical expenses and lost wages. C. indirect costs include lost production and clean up expenses. D. indirect costs outweigh direct costs. The Systems Theory views a situation in which an accident might occur as a system which comprised of the following components: A. Person, machine and motivation B. Overload, peer pressure and motivation C. Attitude, risk and motivation D. Machine, person and environment What is the purpose of an accident investigation? A. To identify who could be blamed B. To collect facts C. To find fault D. To estimate the cost involved Which of the following statements of steps in the accident investigation is CORRECT? A. A record of all evidence is the final step in accident investigation B. Interviews should be done at the accident site and begin as soon as the witness list has been compiled C. The accident site should be isolated after all pertinent evidence has been collected or observed and recorded D. The first thing to do when an accident occurred is to begin the accident investigation

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In the context of machine safeguarding, which of the following system specifically reduce the risk of hand injuries? A. Robot safeguard system B. Interlocked safeguards system C. Fixed safeguard system A. Feeding and Ejection system A good safeguard mechanism should include these requirements: I. Prevention of contact between human/user and any potentially harmful machine part II. Overcoming the hazards without taking into consideration whether new hazard being created or not III. Made of durable material to withstand the conditions of normal use IV. Allowing regular removal of the guards to ease the maintenance/lubrication that need to be done A. B. I and II I and III C. D. III and IV I and IV

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Which of the following are the findings of Herbert W. Heinrichs 1920s study of the causes of industrial accidents? A. Unsafe acts committed by fellow workers B. Poor management C. Lack of health and safety programmes D. Faulty of machines and equipment Three factors that lead to human error in the human factors theory are which of the following? A. Carelessness, training and management B. Carelessness, overload and training C. Pressure, motivation and fatigue 4. Overload, inappropriate response and inappropriate activities Which of the following hazard is created in a manufacturing environment where robotics are used? A. Robot can develop into a self-learned artificial intelligence that refuses to take input from a human operator. B. Being hit by the robot when entering its operating envelope. C. Being hit by the robot even when you didnt start it. D. A run-away robot. According to the Iceberg Model, which of the following statement is FALSE: A. Accidents result in direct and indirect costs. B. Direct costs include medical expenses and lost wages. C. Direct costs outweigh indirect costs. D. Indirect costs include lost production and clean up expenses. Requirements for safeguard to reduce mechanical hazards include the following EXCEPT A. prevent human contact with machine. B. protect against falling object. C. create the interference with progress of work. D. allow safe maintenance.

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Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE in solving mechanical heat hazards? A. Implement a training program for management and workers. B. Identify the type of injury due to heat hazards. C. Revise work schedules during heat waves. D. Provide better ventilation in the workplace. MOST occupational injuries are caused by A. unsafe conditions. B. unsafe acts/practices. C. uncomfortable workplace. D. ineffective supervision. This condition is caused by exposure to an environment in which the body is unable to cool itself sufficiently? A. Heatstroke B. Heat stress C. Heat exhaustion D. Heat cramps What approach does an investigator take to most effectively analyze an accident? A. First determine if system weaknesses exist B. First determine if personal weaknesses exist C. First determine if the employee violated safety rules D. First determine if the employee ignored instructions This person first promoted the domino theory of accident causation and is considered the father of safety management: A. W. Edwards Deming B. Bradley Henshaw C. Henry W. Heinrich D. William Pope An employee fell from a broken ladder and sustained a fractured arm. In evaluating the management system in place when the accident occurred, which is considered a root cause? A. The ladder had a broken rung. B. The ladder's repair log was not attached to the ladder. C. The employee was not trained in ladder use and how to recognize unsafe ladder conditions. D. The maintenance employee did not inspect the ladder before issuing the ladder to the employee. Essay/Short Answer Questions:

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1. Is it important to investigate near misses even though they do not result in any actual loss? Explain your answer. [3 marks] 2. a. An accident must be looked at in terms of having two components. Describe both of the components. [4 marks] b. Looking at the accident causation theories, in your opinion what are the purposes of an accident model/theories? [3 marks]

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What are the purposes of having an accident investigation? [4 marks]

d. The first step in conducting the accident investigation is isolating the accident scene. Explain the purpose of carrying out such action. [2 marks] 3. a. Mechanical hazards are those associated power-driving machines, whether automated or manually operated. Identify and briefly explain any THREE (3) types of mechanical injury hazards. [3 marks] b. Describe THREE (3) types of point-of-operation guards. [6 marks] c. Suggest a corresponding corrective actions for the following problems: i. Maintenance worker is cleaning a machine that is operating. ii. An operator is observed disabling a guard. [2 marks] 4. a. Differentiate between the term accident and incident. [4 marks] b. What were the findings of Herbert W. Heinrich's 1920s study of the causes of industrial accidents? [3 marks] c. A carpenter finds that he needs to trim a piece of wood to make some tool holders. The carpenter, first, adjusts the table saw to remove the correct thickness of the material. He also removes the legally required saw guard because it tends to interfere with cutting. The supervisor had been after the company to purchase a new and proper guard for the saw but being rejected. The carpenter decides not to replace the guard for this cut because the last time he did the same operation, the wood snagged on the guard support and allowed the blade to burn the cut surface. This time, even though the carpenter uses the proper hand pusher and guides, the saw hits a knot and the work piece jumps from the spinning blade. The saw had just started when the worker removed his hand. He received only minor lacerations. i. Describe THREE (3) unsafe acts that lead to the accident. [3 marks] ii. Specify THREE (3) unsafe conditions in this accident. [3 marks] d. Athirah Raihana is the newly appointed coordinator of health and safety for the local school board. She has just been informed of an accident experienced by an employee in the administrative office. It seems that two employees were trying to move a full filing cabinet by pushing it from one corner of the office to another. The cabinet tipped, crushing the foot of one of the employees. i. Determine the main cause of the accident. [2 mark]

ii. As a relative newcomer to the health and safety role, Athirah has never conducted an accident investigation before. Assist Athirah in designing an appropriate strategy for approaching the investigation. [10 marks] -End of Paper-