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QCS 2005

Section 16

Part 6

Bolting

Page 2

6.
6.1
6.1.1
1

BOLTING
GENERAL
Scope This Part specifies the requirements for bolting associated with structural steelwork. References The following standards are referred to in this Part: BS 2583 BS 3692 BS 4190 BS 4395 BS 4606 Podger spanners ISO metric precision hexagon bolts, screws and nuts ISO metric black hexagon bolts, screws and nuts. High strength friction grip bolts and associated nuts and washers for structural engineering. Recommendations for the co-ordination of dimensions in building. Coordination sizes for rigid flat sheet materials used in building.

6.1.2
2

6.2
6.2.1
1

ORDINARY BOLTED ASSEMBLIES


Bolt/Nut Combinations The combinations of bolts and nuts shall be not less than the following: (a) (b) (c) 4.6 bolts with grade 4 nuts (BS 4190) 8.8 bolts with grade 8 nuts (BS 3692) 10.9 bolts with grade 12 nuts (BS 3692).

Any bolt assemblies which seize when being tightened shall be replaced. Differing Bolt Grades Different bolt grades of the same diameter shall not be used in the same structure, except when agreed otherwise by the Engineer. Bolt Length The bolt length shall be chosen such that, after tightening, at least one thread plus the thread run-out will be clear between the nut and the unthreaded shank of the bolt and at least one clear thread shall show above the nut. Washers When the members being connected have a finished surface protective treatment which may be damaged by the nut or bolt head being rotated, a washer shall be placed under the rotating part A suitable plate, or heavy duty, washer shall be used under the head and nut when bolts are used to assemble components with oversize or slotted holes. Taper Washers When the bolt head or nut is in contact with a surface which is inclined at more than 30 from a plane at right angles to the bolt axis, a taper washer shall be placed to achieve satisfactory bearing.

6.2.2
1

6.2.3
1

6.2.4
1

6.2.5
1

Qatar General Organization for Standards and Metrology QCS 2007, 3rd Edition

QCS 2005
6.2.6
1

Section 16

Part 6

Bolting

Page 3

Galvanized Nuts Nuts shall be checked after being galvanized for free running on the bolt and retapped if necessary to ensure a satisfactory tightening performance. Bolt Tightening Bolts may be assembled using power tools or shall be fully tightened by hand using appropriate spanners in accordance with BS 2583. Fitted Bolts Precision bolts to BS 3692 may be used as fitted bolts when holes are drilled or reamed after assembly so that the clearance in the hole is not more than 0.3 mm.

6.2.7
1

6.2.8
1

6.3
6.3.1
1

FIT-UP WHEN USING ORDINARY BOLTS


Fit-up Connected parts shall be firmly drawn together. If there is a remaining gap which may affect the integrity of the joint, it shall be taken apart and a pack inserted. Reaming Where parts cannot be brought together by drifting without distorting the steelwork, rectification may be made by reaming, provided the design of the connection will allow the use of larger diameter holes and bolts.

6.3.2
1

6.4
6.4.1

HIGH STRENGTH FRICTION GRIP ASSEMBLIES


Bolt/Nut/Washer Combinations Bolt/nut/washer combinations shall comply with BS 4395 Parts 1 or 2, as appropriate.

6.4.2
1 2

Tightening The use of friction grip bolts shall comply with BS 4604. Part 1 or 2. Tightening which complies with BS 4604 Part 1, may be by the torque control method, partturn method, or with load indicating devices used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Calibration of Torque Equipment Torque spanners and other devices shall have a calibration check at least once per shift, and shall be re-calibrated where necessary in accordance with BS 4604. Discarded Bolt Assemblies If, after complete tightening, a bolt or nut has to be slackened off, the whole bolt assembly is to be disposed of.

6.4.3
1

6.4.4
1

Qatar General Organization for Standards and Metrology QCS 2007, 3rd Edition

National structural steelwork specification for building construction (Fourth Edition) Discuss me ...

SECTION 2: Materials TABLE 2.2 MATCHING BOLTS, NUTS and WASHERS Manufactured to European Standards ORDINARY (NOT FOR PRE-LOADING) ASSEMBLIES FULL THREADED LENGTH BOLTS BOLT 4.6 8.8 10.9 BS EN ISO 4018 BS EN ISO 4017(1) BS EN ISO 4017(1) NUT(2) BS EN ISO 4034
(Class 4)(3)

21

GRADE

WASHER BS EN ISO 7091


(100HV)

BS EN ISO 4032(1)
(Class 8)(4)

BS EN ISO 7091
( 100HV)

BS EN ISO 4032(1)
(Class 10)(5)

BS EN ISO 7091
( 100HV)

ORDINARY (NOT FOR PRE-LOADING) ASSEMBLIES PART THREADED LENGTH BOLTS 4.6 8.8 10.9
Created on 06 February 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement

BS EN ISO 4016 BS EN ISO 4014(1) BS EN ISO 4014(1)

BS EN ISO 4034
(Class 4)(3)

BS EN ISO 7091
(100HV)

BS EN ISO 4032(1)
(Class 8)(4)

BS EN ISO 7091
( 100HV)

BS EN ISO 4032(1)
(Class 10)(5)

BS EN ISO 7091
( 100HV)

(1)

(2) (3) (4) (5)

Grade 8.8 and 10.9 bolts to the strength grades of BS EN ISO 4014 or BS EN ISO 4017 (dimensions and tolerances of BS EN ISO 4016 or BS EN ISO 4018) may also be used, with matching nuts to the strength classes of BS EN ISO 4032 (dimensions and tolerances of BS EN ISO 4034). Nuts of a higher class may also be used. Class 5 nuts for size M 16 and smaller. Nuts for galvanized or sherardized 8.8 bolts should be class 10 Nuts for galvanized or sherardized 10.9 bolts should be class 12 to BS EN ISO 4033

TABLE 2.3 MATCHING BOLT, NUT and WASHERS Manufactured to British Standards ORDINARY BOLT ASSEMBLIES GRADE FULL THREADED AND PART THREADED LENGTH BOLTS BOLT 4.6 8.8 10.9
(1) (2) (3)

NUT BS 4190 (Grade 4) BS 4190 (Grade 8)(2) BS 4190 (Grade 10)(3)

WASHER BS 4320(1) BS 4320(1) BS 4320(1)

BS 4190 BS 4190 BS 4190

Black steel washers to section 2 of BS 4320, normal diameter series. Nuts for galvanized or sherardized 8.8 bolts should be grade 10 to BS 4190 Nuts for galvanized or sherardized 10.9 bolts should be grade 12 to BS 4190

4th EDITION

National Structural Steelwork Specification

National structural steelwork specification for building construction (Fourth Edition) Discuss me ...

42 6.1.8 Bolt Tightening

SECTION 6: Workmanship - Bolting

Bolts may be assembled using power tools or shall be fully tightened by hand using appropriate spanners in accordance with BS 2583. 6.1.9 Fitted Bolts Precision bolts to BS 3692 may be used as fitted bolts when holes are drilled or reamed after assembly so that the clearance in the hole is not more than 0.3mm. 6.2 FIT-UP WHEN USING NON PRE-LOADED BOLT ASSEMBLIES 6.2.1 Fit-up Connected parts shall be firmly drawn together. If there is a remaining gap which may affect the integrity of the joint, it shall be taken apart and a pack inserted. 6.2.2 Reaming Where parts cannot be brought together by drifting without distorting the steelwork, rectification may be made by reaming, provided the design of the connection will allow the use of larger diameter holes and bolts. 6.3
Created on 06 February 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement

PRE-LOADED BOLT ASSEMBLIES 6.3.1 Bolt/Nut/Washer Combinations The combination of bolt and nut and washers may be used as specified in Table 2.4 of Section 2. The hardened washer is to be placed under the nut or head being turned. 6.3.2 Other Pre-Loaded Assemblies The combination of pre-loaded assemblies other than those tabulated in Table 2.4 to be in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. 6.3.3 Tightening The use of friction grip bolts shall comply with BS 4604: Part 1 or 2. Tightening which complies with BS4604: Part 1, may be by the torque control method, part-turn method, or direct tension indicators used in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. 6.3.4 Calibration of Torque Equipment Torque spanners and other devices shall have a calibration check at least once per shift, and shall be re-calibrated where necessary in accordance with BS 4604. 6.3.5 Discarded Bolt Assemblies If, after complete tightening, a bolt or nut has to be slackened off, the whole bolt assembly is to be scrapped.

National Structural Steelwork Specification

4th EDITION

Advisory Desk Notes - AD 302: Tightening of Ordinary Bolts. Discuss me ...

SCI ADVISORY DESK

AD 302: Tightening of Ordinary Bolts


The advisory service regularly receives requests for a set of torque values in connection with the installation of ordinary bolts. This usually arises because a criterion is required for the project QA procedures in order to ensure that ordinary bolts are correctly tightened. Section 6.1 in the National Specification for Structural Steelwork for Building Construction 4th edition (NSSS) deals with the installation of ordinary bolted assemblies and clause 6.1.8 states that Bolts may be assembled using power tools or shall be fully tightened by hand using appropriate spanners in accordance with BS 2583. It should be noted that BS 2583 is a spanner standard and does not deal with tightening procedures or torque values. Traditional British practice has been to hand tighten ordinary bolts using podger spanners. That is, when an average erector fully tightens an ordinary bolt using a podger spanner the bolt is correctly tightened. There is no specified minimum torque values required and this is all that is necessary to ensure that the nut does not come loose in steelwork used in building construction. The th commentary on the NSSS 4 edition states The intention of 6.1.8. on bolt tightening of ordinary bolts is that the bolts are at least spanner tight whether they be assembled using impact tools or hand spanners to BS 2583. The following table appears in the Commentary to the NSSS 4th edition as well as in two of the green book series on Joints in Steel Construction; Simple Connections P 212 and Moment Connections P 207. The torque values given in the table are simply an equivalent to hand tightening using a podger spanner.

Created on 02 March 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement

The SCI recommends that generally, torque on ordinary bolts need not be checked. If torque values are required, then the values shown in the above table may be used. Verification should take place after the installation of all the bolts in a joint at the steel erection stage. It is acceptable to retighten bolts which become loose due to the subsequent tightening of the other bolts in the joint. However, it is not necessary to retighten or verify the bolts in a joint following the erection of
AD 302: Tightening of Ordinary Bolts 1

Advisory Desk Notes - AD 302: Tightening of Ordinary Bolts. Discuss me ...

SCI ADVISORY DESK


other members, or tightening of the bolts in other joints in the structure. Likewise, it is not required to check the bolts in joints following subsequent erection operations; pouring of concrete or erection of cladding for example. These torque values are irrespective of the bolt grade used and in no way imply that installation by power tools is to be preferred to hand tightening using a podger spanner. Ordinary bolts particularly those specified to BS 4190, should not be torqued to the values used for preloaded (HSFG) bolts because they have thinner nuts than preloaded bolts. The risk of thread stripping exists if these higher torque values are applied. Contact: Thomas Cosgrove Tel: 01344 623345 Email: t.cosgrove@steel-sci.com

Created on 02 March 2008 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Steelbiz Licence Agreement

AD 302: Tightening of Ordinary Bolts