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UPPER LIMITS OF NORMAL MEASUREMENT.

Walls Appendix = 3 mm Gallbladder wall = 3 mm Bowel Wall = 3 mm Stomach Wall = 7-10 mm Stomach Folds, fundus = 10 mm Stomach Folds, antrum = 5 mm Left Atrium = 4 mm Left Ventricle = 12 mm Esophagus = 3 mm Vessel = 1 mm Uterine wall during pregnancy = 3 mm Endometrial wall = 16 mm (secretory phase), 5 mm (postmenopausal) Bladder (distended) = 5 mm Common carotid artery = 0.8 mm pericardial wall = 1-3 mm Colon = 5 cm Cecum = 8 cm Small Bowel = 3 cm Appendix = 6 mm CBD = 6 mm (AFIP: not including wall, 5 mm, 6-7 mm equivical) Gallbladder = 4 cm trachea = 25 mm Air-fluid levels = 2-5 cm Liver span = 15.5 cm Spleen span = 12-14 cm Hiatal width = 15 mm Esophageal folds = 3 mm ankle joint space = 3-4 mm Achilles tendon thickness = 8 mm Boehlers angle = 28-48 degress

Lumen Diameters

Miscellaneous

cerebellar tonsils < 10y = <6 mm; >10y = <3 mm Peak Systolic Velocity <125cm/s filum terminale <1.5 mm atlantodental distance = <3 mm adults; <5mm kids AC joint <8 mm CC joint <13 mm ankle mortise = 3-4 mm cartilaginous cap (osteochondromas) <1 cm CT; <2 cm MRI pituitary gland height = 3-8 mm adults; <10 mm puberty; >10 mm during pregnancy Ovarian volume: <6y = 1cm^3, 6-10y = 1.2-2cm^3, 11-12y = 2-2.5cm^3, older = 8cm^3 Heel pad = 2.5 cm Mean Sac Diameter Crown Rump >5 mm Yolk sac = 5 mm Gallbladder polyp <5 mm Uterine Wall (important in interstitial ectopic pregnancy) = 5 mm Thecal sac AP = >7 mm c-spine; >10 mm L-spine pineal gland = 11 mm pituitary infundibulum = 2 mm Welcher basal angle < 140 degrees on x-ray, < 120 degrees on MR (< 115 degrees for kids); platybasia pre-dentate space >2.5 mm in adults or >4.5 mm in kids = atlantoaxial subluxation humeral head >1 cm radial head >3 mm prosthesis to bone <2 mm 0-3m = 6 cm 3-6m = 6.5 6-12m = 7 1-2y = 8 2-4y = 9 4-6y = 9.5 6-8y = 10

Bone Displacement

Spleen size by age

8-10y = 11 10-12y = 11.5 12-15y = 12 15-20y = 12 (M), 13 (F) 2 mm embryo: 75 beats per minute 5 mm embryo: 100 beats per minute 10 mm embryo: 120 beats per minute 15 mm embryo: 130 beats per minute followup scan if <100 at 5-9 wks, <110 bpm at 10-15 wks Thoracic Aorta = 4-5 cm ectasia; >5 cm aneurysm; 6 cm or 5 mm/6mo = surgery o o o o root = 3.6 cm ascending = 3.5 cm arch = 2.9 cm descending = 2.4-2.6 cm

Fetal Heart Rate

Aorta (using true short-axis dimension per Radiographics)

Abdominal Aorta = 2.5-3 cm ectasia; >3 cm aneurysm Iliac artery = 1.5 cm Pulmonary Arteries = 2.9 cm (pulm arterial HTN) Portal Vein = 13-15 mm (portal HTN) Splenic vein and SMV = 10 mm (portal HTN)

Vessels

Main pulmonary artery: 22-26mm (> 29 mm is htn). Right pulm. Artery: proximal: 16-22mm. Distal: 12- 18 mm. Left pulmonary artery. : 17-25mm.

Left atrium : max ap 5cm Max transverse 9cm.

IV septum 11-13mm MYOCARDIAL WALL THICKNESS: 10 12MM.


Using echocardiographic measurements as a standard, in adults LV normal short axis dimension and wall thickness at end diastole should be approximately 5.6 cm and 11 mm respectively (Figure 10). By the same standards a normal left atrium should have an anteroposterior dimension of approximately 4.5 cm. Right heart enlargement can be qualitatively assessed by comparing its size to the corresponding left heart. At the midplane of the left ventricle, the internal diameter of the right ventricle is usually equal to or slightly less than that of the left ventricle.