You are on page 1of 87

JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 2 OUTPUT: Wed May 29 07:45:04 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 41/ 01cvr

Census of Transportation,
Communications, and Utilities
TC92-CF-41

1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

South Carolina

U.S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 22 OUTPUT: Tue Apr 2 13:25:10 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 02ack

Acknowledgments
This report was prepared in the Services Division under the direction of James M. Aanestad,
Assistant Chief for Current Services and Transportation Programs, assisted by Robert E.
Crowther and Michael Hartz. Planning, implementation, and compiling of this report were under
the supervision of John L. Fowler, Chief, Commodity Flow Survey Branch, assisted by Wanda
Dougherty, Marilyn Quiles-Amaya, Debra Corbett, Bruce Dembroski, Maria Dixon, Shirley
Gray, Imelda Hall, Chris Harrod, Michael Jones, Bonnie Opalko, Joyce Price, Robin Roberts,
Barbara Selinske, Eli Serrano, and Joyce Ware.
The processing system and computer programs were developed under the general direction of
Don Dalzell, former Assistant Chief for Processing Systems, and Billy E. Stark, Assistant Chief,
Tabulation and Publication Systems, and current Assistant Chief, Processing Systems in the
Decennial Management Division. Implementation of these programs was under the direction of
Jonathan G. Ankers, Chief, Processing Support and Analyst Systems Branch, assisted by
Peter J. Long, Sandra Brunner, Charles Eargle, Karen Mitchell, Willie Robertson, Judy
Dawson, Nancy Rogers, and Donna Williams. Implementation of the tabulation and publication
programming was under the direction of Robert Hemmig, Chief, Publication Systems Branch,
Peggy Payne, Chief, Publications Support Branch, assisted by Sharon Fortuna, and Vicki Kee,
Chief, Tally Preparation Systems and Special Computer Projects Branch, assisted by Dianne
Simmons and Nancy Osbourn.
Sample design and statistical methodology were developed under the general direction of
Brian V. Greenberg and Ruth Ann Killion, former Assistant Chiefs, and Howard Hogan, current
Assistant Chief, Research and Methodology. Sample design including estimation and variance
methodology was under the supervision of Ruth E. Detlefsen, former Chief, and Patrick
Cantwell, current Chief, Program Research and Development Branch, assisted by Bob Smith,
Jock Black, B. Timothy Evans, Timothy Braam, William Knowlton, Colleen Sullivan, Cristina
Ibanez, and Kimberly Dane. Frame construction, sample control, imputation, and quality control
procedures were developed under the supervision of Carl A. Konschnik, Chief, Statistical
Methods Branch, assisted by Carol King and James Burton.
Coordination of data collection efforts was under the direction of the late John E. Halterman,
former Chief, and Judith N. Petty, current Chief, Data Preparation Division, assisted by Matthew
Aulbach, Kenneth Miller, Teresa Branstetter, and Services Division’s onsite analyst, Carlene
Bottorff.
The staff of the Administrative and Customer Services Division, Walter C. Odom, Chief,
performed planning, design, composition, editorial review, and printing planning and procurement
for publication and report forms. Margaret A. Smith provided publication coordination and editing.
We also acknowledge the support and assistance of the following Department of Transportation
(DOT) representatives in planning and designing the survey: Rolf Schmitt, George Wiggers,
Jane Bachner, Joel Palley, Mike Rossetti, and Alan Pisarski (transportation consultant to DOT).
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Center for Transportation Analysis, under the direction of
Michael Bronzini in support of a contract with DOT, provided all mileage data for this report, using
its transportation network modeling system.
Special acknowledgment is also due to the many businesses whose cooperation has contrib-
uted to the publication of these data.

Inquiries concerning this report should be addressed to the Commodity Flow Survey
Branch, Services Division, Washington, DC 20233, telephone 301-457-2788 or 301-457-2114.
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 3 OUTPUT: Wed May 29 07:45:51 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 41/ 05tpg

Census of Transportation,
Communications, and Utilities
TC92-CF-41

1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

South Carolina

Issued June 1996

U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Commerce
Federico Peña, Secretary Michael Kantor, Secretary
Mortimer L. Downey, Deputy Secretary
Economics and Statistics Administration
BUREAU OF TRANSPORTATION STATISTICS Everett M. Ehrlich, Under Secretary
T. R. Lakshmanan, Director for Economic Affairs
Rolf R. Schmitt, Associate Director for
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
Analysis and Data Development Martha Farnsworth Riche, Director
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 14 OUTPUT: Thu Mar 28 08:10:27 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 06rstr

Economics and Statistics BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
Administration Martha Farnsworth Riche, Director
Everett M. Ehrlich, Under Secretary Bryant Benton, Deputy Director
for Economic Affairs
Paula J. Schneider, Principal Associate
Director for Programs
Frederick T. Knickerbocker, Associate
Director for Economic Programs
Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Assistant Director
for Economic Programs
ECONOMIC PLANNING AND COORDINATION
DIVISION
John P. Govoni, Chief
SERVICES DIVISION
Carole A. Ambler, Chief
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 47 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 14:00:11 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ history

Introduction to
the Economic Census

PURPOSES AND USES OF THE ECONOMIC Special programs also cover enterprise statistics and
CENSUS minority-owned and women-owned businesses. (The 1992
Census of Agriculture and 1992 Census of Governments
The economic census is the major source of facts about are conducted separately.) The next economic census is
the structure and functioning of the Nation’s economy. It scheduled to be taken in 1998 covering the year 1997.
provides essential information for government, business,
industry, and the general public.
The economic census furnishes an important part of the AVAILABILITY OF THE DATA
framework for such composite measures as the gross
The results of the economic census are available in
domestic product, input/ output measures, production and
printed reports for sale by the U.S. Government Printing
price indexes, and other statistical series that measure
Office and on compact discs for sale by the Census
short-term changes in economic conditions.
Bureau (this report excluded). Order forms for all types of
Policymaking agencies of the Federal Government use products are available on request from Customer Services,
the data, especially in monitoring economic activity and Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233-8300. A
providing assistance to business. more complete description of publications being issued
State and local governments use the data to assess from this census is on the inside back cover of this
business activities and tax bases within their jurisdictions document.
and to develop programs to attract business. Census facts are also widely disseminated by trade
Trade associations study trends in their own and com- associations, business journals, and newspapers. Vol-
peting industries and keep their members informed of umes containing census statistics are available in most
market changes. major public and college libraries. Finally, State data
Individual businesses use the data to locate potential centers in every State as well as business and industry
markets and to analyze their own production and sales data centers in many States also supply economic census
performance relative to industry or area averages. statistics.

AUTHORITY AND SCOPE WHAT’S NEW IN 1992

Title 13 of the United States Code (sections 131, 191, The 1992 Economic Census covers more of the economy
and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic than any previous census. New for 1992 are data on
census every 5 years, covering years ending in 2 and 7. communications, utilities, financial, insurance, and real
The 1992 Economic Census consists of the following eight estate, as well as coverage of more transportation indus-
censuses: tries. The economic, agriculture, and governments cen-
suses now collectively cover nearly 98 percent of all
• Census of Retail Trade economic activity.
Among other changes, new 1992 definitions affect the
• Census of Wholesale Trade
boundaries of about a third of all metropolitan areas. Also,
• Census of Service Industries the Survey of Women-Owned Businesses has now been
expanded to include all corporations.
• Census of Financial, Insurance, and Real Estate
Industries
HISTORICAL INFORMATION
• Census of Transportation, Communications, and Utilities
The economic census has been taken as an integrated
• Census of Manufactures program at 5-year intervals since 1967 and before that for
• Census of Mineral Industries 1963, 1958, and 1954. Prior to that time, the individual
subcomponents of the economic census were taken sepa-
• Census of Construction Industries rately at varying intervals.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY INTRODUCTION III
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 2 SESS: 47 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 14:00:11 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ history

The economic census traces its beginnings to the 1810 The Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises
Decennial Census, when questions on manufacturing were was first conducted as a special project in 1969 and was
included with those for population. Coverage of economic incorporated into the economic census in 1972 along with
activities was expanded for 1840 and subsequent cen- the Survey of Women-Owned Businesses.
suses to include mining and some commercial activities. In An economic census has also been taken in Puerto
1902, Congress established a permanent Census Bureau Rico since 1909, in the Virgin Islands of the United States
and directed that a census of manufactures be taken every and Guam since 1958, and in the Commonwealth of the
5 years. The 1905 Manufactures Census was the first time Northern Mariana Islands since 1982.
a census was taken apart from the regular every-10-year Statistical reports from the 1987 and earlier censuses
population census. provide historical figures for the study of long-term time
The first census of business was taken in 1930, cover- series and are available in some large libraries. All of the
ing 1929. Initially it covered retail and wholesale trade and census data published since 1967 are still available for
construction industries, but it was broadened in 1933 to sale on microfiche from the Census Bureau.
include some of the service trades.
The 1954 Economic Census was the first census to be
AVAILABILITY OF MORE FREQUENT
fully integrated—providing comparable census data across
ECONOMIC DATA
economic sectors, using consistent time periods, con-
cepts, definitions, classifications, and reporting units. It While the census provides complete enumerations every
was the first census to be taken by mail, using lists of firms 5 years, there are many needs for more frequent data as
provided by the administrative records of other Federal well. The Census Bureau conducts a number of monthly,
agencies. Since 1963, administrative records also have quarterly, and annual surveys, with the results appearing in
been used to provide basic statistics for very small firms, publication series such as Current Business Reports (retail
reducing or eliminating the need to send them census and wholesale trade and service industries), the Annual
questionnaires. The Enterprise Statistics Program, which Survey of Manufactures, Current Industrial Reports, and
publishes combined data from the economic census, was the Quarterly Financial Report. Most of these surveys,
made possible with the implementation of the integrated while providing more frequent observations, yield less
census program in 1954. kind-of-business and geographic detail than the census.
The range of industries covered in the economic cen- The County Business Patterns program offers annual
suses has continued to expand. The census of construc- statistics on the number of establishments, employment,
tion industries began on a regular basis in 1967, and the and payroll classified by industry within each county.
scope of service industries was broadened in 1967, 1977,
and 1987. The census of transportation began in 1963 as
SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION
a set of surveys covering travel, transportation of commodi-
ties, and trucks, but expanded in 1987 to cover business More information about the scope, coverage, classifica-
establishments in several transportation industries. For tion system, data items, and publications for each of the
1992, these statistics are incorporated into a broadened economic censuses and related surveys is published in the
census of transportation, communications, and utilities. Guide to the 1992 Economic Census and Related Statis-
Also new for 1992 is the census of financial, insurance, tics. More information on the methodology, procedures,
and real estate industries. This is part of a gradual expan- and history of the census will be published in the History of
sion in coverage of industries previously subjected to the 1992 Economic Census. Contact Customer Services
government regulation. for information on availability.

IV INTRODUCTION TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 39 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 14:28:05 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 07txtint

1993 Commodity Flow Survey

GENERAL
SIC code Title
The 1993 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) provides data
on the movement of goods by mode of transportation. 10, ex. 108 Metal mining (excluding metal mining
These are the first data of this type published by the services)
Census Bureau since the 1977 Commodity Transportation 12, ex. 124 Coal mining (excluding coal mining
Survey (see appendix A for a comparison to previous services)
surveys). The data from the CFS are in great demand by 14, ex. 148 Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
minerals, except fuels (excluding
transportation analysts and decision makers as they work nonmetallic minerals services)
towards improving the transportation infrastructure.
20 Food and kindred products
This report presents data at the State level. There are 21 Tobacco products
reports for each of the 50 States and the District of 22 Textile mill products
Columbia. The next series of reports to be released will be 23 Apparel and other finished products
at the National Transportation Analysis Region (NTAR). made from fabrics and similar
There are 89 NTAR’s representing one or more Bureau of materials
Economic Analysis economic areas. A final United States 24 Lumber and wood products, except
Summary report, reflecting all revisions based on the furniture
geographic level analyses, will follow these reports. 25 Furniture and fixtures
26 Paper and allied products
27, ex. 279 Printing, publishing, and allied industries
(excluding service industries for the
printing trade)
COVERAGE
28 Chemicals and allied products
29 Petroleum refining and related industries
This sample survey produced measures of the move-
ment of goods by major type of commodity shipped and 30 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics
mode(s) of transportation used. products
31 Leather and leather products
The 1993 CFS covered establishments in mining, manu- 32 Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products
facturing and wholesale trade, and selected retail and 33 Primary metal industries
service industries. The survey also covered selected aux- 34 Fabricated metal products, except
iliary establishments (e.g., warehouses) of in-scope multi- machinery and transportation equipment
unit and retail companies. The survey coverage excluded 35 Industrial and commercial machinery and
establishments classified as farms, forestry, fisheries, oil computer equipment
and gas extraction, governments, construction, transpor- 36 Electronic and other electrical equipment
tation, households, foreign establishments, and most estab- and components, except computer
lishments in retail and services. equipment
37 Transportation equipment
The industries covered, as defined in the Standard 38 Measuring, analyzing, and controlling
Industrial Classification Manual: 19871 (SIC), are listed in instruments; photographic, medical and
the following table: optical goods; watches and clocks
39 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
50 Wholesale trade—durable goods
51 Wholesale trade—nondurable goods
1
596 Catalog and mail-order houses
Standard Industrial Classification Manual: 1987. For sale by Super-
intendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 782 Motion picture and video tape distribution
DC 20402. Stock No. 041-001-00314-2.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY V
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 2 SESS: 39 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 14:28:05 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 07txtint

The source of the frame used for sampling in 1992 was undivided roadway, degree of access control, rural or
the Standard Statistical Establishment List (SSEL) of sepa- urban setting, type of pavement, number of lanes, degree
rate business locations with paid employees, maintained of urban congestion, and length of the link. Link impedance
by the Census Bureau. Establishments in these trade measures are also assigned to the local access links. A
areas that had non-zero payroll in at least one quarter of minimum path algorithm is used to find the minimum
1991 were included in the sampling frame of approximately impedance path between the origin ZIP Code centroid and
800,000 establishments. the destination ZIP Code centroid. The cumulative length
of the links on this path is the shipment distance.
MILEAGE CALCULATIONS
The Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) at Oak DISCLOSURE RULES
Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed an inte-
grated transportation network modeling system to com-
In accordance with Federal law governing census reports,
pute shipment mileages for the 1993 CFS. To enable
no data are published that would disclose the operations of
ORNL to compute mileages, the Census Bureau provided
files containing ZIP Code origin and destination pairs for all an individual firm or establishment.
reported shipments. To maintain confidentiality of reported
data, no information other than ZIP Codes was provided. A
ZIP Code pair was provided only once, regardless of the ABOUT THE DATA
number of shipments that moved between ZIP Codes. To
further protect confidentiality, the Census Bureau also This section summarizes key points about the data that
included dummy pairs of ZIP Code origin and destination in will aid the user in analyzing and interpreting the tables
the file sent to ORNL. The ORNL system used these contained in this report.
five-digit ZIP Codes of the shipment’s origin and destina-
tion, as input, and assumed the actual origin and destina-
tion points to be geographically located at the ZIP Code Coverage Considerations
centroids. The system computed mileages, by mode, for all
single modes and selected mode combinations for those The CFS captured data on shipments originating from
ZIP Code pairs we sent to ORNL. The mileages between selected types of business establishments located in the
the origin-destination ZIP Code centroids were computed 50 States and the District of Columbia. The data do not
by finding the minimum impedance path over mathematical cover shipments originating from business establishments
representations of the highway, rail, waterway, air, and
located in Puerto Rico and other U.S. possessions and
pipeline networks and summing the lengths of individual
territories. Shipments traversing the U.S. from a foreign
links on these paths. Impedance is computed as a weighted
location to another foreign location (e.g., from Canada to
combination of distance, time, and cost factors.
Mexico) are not included, nor are shipments from a foreign
The ORNL mileage network is composed of individual location to a U.S. location. Imported products were included
modal-specific networks representing each of the major in the CFS at the point that they left the importer’s
transportation modes — highway, rail, waterway, air, and domestic location for shipment to another location. Ship-
pipeline. The links on these specific modal networks are ments that were shipped through a foreign territory with
the representation of line-haul transportation facilities. The both the origin and destination in the U.S. were included in
nodes represent intersections and interchanges, and the the CFS data. The mileages calculated for these ship-
access points to the transportation network. For each ments exclude the international segments (e.g., shipments
five-digit ZIP Code, dummy links are created from the ZIP from New York to Michigan through Canada do not include
Code centroid to the nodes on the network to simulate any mileages for Canada). Export shipments were included,
local access to the network with the objective being to with the domestic destination defined as the port of exit
locate the nodes on the network that are the closest to the from the U.S.
given centroid. For the truck network, local access is
assumed to exist everywhere; however, for the other The ‘‘Coverage’’ section of this report lists the SIC
modes this is not true. Before any dummy links are created groups covered by the CFS. Other industry areas that were
for these modes, a decision is made about whether the not covered, but may have significant shipping activity,
mode is accessible from the ZIP Code region. For ship- include agriculture, government, and retail (other than
ments involving more than one mode, such as truck-rail or warehouses and SIC 5961, Catalog and Mail-Order Houses).
rail-water, links connecting the individual modal networks For agriculture specifically, this means that the CFS did not
are created to represent the transfer of freight between cover shipments of agricultural products from the farm site
modes. A measure of link impedance is calculated for each to the processing centers or terminal elevators (most likely
link in each modal network based on various link charac- short-distance local movements), but did cover the ship-
teristics for the specific mode. For example, the set of link ments of these products from the initial processing centers
characteristics for the highway network included divided or or terminal elevators onward.

VI 1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 3 SESS: 39 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 14:28:05 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 07txtint

Within mining, the CFS did not cover shipments from origin and destination ZIP Code centroids. All other distance-
establishments in SIC 13, Oil and Gas Extraction. The related data in the tables (i.e., ton-miles and average miles
majority of these establishments had undeliverable mailing per shipment) are based on the mileage calculations
addresses, and due to the mailout/ mailback approach for produced by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (see the
CFS, could not be included. Therefore, the CFS data do ‘‘Mileage Calculations’’ section for more details).
not represent complete, or even primary, coverage of
crude petroleum, or natural gas shipments. The CFS
Great circle distance. The shortest distance between
data most affected by this, other than data for these
two points on the earth’s surface.
specific commodities, are data for the pipeline and water
modes, given that a significant percentage of the total
tonnage moving by these modes are from crude petroleum Mode of transportation. The type of transportation used
and/ or natural gas. for moving the shipment to its domestic destination. For
exports, the domestic destination was the port of exit. On
the questionnaire, we defined the possible modes as
Mileage Data for Pipeline Shipments
follows:
In the tables, we do not show ton-miles or average miles
per shipment for pipeline shipments. For most of these 1. Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier. Delivery
shipments, the respondents reported the shipment desti- services that carry letters, parcels, packages, and
nation as a pipeline facility on the main pipeline network. other small shipments that typically weigh less than
Therefore, for the majority of these shipments, the result- 100 pounds. Includes bus parcel delivery service.
ing mileage represented only the access distance through
feeder pipelines to the main pipeline network, and not the 2. Private truck. Trucks operated by a temporary or
actual distance through the main pipeline network. Pipe- permanent employee of an establishment or the buyer/
line shipments are included in the totals for ton-miles receiver of the shipment.
and average miles per shipment.
3. For-hire truck. Trucks that carry freight for a fee
collected from the shipper, recipient of the shipment,
Average Miles Per Shipment
or an arranger of the transportation.
For our calculation of average miles per shipment
(tables 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6) we excluded shipments of STCC 4. Railroad. Any common carrier or private railroad.
27, Printed Matter.
5. Inland water and/ or Great Lakes. Barges, ships, or
When transporting newspapers, magazines, catalogs, ferries operating primarily on rivers and canals; on
etc., there is great variation in the meaning of ‘‘shipment’’.
harbors, the Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence Seaway;
A truckload of magazines traveling to a distribution point
the Intracoastal Waterway, the Inside Passage to
may be viewed as one shipment or, as each magazine will
Alaska, major bays and inlets; or on the ocean close to
eventually be delivered to individual subscribers, thou-
the shoreline.
sands of shipments. To avoid overstating the impact of
short distance shipments of products in STCC 27, we
6. Deep sea water. Barges, ships, or ferries operating
excluded shipments of STCC 27 from our calculation of
primarily on the open ocean. Shipping on the Great
average miles.
Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway is classified
All other variables in the tables (value, tons, and ton-
with inland water. [Note: As part of the mileage
miles) include shipments of STCC 27.
calculation operations, deep sea water shipments were
reclassified to more accurately reflect a shipment’s
EXPLANATION OF TERMS route rather than vessel type. Therefore, in the tables,
‘‘deep sea water’’ as a single mode describes ship-
Commodity. Item that an establishment produces, sells, ments moving only on the open waters of the oceans
or distributes. This does not include items that are consid- or the Gulf of Mexico. Using this definition, deep sea as
ered as excess or byproducts of the establishment’s a single mode (i.e., without an inland water compo-
operation. Respondents reported the description and the nent) is nearly impossible. Most shipments moving
five-digit STCC code for the major commodity contained in primarily on the open ocean are tabulated under
the shipment, defined as the commodity with the greatest ‘‘inland water and deep sea.’’]
weight in the total shipment.
7. Pipeline. Movements of oil, petroleum, gas, slurry,
Distance shipped. In table 3, shipment data are pre- etc., through pipelines that extend to other establish-
sented for various ‘‘distance shipped’’ intervals. Ship- ments or locations beyond the shipper’s establish-
ments were categorized into these ‘‘distance shipped’’ ment. Aqueducts for the movement of water are not
intervals based on the great circle distance between their included.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY VII
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 4 SESS: 39 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 14:28:05 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 07txtint

8. Air. Movements using commercial or private aircraft, Great Lakes can appear in the tables as a single mode
and all air service for shipments that typically weigh inland water shipment, or a single mode Great Lakes
more than 100 pounds. Includes air freight and air shipment, or a multiple mode inland water and Great
express. Lakes shipment.
9. Other mode. Any mode not listed above. 7. Inland water. On the questionnaire, ‘‘Inland water
and/ or Great Lakes’’ appeared as one mode. In the
10. Mode unknown. The shipment was not carried by a
tables in this publication, ‘‘Inland water’’ appears as a
parcel delivery/ courier/ U.S. Postal Service, and the
separate mode. See the ‘‘Great Lakes’’ section above
respondent could not determine what mode of trans-
for the explanation.
portation was used.

In the tables, the above modes appear, as well as the Shipment. A shipment (or delivery) is an individual move-
following additional mode descriptions: ment of commodities from an establishment to a customer
or to another location of the originating company (including
1. Single modes. Shipments using only one of the above- a warehouse, distribution center, retail or wholesale out-
listed modes, except other and unknown. let). A shipment uses one or more modes of transportation
including parcel delivery, U.S. Postal Service, courier,
2. Multiple modes. Shipments for which two or more of
private truck, for-hire truck, rail, water, pipeline, air, and
the following modes of transportation were used:
other modes.
a. Private truck.
Standard Transportation Commodity Classification (STCC).
b. For-hire truck. A commodity coding system that the Association of Ameri-
c. Air. can Railroads developed and maintains. The 1993 Com-
modity Flow Survey used this classification system at the
d. Rail. five-digit level.
e. Inland water.
Ton-miles. The weight times the mileage for a shipment.
f. Great Lakes. The respondents reported shipment weight in pounds, as
g. Deep sea water. described below. Mileage was calculated as the distance
between the shipment origin and destination ZIP Codes.
h. Pipeline. For shipments by truck, rail, or inland water/ Great Lakes,
the mileage excludes international segments. For example,
We did not allow for multiple modes in combination mileages from Alaska to the continental United States
with ‘‘parcel delivery, U.S. Postal Service, or courier’’, exclude any mileages through Canada (see the ‘‘Mileage
‘‘unknown’’, or ‘‘other’’, which, by their nature, may Calculations’’ section for more details). Aggregated pound-
already include various kinds of multiple-mode activity. miles were converted to ton-miles. The tables in this
For example, if the respondent reported a shipment’s publication show ton-miles in millions.
mode of transportation as parcel and air, we treated the
shipment as parcel only. Tons shipped. The total weight of the entire shipment.
Respondents reported the weight in pounds. Aggregated
3. Other modes. Shipments for which mode was not
pounds were converted to short-tons (2,000 pounds). The
reported, or was recorded as ‘‘Other’’ or ‘‘Unknown.’’
tables in this publication show tons in thousands.
Also, shipments using any other mode or mode com-
binations not specifically listed in the table.
Total modal activity. The overall activity (e.g., ton-miles)
4. Truck. For-hire truck and/ or private truck. of a specific mode of transportation, whether used in a
single-mode shipment, or as part of a multiple-mode
5. Water. Inland water and/ or Great Lakes and/ or deep
shipment. For example, the total modal activity for private
sea water.
truck is the total ton-miles carried by private truck in
6. Great Lakes. On the questionnaire, ‘‘Inland water single-mode shipments, combined with the total ton-miles
and/ or Great Lakes’’ appeared as one mode. In the carried by private truck in all multiple-mode shipments that
tables in this publication, ‘‘Great Lakes’’ appears as a include private truck (private truck and for-hire truck,
separate mode. The transportation network and mile- private truck and rail, private truck and air, etc.). ‘‘Total
age calculation system that Oak Ridge National Labo- modal activity’’ appears in table 2 of this publication.
ratories developed for this survey allowed for separate
mileage calculations for inland water and Great Lakes Value of shipments. The dollar value of the entire ship-
between the origin and destination ZIP Codes (see the ment. This was defined as the net selling value, f.o.b. plant,
‘‘Mileage Calculations’’ section for more details). There- exclusive of freight charges and excise taxes. The tables in
fore, a shipment reported as using inland water and/ or this publication show value in millions of dollars.

VIII 1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 5 SESS: 39 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 14:28:05 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 07txtint

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS CFS Commodity Flow Survey.
CTS Commodity Transportation Survey.
The following abbreviations and symbols are used in
CV Coefficient of Variation.
this publication:
lb Pounds.
– Represents zero or less than 1 unit of mea- N.E.C. Not Elsewhere Classified.
sure. NTAR National Transportation Analysis Region.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing SIC Standard Industrial Classification.
data for individual companies. SSEL Standard Statistical Establishment List.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to STCC Standard Transportation Commodity Classifi-
high sampling variability or other reasons. cation.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY IX
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 11 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 13:59:17 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 07txtgui1

Users’ Guide for Locating Statistics in This Report
by Table Number

Tables
Information shown in tables
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X X X
Tons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X X X
Ton-miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X X X X
Average miles per shipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X X

Mode of transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X X X X
Distance shipped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X
Shipment size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X
Commodity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X X
State of destination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X

X USERS’ GUIDE TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY


Contents 
South Carolina
[Page numbers listed here omit the prefix that
appears as part of the number of each page]

  Page
Introduction to the Economic Census............................................... III
1993 Commodity Flow Survey ..................................................... V
Users’ Guide for Locating Statistics in This Report by Table Number .................. X

TABLES
1. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1993 .... 3
2. Shipment Characteristics by Total Modal Activity for State of Origin: 1993 ........ 3
3. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Distance Shipped for
State of Origin: 1993 ....................................................... 4
4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for State
of Origin: 1993 ............................................................ 7
5. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity for State of Origin: 1993 ................ 10
6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993 ............................................................... 11
7. Shipment Characteristics by State of Destination for State of Origin: 1993 ........ 23

APPENDIXES
A. Comparability With Previous Surveys .......................................... A–1
B. Reliability of the Data ........................................................ B–1
C. Sample Design, Survey Methodology, and Estimation ........................... C–1
D. Standard Transportation Commodity Classification Code Information .............. D–1
E. Sample Report Forms and Instructions ........................................ E–1

Publication Program ................................................... Inside back cover

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA  1

TIPS UPF [APS_PPGB,MA_SMITH] 2/ 29/ 96 14:24:28 MCVX09 TLP:SC.TOC;2 2/ 29/ 96 14:24:06 DATA:NONE UPF:SC.UPF PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-14240749.DAT;1 2/ 29/ 96 14:24:11 UTF:TIPS93-14240749.DAT;1 2/ 29/ 96 14:24:11 META:TIPS96-14240749.DAT;1 2/ 29/ 96 14:24:26
Table 1. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
Mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

All modes --------------------------------------- 83 621 100.0 117 146 100.0 20 072 100.0 308

SINGLE MODES
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 4 620 5.5 188 .2 105 .5 603
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 27 937 33.4 71 450 61.0 4 753 23.7 52
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 44 280 53.0 31 774 27.1 9 300 46.3 526
Air ------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – – – – 832

Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 4 136 4.9 9 292 7.9 4 713 23.5 571
Inland water ---------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

MULTIPLE MODES
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ 314 .4 986 .8 122 .6 717
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 553 .7 20 – 23 .1 1 201
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) – (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) 72 .1 37 .2 3 804

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

OTHER MODES
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 1 427 1.7 2 461 2.1 546 2.7 110

Note: " Deep sea water" as a single mode describes shipments moving only on the open waters of the oceans or the Gulf of Mexico. Most shipments moving primarily on the open ocean
are tabulated under " Inland water and deep sea" .

– Represents zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived by subtracting published data from their
respective totals. However, the figures obtained by such subtraction are subject to these same limitations.
1Average miles and ton-miles are based on the estimated distance traveled, not on Great Circle Distance. See the " Mileage Calculations" section of this report for further explanation.
Calculation of average miles per shipment excludes shipments of STCC 27, Printed Matter. See " About the Data" section of this report for further explanation.
2CFS data for pipelines exclude most shipments of crude oil. See " About the Data" section for details of CFS coverage.

Table 2. Shipment Characteristics by Total Modal
Activity for State of Origin: 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not
add to total because of rounding]

Ton-miles2
Mode of transportation1
Number Average miles
(millions) Percent per shipment2

Total ----------------------------------- 20 072 100.0 308
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier, total--------- 105 .5 603
Truck, total -------------------------------------- 14 193 70.7 157
Air, total ---------------------------------------- 22 .1 1 103
Rail, total --------------------------------------- 4 845 24.1 596
Inland water, total -------------------------------- (S) (S) (S)

Great Lakes, total -------------------------------- – – (S)
Deep sea water, total ---------------------------- 16 .1 3 756
Pipeline, total ------------------------------------ (S) – (S)
Other and unknown modes, total ------------------ 546 2.7 110

– Represents zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons.
Some unpublished estimates can be derived by subtracting published data from their respective totals.
However, the figures obtained by such subtraction are subject to these same limitations.
1Data represent activity for a given mode across single and multiple mode shipments. For
example, total truck activity includes private truck and/ or for-hire truck single mode combined with private
and for-hire truck segments of all multiple mode trips including truck.
2Average miles and ton-miles are based on the estimated distance traveled, not on Great Circle
Distance. See the " Mileage Calculations" section of this report for further explanation. Calculation of
average miles per shipment excludes shipments of STCC 27, Printed Matter. See " About the Data"
section of this report for further explanation.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   3

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:58 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_3_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:45 UTF:TIPS93-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:45 META:TIPS96-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:55
Table 3. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Distance Shipped for
State of Origin: 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Number Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent

ALL MODES
Total -------------------------------------------------------- 83 621 100.0 117 146 100.0 20 072 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- 15 981 19.1 61 452 52.5 1 499 7.5
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- 10 761 12.9 23 180 19.8 2 082 10.4
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 18 516 22.1 15 947 13.6 3 164 15.8
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 12 847 15.4 7 653 6.5 3 768 18.8
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 14 120 16.9 5 200 4.4 4 025 20.1
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 5 571 6.7 1 987 1.7 2 184 10.9
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- 1 658 2.0 974 .8 1 441 7.2
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- 885 1.1 165 .1 363 1.8
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- 3 282 3.9 589 .5 1 546 7.7

SINGLE MODES
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---------------------------- 4 620 100.0 188 100.0 105 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- 502 10.9 39 21.0 1 .8
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- 505 10.9 20 10.6 2 1.8
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 803 17.4 30 16.2 6 5.7
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 733 15.9 28 14.8 13 12.8
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 1 092 23.6 38 20.5 29 27.2
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 397 8.6 13 6.9 13 12.7
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- 219 4.7 6 3.3 9 8.3
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- 97 2.1 4 2.2 9 8.6
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- 272 5.9 9 4.6 23 22.0
Private truck ---------------------------------------------------- 27 937 100.0 71 450 100.0 4 753 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- 11 370 40.7 49 295 69.0 1 201 25.3
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- 5 728 20.5 13 978 19.6 1 224 25.7
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 6 747 24.2 6 166 8.6 1 099 23.1
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 2 345 8.4 1 215 1.7 533 11.2
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 1 208 4.3 587 .8 423 8.9
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 296 1.1 126 .2 129 2.7
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- 159 .6 51 .1 67 1.4
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) – (S) (S)
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- 45 .2 16 – 43 .9
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------------- 44 280 100.0 31 774 100.0 9 300 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- 3 517 7.9 9 528 30.0 220 2.4
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- 3 795 8.6 6 152 19.4 538 5.8
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 10 218 23.1 6 768 21.3 1 331 14.3
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 8 614 19.5 4 180 13.2 1 962 21.1
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 10 435 23.6 3 213 10.1 2 387 25.7
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 3 268 7.4 1 099 3.5 1 127 12.1
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- 1 071 2.4 279 .9 379 4.1
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- 676 1.5 115 .4 245 2.6
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- 2 686 6.1 439 1.4 1 112 12.0
Air -------------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – (S)
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – (S)
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 10 16.5 – (S) – (S)
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – (S) – (S) – (S)
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – (S)
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – (S) – (S) – (S)
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – 3.2 – 9.8
Rail ------------------------------------------------------------- 4 136 100.0 9 292 100.0 4 713 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- 141 3.4 778 8.4 24 .5
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- 475 11.5 1 862 20.0 224 4.8
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 379 9.2 2 627 28.3 658 14.0
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 809 19.6 1 537 16.5 854 18.1
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 711 17.2 1 197 12.9 1 053 22.3
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 671 7.2 824 17.5
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- 120 2.9 543 5.8 858 18.2
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 15 .2 35 .7
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- 52 1.3 62 .7 183 3.9
Inland water ---------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Great Lakes ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

4   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:58 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_3_45 PAGE: 2
TSF:TIPS92-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:45 UTF:TIPS93-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:45 META:TIPS96-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:55
Table 3. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Distance Shipped for
State of Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Number Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent

SINGLE MODESmCon.
Deep sea watermCon.
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Pipeline2 -------------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

MULTIPLE MODES
Private truck and for-hire truck ---------------------------------- 314 100.0 986 100.0 122 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 286 29.0 23 18.6
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 55 17.4 90 9.1 15 12.2
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 80 25.6 (S) (S) (S) (S)
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 57 18.0 (S) (S) (S) (S)

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 4 .4 4 3.3
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- 16 5.1 3 .3 4 3.7
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and air ---------------------------------------------------- 553 100.0 20 100.0 23 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- 16 2.9 – 1.4 – .2
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 49 8.8 2 8.1 1 2.4
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 82 14.7 2 11.4 2 7.0
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 210 37.9 9 45.7 8 34.1

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 56 10.2 2 10.9 3 12.2
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- 16 2.9 – 2.1 1 2.8
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- 24 4.3 1 5.3 2 9.0
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- 101 18.2 3 15.2 7 32.1
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- 22 13.9 7 8.4 21 14.6
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 72 100.0 37 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – (S) – (S) – (S)
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Rail and water--------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------------ – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   5

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:58 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_3_45 PAGE: 3
TSF:TIPS92-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:45 UTF:TIPS93-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:45 META:TIPS96-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:55
Table 3. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Distance Shipped for
State of Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Number Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent

MULTIPLE MODESmCon.
Inland water and Great LakesmCon.
750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

OTHER MODES
Other and unknown modes -------------------------------------- 1 427 100.0 2 461 100.0 546 100.0
Less than 50 miles --------------------------------------------------- 389 27.3 1 006 40.9 17 3.2
50 to 99 miles ------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
100 to 249 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 141 9.9 (S) (S) 35 6.4
250 to 499 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 114 8.0 (S) (S) (S) (S)
500 to 749 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 378 26.5 113 4.6 88 16.1

750 to 999 miles ----------------------------------------------------- 80 5.6 (S) (S) (S) (S)
1,000 to 1,499 miles -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
1,500 to 1,999 miles -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
2,000 miles or more -------------------------------------------------- 49 3.4 32 1.3 91 16.6

Note: " Deep sea water" as a single mode describes shipments moving only on the open waters of the oceans or the Gulf of Mexico. Most shipments moving primarily on the open ocean
are tabulated under " Inland water and deep sea" .

– Represents zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived by subtracting published data from their
respective totals. However, the figures obtained by such subtraction are subject to these same limitations.
1Ton-miles are based on the estimated distance traveled, not on Great Circle Distance. See the " Mileage Calculations" section of this report for further explanation.
2CFS data for pipelines exclude most shipments of crude oil. See " About the Data" section for details of CFS coverage.

6   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:58 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_3_45 PAGE: 4
TSF:TIPS92-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:45 UTF:TIPS93-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:45 META:TIPS96-16084317.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:08:55
Table 4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for State of
Origin: 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
Mode of transportation and shipment size
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

ALL MODES
Total -------------------------------------------- 83 621 100.0 117 146 100.0 20 072 100.0 308
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- 4 591 5.5 269 .2 66 .3 402
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- 1 593 1.9 166 .1 37 .2 247
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- 6 121 7.3 1 197 1.0 240 1.2 204
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- 2 109 2.5 557 .5 129 .6 237
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- 1 842 2.2 483 .4 109 .5 237
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ 18 914 22.6 7 016 6.0 1 646 8.2 245
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- 38 503 46.0 60 398 51.6 10 098 50.3 175
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- 4 018 4.8 30 623 26.1 2 161 10.8 67
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- 5 930 7.1 16 437 14.0 5 585 27.8 413

SINGLE MODES
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------- 4 620 100.0 188 100.0 105 100.0 603
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- 3 093 67.0 82 43.8 48 45.3 599
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- 708 15.3 36 19.0 22 20.8 661
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- 711 15.4 57 30.6 29 27.1 584
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- 53 1.1 7 3.9 4 4.1 787
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- 55 1.2 5 2.7 3 2.6 625
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Private truck ----------------------------------------- 27 937 100.0 71 450 100.0 4 753 100.0 52
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- 892 3.2 82 .1 3 .1 37
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- 541 1.9 106 .1 4 .1 40
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- 2 215 7.9 827 1.2 44 .9 53
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- 727 2.6 397 .6 24 .5 61
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- 582 2.1 328 .5 21 .4 67
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ 6 334 22.7 4 327 6.1 371 7.8 81
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- 14 209 50.9 40 081 56.1 2 984 62.8 77
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- 2 050 7.3 21 595 30.2 1 080 22.7 49
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- 389 1.4 3 706 5.2 221 4.7 60
For-hire truck ---------------------------------------- 44 280 100.0 31 774 100.0 9 300 100.0 526
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- 256 .6 9 – 7 .1 744
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- 239 .5 17 .1 9 .1 518
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- 2 891 6.5 268 .8 156 1.7 566
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- 1 229 2.8 136 .4 83 .9 610
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- 1 108 2.5 130 .4 80 .9 613
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ 11 944 27.0 2 515 7.9 1 185 12.7 495
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- 23 456 53.0 18 924 59.6 6 647 71.5 367
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- 1 717 3.9 8 114 25.5 779 8.4 92
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) 1 660 5.2 (S) (S) (S)
Air -------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – 100.0 – 100.0 832
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- 3 4.8 – 9.4 – (S) (S)
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- 5 8.8 – 6.1 – 6.2 765
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – 28.4 – 22.9 597
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – .1 – .7 – (S) (S)
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail-------------------------------------------------- 4 136 100.0 9 292 100.0 4 713 100.0 571
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) – – (S)
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – – – – (S)
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- 132 3.2 158 1.7 127 2.7 761
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- 180 4.3 334 3.6 185 3.9 583
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- 3 809 92.1 8 795 94.7 4 397 93.3 529
Inland water ----------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Great Lakes ----------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water -------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   7

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:13:11 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_4_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:12:54 UTF:TIPS93-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:12:54 META:TIPS96-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:13:08
Table 4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
Mode of transportation and shipment size
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

SINGLE MODESmCon.
Deep sea watermCon.
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 --------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

MULTIPLE MODES
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------------------- 314 100.0 986 100.0 122 100.0 717
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – .2 – – – .1 839
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- 2 .7 – – – .3 793
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- 32 10.3 6 .6 6 5.2 1 017
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- 30 9.4 6 .6 (S) (S) (S)

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- (S) (S) 748 75.9 60 49.3 (S)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air ---------------------------------------- 553 100.0 20 100.0 23 100.0 1 201
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- 190 34.4 3 14.2 4 16.7 1 189
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- 77 13.8 1 6.5 2 7.4 1 389
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- 124 22.4 3 12.8 3 11.2 1 066
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- 28 5.0 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- 27 4.8 1 3.5 1 2.6 900

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ 94 17.0 7 37.3 7 30.3 1 047
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- (S) (S) 3 15.6 4 16.3 1 332
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – .1 (S) (S) (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------- (S) (S) 72 100.0 37 100.0 3 804
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – .2 – – – – (S)
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – .2 – – – – (S)
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – .1 – – – – (S)
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- (S) (S) 21 29.3 16 44.2 (S)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

8   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:13:11 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_4_45 PAGE: 2
TSF:TIPS92-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:12:54 UTF:TIPS93-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:12:54 META:TIPS96-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:13:08
Table 4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
Mode of transportation and shipment size
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

MULTIPLE MODESmCon.
Inland water and Great LakesmCon.
1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

OTHER MODES
Other and unknown modes --------------------------- 1 427 100.0 2 461 100.0 546 100.0 110
Less than 50 lb ------------------------------------------- 156 10.9 93 3.8 4 .7 93
50 to 99 lb ----------------------------------------------- 22 1.5 5 .2 – .1 (S)
100 to 499 lb --------------------------------------------- 113 7.9 34 1.4 2 .4 (S)
500 to 749 lb --------------------------------------------- 25 1.8 5 .2 1 .1 (S)
750 to 999 lb --------------------------------------------- 28 2.0 12 .5 1 .1 (S)

1,000 to 9,999 lb ------------------------------------------ 333 23.3 99 4.0 33 6.0 454
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------------------------- 492 34.5 339 13.8 138 25.3 409
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------------------------- 65 4.5 408 16.6 100 18.3 (S)
100,000 lb or more ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Note: " Deep sea water" as a single mode describes shipments moving only on the open waters of the oceans or the Gulf of Mexico. Most shipments moving primarily on the open ocean
are tabulated under " Inland water and deep sea" .

– Represents zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived by subtracting published data from their
respective totals. However, the figures obtained by such subtraction are subject to these same limitations.
1Average miles and ton-miles are based on the estimated distance traveled, not on Great Circle Distance. See the " Mileage Calculations" section of this report for further explanation.
Calculation of average miles per shipment excludes shipments of STCC 27, Printed Matter. See " About the Data" section of this report for further explanation.
2CFS data for pipelines exclude most shipments of crude oil. See " About the Data" section for details of CFS coverage.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   9

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:13:11 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_4_45 PAGE: 3
TSF:TIPS92-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:12:54 UTF:TIPS93-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:12:54 META:TIPS96-16125226.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:13:08
Table 5. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity for State of Origin: 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

STCC Value Tons Ton-miles1 Average miles per
Commodity description
code (million dollars) (thousands) (millions) shipment1

ALL COMMODITIES
Total ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 83 621 117 146 20 072 308

01 Farm products ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 642 1 489 154 (S)
08 Forest products ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 (S) (S) (S)
09 Fresh fish or other marine products ----------------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S)
10 Metallic ores -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 73 – – 644
11 Coal --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D)

13 Crude petroleum, natural gas, or gasoline ------------------------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D)
14 Nonmetallic minerals ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 277 19 876 2 060 66
19 Ordnance or accessories --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 292 22 41 998
20 Food or kindred products --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 785 6 909 1 048 57
21 Tobacco products, excluding insecticides ------------------------------------------------------------ 455 38 7 (S)

22 Textile mill products ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 402 3 978 1 676 869
23 Apparel or other finished textile products------------------------------------------------------------- 6 206 455 312 947
24 Lumber or wood products, excluding furniture -------------------------------------------------------- 2 446 25 477 1 939 114
25 Furniture or fixtures -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 749 161 98 439
26 Pulp, paper, or allied products ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 393 6 723 3 279 279

27 Printed matter ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) –
28 Chemicals or allied products ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9 201 12 464 2 935 226
29 Petroleum or coal products ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 233 14 918 846 31
30 Rubber or miscellaneous plastics products ----------------------------------------------------------- 2 772 782 330 319
31 Leather or leather products ------------------------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S)

32 Clay, concrete, glass, or stone products ------------------------------------------------------------- 958 12 917 1 477 104
33 Primary metal products ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 096 2 552 1 220 281
34 Fabricated metal products -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 213 1 401 536 283
35 Machinery, excluding electrical ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 010 483 270 223
36 Electrical machinery, equipment, or supplies ---------------------------------------------------------- 5 311 886 433 494

37 Transportation equipment -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 097 631 218 146
38 Instruments, photographic goods, optical goods, watches, or clocks ------------------------------------ 1 282 (S) 174 315
39 Miscellaneous products of manufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------ 1 708 172 118 635
40 Waste or scrap materials --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 249 1 074 289 182
41 Miscellaneous freight shipments--------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 992 556 142 359

42 Containers, carriers or devices, shipping, returned empty ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 1 175
48 Waste hazardous materials or waste hazardous substances -------------------------------------------- 17 (S) (S) (S)
m Commodity unknown ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 168 131 67 212

– Represents zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived by subtracting published data from their
respective totals. However, the figures obtained by such subtraction are subject to these same limitations.
1Average miles and ton-miles are based on the estimated distance traveled, not on Great Circle Distance. See the " Mileage Calculations" section of this report for further explanation.
Calculation of average miles per shipment excludes shipments of STCC 27, Printed Matter. See " About the Data" section of this report for further explanation.

10   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:17:09 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_5_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16165741.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:17:00 UTF:TIPS93-16165741.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:17:00 META:TIPS96-16165741.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:17:08
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

ALL COMMODITIES
Total -------------------------------------------- 83 621 100.0 117 146 100.0 20 072 100.0 308

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 4 620 5.5 188 .2 105 .5 603
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 27 937 33.4 71 450 61.0 4 753 23.7 52
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 44 280 53.0 31 774 27.1 9 300 46.3 526
Air ------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – – – – 832
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 4 136 4.9 9 292 7.9 4 713 23.5 571

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ 314 .4 986 .8 122 .6 717
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 553 .7 20 – 23 .1 1 201
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) 72 .1 37 .2 3 804

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 1 427 1.7 2 461 2.1 546 2.7 110

STCC 01, FARM PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 642 100.0 1 489 100.0 154 100.0 (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- (S) (S) – – – – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 424 65.9 713 47.9 82 53.2 46
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 145 22.6 303 20.3 41 26.7 304
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 26 4.0 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 08, FOREST PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 22 100.0 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – – – – – – –
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 3 15.9 47 4.1 6 12.4 210
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – –

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   11

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 09, FRESH FISH OR OTHER MARINE
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S) (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – – – – – – –
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – –

STCC 10, METALLIC ORES
Total -------------------------------------------- 73 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 644

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 68 92.8 – 22.0 – 59.3 1 174
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- – (S) – (S) – (S) (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – –

STCC 11, COAL
Total -------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – – – – – – –
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – –

12   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 2
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 13, CRUDE PETROLEUM, NATURAL GAS,
OR GASOLINE
Total -------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – – – – – – –
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – –

STCC 14, NONMETALLIC MINERALS
Total -------------------------------------------- 277 100.0 19 876 100.0 2 060 100.0 66

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – – – – – – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 103 37.4 12 999 65.4 427 20.7 30
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 64 23.1 2 691 13.5 267 13.0 127
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 91 32.9 2 763 13.9 1 103 53.6 420

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (S) (S) 889 4.5 67 3.2 73
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – (S) (S) – (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 19, ORDNANCE OR ACCESSORIES
Total -------------------------------------------- 292 100.0 22 100.0 41 100.0 998

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 113 38.7 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) – – (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 167 57.2 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – (S) – (S) – – (S)

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   13

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 3
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 20, FOOD OR KINDRED PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 6 785 100.0 6 909 100.0 1 048 100.0 57

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 2 – 1 – 1 .1 432
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 5 144 75.8 5 224 75.6 511 48.7 53
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 1 462 21.5 1 350 19.5 464 44.3 196
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 54 .8 208 3.0 44 4.2 (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) – (S) – (S) – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) – – – (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ (S) – – – (S) – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 59 .9 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 21, TOBACCO PRODUCTS, EXCLUDING
INSECTICIDES
Total -------------------------------------------- 455 100.0 38 100.0 7 100.0 (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – – – – – – –
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 259 57.0 9 24.8 (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

STCC 22, TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 15 402 100.0 3 978 100.0 1 676 100.0 869

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 449 2.9 21 .5 18 1.1 907
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 4 654 30.2 1 177 29.6 229 13.7 194
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 9 845 63.9 2 680 67.4 1 342 80.1 822
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ (S) – (S) – (S) – (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 81 .5 4 .1 6 .4 1 660
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) – (S) (S) (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 260 1.7 55 1.4 33 2.0 715

14   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 4
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 23, APPAREL OR OTHER FINISHED
TEXTILE PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 6 206 100.0 455 100.0 312 100.0 947

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 447 7.2 21 4.5 16 5.1 1 010
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 878 14.1 92 20.3 19 6.1 175
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 4 580 73.8 305 67.1 248 79.6 895
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 30 .5 9 2.0 10 3.1 2 141

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 141 2.3 20 4.3 14 4.4 359

STCC 24, LUMBER OR WOOD PRODUCTS,
EXCLUDING FURNITURE
Total -------------------------------------------- 2 446 100.0 25 477 100.0 1 939 100.0 114

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 10 .4 1 – (S) – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 1 248 51.0 18 885 74.1 983 50.7 59
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 1 053 43.1 5 725 22.5 685 35.3 181
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 112 4.6 647 2.5 259 13.4 394

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) – – – (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – (S) – (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 21 .9 214 .8 (S) – (S)

STCC 25, FURNITURE OR FIXTURES
Total -------------------------------------------- 749 100.0 161 100.0 98 100.0 439

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- (S) (S) 1 .7 1 .9 677
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 166 22.2 38 23.3 11 10.9 73
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 561 74.9 118 73.0 81 82.5 718
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   15

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 5
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 26, PULP, PAPER, OR ALLIED PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 4 393 100.0 6 723 100.0 3 279 100.0 279

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 79 1.8 6 .1 2 .1 604
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 1 001 22.8 1 388 20.7 201 6.1 46
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 1 978 45.0 2 735 40.7 1 336 40.7 453
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 1 227 27.9 2 381 35.4 1 564 47.7 673

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) – – – – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) – (S) – (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 100 2.3 192 2.9 165 5.0 125

STCC 27, PRINTED MATTER
Total -------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – (S) (S) (S) (S) –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – – – (S) –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –

STCC 28, CHEMICALS OR ALLIED PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 9 201 100.0 12 464 100.0 2 935 100.0 226

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 128 1.4 11 .1 3 .1 259
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 2 396 26.0 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 5 565 60.5 3 587 28.8 1 507 51.3 574
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 874 9.5 1 094 8.8 595 20.3 569

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 9 .1 1 – 1 – 1 860
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 45 .5 44 .4 21 .7 (S)

16   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 6
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 29, PETROLEUM OR COAL PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 3 233 100.0 14 918 100.0 846 100.0 31

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- (S) (S) – – – – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 1 954 60.4 8 798 59.0 400 47.3 23
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 30, RUBBER OR MISCELLANEOUS
PLASTICS PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 2 772 100.0 782 100.0 330 100.0 319

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 125 4.5 8 1.0 5 1.7 573
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 914 33.0 343 43.8 50 15.2 66
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 1 578 56.9 399 51.0 250 75.9 596
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 9 .3 1 .1 1 .2 1 040
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 94 3.4 20 2.6 20 5.9 (S)

STCC 31, LEATHER OR LEATHER PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   17

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 7
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 32, CLAY, CONCRETE, GLASS, OR STONE
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 958 100.0 12 917 100.0 1 477 100.0 104

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 12 1.2 1 – (S) – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 433 45.2 9 677 74.9 423 28.7 34
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 403 42.1 2 148 16.6 560 37.9 316
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 100 10.4 1 065 8.2 484 32.8 583

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – (S) – – – (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – (S) – (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) – (S) – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 5 .5 18 .1 (S) – (S)

STCC 33, PRIMARY METAL PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 2 096 100.0 2 552 100.0 1 220 100.0 281

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 93 4.5 5 .2 2 .2 559
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 567 27.0 505 19.8 84 6.9 53
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 1 201 57.3 989 38.7 447 36.7 633
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 179 8.5 482 18.9 354 29.0 753

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 1 – (S) – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) – (S) (S) (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

STCC 34, FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 3 213 100.0 1 401 100.0 536 100.0 283

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 228 7.1 12 .9 7 1.3 517
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 1 231 38.3 654 46.7 188 35.1 59
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 1 661 51.7 685 48.9 303 56.5 603
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 30 .9 32 2.3 24 4.5 747

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 10 .3 – – – – 993
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 45 1.4 14 1.0 6 1.1 (S)

18   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 8
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 35, MACHINERY, EXCLUDING ELECTRICAL
Total -------------------------------------------- 7 010 100.0 483 100.0 270 100.0 223

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 1 206 17.2 25 5.3 9 3.3 280
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 892 12.7 90 18.7 15 5.7 (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 3 357 47.9 326 67.5 208 77.0 507
Air ------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – – (S)
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 111 1.6 3 .6 3 1.0 839
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 130 1.9 14 2.9 4 1.6 171

STCC 36, ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT,
OR SUPPLIES
Total -------------------------------------------- 5 311 100.0 886 100.0 433 100.0 494

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 722 13.6 14 1.6 8 2.0 636
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 798 15.0 218 24.6 37 8.5 49
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 3 503 65.9 639 72.1 364 84.1 615
Air ------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – – – – 627
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 170 3.2 3 .3 3 .7 979
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 85 1.6 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 37, TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT
Total -------------------------------------------- 4 097 100.0 631 100.0 218 100.0 146

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 148 3.6 5 .9 3 1.2 380
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 779 19.0 195 31.0 45 20.7 49
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 3 088 75.4 426 67.5 167 76.7 481
Air ------------------------------------------------------- 6 .1 – – – – 1 403
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 1 .2 2 .8 954
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 28 .7 (S) (S) (S) – (S)

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   19

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 9
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 38, INSTRUMENTS, PHOTOGRAPHIC
GOODS, OPTICAL GOODS, WATCHES, OR
CLOCKS
Total -------------------------------------------- 1 282 100.0 (S) (S) 174 100.0 315

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 160 12.5 4 .8 3 1.8 553
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 65 5.0 5 .9 1 .3 (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 995 77.6 (S) (S) 167 95.9 (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – – – – (S)
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- 29 2.3 – .1 – .2 1 085
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 3 1.5 559

STCC 39, MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS OF
MANUFACTURING
Total -------------------------------------------- 1 708 100.0 172 100.0 118 100.0 635

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 388 22.7 18 10.3 13 11.1 703
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 68 39.5 10 8.3 (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 834 48.8 82 47.5 (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ (S) (S) – (S) (S) – (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – – – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – (S)

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- 21 1.2 (S) (S) 1 1.1 329

STCC 40, WASTE OR SCRAP MATERIALS
Total -------------------------------------------- 249 100.0 1 074 100.0 289 100.0 182

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – – – – – – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 57 22.8 343 31.9 34 11.7 74
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 284 26.4 90 31.2 226
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ 59 23.8 438 40.8 165 57.1 392

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) – – (S)

20   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 10
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

STCC 41, MISCELLANEOUS FREIGHT SHIPMENTS
Total -------------------------------------------- 2 992 100.0 556 100.0 142 100.0 359

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 2 957 98.8 547 98.5 137 96.4 195
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 28 .9 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – (S)

STCC 42, CONTAINERS, CARRIERS OR DEVICES,
SHIPPING, RETURNED EMPTY
Total -------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 1 100.0 175

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – (S) – (S) – – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S) (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- 4 45.1 2 50.2 1 68.9 167
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – (S) – – – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – –

STCC 48, WASTE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS OR
WASTE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
Total -------------------------------------------- 17 100.0 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- – – – – – – (S)
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 3 10.2 (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- – – – – – – –

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   21

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 11
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1993mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
STCC code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment1

COMMODITY UNKNOWN
Total -------------------------------------------- 168 100.0 131 100.0 67 100.0 212

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ----------------------- 4 2.3 – .1 – .1 509
Private truck ---------------------------------------------- 29 17.1 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Inland water ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ---------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ------------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Truck and air --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) – – – – (S)
Truck and rail --------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline2 ---------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water -------------------------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes--------------------------------- (S) (S) – (S) – – (S)

Note: " Deep sea water" as a single mode describes shipments moving only on the open waters of the oceans or the Gulf of Mexico. Most shipments moving primarily on the open ocean
are tabulated under " Inland water and deep sea" .

– Represents zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived by subtracting published data from their
respective totals. However, the figures obtained by such subtraction are subject to these same limitations.
1Average miles and ton-miles are based on the estimated distance traveled, not on Great Circle Distance. See the " Mileage Calculations" section of this report for explanation. Calculation
of average miles per shipment excludes shipments of STCC 27, Printed Matter. See " About the Data" section of this report for further explanation.
2CFS data for pipelines exclude most shipments of crude oil. See " About the Data" section for details of CFS coverage.

22   SOUTH CAROLINA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:29 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_6_45 PAGE: 12
TSF:TIPS92-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 UTF:TIPS93-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:05 META:TIPS96-16250346.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:25:22
Table 7. Shipment Characteristics by State of Destination for State of Origin: 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton-miles1
State of Destination
Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent Number (millions) Percent

Total -------------------------------------------------------- 83 621 100.0 117 146 100.0 20 072 100.0

NEW ENGLAND STATES
Connecticut ---------------------------------------------------------- 513 .6 195 .2 167 .8
Maine --------------------------------------------------------------- 227 .3 79 .1 88 .4
Massachusetts ------------------------------------------------------- 1 215 1.5 392 .3 377 1.9
New Hampshire ------------------------------------------------------ 110 .1 39 – 39 .2
Rhode Island--------------------------------------------------------- 229 .3 58 – 53 .3
Vermont ------------------------------------------------------------- 47 .1 8 – 8 –

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES
New Jersey ---------------------------------------------------------- 1 519 1.8 554 .5 386 1.9
New York ------------------------------------------------------------ 2 583 3.1 626 .5 515 2.6
Pennsylvania --------------------------------------------------------- 2 024 2.4 1 206 1.0 763 3.8

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES
Illinois --------------------------------------------------------------- 2 015 2.4 724 .6 640 3.2
Indiana -------------------------------------------------------------- 1 063 1.3 388 .3 263 1.3
Michigan------------------------------------------------------------- 2 759 3.3 651 .6 523 2.6
Ohio ---------------------------------------------------------------- 2 258 2.7 1 390 1.2 918 4.6
Wisconsin ----------------------------------------------------------- 639 .8 299 .3 306 1.5

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES
Iowa ---------------------------------------------------------------- 416 .5 191 .2 236 1.2
Kansas -------------------------------------------------------------- 400 .5 274 .2 301 1.5
Minnesota ----------------------------------------------------------- 410 .5 179 .2 239 1.2
Missouri ------------------------------------------------------------- 547 .7 247 .2 229 1.1
Nebraska ------------------------------------------------------------ 174 .2 68 .1 92 .5
North Dakota -------------------------------------------------------- 24 – (S) – (S) –
South Dakota -------------------------------------------------------- 28 – 64 .1 103 .5

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES
Delaware ------------------------------------------------------------ 201 .2 81 .1 48 .2
District of Columbia --------------------------------------------------- 70 .1 (S) – (S) –
Florida -------------------------------------------------------------- 3 355 4.0 1 490 1.3 747 3.7
Georgia ------------------------------------------------------------- 7 860 9.4 10 411 8.9 1 331 6.6
Maryland ------------------------------------------------------------ 697 .8 (S) (S) (S) (S)

North Carolina ------------------------------------------------------- 10 250 12.3 14 912 12.7 1 963 9.8
South Carolina ------------------------------------------------------- 25 512 30.5 74 401 63.5 3 321 16.5
Virginia -------------------------------------------------------------- 3 133 3.7 1 870 1.6 628 3.1
West Virginia --------------------------------------------------------- 205 .2 169 .1 70 .3

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES
Alabama ------------------------------------------------------------- 1 327 1.6 737 .6 307 1.5
Kentucky ------------------------------------------------------------ 782 .9 349 .3 175 .9
Mississippi ----------------------------------------------------------- 819 1.0 294 .3 173 .9
Tennessee ----------------------------------------------------------- 2 041 2.4 1 289 1.1 482 2.4

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES
Arkansas ------------------------------------------------------------ 621 .7 204 .2 173 .9
Louisiana ------------------------------------------------------------ 352 .4 270 .2 249 1.2
Oklahoma ----------------------------------------------------------- 206 .2 69 .1 76 .4
Texas --------------------------------------------------------------- 2 522 3.0 1 150 1.0 1 493 7.4

MOUNTAIN STATES
Arizona -------------------------------------------------------------- 306 .4 61 .1 129 .6
Colorado ------------------------------------------------------------ 300 .4 60 .1 102 .5
Idaho --------------------------------------------------------------- 51 .1 (S) – (S) –
Montana ------------------------------------------------------------- 15 – 3 – 6 –
Nevada -------------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 17 – 40 .2
New Mexico --------------------------------------------------------- 27 – 5 – 8 –
Utah ---------------------------------------------------------------- 223 .3 36 – 75 .4
Wyoming ------------------------------------------------------------ 13 – 7 – 13 .1

PACIFIC STATES
Alaska -------------------------------------------------------------- 13 – 2 – 12 .1
California ------------------------------------------------------------ 2 688 3.2 524 .4 1 340 6.7
Hawaii--------------------------------------------------------------- 12 – – – 2 –
Oregon -------------------------------------------------------------- 212 .3 51 – 146 .7
Washington ---------------------------------------------------------- 229 .3 44 – 124 .6

– Represents zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived by subtracting published data from their
respective totals. However, the figures obtained by such subtraction are subject to these same limitations.
1Ton-miles are based on the estimated distance traveled, not on Great Circle Distance. See the " Mileage Calculations" section of this report for further explanation.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA   23

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:33:28 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.T;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:07 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_T_7_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16331810.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:33:19 UTF:TIPS93-16331810.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:33:20 META:TIPS96-16331810.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:33:27
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 18 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 13:59:31 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 14apdxa

Appendix A.
Comparability With Previous Surveys

The Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) restores a data standards, and were not published. Funding was not
program on commodity flows that the Census Bureau available to conduct the 1987 CTS. The following table
conducted as a part of its 5-year economic census pro- shows a comparison of the 1977, 1983, and 1993 surveys.
gram from 1963 through 1977. The Census Bureau last For the 1993 CFS, the Census Bureau incorporated improve-
published commodity flow data for the 1977 Commodity ments identified from the evaluation of previous surveys
Transportation Survey (CTS). Data collected for a modified and additional research.
1983 CTS did not meet the Census Bureau quality

Item 1977 19831 1993
1. Industry coverage All manufacturers All manufacturers Manufacturers (minor exceptions)
Selected mining establishments Mining (except mining services
and oil and gas extraction)
Grain wholesalers All wholesale
Petroleum bulk plants
Video tape distributers
Catalog mail-order houses
Auxiliaries (e.g., warehouses)

2. Sample size Approximately 20,000 estab- Approximately 71,000 estab- Approximately 200,000 estab-
lishments selected from the lishments selected from a uni- lishments selected from a uni-
Census of Manufactures’ verse of approximately 339,000 verse of approximately 800,000
universe of 350,000 in-scope establishments on in-scope establishments on the
the 1982 SSEL 1992 SSEL

3. Survey methodology Respondents took a sample Respondents summarized data Respondents took a sample of
of all shipments for the on their shipments for the their individual outbound ship-
previous year. previous year ments for a 2-week period dur-
For each sampled shipment, No shipment sample ing each of the four calendar
respondents reported data, No reporting of commodity quarters of 1993
including commodity code For each sampled shipment,
respondents reported data,
including commodity code

4. Mode of transpor- Rail Piggyback rail Rail
tation Rail
For-hire motor carrier, ICC Motor carrier For-hire truck
For-hire motor carrier, non-ICC
Private truck Private truck Private truck
Air Air Air
Water Water Inland water and/ or Great Lakes
Deep sea water
Pipeline Pipeline
Parcel delivery Parcel delivery Parcel delivery
Courier
U.S. Postal Service
Other Other Other/ unknown

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX A A–1
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 2 SESS: 18 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 13:59:31 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 14apdxa

Item 1977 19831 1993

5. Data items requested For each shipment: Aggregated data for 1983: For each shipment:
on questionnaire Total value Total value of products Total value
Value of each commodity shipped and services
Total weight Total weight of products Total weight
Weight of each commodity shipped
Total percent of weight
exported
Total percent of weight
shipped < 25 miles
All commodities Major commodity
Primary mode of transporta- All modes of transportation
tion
Origin (considered as estab- Origin (considered as estab- Origin (respondent provided;
lishment’s mailing address) lishment’s mailing address) could be other than mailing
address)
Destination For each State of destination: Destination
Total weight shipped Containerized (Y/ N)
Percent of weight, by Hazardous material (Y/ N)
mode Export (Y/ N)
Percent of weight
exported
1
The 1983 survey results were not published because post survey evaluation uncovered significant deficiencies in the quality of the data.

A–2 APPENDIX A TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 19 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 13:59:38 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 14apdxb

Appendix B.
Reliability of the Data

RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES complete enumeration by less than 1.65 times the stan-
dard error of the estimate. In about 19 out of 20 (95
An estimate based on a sample survey potentially percent) of the samples, the estimates would differ from
contains two types of errors—sampling and nonsampling. the result of a complete enumeration by less than twice the
Sampling errors occur because the estimate is based on a standard error of the estimate.
sample, not on the entire universe. Nonsampling errors To illustrate the computations involved in the above
can be attributed to many sources in the collection and confidence statements as related to the dollar value
processing of the data. The accuracy of a survey result is estimates, assume that an estimate of shipment value
affected jointly by the two types of errors. The following is published in table 6 is $10,750 million for a particular
a description of the sampling and nonsampling errors commodity and mode of transportation, and that the
associated with the estimates computed from the 1993 coefficient of variation for this estimate, as given in appen-
Commodity Flow Survey (CFS). dix A, table B-6 is 1.8 percent, or 0.018. Multiplying
$10,750 million by 0.018 yields the standard error, $194
million. Typical practice is to construct a 90- or 95-percent
MEASURES OF SAMPLING VARIABILITY
confidence interval. Multiplying $194 million by 1.65 gives
$320 million. Therefore, a 90-percent confidence interval is
Because the estimates were based on a sample, exact
$10,430 million to $11,070 million ($10,750 million plus or
agreement with the results that would be obtained from a
minus $320 million). If corresponding confidence intervals
complete census of establishments in the CFS frame using
were constructed for all possible samples of the same size
the same enumeration procedure was not expected. How-
and design, approximately 9 out of 10 (90 percent) of the
ever, because each establishment in the Standard Statis-
intervals would contain the figure obtained from a com-
tical Establishment List (SSEL) in the specified Standard
plete enumeration. Similarly, a 95-percent confidence inter-
Industrial Classifications (SIC) had a known probability of
val is $10,362 million to $11,138 million ($10,750 million
being selected into the sample, it is possible to estimate
plus or minus $388 million).
the sampling variablity of the estimates.
To illustrate the computations involved related to the
The standard error of the estimate is a measure of the
percentage estimates, assume that the percentage esti-
variability among the values of the estimate computed
mate of shipment value published in table 6 is 25 percent
from all possible samples of the same size and design.
for a particular commodity and mode of transportation, and
Thus, it is a measure of the precision with which an
that the standard error of this estimate, as given in
estimate from a particular sample approximates the results
appendix A, table B-6 is 2.2 percent, or 0.022. Multiplying
of a complete enumeration. The coefficient of variation is
2.2 percent by 1.65 gives 3.6 percent. So a 90-percent
the standard error of the estimate divided by the value
confidence interval is 21.4 percent to 28.6 percent (25
being estimated. It is expressed as a percent. Note that
percent plus or minus 3.6 percent.) If corresponding con-
measures of sampling variablity, such as the standard error
fidence intervals were constructed for all possible samples
or coefficient of variation, are estimated from the sample
of the same size and design, approximately 9 out of 10 (90
and are also subject to sampling variability. Coefficients of
percent) of the intervals would contain the figure obtained
variation for number of shipments, dollar value, shipment
from a complete enumeration.
weight (tons), and ton-miles estimates are shown in tables
B-1 through B-7 in this appendix. Standard errors for the
corresponsing percentage estimates are also shown there. NONSAMPLING ERRORS
The standard errors and coefficients of variation pre-
sented in these tables permit certain confidence state- As calculated for this report, the standard error and
ments about the sample estimates. The particular sample coefficient of variation measures sampling errors but does
used in this survey was one of a large number of samples not measure any systematic biases in the data. Bias is the
of the same size that could have been selected using the difference, averaged over all possible samples of the same
same design. In about 9 out of 10 (90 percent) of these size and design, between the estimate and the true value
samples, the estimates would differ from the results of a being estimated.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX B B–1
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 2 SESS: 19 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 13:59:38 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 14apdxb

In the CFS as in other surveys nonsampling errors can secondary commodities. These and other problems could
be attributed to many sources: (1) inability to obtain yield a bias of undetermined amount in certain estimates.
information about all cases in the sample, (2) response Another possible source of bias in estimating the num-
errors, (3) definitional difficulties, (4) differences in the ber of shipments, value, shipment weight (tons), and
interpretation of questions, (5) mistakes in coding or ton-miles is the imputation of missing data and for data
recoding the data obtained, and (6) other errors of collec- which fail edit. Any systematic error in the imputation
tion, response, coverage, and estimation. These nonsam- procedure can introduce bias into the estimates.
pling errors also occur in complete censuses.
Some sources of error are specific to the CFS: (1) Some Although no direct measurement of the biases due to
respondents may have sampled incorrectly when selecting nonsampling error has been obtained, precautionary steps
a sample of their documents, (2) some reporters may have were taken in all phases of the collection, processing, and
used but not reported other units for their measurements—tons tabulation of the data in an effort to minimize their influ-
instead of pounds, dollars instead of thousands of dollars, ence.
etc., (3) on any shipment selected for sample, only the Biases in the published estimates are due in large part
major commodity (by weight) was reported; secondary to imputing data for nonrespondents and for data which fail
commodities within shipments were not recorded. Although edit. The overall imputation rate for the survey was 30 to 40
unlikely, this might lead to a net undercoverage of some percent.

B–2 APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
Table B–1. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation
for State of Origin: 1993
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
Mode of transportation shipmentm
Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

All modes --------------------- 5.0 – 10.8 – 6.8 – 6.8

SINGLE MODES
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 6.6 .3 4.8 – 6.4 – 7.4
Private truck --------------------------- 5.2 .8 11.0 1.6 10.9 1.3 5.6
For-hire truck -------------------------- 6.1 1.5 14.9 1.9 5.4 2.3 7.9
Air ------------------------------------ (S) (S) 53.9 – 46.2 – 30.1

Rail ----------------------------------- 22.3 1.1 14.1 1.3 13.2 2.6 4.9
Inland water --------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

MULTIPLE MODES
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- 44.8 .2 41.6 .4 39.4 .2 17.9
Truck and air--------------------------- 11.9 .1 15.6 – 15.6 – 8.1
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) – (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ (S) (S) 47.2 – 29.5 .1 30.6

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

OTHER MODES
Other and unknown modes -------------- 13.8 .2 41.4 .6 41.3 .9 35.8

Note: For description of the development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Data.

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons.

Table B–2. Measures of Reliability for Shipment
Characteristics by Total Modal Activity for State of
Origin: 1993
Ton-miles Average miles per
Mode of transportation shipmentm
Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation

Total --------------------------------------------- 6.8 – 6.8
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier, total------------------- 6.4 – 7.4
Truck, total ------------------------------------------------ 6.3 2.3 7.5
Air, total -------------------------------------------------- 15.9 – 8.5
Rail, total ------------------------------------------------- 13.6 2.7 4.2
Inland water, total ------------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S)

Great Lakes, total ------------------------------------------ 100.0 – (S)
Deep sea water, total -------------------------------------- 34.8 – 29.7
Pipeline, total ---------------------------------------------- (S) – (S)
Other and unknown modes, total ---------------------------- 41.3 .9 35.8

Note: For description of the development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Data.

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–3

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:11:05 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_3_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:10:52 UTF:TIPS93-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:10:52 META:TIPS96-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:11:02
Table B–3. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation
and Distance Shipped for State of Origin: 1993
Value Tons Ton-miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

ALL MODES
Total ---------------------------------------------- 5.0 – 10.8 – 6.8 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- 8.4 .7 11.8 2.8 11.7 .6
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- 6.7 .8 25.7 2.8 25.0 1.8
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 3.7 .7 10.3 1.2 9.8 1.0
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- 7.0 .8 8.4 .4 9.7 1.2
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 9.8 1.0 5.7 .4 5.5 1.0
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- 14.2 1.0 8.8 .2 9.3 .8
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- 6.8 .1 14.4 .1 15.0 .9
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- 11.3 .1 12.0 – 12.3 .2
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- 15.4 .5 7.9 .1 8.0 .6

SINGLE MODES
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ------------------ 6.6 – 4.8 – 6.4 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- 11.2 1.4 14.3 3.1 10.1 .1
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- 15.8 1.1 14.2 1.2 13.9 .2
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 7.6 .7 7.4 .8 7.2 .4
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- 14.7 1.3 9.7 1.2 9.2 .9
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 6.6 1.3 8.6 1.6 8.7 1.3
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- 9.9 .9 10.2 .4 10.0 .6
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- 27.3 1.1 14.8 .5 16.0 1.3
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- 12.8 .3 15.8 .2 16.6 .9
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- 12.1 .9 10.1 .5 10.3 2.3
Private truck ------------------------------------------ 5.2 – 11.0 – 10.9 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- 7.5 1.7 10.5 3.6 12.9 2.6
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- 7.4 1.7 32.2 3.5 32.8 4.1
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 6.6 1.6 14.7 1.3 14.8 2.5
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- 14.3 .9 6.7 .2 6.7 1.3
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 17.8 .5 11.6 .1 11.6 1.4
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- 17.2 .2 11.5 – 11.5 .4
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- 32.8 .2 27.5 – 26.7 .4
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) – (S) (S)
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- 43.5 .1 41.8 – 41.3 .4
For-hire truck ----------------------------------------- 6.1 – 14.9 – 5.4 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- 13.5 .8 26.2 4.4 22.8 .4
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- 12.0 .9 29.4 2.3 25.4 1.0
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 6.1 .9 10.5 2.1 9.7 1.2
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- 5.5 .9 4.3 1.6 4.7 1.0
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 11.3 1.6 7.4 1.4 7.5 1.0
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- 7.0 .6 6.1 .6 6.2 .8
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- 10.9 .2 13.8 .2 13.4 .5
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- 14.8 .2 10.1 .1 10.0 .3
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- 17.4 .8 7.8 .2 7.6 .7
Air ---------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 53.9 (S) 46.2 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 90.2 (S) 88.4 (S)
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 88.1 (S) 90.0 (S)
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 27.9 17.3 74.3 (S) 75.3 (S)
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- 89.0 (S) 88.2 (S) 86.8 (S)
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) 95.5 (S) 95.7 (S)
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- 72.5 (S) 77.9 (S) 77.5 (S)
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) 42.2 14.0 42.9 13.9
Rail --------------------------------------------------- 22.3 – 14.1 – 13.2 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- 28.3 1.0 28.3 1.4 22.0 .1
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- 23.2 5.9 16.2 3.5 15.7 1.0
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 26.0 2.8 19.7 3.2 20.0 1.9
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- 35.8 3.2 15.3 2.0 16.1 1.8
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 14.1 3.3 13.7 1.4 14.0 1.7
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 18.1 1.3 17.8 2.5
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- 20.4 1.1 27.1 .9 26.9 2.6
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) 27.6 .1 26.0 .4
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- 17.9 .5 24.6 .3 25.7 1.4
Inland water ------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Great Lakes ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Deep sea water --------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

B–4   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:11:05 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_3_45 PAGE: 2
TSF:TIPS92-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:10:52 UTF:TIPS93-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:10:52 META:TIPS96-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:11:02
Table B–3. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation
and Distance Shipped for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

SINGLE MODESmCon.
Deep sea watermCon.
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Pipeline ----------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –

MULTIPLE MODES
Private truck and for-hire truck ------------------------ 44.8 – 41.6 – 39.4 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 49.2 7.7 49.8 5.7
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 47.3 11.1 49.8 10.5 46.5 8.4
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- 47.7 5.5 (S) (S) (S) (S)
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 48.4 5.3 (S) (S) (S) (S)

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 46.5 2.1 47.6 3.4
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- 42.4 2.0 43.7 1.2 44.6 2.4
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 86.3 (S)
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and air ------------------------------------------ 11.9 – 15.6 – 15.6 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- 44.0 1.2 28.8 .5 39.8 .1
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 27.6 2.0 43.4 2.9 46.1 1.4
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- 17.1 1.8 21.2 2.6 21.4 1.9
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 16.0 4.7 24.0 5.2 24.1 5.6

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- 25.3 1.3 35.1 1.9 41.7 2.9
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- 37.8 1.2 42.4 .7 41.8 .8
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- 41.9 1.8 47.0 2.9 46.8 4.2
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- 24.9 2.8 32.0 3.6 31.8 5.7
Truck and rail ----------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- 40.3 15.4 36.6 16.5 36.9 15.4
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water --------------------------------------- (S) (S) 47.2 – 29.5 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 98.2 (S)
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 81.3 (S)

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- 75.6 (S) 82.0 (S) 81.5 (S)
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and pipeline------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Rail and water----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes -------------------------- – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–5

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:11:05 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_3_45 PAGE: 3
TSF:TIPS92-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:10:52 UTF:TIPS93-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:10:52 META:TIPS96-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:11:02
Table B–3. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation
and Distance Shipped for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

MULTIPLE MODESmCon.
Inland water and Great LakesmCon.
750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea ----------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

OTHER MODES
Other and unknown modes ---------------------------- 13.8 – 41.4 – 41.3 –
Less than 50 miles ----------------------------------------- 12.7 4.6 31.5 10.5 29.4 3.2
50 to 99 miles --------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
100 to 249 miles ------------------------------------------- 17.2 2.7 (S) (S) 48.0 4.1
250 to 499 miles ------------------------------------------- 20.7 1.9 (S) (S) (S) (S)
500 to 749 miles ------------------------------------------- 24.9 4.7 24.9 2.9 25.0 5.4

750 to 999 miles ------------------------------------------- 34.0 1.4 (S) (S) (S) (S)
1,000 to 1,499 miles ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
1,500 to 1,999 miles ---------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
2,000 miles or more ---------------------------------------- 27.2 1.0 40.2 1.5 40.4 8.0

Note: For description of the development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Data.

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons.

B–6   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:11:05 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_3_45 PAGE: 4
TSF:TIPS92-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:10:52 UTF:TIPS93-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:10:52 META:TIPS96-16105042.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:11:02
Table B–4. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation
and Shipment Size for State of Origin: 1993
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
Mode of transportation and shipment size shipmentm
Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

ALL MODES
Total -------------------------- 5.0 – 10.8 – 6.8 – 6.8
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 6.7 .4 14.7 – 6.3 – 7.3
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- 7.5 .1 15.2 – 10.3 – 14.8
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 8.1 .6 15.0 .2 8.5 .1 15.6
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- 5.5 .2 11.1 .1 9.1 .1 9.7
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- 4.2 .1 11.1 .1 7.3 .1 11.1
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- 4.2 1.0 5.7 .6 4.4 .7 5.2
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- 5.6 1.4 10.2 2.6 5.3 2.3 7.0
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- 33.1 1.2 19.5 2.2 17.8 1.2 8.0
100,000 lb or more --------------------- 23.9 1.4 14.7 1.3 12.7 2.1 9.6

SINGLE MODES
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or
courier ---------------------------- 6.6 – 4.8 – 6.4 – 7.4
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 9.6 2.8 8.0 2.4 7.1 2.7 8.0
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- 11.5 1.6 8.8 1.3 13.7 1.7 5.4
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 7.3 1.4 7.6 1.8 8.2 1.6 8.5
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- 27.0 .4 20.3 .9 34.9 1.5 15.7
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- 33.5 .3 26.2 .6 32.0 .8 21.8
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Private truck ---------------------- 5.2 – 11.0 – 10.9 – 5.6
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 5.9 .2 15.1 – 18.8 – 11.2
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- 9.9 .2 21.8 – 16.9 – 8.0
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 10.2 .9 17.9 .3 18.3 .2 10.1
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- 9.8 .3 13.8 .1 11.8 .1 15.3
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- 10.2 .2 13.0 .1 13.0 .1 9.1
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- 6.2 2.0 4.7 .8 8.6 1.1 6.7
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- 8.7 2.3 13.8 3.2 11.7 2.2 5.4
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- 25.7 1.5 13.6 2.2 14.9 2.0 7.4
100,000 lb or more --------------------- 37.4 .5 30.0 1.6 32.7 .9 28.5
For-hire truck --------------------- 6.1 – 14.9 – 5.4 – 7.9
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 17.3 .1 12.2 – 16.9 – 6.7
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- 9.9 .1 23.8 – 11.8 – 11.4
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 10.6 .7 20.2 .2 11.1 .2 11.8
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- 8.7 .3 9.5 .1 6.7 .1 6.2
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- 7.2 .2 15.0 .1 9.2 .1 10.3
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- 7.5 1.5 12.5 1.0 3.9 .7 8.2
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- 4.9 2.0 7.4 4.1 4.0 3.1 6.9
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- 49.3 1.4 41.3 4.5 32.5 1.9 19.4
100,000 lb or more --------------------- (S) (S) 43.1 2.0 (S) (S) (S)
Air -------------------------------- (S) (S) 53.9 – 46.2 – 30.1
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 39.0 13.8 58.9 7.5 51.1 (S) (S)
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- 44.6 12.0 37.2 13.0 34.1 13.1 24.8
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- (S) (S) 60.6 13.9 39.0 14.4 38.4
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- 100.0 4.3 100.0 8.5 100.0 (S) (S)
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail ------------------------------- 22.3 – 14.1 – 13.2 – 4.9
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 54.4 – (S)
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- (S) (S) 79.1 – 61.8 – (S)
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- 23.9 1.2 19.5 .4 23.5 .7 10.1
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- 15.9 1.7 10.9 .6 13.0 .7 14.8
100,000 lb or more --------------------- 24.5 2.5 14.6 .9 14.0 1.3 5.2
Inland water ---------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Great Lakes ----------------------- – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------- – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–7

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:15:09 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_4_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:14:58 UTF:TIPS93-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:14:58 META:TIPS96-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:15:07
Table B–4. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation
and Shipment Size for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
Mode of transportation and shipment size shipmentm
Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

SINGLE MODESmCon.
Deep sea watermCon.
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Pipeline --------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

MULTIPLE MODES
Private truck and for-hire truck ---- 44.8 – 41.6 – 39.4 – 17.9
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 31.3 .5 44.5 .1 49.8 .1 32.3
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- 40.1 .5 35.0 .3 43.5 .3 21.8
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 33.0 4.9 34.7 2.3 42.8 2.9 24.2
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- 41.2 3.0 49.3 1.6 (S) (S) (S)

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- (S) (S) 44.4 15.8 39.4 11.4 (S)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air ---------------------- 11.9 – 15.6 – 15.6 – 8.1
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 18.2 2.9 18.5 4.3 20.8 5.4 8.6
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- 32.5 4.1 20.6 2.0 28.7 2.8 10.4
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 25.2 4.8 14.9 3.4 14.0 2.8 5.7
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- 25.4 1.7 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- 43.5 1.8 22.0 .9 24.0 1.0 18.4

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- 28.0 4.3 35.6 7.7 30.4 7.1 11.3
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- (S) (S) 41.7 6.2 42.5 6.4 24.6
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail --------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- 100.0 5.7 (S) (S) (S) 2.3 (S)
Truck and water ------------------- (S) (S) 47.2 – 29.5 – 30.6
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 85.7 .6 72.5 .1 72.5 1.0 (S)
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 94.1 1.1 85.4 .2 85.4 .2 (S)
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- 70.5 .2 67.1 .1 84.5 .1 (S)
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- (S) (S) 48.7 19.8 40.5 15.9 (S)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
100,000 lb or more --------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and pipeline----------------- – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water--------------------- – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes ------ – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –

B–8   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:15:09 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_4_45 PAGE: 2
TSF:TIPS92-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:14:58 UTF:TIPS93-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:14:58 META:TIPS96-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:15:07
Table B–4. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation
and Shipment Size for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
Mode of transportation and shipment size shipmentm
Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

MULTIPLE MODESmCon.
Inland water and Great LakesmCon.
1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea --------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more --------------------- – – – – – – –

OTHER MODES
Other and unknown modes -------- 13.8 – 41.4 – 41.3 – 35.8
Less than 50 lb ------------------------ 25.1 2.6 38.7 4.6 36.9 .5 37.7
50 to 99 lb----------------------------- 10.4 .3 28.1 .1 20.5 – (S)
100 to 499 lb -------------------------- 17.5 2.3 41.0 1.0 30.0 .4 (S)
500 to 749 lb -------------------------- 35.8 .6 28.5 .1 44.6 .1 (S)
750 to 999 lb -------------------------- 37.2 .9 43.7 .3 23.9 .1 (S)

1,000 to 9,999 lb ----------------------- 13.5 4.0 18.9 1.5 22.7 4.2 11.2
10,000 to 49,999 lb --------------------- 26.4 5.7 12.2 5.8 15.7 10.1 13.7
50,000 to 99,999 lb --------------------- 33.1 1.8 29.2 7.5 45.6 8.8 (S)
100,000 lb or more --------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Note: For description of the development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Data.

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–9

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:15:09 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_4_45 PAGE: 3
TSF:TIPS92-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:14:58 UTF:TIPS93-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:14:58 META:TIPS96-16145651.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:15:07
Table B–5. Estimated Coefficients of Variation for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity
for State of Origin: 1993
STCC Average miles per
Commodity description
code Value Tons Ton-miles shipment

ALL COMMODITIES
Total --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5.0 10.8 6.8 6.8

01 Farm products --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17.2 21.0 22.0 (S)
08 Forest products -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48.7 (S) (S) (S)
09 Fresh fish or other marine products -------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 66.7 (S)
10 Metallic ores ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35.0 48.8 41.6 31.7
11 Coal ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ (D) (D) (D) (D)

13 Crude petroleum, natural gas, or gasoline --------------------------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D)
14 Nonmetallic minerals --------------------------------------------------------------------- 11.7 7.2 21.4 21.6
19 Ordnance or accessories ----------------------------------------------------------------- 28.6 37.2 46.4 15.7
20 Food or kindred products ----------------------------------------------------------------- 7.4 13.4 12.4 13.2
21 Tobacco products, excluding insecticides --------------------------------------------------- 16.3 24.1 35.3 (S)

22 Textile mill products ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 11.7 10.4 13.6 5.0
23 Apparel or other finished textile products --------------------------------------------------- 13.4 9.7 12.8 6.6
24 Lumber or wood products, excluding furniture ----------------------------------------------- 12.0 14.5 12.0 29.5
25 Furniture or fixtures----------------------------------------------------------------------- 35.3 24.2 22.3 11.2
26 Pulp, paper, or allied products ------------------------------------------------------------- 12.6 14.4 18.9 15.1

27 Printed matter --------------------------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) –
28 Chemicals or allied products -------------------------------------------------------------- 8.8 40.9 15.3 12.5
29 Petroleum or coal products ---------------------------------------------------------------- 37.5 45.5 36.5 18.3
30 Rubber or miscellaneous plastics products -------------------------------------------------- 10.4 9.3 10.6 10.8
31 Leather or leather products --------------------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S)

32 Clay, concrete, glass, or stone products ---------------------------------------------------- 8.3 10.8 10.1 15.2
33 Primary metal products ------------------------------------------------------------------- 9.2 23.9 30.6 14.1
34 Fabricated metal products----------------------------------------------------------------- 5.2 6.2 6.1 12.0
35 Machinery, excluding electrical------------------------------------------------------------- 15.3 13.2 16.8 22.2
36 Electrical machinery, equipment, or supplies ------------------------------------------------ 11.1 15.2 16.5 12.8

37 Transportation equipment ----------------------------------------------------------------- 10.2 13.9 11.2 15.9
38 Instruments, photographic goods, optical goods, watches, or clocks --------------------------- 15.6 (S) 36.6 31.9
39 Miscellaneous products of manufacturing --------------------------------------------------- 23.7 22.9 46.3 8.3
40 Waste or scrap materials ----------------------------------------------------------------- 37.0 14.2 24.8 25.4
41 Miscellaneous freight shipments ----------------------------------------------------------- 22.9 23.6 19.5 17.6

42 Containers, carriers or devices, shipping, returned empty ------------------------------------- (S) (S) 46.4 31.3
48 Waste hazardous materials or waste hazardous substances ---------------------------------- 46.1 (S) (S) (S)
m Commodity unknown --------------------------------------------------------------------- 50.0 33.9 45.5 44.6

Note: For description of the development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Data.

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons.

B–10   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:21:13 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_5_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16210081.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:21:04 UTF:TIPS93-16210081.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:21:04 META:TIPS96-16210081.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:21:12
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

ALL COMMODITIES
Total -------------------------- 5.0 – 10.8 – 6.8 – 6.8

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 6.6 .3 4.8 – 6.4 – 7.4
Private truck --------------------------- 5.2 .8 11.0 1.6 10.9 1.3 5.6
For-hire truck -------------------------- 6.1 1.5 14.9 1.9 5.4 2.3 7.9
Air ------------------------------------ (S) (S) 53.9 – 46.2 – 30.1
Rail ----------------------------------- 22.3 1.1 14.1 1.3 13.2 2.6 4.9

Inland water --------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- 44.8 .2 41.6 .4 39.4 .2 17.9
Truck and air--------------------------- 11.9 .1 15.6 – 15.6 – 8.1
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) .4 (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ (S) (S) 47.2 – 29.5 .1 30.6

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 13.8 .2 41.4 .6 41.3 .9 35.8

STCC 01, FARM PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 17.2 – 21.0 – 22.0 – (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- (S) (S) 40.6 – 64.3 – (S)
Private truck --------------------------- 26.7 7.2 24.3 10.6 19.2 5.2 44.9
For-hire truck -------------------------- 20.6 4.2 37.5 4.7 29.6 5.5 30.0
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 36.5 1.4 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 08, FOREST PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 48.7 – (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- – – – – – – –
Private truck --------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- 47.7 13.6 45.5 15.4 46.8 15.2 28.2
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- – – – – – – –

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–11

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 09, FRESH FISH OR OTHER
MARINE PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 66.7 (S) (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- – – – – – – –
Private truck --------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
For-hire truck -------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- – – – – – – –

STCC 10, METALLIC ORES
Total -------------------------- 35.0 – 48.8 – 41.6 – 31.7

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 34.3 19.7 35.3 19.0 36.7 16.3 21.7
Private truck --------------------------- 85.2 (S) 73.0 (S) 92.9 (S) (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- (S) (S) 100.0 (S) 100.0 (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- – – – – – – –

STCC 11, COAL
Total -------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- – – – – – – –
Private truck --------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
For-hire truck -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- – – – – – – –

B–12   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 2
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 13, CRUDE PETROLEUM,
NATURAL GAS, OR GASOLINE
Total -------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- – – – – – – –
Private truck --------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
For-hire truck -------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- – – – – – – –

STCC 14, NONMETALLIC
MINERALS
Total -------------------------- 11.7 – 7.2 – 21.4 – 21.6

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 88.8 – 94.3 – 96.1 – (S)
Private truck --------------------------- 20.9 7.8 14.2 6.5 18.4 9.8 8.6
For-hire truck -------------------------- 22.7 3.6 19.1 2.1 23.4 2.9 27.5
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 33.3 9.1 35.6 6.2 42.0 12.1 18.8

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (S) (S) 44.7 1.9 46.9 2.5 26.0
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- 67.2 (S) (S) – (S) .3 (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 19, ORDNANCE OR
ACCESSORIES
Total -------------------------- 28.6 – 37.2 – 46.4 – 15.7

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 44.4 12.3 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Private truck --------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 91.2 9.4 (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- 46.4 15.9 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) (S) 58.7 (S) 64.4 4.5 (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 52.2 (S) 58.4 (S) 68.7 6.8 (S)

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–13

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 3
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 20, FOOD OR KINDRED
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 7.4 – 13.4 – 12.4 – 13.2

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 25.1 – 28.4 – 42.1 – 17.2
Private truck --------------------------- 7.1 2.3 15.4 2.4 16.0 4.7 13.0
For-hire truck -------------------------- 12.5 2.3 15.4 2.4 15.2 4.5 25.4
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 30.1 .3 30.8 1.1 22.7 1.4 (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) – (S) – (S) .1 (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) – 100.0 – (S) .1 (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ (S) – 100.0 – (S) .3 (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 46.8 .4 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 21, TOBACCO PRODUCTS,
EXCLUDING INSECTICIDES
Total -------------------------- 16.3 – 24.1 – 35.3 – (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- – – – – – – –
Private truck --------------------------- 22.6 13.3 22.8 17.4 (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

STCC 22, TEXTILE MILL
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 11.7 – 10.4 – 13.6 – 5.0

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 15.6 .5 12.2 .1 12.9 .2 5.0
Private truck --------------------------- 14.2 3.2 12.8 2.9 17.4 2.9 8.8
For-hire truck -------------------------- 15.9 3.1 14.2 2.8 16.4 3.4 6.2
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- (S) – (S) – (S) – (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- 42.7 .2 31.2 – 39.9 .2 5.7
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) – (S) (S) (S) .5 (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 28.1 .5 28.6 .4 41.8 .9 14.1

B–14   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 4
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 23, APPAREL OR OTHER
FINISHED TEXTILE PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 13.4 – 9.7 – 12.8 – 6.6

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 9.8 .7 8.1 .5 9.9 .6 9.1
Private truck --------------------------- 11.5 3.3 9.8 3.3 17.4 1.4 20.6
For-hire truck -------------------------- 18.8 4.6 14.3 3.6 14.7 2.8 3.1
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 37.8 .2 47.3 .8 43.4 1.1 26.2

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) .2 (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ 66.7 – 66.8 – 66.8 – (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 48.2 1.2 39.1 1.5 45.3 2.1 36.2

STCC 24, LUMBER OR WOOD
PRODUCTS, EXCLUDING
FURNITURE
Total -------------------------- 12.0 – 14.5 – 12.0 – 29.5

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 43.8 .3 35.0 – (S) – (S)
Private truck --------------------------- 7.8 3.7 19.1 5.5 14.5 4.0 6.9
For-hire truck -------------------------- 22.0 4.1 22.7 5.1 18.4 3.4 29.9
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 21.6 .5 22.4 .5 18.6 1.5 23.0

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (S) (S) (S) – 80.4 – (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- 100.0 – (S) – (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 41.0 .5 49.5 .5 (S) .7 (S)

STCC 25, FURNITURE OR
FIXTURES
Total -------------------------- 35.3 – 24.2 – 22.3 – 11.2

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- (S) (S) 44.2 .2 50.0 .2 12.0
Private truck --------------------------- 23.6 4.9 26.9 2.8 40.8 2.5 36.4
For-hire truck -------------------------- 41.7 6.0 25.0 3.6 21.9 3.6 7.7
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–15

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 5
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 26, PULP, PAPER, OR
ALLIED PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 12.6 – 14.4 – 18.9 – 15.1

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 23.8 .8 24.6 .1 33.0 .2 16.4
Private truck --------------------------- 15.9 2.3 18.2 5.5 19.1 2.2 12.6
For-hire truck -------------------------- 9.9 5.6 13.4 5.1 16.7 8.2 6.4
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 31.1 6.4 28.2 7.3 25.9 9.3 12.4

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) – 93.1 – 96.5 – (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) – (S) – (S) – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) .2 (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) – (S)

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 34.5 .6 33.7 .8 39.5 1.3 43.3

STCC 27, PRINTED MATTER
Total -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –
Private truck --------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –
For-hire truck -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 100.0 – (S) (S) (S) (S) –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – –
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) (S) 31.5 – 29.4 (S) –
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) –

STCC 28, CHEMICALS OR ALLIED
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 8.8 – 40.9 – 15.3 – 12.5

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 22.7 .4 23.1 – 28.7 – 23.4
Private truck --------------------------- 23.5 3.9 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- 7.0 5.2 10.2 10.3 10.2 8.5 7.3
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 34.7 2.6 34.9 3.7 34.5 5.2 18.6

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and air--------------------------- 33.2 – 34.4 – 31.2 – 13.6
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) .3 (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 39.7 .3 31.8 .3 44.3 .3 (S)

B–16   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 6
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 29, PETROLEUM OR COAL
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 37.5 – 45.5 – 36.5 – 18.3

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- (S) (S) 55.9 – 56.8 – (S)
Private truck --------------------------- 31.5 7.5 39.1 8.1 31.5 9.5 8.2
For-hire truck -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- 68.3 – 71.6 – 85.4 .2 (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 30, RUBBER OR
MISCELLANEOUS PLASTICS
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 10.4 – 9.3 – 10.6 – 10.8

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 22.2 1.0 17.0 .2 16.1 .4 10.4
Private truck --------------------------- 25.6 5.7 27.8 8.5 23.1 4.3 29.1
For-hire truck -------------------------- 10.2 5.2 11.3 7.7 16.6 4.5 12.4
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) .7 (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) .2 (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- 25.4 .1 43.1 .1 44.3 .1 20.5
Truck and rail -------------------------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 30.2 1.3 31.0 1.0 35.2 2.4 (S)

STCC 31, LEATHER OR LEATHER
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Private truck --------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) (S) 91.6 (S) 91.1 .1 (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 100.0 .2 100.0 .2 100.0 – (S)

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–17

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 7
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 32, CLAY, CONCRETE,
GLASS, OR STONE PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 8.3 – 10.8 – 10.1 – 15.2

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 29.7 .3 31.9 – (S) – (S)
Private truck --------------------------- 11.7 4.6 13.7 3.7 12.1 1.8 9.5
For-hire truck -------------------------- 14.2 3.8 15.8 2.8 16.3 3.8 9.9
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 19.2 2.4 16.8 1.4 10.0 4.0 9.8

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- 100.0 – (S) – 100.0 – (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- 100.0 – (S) – (S) .4 (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ (S) (S) (S) – (S) – (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 47.2 .2 41.6 .1 (S) .1 (S)

STCC 33, PRIMARY METAL
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 9.2 – 23.9 – 30.6 – 14.1

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 26.9 1.0 25.4 .1 29.5 .1 8.4
Private truck --------------------------- 16.7 3.8 18.2 6.5 31.4 4.1 12.8
For-hire truck -------------------------- 10.5 3.9 13.0 5.9 12.3 9.6 7.5
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 36.5 2.5 36.3 5.1 40.3 7.7 17.8

Inland water --------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- 91.0 – 99.5 – 99.9 – (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) (S) 40.1 – (S) – (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) – (S) (S) (S) .4 (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

STCC 34, FABRICATED METAL
PRODUCTS
Total -------------------------- 5.2 – 6.2 – 6.1 – 12.0

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 21.8 1.4 28.1 .2 33.3 .3 8.5
Private truck --------------------------- 10.7 2.8 6.1 3.5 13.3 5.0 5.9
For-hire truck -------------------------- 7.0 3.2 11.6 3.1 10.9 4.2 8.1
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 46.4 .4 44.6 .9 47.7 1.8 24.7

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- 83.0 – 80.4 – 94.1 – (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- 30.0 .1 18.9 – 23.8 – 8.6
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 19.8 .3 27.9 .3 34.9 .5 (S)

B–18   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 8
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 35, MACHINERY,
EXCLUDING ELECTRICAL
Total -------------------------- 15.3 – 13.2 – 16.8 – 22.2

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 11.2 2.5 13.3 .8 11.2 .6 16.5
Private truck --------------------------- 13.9 3.3 15.2 4.0 21.7 2.2 (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- 21.5 4.9 20.6 5.1 23.5 5.8 11.3
Air ------------------------------------ (S) (S) 74.2 (S) 67.7 – (S)
Rail ----------------------------------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D) (D)
Truck and air--------------------------- 27.8 .4 35.9 .2 34.5 .5 11.6
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 .1 (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 26.8 .6 47.9 .9 27.6 .4 33.0

STCC 36, ELECTRICAL
MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT, OR
SUPPLIES
Total -------------------------- 11.1 – 15.2 – 16.5 – 12.8

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 30.1 3.4 17.0 .6 18.1 .8 10.7
Private truck --------------------------- 15.1 2.4 26.4 5.9 26.2 2.4 9.8
For-hire truck -------------------------- 13.7 4.4 20.2 6.4 18.6 4.2 8.1
Air ------------------------------------ (S) (S) 42.8 – 40.5 – 39.2
Rail ----------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) .5 (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)
Truck and air--------------------------- 24.5 .7 35.6 .3 33.9 .5 7.2
Truck and rail -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 42.7 .5 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

STCC 37, TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT
Total -------------------------- 10.2 – 13.9 – 11.2 – 15.9

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 26.5 .8 34.4 .2 32.4 .5 11.3
Private truck --------------------------- 15.5 2.4 29.9 5.2 19.7 4.3 40.3
For-hire truck -------------------------- 10.3 2.6 14.2 5.3 12.9 4.3 15.1
Air ------------------------------------ 42.1 .1 36.8 – 34.1 – 26.4
Rail ----------------------------------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) (S) 43.8 .2 45.7 .4 8.2
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 42.6 .2 (S) (S) (S) .4 (S)

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–19

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 9
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 38, INSTRUMENTS,
PHOTOGRAPHIC GOODS,
OPTICAL GOODS, WATCHES,
OR CLOCKS
Total -------------------------- 15.6 – (S) (S) 36.6 – 31.9

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 35.8 3.1 27.3 2.3 30.9 2.4 17.5
Private truck --------------------------- 31.5 7.4 33.4 9.8 36.4 8.4 (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- 17.8 8.9 (S) (S) 38.2 10.2 (S)
Air ------------------------------------ (S) (S) 100.0 – 100.0 .1 (S)
Rail ----------------------------------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 .1 (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- 33.9 .8 27.1 .2 29.8 .5 12.5
Truck and rail -------------------------- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 .2 (S)
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 48.9 1.2 44.7

STCC 39, MISCELLANEOUS
PRODUCTS OF
MANUFACTURING
Total -------------------------- 23.7 – 22.9 – 46.3 – 8.3

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 16.7 7.4 16.9 3.8 19.1 6.0 9.8
Private truck --------------------------- (S) (S) 45.3 7.8 45.7 7.7 (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- 45.3 9.3 37.2 8.0 (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- (S) (S) 100.0 (S) (S) .9 (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) (S) 47.9 – 58.3 – (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ 78.5 – 78.0 – 78.2 – (S)

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 43.8 1.1 (S) (S) 49.5 .9 40.1

STCC 40, WASTE OR SCRAP
MATERIALS
Total -------------------------- 37.0 – 14.2 – 24.8 – 25.4

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)
Private truck --------------------------- 25.1 7.1 21.8 8.6 43.6 4.0 36.3
For-hire truck -------------------------- (S) (S) 27.5 3.4 27.2 5.7 17.5
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- 25.6 7.9 20.7 8.3 25.3 8.7 21.7

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- 74.4 – 71.4 – 71.4 – (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 71.5 – (S)

B–20   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 10
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

STCC 41, MISCELLANEOUS
FREIGHT SHIPMENTS
Total -------------------------- 22.9 – 23.6 – 19.5 – 17.6

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- (S) (S) 65.5 (S) 69.3 4.0 (S)
Private truck --------------------------- 23.4 7.7 23.5 4.5 20.0 10.5 18.2
For-hire truck -------------------------- 47.9 4.4 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- 38.6 .6 79.7 – 60.8 .1 (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- 54.5 .2 74.1 – 56.9 – (S)

STCC 42, CONTAINERS,
CARRIERS OR DEVICES,
SHIPPING, RETURNED EMPTY
Total -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 46.4 – 31.3

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 100.0 (S) 100.0 (S) 100.0 .4 (S)
Private truck --------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) 96.6 (S) (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- 37.4 15.4 39.0 15.0 50.0 13.3 33.4
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- 100.0 (S) 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- – – – – – – –

STCC 48, WASTE HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS OR WASTE
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
Total -------------------------- 46.1 – (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 100.0 .1 100.0 – 100.0 – (S)
Private truck --------------------------- (S) (S) 41.4 16.5 (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- – – – – – – –

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–21

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 11
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1993mCon.
Value Tons Ton-miles Average miles per
STCC code, description, and mode of shipmentm
transportation Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of coefficient of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation

COMMODITY UNKNOWN
Total -------------------------- 50.0 – 33.9 – 45.5 – 44.6

Single Modes
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier ---- 30.6 1.7 41.0 .3 48.4 .7 18.9
Private truck --------------------------- 34.3 12.5 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For-hire truck -------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Air ------------------------------------ – – – – – – –
Rail ----------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Inland water --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Great Lakes --------------------------- – – – – – – –
Deep sea water ------------------------ – – – – – – –
Pipeline ------------------------------- – – – – – – –

Multiple Modes
Private truck and for-hire truck ----------- – – – – – – –
Truck and air--------------------------- (S) (S) 98.7 – 99.6 .1 (S)
Truck and rail -------------------------- – – – – – – –
Truck and water ------------------------ – – – – – – –

Truck and pipeline ---------------------- – – – – – – –
Rail and water ------------------------- – – – – – – –
Inland water and Great Lakes------------ – – – – – – –
Inland water and deep sea -------------- – – – – – – –

Other Modes
Other and unknown modes -------------- (S) (S) 67.5 (S) 53.2 – (S)

Note: For description of the development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Data.

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons.

B–22   SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:45 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_6_45 PAGE: 12
TSF:TIPS92-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 UTF:TIPS93-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:20 META:TIPS96-16291790.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:29:38
Table B–7. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by State of Destination for
State of Origin: 1993
Value Tons Ton-miles
State of Destination
Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

Total ---------------------------------------------- 5.0 – 10.8 – 6.8 –

NEW ENGLAND STATES
Connecticut ------------------------------------------------ 19.4 .1 15.6 .1 16.3 .2
Maine ----------------------------------------------------- 14.2 – 24.4 – 24.3 .1
Massachusetts --------------------------------------------- 15.1 .2 20.7 .1 21.6 .3
New Hampshire -------------------------------------------- 17.7 – 17.2 – 17.1 –
Rhode Island----------------------------------------------- 21.6 .1 21.3 – 20.9 .1
Vermont --------------------------------------------------- 42.4 – 28.4 – 28.9 –

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES
New Jersey ------------------------------------------------ 9.9 .2 10.0 – 10.0 .1
New York -------------------------------------------------- 27.9 .9 12.3 .1 12.9 .3
Pennsylvania ----------------------------------------------- 7.7 .2 9.9 .1 10.9 .4

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES
Illinois ----------------------------------------------------- 16.0 .3 11.5 .1 12.3 .3
Indiana ---------------------------------------------------- 11.8 .2 12.5 .1 13.3 .2
Michigan--------------------------------------------------- 38.5 1.0 28.4 .1 26.5 .5
Ohio ------------------------------------------------------ 7.4 .2 11.5 .2 12.2 .5
Wisconsin ------------------------------------------------- 5.7 .1 8.9 – 9.3 .2

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES
Iowa ------------------------------------------------------ 18.3 .1 26.8 .1 29.7 .4
Kansas ---------------------------------------------------- 23.7 .1 26.7 .1 26.6 .4
Minnesota ------------------------------------------------- 9.3 – 18.9 – 20.6 .2
Missouri --------------------------------------------------- 9.7 .1 9.6 – 10.0 .1
Nebraska -------------------------------------------------- 40.2 .1 27.6 – 28.2 .1
North Dakota ---------------------------------------------- 32.8 – (S) – (S) –
South Dakota ---------------------------------------------- 19.3 – 39.5 – 38.6 .2

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES
Delaware -------------------------------------------------- 14.6 – 17.3 – 17.6 .1
District of Columbia ----------------------------------------- 47.7 – (S) – (S) –
Florida ---------------------------------------------------- 10.0 .4 8.6 .1 9.3 .4
Georgia --------------------------------------------------- 9.4 .5 23.5 1.1 7.6 .4
Maryland -------------------------------------------------- 13.1 .1 (S) (S) (S) (S)

North Carolina --------------------------------------------- 4.7 .9 14.4 1.2 15.6 1.0
South Carolina --------------------------------------------- 6.7 .9 12.1 1.3 14.9 1.4
Virginia ---------------------------------------------------- 17.1 .6 7.8 .2 7.3 .2
West Virginia ----------------------------------------------- 17.5 .1 15.6 – 16.5 .1

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES
Alabama --------------------------------------------------- 9.5 .1 8.1 .1 7.5 .1
Kentucky -------------------------------------------------- 11.0 .1 11.4 – 13.7 .1
Mississippi ------------------------------------------------- 24.3 .2 12.9 – 13.0 .1
Tennessee ------------------------------------------------- 8.0 .2 10.6 .1 12.3 .3

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES
Arkansas -------------------------------------------------- 31.6 .3 23.7 – 24.1 .2
Louisiana -------------------------------------------------- 10.1 – 19.4 – 24.3 .3
Oklahoma ------------------------------------------------- 11.5 – 21.6 – 23.3 .1
Texas ----------------------------------------------------- 9.6 .3 14.3 .2 16.8 1.1

MOUNTAIN STATES
Arizona ---------------------------------------------------- 19.2 .1 13.3 – 13.1 .1
Colorado -------------------------------------------------- 18.5 .1 18.5 – 20.1 .1
Idaho ----------------------------------------------------- 27.9 – (S) – (S) –
Montana --------------------------------------------------- 17.0 – 29.6 – 30.1 –
Nevada ---------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) 18.4 – 18.3 –
New Mexico ----------------------------------------------- 25.5 – 29.0 – 28.7 –
Utah ------------------------------------------------------ 20.5 .1 21.6 – 21.6 .1
Wyoming -------------------------------------------------- 32.8 – 44.2 – 43.8 –

PACIFIC STATES
Alaska ---------------------------------------------------- 33.8 – 37.9 – 41.1 –
California -------------------------------------------------- 15.0 .3 8.0 – 8.0 .4
Hawaii----------------------------------------------------- 36.7 – 32.4 – 31.8 –
Oregon ---------------------------------------------------- 20.5 – 25.5 – 26.2 .2
Washington ------------------------------------------------ 19.1 .1 23.3 – 23.1 .2

Note: For description of the development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Data.

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
(D) Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
(S) Data do not meet publication standards due to high sampling variability or other reasons.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY SOUTH CAROLINA APPENDIX B  B–23

TIPS UPF [DMD_PSYS,R_HEMMIG] 6/ 3/ 96 16:35:30 DPVX01 TLP:BTI.TCV;1 11/ 29/ 95 10:29:21 DATA:TIPS.INP;1243 5/ 30/ 96 16:30:51 UPF:GPO_TCV_7_45 PAGE: 1
TSF:TIPS92-16352028.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:35:22 UTF:TIPS93-16352028.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:35:22 META:TIPS96-16352028.DAT;1 6/ 3/ 96 16:35:29
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 10 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 13:59:48 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 14apdxc

Appendix C.
Sample Design, Survey Methodology, and Estimation

SAMPLE DESIGN that, if an establishment was twice as large as another
establishment, it would typically have twice the chance of
The sample for the Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) is a being selected. The final sample contained 106,362 cer-
stratified three-stage probability design where the first- tainty establishments and 90,814 noncertainty establish-
stage sample units are establishments, the second-stage ments.
units are 2-week periods of 1993, and the third-stage units In the second stage, establishments selected for the
are shipments. In a probability sample, (1) there are CFS were asked to report for a predetermined 2-week
distinct samples that can be selected, (2) each sample has period in each of the four quarters of calendar year 1993.
a known probability of selection, and (3) one of the distinct Entire 2-week periods were used to reduce the effect of
samples is chosen. any daily or weekly bias. Each week of the quarter began
In the first stage, approximately 200,000 domestic estab- a different 2-week reporting period, resulting in 13 possible
lishments were selected from a universe of 800,000 estab- reporting periods originating in the first quarter. Each
lishments engaged in mining, manufacturing, wholesale, sampled establishment was randomly assigned one of
and selected retail and service activities, as well as these thirteen 2-week reporting periods in the first quarter.
auxiliaries (e.g., warehouses) of multiestablishment com- To avoid potential quarterly cycles, reporting periods in
panies. Establishments classified in farming, forestry, fish- subsequent quarters were assigned so that an establish-
ing, oil and gas extraction, government, construction, or ment did not report at the same time each quarter. In all,
transportation, and most establishments in retail and ser- responses were obtained for 8 out of 52 weeks during
vices are not covered by the CFS. 1993.
Establishments were selected from the 1992 Standard In the third stage of sampling, for each of the 2-week
Statistical Establishment List (SSEL) of business establish- periods determined in the second stage, a reporting estab-
ments with paid employees. The SSEL, maintained by the lishment selected a systematic sample of its shipments
Bureau of the Census, is a central multipurpose comput- from its files. The questionnaire provided sampling instruc-
erized name and address file of all known multiestablish- tions that typically resulted in a sample of between 20 and
ment firms, and single-establishment employer firms. Estab- 50 shipments being selected each quarter.
lishments having 1991 payroll and classified in the kinds of
business of interest to the survey were eligible for selec-
tion. SURVEY METHODOLOGY
The establishments in the survey universe were strati- The 1993 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) is an establishment-
fied by Standard Industrial Classification1 (SIC), National based shipper survey that used mailout/ mailback data
Transportation Analysis Region (NTAR), and Type of Opera- collection. Respondents were asked to select a sample of
tion Code (TOC). (The Department of Transportation (DOT) their outbound shipments and to report, for each sampled
developed the NTAR’s to create geographic regions that shipment, the major commodity, weight, value, transporta-
could be used in conjunction with other DOT data to tion mode(s), origin, destination, and indicators of whether
measure and analyze nationwide patterns of transportation the shipment was an export, hazardous material, or con-
demands and activities.) Within each stratum (1) the tainerized. For exports we also collected the mode of
establishments were divided into certainty and noncer- export and city and country of destination. For multi-
tainty establishments based on employment size, (2) cer- commodity shipments, the respondents were instructed to
tainties (typically large firms) were automatically selected, report the commodity that made up the greatest percent-
and (3) a sample of noncertainty establishments was age of the shipment’s weight.
selected with probability proportional to estimated size, Two report forms were used for the survey—the
where the measure of size was based on annual payroll. CFS-1000 (the primary questionnaire) and the CFS-2000,
The manner in which the sample was selected ensured which was sent in the fourth quarter to a subsample of
establishments. The CFS-2000 contained additional ques-
1
tions about the establishment’s transportation equipment
Standard Industrial Classification Manual: 1987. For sale by Super-
intendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, and access to shipping facilities. See appendix E for
D.C 20402. Stock No. 041-001-00314-2. sample questionnaires.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX C C–1
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 2 SESS: 9 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 13:59:48 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 14apdxc

ESTIMATION represent nonselected establishments. We also used results
from the economic census of Mineral Industries, Manufac-
Estimates in this survey are derived from weighted
tures, Wholesale, Retail, and Service to construct adjust-
shipment data and are then adjusted using several factors
ment factors at the establishment level and at the SIC
to account for nonresponse, undercoverage, and response
errors. Selected establishments reported for a sample of level. We adjusted individual establishments to the Census
their shipments. We weighted these shipments to repre- to correct for sampling error and nonsampling error in the
sent the establishment’s shipments for the year. Each selection of shipments within the establishment. We per-
establishment’s data were then weighted by the inverse of formed the SIC-level adjustment to correct for sampling
the establishment’s probability of being selected into the error in the selection of establishments and to account for
sample, which allows data from selected establishments to undercoverage and establishment nonresponse.

C–2 APPENDIX C TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 14 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 13:59:56 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 14apdxd

Appendix D.
Standard Transportation Commodity Classification Code
Information

The commodities shown in this report are classified in We provided respondents with a listing of STCC codes
accordance with the Standard Transportation Commodity and descriptions at the five-digit level to use in assigning a
Classification (STCC) system, published by the Associa- commodity code for each shipment. For shipments of
tion of American Railroads.1 more than one commodity, we instructed respondents to
use the five-digit code for the major commodity, defined as
the commodity of greatest total weight in the shipment.
For this report, we aggregated the STCC codes to the
1
For additional information on the STCC system, contact: STCC two-digit level.
Technical Committee, c/ o Committee Secretary, Association of American
Railroads, 50 F Street, NW, Room 5603, Washington, DC 20001-1564. The following provides a description of each STCC code
Telephone number 202-639-2332; fax number 202-639-2312. presented in this report.

STCC Commodity description STCC Commodity description
code code
01 Farm products 30 Rubber or miscellaneous plastics products
08 Forest products 31 Leather or leather products
09 Fresh fish 32 Clay, concrete, glass, or stone products
33 Primary metal products
10 Metallic ores 34 Fabricated metal products
11 Coal 35 Machinery, excluding electrical
13 Crude petroleum, natural gas or gasoline 36 Electrical machinery, equipment, or supplies
14 Nonmetallic ores, minerals, excluding fuels 37 Transportation equipment
19 Ordnance or accessories 38 Instruments, photographic goods, optical
goods, watches, or clocks
20 Food and kindred products 39 Miscellaneous products of manufacturing
21 Tobacco products, excluding insecticides
22 Textile mill products 40 Waste or scrap materials not identified by
23 Apparel or other finished textile products or producing industry
knit apparel 41 Miscellaneous freight shipments
24 Lumber or wood products, excluding furniture 42 Containers, carriers or devices, shipping,
25 Furniture or fixtures returned empty
26 Pulp, paper, or allied products 48 Waste hazardous materials or waste
27 Printed matter hazardous substances
28 Chemicals or allied products
29 Petroleum or coal products -- Commodity unknown

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX D D–1
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 13 OUTPUT: Thu Feb 29 14:00:04 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 14apdxe

Appendix E.
Sample Report Forms and Instructions

The sample report forms and instructions are shown on the following pages.

Note: The CFS-2000 was sent to a subsample of establishments to obtain additional information
about the use of transportation equipment and facilities.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–1
OMB No. 0607-0753: Approval Expires 12/31/94
E–2
FORM CFS-1000 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (Please correct any error in name, address, and ZIP Code)
(9-2-92) BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
APPENDIX E

CENSUS OF TRANSPORTATION

YOUR RESPONSE IS REQUIRED BY LAW. Title 13, United States Code, requires businesses and other organizations that BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
receive this questionnaire to answer the questions and return the report to the Census Bureau. By the same law, YOUR RETURN 1201 East 10th Street
CENSUS REPORT IS CONFIDENTIAL. It may be seen only by Census Bureau employees and may be used only for statistical TO
purposes. Further, copies retained in respondents’ files are immune from legal process. Jeffersonville IN 47132-0001

Please read the accompanying instructions before completing this questionnaire. The sampling instructions beginning on
page 2 of the questionnaire describe how to take a sample of your outbound shipments covering the two-week period
shown above. You should use your sales invoices, bills of lading, and any other file of shipping documents which
INSTRUCTIONS represents your total outbound shipments (or deliveries).
Item F, Shipment Characteristics — Beginning on page 2, provide the information requested for each of your sampled
shipments. If book figures are not available for weight, value, etc., please provide an estimate.
TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY

Item A ESTABLISHMENT NAME Item D ORIGIN OF SHIPMENTS
Is the establishment name shown in the mailing address correct? During the two-week period, did any of your shipments (or deliveries) originate
from locations other than this physical location?
1 Yes 2 No — Enter correct name. 1 No — Skip to Item E on page 2. Enter an "A" as the origin
code in column (k) of item F for all shipments.
2 Yes — Enter the City, State, and ZIP Code of these other locations in rows B, C, and D.
Origin code City State ZIP Code
Item B OPERATIONAL STATUS OF ESTABLISHMENT — Mark (X) the ONE box A Location in mailing address or in Item C. — —
which best describes this establishment during the 2-week period shown above. B
1 In operation 3 Ceased operation — Give date Month/Day/Year C
2 Temporarily or D
seasonally inactive Does your Census File Number (CFN) shown in the address box above,
begin with a "0" (zero)?
Item C PHYSICAL LOCATION (PO boxes or rural routes are not physical locations.)
1 Yes — Include shipments from those other locations in your sampling, and use the
Is this establishment’s physical location the same as the address shown in the label? appropriate origin code (A, B, C, or D) in column (k) of item F for
1 Yes 2 No — Enter physical location below. all shipments selected. Now skip to Item E.
2 No — Do any of these other locations keep their own records for these shipments?
Number and street 1 Yes — Omit shipments from these other locations that maintain their
own records from your sampling.
City, town, village, etc. State ZIP Code 2 No — Include shipments from these other locations in your sample,
and place the appropriate origin code (A, B, C, or D) in column (k)
of item F for all shipments selected.
FOR ASSISTANCE IN COMPLETING THIS FORM, CALL 1-800-528-3049 CONTINUE ON PAGE 2
Item E SOURCE DOCUMENT
Please mark (X) the main document that you 1 Sales invoices 3 Other — Specify
will use to obtain the requested information. 2 Bills of lading

SAMPLE SELECTION INSTRUCTIONS

1. Enter your total number
Number of Mark (X) Expected
of shipments for the 2-week shipments one "Take every" number sample size
period. (1) (2) (3) (4)
NOTE — Remove any voided invoices, credit 0–40 Select every shipment 1–40
memoranda, etc. from the files, if possible, before 41—100 2 20—50
estimating the total number of shipments.
101—200 5 20—40
2. Find the range in column (1) at right that includes the 201—400 10 20—40
number entered in 1 above. Put an (X) in column (2) 401—800 20 20—40
beside it.
801—1600 40 20—40
3. If your total number of shipments is 40 or less, 1601 or Call Census
provide data for every shipment during the 2-week more 1–800–528–3049
period in Item F. If the number of shipments is 41 or
more, continue with steps 4 and 5 to select the
shipments to report. CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE. —

Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS

Shipment Total Commodity
Line No.

Value
Date
(Dollars) Weight Description
Number Code
(Pounds) (Largest weight)
(c) (d)

(a) (b) M D Mil. Thou. Dol. (e) (f) (g)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (i) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Page 2 FORM CFS-1000 (9-2-92)

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–3
SAMPLE SELECTION INSTRUCTIONS — Continued

4. Note the "Take every" number in column (3) next to 6th shipment, count off 5 more, and select the 10th
the "X" you marked in column (2). Beginning with the shipment. Resume counting with the 11th and select
first shipment in the file for the period, count the the 15th, 20th shipment, etc. until you reach the end of
shipments until you reach the "Take every" number. the file. You will have selected 35 shipments to report
Select that shipment as the first one to report on in on in Item F.
item F.

Continuing with the next shipment, begin counting NOTE – If your sample of shipments includes any
from 1 until you reach the "Take every" number again. voided invoices, credit memoranda, etc., write "VOID"
Select that shipment. Continue this process until you in column (b) for that shipment. Leave the rest of the
reach the end of the file. line blank.

EXAMPLE:
5. Sample validation — After sample selection is done,
If 176 is entered in 1, mark (X) the third row of the compare the number of selected shipments to the
table. The "Take every" number is 5. Begin counting expected sample size in column (4). If the number of
with the first shipment in the file and select the 5th selected shipments is above or below the range,
shipment to report in Item F. Now beginning with the recheck the sample selection.

Domestic
material? (Y/N)

Containerized?

Domestic destination

Export? (Y/N)
mode(s) of

Export mode
Foreign destination
Origin code

transport (or port/airport/border crossing
Hazardous

of exit for exports) (for export shipments only)

Line No.
Enter all that
apply using
(Y/N)

codes shown (l) (o)
below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(h) (i) (j) (k) (m) (n) (p)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15
5 — Inland water and/or Great Lakes 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep sea water 8 — Air 0 — Unknown
FORM CFS-1000 (9-2-92) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 4. Page 3

E–4 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

Shipment Total Commodity

Value
Line No.

Date
(Dollars) Weight Description
Number Code
(Pounds) (Largest weight)
(c) (d)

(a) (b) M D Mil. Thou. Dol. (e) (f) (g)

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (i) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Page 4 FORM CFS-1000 (9-2-92)

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–5
material? (Y/N)

Containerized?
Domestic

Export? (Y/N)
Domestic destination

Export mode
mode(s) of Foreign destination

Origin code
(or port/airport/border crossing
Hazardous

transport (for export shipments only)

Line No.
Enter all that of exit for exports)
apply using

(Y/N)
codes shown (l) (o)
below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(h) (i) (j) (k) (m) (n) (p)

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40
5 — Inland water and/or Great Lakes 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep sea water 8 — Air 0 — Unknown
FORM CFS-1000 (9-2-92) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 6. Page 5

E–6 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

Shipment Total Commodity
Line No.

Value
Date
(Dollars) Weight Description
Number Code
(Pounds) (Largest weight)
(c) (d)

(a) (b) M D Mil. Thou. Dol. (e) (f) (g)

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (i) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
REMARKS

Item G CERTIFICATION
Name of person to contact regarding this report – Please print Telephone number – Include area code Date

Signature Title

Page 6 FORM CFS-1000 (9-2-92)

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–7
Domestic
material? (Y/N)

Containerized?
Domestic destination

Export? (Y/N)
mode(s) of

Export mode
Foreign destination

Origin code
transport (or port/airport/border crossing
Hazardous

of exit for exports) (for export shipments only)

Line No.
Enter all that
apply using

(Y/N)
codes shown (l) (o)
below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(h) (i) (j) (k) (m) (n) (p)

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50
5 — Inland water and/or Great Lakes 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep sea water 8 — Air 0 — Unknown

THANK YOU FOR COMPLETING YOUR REPORT

FORM CFS-1000 (9-2-92) Page 7

E–8 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
OMB No. 0607-0753: Approval Expires 12/31/94
FORM CFS-2000 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (Please correct any error in name, address, and ZIP Code)
(7-7-93) BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

1993 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
CENSUS OF TRANSPORTATION

YOUR RESPONSE IS REQUIRED BY LAW. Title 13, United States Code, requires businesses and other organizations that BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
receive this questionnaire to answer the questions and return the report to the Census Bureau. By the same law, YOUR RETURN 1201 East 10th Street
CENSUS REPORT IS CONFIDENTIAL. It may be seen only by Census Bureau employees and may be used only for statistical TO
purposes. Further, copies retained in respondents’ files are immune from legal process. Jeffersonville IN 47132-0001

NOTE NEW ITEMS: G, H, I, and J on pages 6 – 8.
INSTRUCTIONS Please complete these items even if you have no shipments to report during
the two-week reporting period.

Item A ESTABLISHMENT NAME Item D ORIGIN OF SHIPMENTS
Is the establishment name shown in the mailing address correct? During the two-week period, did any of your shipments (or deliveries)
originate from locations other than this physical location?
1 Yes 2 No — Enter correct name. 1 No — Skip to Item E on page 2. Enter an "A" as the origin
code in column (k) of item F for all shipments.
2 Yes — Enter the City, State, and ZIP Code of these other locations in rows B, C, and D.
Origin code City State ZIP Code
Item B OPERATIONAL STATUS OF ESTABLISHMENT — Mark (X) the ONE box A Location in mailing address or in Item C. — —
which best describes this establishment during the 2-week period shown above. B
1 In operation 3 Ceased operation — Give date Month/Day/Year C
2 Temporarily or D
seasonally inactive Does your Census File Number (CFN) shown in the address box above,
begin with a "0" (zero)?
Item C PHYSICAL LOCATION (PO boxes or rural routes are not physical locations.)
APPENDIX E

1 Yes — Include shipments from those other locations in your sampling, and use the
Is this establishment’s physical location the same as the address shown in the label? appropriate origin code (A, B, C, or D) in column (k) of item F for
1 Yes 2 No — Enter physical location below. all shipments selected. Now skip to Item E.
2 No — Do any of these other locations keep their own records for these shipments?
Number and street 1 Yes — Omit shipments from these other locations that maintain their
own records from your sampling.
City, town, village, etc. State ZIP Code 2 No — Include shipments from these other locations in your sample,
and place the appropriate origin code (A, B, C, or D) in column (k)
E–9

of item F for all shipments selected.
FOR ASSISTANCE IN COMPLETING THIS FORM, CALL 1-800-528-3049 CONTINUE ON PAGE 2
Item E SOURCE DOCUMENT
Please mark (X) the main document that you 1 Sales invoices 3 Other — Specify
will use to obtain the requested information. 2 Bills of lading

SAMPLE SELECTION INSTRUCTIONS

1. Enter your total number
Number of Mark (X) Expected
of shipments for the 2-week shipments one "Take every" number sample size
period. (1) (2) (3) (4)
NOTE — Remove any voided invoices, credit 0–40 Select every shipment 1–40
memoranda, etc. from the files, if possible, before 41—100 2 20—50
estimating the total number of shipments.
101—200 5 20—40
2. Find the range in column (1) at right that includes the 201—400 10 20—40
number entered in 1 above. Put an (X) in column (2) 401—800 20 20—40
beside it.
801—1600 40 20—40
3. If your total number of shipments is 40 or less, 1601 or Call Census
provide data for every shipment during the 2-week more 1–800–528–3049
period in Item F. If the number of shipments is 41 or
more, continue with steps 4 and 5 to select the
shipments to report. CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE. —

Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS

Shipment Total Commodity
Line No.

Value
Date
(Dollars) Weight
Number Code Description
(Pounds)
(c) (d)

(a) (b) M D Mil. Thou. Dol. (e) (f) (g)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (i) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Page 2 FORM CFS-2000 (7-7-93)

E–10 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
SAMPLE SELECTION INSTRUCTIONS — Continued

4. Note the "Take every" number in column (3) next to 6th shipment, count off 5 more, and select the 10th
the "X" you marked in column (2). Beginning with the shipment. Resume counting with the 11th and select
first shipment in the file for the period, count the the 15th, 20th shipment, etc. until you reach the end of
shipments until you reach the "Take every" number. the file. You will have selected 35 shipments to report
Select that shipment as the first one to report on in on in Item F.
item F.

Continuing with the next shipment, begin counting NOTE – If your sample of shipments includes any
from 1 until you reach the "Take every" number again. voided invoices, credit memoranda, etc., write "VOID"
Select that shipment. Continue this process until you in column (b) for that shipment. Leave the rest of the
reach the end of the file. line blank.

EXAMPLE:
5. Sample validation — After sample selection is done,
If 176 is entered in 1, mark (X) the third row of the compare the number of selected shipments to the
table. The "Take every" number is 5. Begin counting expected sample size in column (4). If the number of
with the first shipment in the file and select the 5th selected shipments is above or below the range,
shipment to report in Item F. Now beginning with the recheck the sample selection.

Domestic
material? (Y/N)

Containerized?

Domestic destination

Export? (Y/N)
mode(s) of

Export mode
Foreign destination
Origin code

transport (or port/airport/border crossing
Hazardous

of exit for exports) (for export shipments only)

Line No.
Enter all that
apply using
(Y/N)

codes shown (l) (o)
below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(h) (i) (j) (k) (m) (n) (p)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15
5 — Inland water and/or Great Lakes 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep sea water 8 — Air 0 — Unknown
FORM CFS-2000 (7-7-93) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 4. Page 3

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–11
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

Shipment Total Commodity

Value
Line No.

Date
(Dollars) Weight
Number Code Description
(Pounds)
(c) (d)

(a) (b) M D Mil. Thou. Dol. (e) (f) (g)

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (i) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Page 4 FORM CFS-2000 (7-7-93)

E–12 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
material? (Y/N)

Containerized?
Domestic

Export? (Y/N)
Domestic destination

Export mode
mode(s) of Foreign destination

Origin code
(or port/airport/border crossing
Hazardous

transport (for export shipments only)

Line No.
Enter all that of exit for exports)
apply using

(Y/N)
codes shown (l) (o)
below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(h) (i) (j) (k) (m) (n) (p)

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40
5 — Inland water and/or Great Lakes 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep sea water 8 — Air 0 — Unknown
FORM CFS-2000 (7-7-93) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 6. Page 5

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–13
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

Shipment Total Commodity
Line No.

Value
Date
(Dollars) Weight
Number Code Description
(Pounds)
(c) (d)

(a) (b) M D Mil. Thou. Dol. (e) (f) (g)

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (i) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued

Item G AVAILABILITY AND USE OF ON-SITE SHIPPING FACILITIES

In column (b), mark "Yes" or "No" for each type of shipping facility to indicate whether or not this type of facility
existed on-site during 1993. For each "Yes" in column (b), mark "Yes" or "No" in column (c) to indicate whether or
not you used the facility on your premises for outbound shipments during 1993.

Did you use this facility on your
Type of shipping facility Was a shipping facility of this type premises for outbound shipments
on your premises during 1993? during 1993?
(a) (b) (c)

1 Yes 1 Yes
2 No 2 No
1. Rail siding

1 Yes 1 Yes
2 No 2 No
2. Waterway dock, Great Lakes

1 Yes 1 Yes
2 No 2 No
3. Waterway dock, inland water

1 Yes 1 Yes
2 No 2 No
4. Waterway dock, deep sea water

1 Yes 1 Yes
5. Airport/landing strip capable of 2 No 2 No
handling your shipments

1 Yes 1 Yes
2 No 2 No
6. Pipeline terminal
Page 6 FORM CFS-2000 (7-7-93)

E–14 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
Domestic
material? (Y/N)

Containerized?
Domestic destination

Export? (Y/N)
mode(s) of

Export mode
Foreign destination

Origin code
transport (or port/airport/border crossing
Hazardous

of exit for exports) (for export shipments only)

Line No.
Enter all that
apply using

(Y/N)
codes shown (l) (o)
below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(h) (i) (j) (k) (m) (n) (p)

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50
5 — Inland water and/or Great Lakes 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep sea water 8 — Air 0 — Unknown

Item H USE OF OFF-SITE SHIPPING FACILITIES
In column (b), mark "Yes" or "No" for each type of shipping facility to indicate whether or not you used an off-site
facility of that type for outbound shipments during 1993. For those marked "Yes", enter the miles to that off-site
facility in column (c), and the mode of transport used to reach that facility in column (d). The modes are listed below.

Distance to the off-site facility of this Mode of transport used
Did you use this type of off-site type that you used most in 1993 to reach that facility
Type of shipping facility facility for outbound
shipments during 1993? (Report in miles - estimates are (Enter a code from the
acceptable) list below)
(a) (b) (c) (d)

1 Yes
1. Rail siding 2 No

1 Yes
2. Waterway dock,
deep sea water 2 No

1 Yes
3. Waterway dock,
Great Lakes 2 No

1 Yes
4. Waterway dock,
inland water 2 No

5. Airport/landing strip 1 Yes
capable of handling
your shipments 2 No

1 Yes
6. Pipeline terminal 2 No
1 – Trailer on Flat Car (TOFC) 3 – For-Hire Truck 5 – Water 7 – Air
2 – Private Truck 4 – Rail 6 – Pipeline 8 – Other
FORM CFS-2000 (7-7-93) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 8. Page 7

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–15
Item I USE AND AVAILABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT
During 1993, did this location use any of the following types of equipment for outbound shipments? Please check yes or no. For each
equipment type in Item 1 below enter the approximate percentage of your total outbound rail shipments that used that type of rail
car. These percentages should add to 100%. If you had no rail shipments, leave the percentages blank.

Was this type of equipment Percentage of total
Equipment used for outbound shipments rail shipments
during 1993?
(a) (b) (c)
1. Rail cars that:
1 Yes
a. Your company owned/leased 2 No

1 Yes
b. A common carrier owned/leased 2 No

1 Yes
c. Another party owned/leased (e.g. receiver) 2 No

2. Trucks with 6 or more tires or
truck-tractors that: 1 Yes
a. Your company owned 2 No

1 Yes
b. Your company leased, with driver 2 No

1 Yes
c. Your company leased, without driver 2 No

1 Yes
3. Truck trailers that your company owned or leased 2 No

1 Yes
4. Aircraft that your company owned or leased 2 No

1 Yes
5. Barges that your company owned or leased 2 No
6. Other equipment that your company owned or leased – Specify
1 Yes
2 No

Item J TRANSPORTATION DECISIONS

During 1993, who generally decided on the mode of transportation for your outbound shipments? Mark (X) appropriate box.
1 Your company 2 Receiver of shipment 3 Other

Remarks

Item K CERTIFICATION
Name of person to contact regarding this report – Please print Telephone number – Include area code Date

Signature Title

Page 8 FORM CFS-2000 (7-7-93)

E–16 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–17
E–18 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–19
E–20 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
JOBNAME: No Job Name PAGE: 1 SESS: 23 OUTPUT: Tue Apr 16 10:38:54 1996 / pssw02/ disk2/ economic/ tc92cf/ 0/ 03txtpub

Publication Program

1992 CENSUS OF TRANSPORTATION, For each State, the District of Columbia, and the United
COMMUNICATIONS, AND UTILITIES States, 1992 data are provided on revenue and employees per
establishment and on revenue and payroll per employee. Com-
Publications of the 1992 Census of Transportation, Commu- parative statistics showing percent changes in revenue and
nications, and Utilities containing data on: transportation, com- payroll between 1987 and 1992 also are shown for some
munications, and utilities establishments; characteristics of trucks; kind-of-business classifications.
and characteristics of commodity shipments are described below.
The first results were issued in press releases. Final detailed Nonemployer statistics series—1 report
(UC92-N-1)
statistics are issued in separate paperbound reports and compact
disc-read only memory (CD-ROM). The Nonemployer Statistics report includes data by kind of
Copies of the reports are available from the Superintendent of business for all establishments, establishments with payroll, and
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Post Office Box establishments without payroll for the United States and States.
371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. Order forms for the specific
reports or CD-ROM’s may be obtained from any Department of Subject series—2 reports
Commerce district office, any Bureau of the Census State data (UC92-S-1 to -2)
center or business/ industry data center, or from Customer Ser- The Establishment and Firm Size report (UC92-S-1) presents
vices, Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233-1900 or call data for establishments with payroll, based on size of establish-
301-457-4100. ment, size of company or firm, and legal form of organization.
Establishment statistics are presented by revenue size and by
Final Reports employment size; statistics for firms, by revenue size (including
concentration by largest firms), by employment size, and by
Truck Inventory and Use Survey—52 reports number of establishments operated (single units and multiunits).
(TC92-T-1 to -52) These data are presented for the United States.
This series includes a United States Summary and a separate The Miscellaneous Subjects report (UC92-S-2) presents data
report for each State and the District of Columbia. Data cover the for the United States as a whole and, where feasible, for States
physical and operational characteristics of the Nation’s private and MA’s for establishments with payroll. Data are provided for
and commercial truck resources, such as the number of vehicles, some kinds of business on major sources of revenue; purchased
major use, annual miles, model year, body type, vehicle size, fuel transportation; cost of purchased travel; revenue by class of
type, operator classification, engine size, range of operation, customer; and other miscellaneous subjects.
weeks operated, products carried, and hazardous materials
carried. The reports show comparative statistics reflecting per- Electronic Media
cent changes in number of vehicles between 1987 and 1992 for All data included in future printed reports will be available on
all characteristics. CD-ROM. For the Commodity Flow Survey data, the CD-ROM
may provide greater detail than the printed reports with respect to
1993 Commodity Flow Survey—141 reports shipment distance, weight ranges, and origin to destination data
(TC92-CF-1 to -52(P) and TC92-CF-N1 to -89) for the geographic reports. Electronic media products are avail-
able for users who wish to summarize, rearrange, or process
This series includes a preliminary United States Summary, a
large amounts of data. In addition to CD-ROM’s containing data
set of National Transportation Analysis Region (NTAR) reports, a
from printed reports, there is a separate CD-ROM for the Truck
set of State reports (including the District of Columbia), and a
final, more detailed United States Summary. Data cover the Inventory and Use Survey which contains microdata information
characteristics of commodity shipments initiated by establish- for each truck in the sample. The term microdata refers to the
ments engaged in manufacturing, mining, wholesale, and selected unaggregated records for the individual responses. The records
retail, service, and auxiliary activities. The data include tons, are modified to avoid the possibility of identifying individual
ton-miles, average miles and value of shipments, by commodity households or establishments. These products, with correspond-
and transportation mode. The NTAR and State reports include ing technical documentation, are sold by Customer Services,
data on NTAR-to-NTAR and State-to-State commodity ship- Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC 20233-1900.
ments, respectively. The final United States Summary includes
more detailed commodity descriptions, data on containerized and OTHER ECONOMIC CENSUS REPORTS
hazardous materials shipments, and supplemental data on avail-
Data on retail trade, wholesale trade, service industries,
ability and use of transportation equipment and facilities.
financial, insurance, real estate, construction industries, manu-
factures, mineral industries, enterprise statistics, minority-owned
Geographic area series—1 report business enterprises, and women-owned businesses also are
(UC92-A-1) available from the 1992 Economic Census. A separate series of
The geographic area Summary report presents data for the reports covers the census of outlying areas—Puerto Rico, Virgin
United States and States for establishments with payroll for Islands of the United States, Guam, and the Northern Marianas.
detailed kind-of-business classifications. Statistics on number of Separate announcements describing these reports are available
establishments and revenue are also shown for States and free of charge from Customer Services, Bureau of the Census,
selected metropolitan areas (MA’s) by kind of business. Washington, DC 20233-1900.