Chem 1030 Page 1 Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter and Measurement Terms • Chemistry: the study of the properties of materials

and the changes that materials undergo • Matter: the physical material of the universe that has mass and occupies space • Elements: the components of matter • Atoms: each element has a unique type of atom. Atoms are the smallest building block of elements • Molecules: a specific arrangement of 2 or more atoms o Example: H—hydrogen atom; H –hydrogen molecule H O—water molecule; CH –methane Classification of Matter 1. States of Matter a. Gas: no definite shape or volume (very compressible) b. Liquid: no definite shape; definite volume ( not compressible) c. Solid: definite shape and volume 2. Pure Substances (Substances) and Mixtures a. Substance: fixed composition and distinctive properties i. Elements: can be decomposed into a simpler substance ii. Compounds: composed of 2 or more elements b. Mixtures: combination of 2 or more substances where each substance has its own identity and properties; Example: NaCl (s) + H O (l) NaCl (aq) dissolved i. Homogeneous mixtures: solutions (appear uniform throughout) 1. liquid solutions 2. solid solutions (alloys) 3. gas solutions ii. Heterogeneous mixtures: not uniform appearance, i.e. sand, rocks Terms Elements: cannot be decomposed by physical or chemical methods. There are about 112 elements Compounds: cannot be decomposed by physical methods, but can be decomposed by chemical methods Law of Definite Proportions (Constant Composition): the observation that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same Example: Water is always 89% oxygen and 11% hydrogen by weight. If you had 100 g of H OO + H there would be 89 g of O and 11 g of H . * pure substances always have the same ratio of compounds Properties of Matter Physical Properties: can measure without changing the identity or composition of the

Chem 1030 Page 2 substance Chemical Properties: how the substance can change or react to form other substances Example: C(s)+O (g) CO(g) OR CO (g); Mg(s) + HCl(g)MgCl (s)+H (g) Units of Measurement Quantity Mass Length Temperature Time Amount Current Metric Prefixes Giga Mega Kilo Deci Centi Milli Micro Nano Pico Femto n p f G M k d c m 10^9 10^6 10^3 10^-1 10^-2 10^-3 10^-6 10^-9 10^-12 10^-15 Standard SI Units Kilogram (about 2.2 lbs.) Meter (about 1 yd.) Kelvin (=°C+273) Second Mole (6.023*10^23) (Avogadro’s number) Amperes Abbreviation kg m K s (sec.) mol A

Conversion Factors 1 Gm/10^9 m OR 10^9 m/1 Gm Temperature K=°C + 273.15; °C=K-273; °C= (5/9)( °F-32); °F=(9/5)°C+ 32

Chem 1030 Page 3 Volume SI unit: m³ (cubic meters) 1 (dm) ³=1 Liter (L) milliliter (mL) = 10^-3 L microliter ( L) = 10^-6 L nanoliter (nL) = 10^-9 L Density: mass/volume Units: g/mL; g/cm³; g/cc Uncertainty in Measurements Exact numbers: 1000mm=1 m (exactly); 1 yd. =3 ft. (exactly) Inexact numbers: all measurements; 1 yd =1.0936 m Precision: how close a number of measurements are to each other Accuracy: how close measurements are to the true value Other: Dimensional Analysis

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