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TRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY

Census of
Transportation
TC92-T-47
Issued November 1994

Virginia
PURPOSES AND USES OF THE ECONOMIC • Census of Financial, Insurance, and Real Estate
CENSUS Industries

The economic census is the major source of facts about • Census of Transportation, Communications, and Utilities
the structure and functioning of the Nation’s economy. It • Census of Manufactures
provides essential information for government, business,
industry, and the general public. • Census of Mineral Industries
The economic census furnishes an important part of the • Census of Construction Industries
framework for such composite measures as the gross
domestic product, input/output measures, production and Special programs also cover enterprise statistics and
price indexes, and other statistical series that measure minority-owned and women-owned businesses. (The 1992
short-term changes in economic conditions. Census of Agriculture and 1992 Census of Governments
Policymaking agencies of the Federal Government use are conducted separately.) The next economic census is
the data, especially in monitoring economic activity and scheduled to be taken in 1998 covering the year 1997.
providing assistance to business.
State and local governments use the data to assess AVAILABILITY OF THE DATA
business activities and tax bases within their jurisdictions
and to develop programs to attract business. The results of the economic census are available in
printed reports for sale by the U.S. Government Printing
Trade associations study trends in their own and com-
Office and on compact discs for sale by the Census
peting industries and keep their members informed of
Bureau. Order forms for all types of products are available
market changes.
on request from Customer Services, Bureau of the Census,
Individual businesses use the data to locate potential Washington, DC 20233-8300. A more complete descrip-
markets and to analyze their own production and sales tion of publications being issued from this census is on the
performance relative to industry or area averages. inside back cover of this document.
Census facts are also widely disseminated by trade
AUTHORITY AND SCOPE associations, business journals, and newspapers. Vol-
umes containing census statistics are available in most
Title 13 of the United States Code (sections 131, 191, major public and college libraries. Finally, State data
and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic centers in every State as well as business and industry
census every 5 years, covering years ending in 2 and 7. data centers in many States also supply economic census
The 1992 Economic Census consists of the following eight statistics.
censuses:
• Census of Retail Trade WHAT’S NEW IN 1992

• Census of Wholesale Trade The 1992 Economic Census covers more of the economy
than any previous census. New for 1992 are data on
• Census of Service Industries communications, utilities, financial, insurance, and real

U.S. Department of Commerce For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Economics and Statistics Administration Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402.
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
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estate, as well as coverage of more transportation indus- The Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises
tries. The economic, agriculture, and governments cen- was first conducted as a special project in 1969 and was
suses now collectively cover nearly 98 percent of all incorporated into the economic census in 1972 along with
economic activity. the Survey of Women-Owned Businesses.
Among other changes, new 1992 definitions affect the An economic census has also been taken in Puerto
boundaries of about a third of all metropolitan areas. Also, Rico since 1909, in the Virgin Islands of the United States
the Survey of Women-Owned Businesses has now been and Guam since 1958, and in the Commonwealth of the
expanded to include all corporations. Northern Mariana Islands since 1982.
Statistical reports from the 1987 and earlier censuses
provide historical figures for the study of long-term time
HISTORICAL INFORMATION series and are available in some large libraries. All of the
The economic census has been taken as an integrated census data published since 1967 are still available for
program at 5-year intervals since 1967 and before that for sale on microfiche from the Census Bureau.
1963, 1958, and 1954. Prior to that time, the individual
subcomponents of the economic census were taken sepa- AVAILABILITY OF MORE FREQUENT
rately at varying intervals. ECONOMIC DATA
The economic census traces its beginnings to the 1810
Decennial Census, when questions on manufacturing were While the census provides complete enumerations every
included with those for population. Coverage of economic 5 years, there are many needs for more frequent data as
activities was expanded for 1840 and subsequent cen- well. The Census Bureau conducts a number of monthly,
suses to include mining and some commercial activities. In quarterly, and annual surveys, with the results appearing in
1902, Congress established a permanent Census Bureau publication series such as Current Business Reports (retail
and directed that a census of manufactures be taken every and wholesale trade and service industries), the Annual
5 years. The 1905 Manufactures Census was the first time Survey of Manufactures, Current Industrial Reports, and
a census was taken apart from the regular every-10-year the Quarterly Financial Report. Most of these surveys,
population census. while providing more frequent observations, yield less
The first census of business was taken in 1930, cover- kind-of-business and geographic detail than the census.
ing 1929. Initially it covered retail and wholesale trade and The County Business Patterns program offers annual
construction industries, but it was broadened in 1933 to statistics on the number of establishments, employment,
include some of the service trades. and payroll classified by industry within each county.
The 1954 Economic Census was the first census to be
fully integrated—providing comparable census data across SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION
economic sectors, using consistent time periods, con-
cepts, definitions, classifications, and reporting units. It More information about the scope, coverage, classifica-
was the first census to be taken by mail, using lists of firms tion system, data items, and publications for each of the
provided by the administrative records of other Federal economic censuses and related surveys is published in the
agencies. Since 1963, administrative records also have Guide to the 1992 Economic Census and Related Statis-
been used to provide basic statistics for very small firms, tics. More information on the methodology, procedures,
reducing or eliminating the need to send them census and history of the census will be published in the History of
questionnaires. The Enterprise Statistics Program, which the 1992 Economic Census . Contact Customer Services
publishes combined data from the economic census, was for information on availability.
made possible with the implementation of the integrated
census program in 1954.
The range of industries covered in the economic cen- TRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY, 1992
suses has continued to expand. The census of construc- CENSUS OF TRANSPORTATION
tion industries began on a regular basis in 1967, and the
scope of service industries was broadened in 1967, 1977, The Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) provides
and 1987. The census of transportation began in 1963 as data on the physical and operational characteristics of the
a set of surveys covering travel, transportation of commodi- Nation’s truck population. It is based on a probability
ties, and trucks, but expanded in 1987 to cover business sample of private and commercial trucks registered (or
establishments in several transportation industries. For licensed) in each State during 1992. A sample of over
1992, these statistics are incorporated into a broadened 150,000 trucks were surveyed to measure the universe of
census of transportation, communications, and utilities. over 60 million trucks.
Also new for 1992 is the census of financial, insurance, The following types of vehicles were excluded from this
and real estate industries. This is part of a gradual expan- survey: those owned by Federal, State, and local govern-
sion in coverage of industries previously subjected to ments, ambulances, buses, and motor homes. A small
government regulation. number of the vehicles sampled were determined to be

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‘‘out-of-scope’’ of the survey. These cases include but are report by subtracting published data from their respective
not limited to: farm tractors, unpowered trailer units, and totals. However, such figures would be subject to the high
trucks reported to have been sold, junked, or wrecked prior sampling variability described previously. These unpub-
to the registration year. lished estimates are for your internal use only.
Many States allow pickups, small vans, and utility-type
vehicles to be registered as either cars or trucks. The
passenger car files were searched and any such trucks
VEHICLE REGISTRATIONS
were included in the universe of trucks from which the The annual vehicle registration date varies among the
sample was selected. Some vehicles such as ‘‘off-highway’’ States. A few States use the calendar year for registering
trucks used exclusively on private property do not have to all vehicles. Most States register their vehicle on a stag-
be registered. These vehicles were not included in the gered basis to permit a distribution of the renewal workload
universe and had no chance of being selected. thoughout all months. Most States allow preregistration or
permit ‘‘grace periods’’ to better distribute the annual
USES OF THE TRUCK INVENTORY AND USE registration workload.
SURVEY In order to present vehicle registration data uniformly for
all States, the data are shown as nearly as possible on a
TIUS information is of considerable value to Federal, 1992 calendar-year basis.
State, and local transportation agencies in planning high- Registration practices for commercial vehicles differ
way cost allocations, road improvements, truck size and greatly among the States. Some States register a tractor-
weight issues, user fees of commercial and private vehicles, semitrailer combination as a single unit; others register the
energy consumption, and other aspects of improving trans- tractor and the semitrailer separately. For either, only the
portation services for shippers and carriers. The Federal power units are included in the registered truck counts.
Government also uses these data as an important frame-
work for the national investment and personal consump- TRUCK CHARACTERISTICS
tion expenditures component of the Gross Domestic Prod-
uct (GDP), input-output tables, economic development The estimated number of trucks that were within the
evaluation, maintenance of vital statistics for prediction of scope of the TIUS and registered in the State during 1992
future economic and transportation trends, logistical require- was 1,516.7 thousand, a 33.1 percent increase from 1987.
ments, and regulatory impact analysis. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) estimate
Industry, business, academia, and the general public of the number of private and commercial trucks registered
need these data to assess the truck population’s involve- in the State as of December 31, 1992, was 1,230.4
ment with intermodal use, conduct market studies and thousand. This estimate is based on a calendar year
evaluate market strategies, assess the utility and cost of summary report from each State. It reflects differences in
certain types of equipment, calculate the longevity of truck definitions used by each State for vehicle registration
products, determine fuel demands and needs for fuel from those used in the TIUS.
efficiency, and assess the effects of deregulation on the
restructuring of the transportation industries. TIUS data are
regularly used to link to and more accurately utilize other COMPARABILITY WITH PREVIOUS SURVEYS
data sets representing limited segments of the truck Although the basic purpose and scope of the previous
universe. Truck Inventory and Use Surveys were essentially the
same as this one, some new items were introduced in
UNPUBLISHED DATA 1992 as well as some changes that may affect specific
items in this report.
Mileage estimates will not be shown separately in
individual State reports for 1992 as they were in past TIUS New items introduced in 1992:
State reports. State mileage estimates do not represent
mileage activity within the State. Mileage estimates will be 1. Empty weight of pickups, vans, minivans, utility-
shown in the U.S. Summary Report for the Nation’s truck type vehicles, and station wagons on truck chas-
population. Other physical and operational characteristics sis. Respondents who received the TC-9501 question-
estimates not shown separately in this report are produced naire were asked to report the empty weight (vehicle
as a by product of the published statistics. These addi- weight minus cargo weight) of the vehicle as it was
tional data have not been published because of their high usually operated.
sampling variability, poor response quality, or other factors 2. Number of weeks operated. Respondents were asked
that resulted in their failure to meet Census Bureau stan- to report the number of weeks during 1992 the vehicle
dards for publication. was operated.
The Bureau of the Census, upon written request, will
release such figures for individual use. It should be noted 3. No home base. Respondents were asked to report if
that some unpublished figures can be derived from this the vehicle or vehicle/trailer(s) combination was used

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for consumer one-way truck rental or as an over-the- 4. Piggyback, conventional trailers or containers. A
road truck tractor and did not operate from a home separate category for conventional trailers was added
base location. Data for these vehicles are tabulated to complete inclusion of all intermodal equipment haul
under percentage of miles traveled outside base of types. This information is available on the public-use
operation State. microdata product only.
4. Type of home base. Respondents were asked to 5. Overall length. Separate check box ranges were
report the type of location where the vehicle was developed for length to replace 1987 specific response.
usually parked when it was not on the road. This
information is available on the public-use microdata 6. Width of trailer. Separate check box ranges were
product only. developed for width to replace 1987 specific response.
This information is available on the public-use micro-
5. Bobtail. Owners of large trucks who reported the
data product only.
vehicle was usually operated as a straight truck or
truck tractor pulling a trailer were asked to report the 7. Range of operation. Separate responses for ‘‘trips
approximate percentage of 1992 mileage that no between 200 and 500 miles’’ and ‘‘trips beyond 500
trailer was pulled. This information is available on the miles’’ were added. The 1987 response of ‘‘trips
public-use microdata product only. between 50 and 200 miles’’ was divided into two
6. Trailer/axle configuration. Owners of large trucks separate responses for 1992: (1) trips between 50 and
who reported the vehicle was usually operated as a 100 miles and (2) trips between 100 and 200 miles
straight truck or truck tractor pulling one or more from vehicle’s homebase location.
trailers were asked to report the approximate percent-
8. Brakes. An ‘‘other’’ category was added as a sepa-
age of 1992 mileage of the trailer/axle configuration
rate response to determine other types of brakes.
most often pulled.
7. Exterior length of trailer(s). Owners of large trucks 9. Standard or optional equipment. New categories
who reported the vehicle was usually operated as a were added to the list of equipment characteristics.
straight truck or truck tractor pulling one or more They are: (1) antilock brake system and (2) on-board
trailers were asked to report the exterior length of the computer/electronic vehicle management system on
individual trailer(s) most often pulled. This information both questionnaires. In addition, the TC-9501 question-
is available at the U.S. level and on the public-use naire (small trucks) included additional new catego-
microdata product. ries: (1) vehicle control aids for handicapped drivers
and (2) wheelchair lifts.
8. Type of refueling locations. Owners of large trucks
were asked the type of location where the vehicle was 10. Personal transportation. ‘‘Carpool’’ use vehicles in
primarily refueled during 1992. a nonbusiness capacity are included in the personal
transportation category.
9. Kind of service. Owners of large trucks who reported
the vehicle was operated with for-hire authorization 11. For-hire operation type. A ‘‘private fleet’’ category
were asked to report the approximate percentage of was added with two separate responses on the TC-9502
1992 mileage by truckload and less-than-truckload questionnaire requesting the percentages of 1992
service. mileage the vehicle operated as: (1) a private carrier
and (2) a private carrier with for-hire authority (i.e.,
1992 changes affecting specific items: backhauls, trip leasing, etc.). This information is avail-
1. How disposed. An ‘‘other’’ category was added as a able on the public-use microdata product only.
separate response to determine other types of dis-
12. Products carried. New categories were added to the
posal. This information is available on the public-use
list of products carried. They are: (1) passenger trans-
microdata product only.
portation (the TC-9501 questionnaire only), (2) no load
2. When disposed. If a vehicle was disposed of on or (vehicle empty), (3) animal feed, (4) recyclable prod-
after July 1, 1991, but prior to January 1, 1992, ucts. ‘‘Hazardous waste’’ collected in 1987 was divided
respondents were asked to report vehicle’s use during into two separate categories for 1992: (1) EPA mani-
calendar year 1991. This methodology replaces respon- fest and (2) non-EPA manifest.
dents reporting ‘‘last 12 months use’’ of those vehicles
which were owned (or leased) and disposed of prior to 13. Engine type. Separate responses for leaded and
the survey year. unleaded gasolines were developed to determine fuel
use by engine. Published results of engine type are
3. How obtained. An ‘‘other’’ category was added as a cited for ‘‘gasoline’’ only. Leaded and unleaded gaso-
separate response to determine other ways of vehicle line use is available on the public-use microdata
acquisition. product only.

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14. Miles per gallon. Check box ranges were developed Range of operation. The type of trip in which the vehicle
on the TC-9501 questionnaire replacing the 1987 usually operates is classified as one of the following:
specific response for pickups, vans, utility-type vehicles,
minivans, and station wagons on truck chassis. 1. Local. Less than 50-miles from vehicle’s home base
(the farm, terminal, factory, mine, or other place where
15. Hazardous materials carried. The 1987 check box the vehicle is stationed).
percentage ranges of placard-required hazardous mate-
2. Short range. Trips between 50 and 100 miles from
rials mileage were replaced with individual mileage
vehicle’s home base.
percentage responses of each placard-required haz-
ardous material hauled during 1992. The published 3. Short range-medium. Trips between 100 and 200
results represent the number of trucks which hauled miles from vehicle’s home base.
placard-required hazardous materials during 1992
because multiple responses were possible. Data are 4. Long range-medium. Trips between 200 and 500
displayed under the new and revised placard name miles from vehicle’s home base.
categories.
5. Long range. Trips beyond 500 miles from vehicle’s
16. Fleet size. Check box ranges were developed for the home base.
total number of vehicles/trailers owned and/or oper- 6. No home base. Vehicle (usually an over-the-road
ated by an individual or for a company replacing the truck tractor or consumer one-way rental) which did
1987 data item requesting fleet composition of vehicles not operate from one specific home base location.
and equipment on an establishment basis.
7. Off-the-road. Minimal use of public roads (usually
17. Horsepower. This item was deleted from the ques- associated with construction and farming activities).
tionnaire and data will not be available.

18. Cubic inch displacement (CID). This item was deleted Vehicle size. This size classification is based on the
from the questionnaire, but the published data were average vehicle weight (empty weight of the vehicle plus
derived from an analysis of the administrative record the average weight of the load carried) at which the vehicle
data and are included in the tables. ‘‘Not reported’’ operated during 1992. The four size classes are:
indicates those trucks for which the CID are unknown. 1. Light. Average vehicle weight of 10,000 pounds or
19. Number of cylinders. The published data were derived less.
from an analysis of the administrative record data and 2. Medium. Average vehicle weight of 10,001 to 19,500
are included in the tables. ‘‘Not reported’’ indicates pounds.
those trucks for which cylinders are unknown.
3. Light-heavy. Average vehicle weight of 19,501 to
26,000 pounds.
EXPLANATION OF TERMS
4. Heavy-heavy. Average vehicle weight of 26,001 pounds
or more.
Major use. This item is based on the business or the part
of the business in which the vehicle was used. The 15
specific major use categories conform to the generally Operator classification. This item consists of not for hire,
accepted meaning of the terms. for hire, daily rental, and mixed.
Responses in the ‘‘Other’’ category were recoded to 1. Not for hire. Includes a private owner or a company
one of the specific categories, if possible. The category which transports its own materials or merchandise or
‘‘Not in use’’ in table 2 includes vehicles which, though uses the vehicle for personal transportation.
licensed, were not operated or were wrecked/inoperative
for more than 6 months during 1992. 2. For hire. Includes the following:

a. Motor carrier. Those vehicles operated by a com-
Body type. This category includes the type of body that is pany whose primary business is to provide trans-
either permanently attached to the power unit (i.e., straight portation services carrying freight belonging to oth-
or single-unit truck) or most frequently used with a truck ers.
tractor as a tractor-trailer combination.
b. Owner/operator. Vehicles operated by an inde-
pendent trucker who drives the vehicle for himself
Minivans. The minivan universe includes vehicles which
or on lease to a company.
are manufactured on a truck or passenger car chassis.
3. Daily rental. Vehicles rented or leased out under daily
Home base. The location where the vehicle was usually or short-term rental or lease agreements (not motor
parked when it was not on the road. carrier).

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4. Mixed. A mixture of the operator classifications above light’’ stratum consisted of all single-unit trucks (excluding
with equal percentages of use for at least two of the those in the pickup and van strata) with a gross vehicle
three categories. If the percentages were not equal, weight (GVW) of 26,000 pounds or less. The ‘‘single-unit
the answer was recoded to the operator classification heavy’’ stratum consisted of the remaining single-unit
with the highest percentage. trucks. The ‘‘truck tractor’’ stratum consisted of only truck
tractors. Within each of these strata, a predetermined
5. Type of carrier. These categories are limited to for
number of trucks were selected for the sample. All trucks
hire, interstate operators:
were selected at random with equal probabilities of selec-
a. Contract. Offers transportation services to certain tion within a stratum.
shippers under contracts.
b. Common. Offers transportation services to the SURVEY METHOD
general public over regular or irregular routes.
For each selected truck, a report form was mailed to the
c. Exempt. Transports commodities or provides types owner identified in the State’s registration records. The
of services that are exempt from federal regulation, owner was asked to respond only for the truck identified by
could also operate within exempt commercial zones. the vehicle registration information imprinted on the form,
regardless of whether or not he still owned the vehicle. The
Products carried. This item includes broad classifica- information received on the returned questionnaires was
tions of agricultural, manufacturing, mineral products, and processed through an extensive computer edit. Reports
special categories of materials carried by trucks. Responses which contained questionable responses were reviewed
to the ‘‘Other’’ category were recoded to 1 of the 29 and corrected if necessary. Because estimates are to
specific categories if possible. cover calendar year 1992, if necessary an adjustment was
made to account for new trucks registered after the date
Hazardous materials. This category was designed to covered by the sampling frame but before December 31,
identify those trucks which regularly transport hazardous 1992.
materials in quantities large enough to require a placard In each stratum, estimates of the number of trucks for
under the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, (CFR.177.823) each characteristic were developed by expanding the
Transportation. observations from the respondents to represent all trucks
in the stratum within the scope of the TIUS. The stratum
Truck fleet size. The size of the truck fleet is based on estimates were then summed across strata to form the
the number of trucks operated by a truck owner for its estimates published for the State.
entire operation. The data shown in the ‘‘Truck Fleet Size’’ This methodology to account for trucks purchased new
section of the tables are based on the number of trucks and registered in the latter half of 1992 which were not
found in fleets of specified size and not the number of covered by the sampling frame differs from that used in the
fleets. (If this item on the survey form was unanswered, the 1987 TIUS.
vehicle was estimated in the ‘‘not reported’’ category.)

RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES
SAMPLE DESIGN
The accuracy of the survey results is determined by the
A probability sample of 3,114 trucks was selected to joint effects of sampling variability and nonsampling errors.
represent the universe of trucks registered in the State in The sources of error are discussed in the following para-
1992. The sample was drawn from a universe of active graphs.
registrations in the State at some date, generally between
July 1 and December 31, 1992. If necessary an adjustment Sampling variability. The particular sample drawn in the
was made to account for new truck registrations which State is one of a large number of all possible samples of
occurred after this date but before the end of 1992. The the same size that could have been selected using the
universe excluded those trucks that were identified, from same design. Estimates derived from these different samples
the registration information, as outside of the scope of would differ from each other and from the unknown total
TIUS. that would be obtained if all trucks in the State were
The trucks were selected using a stratified, random surveyed (the universe value). Ignoring the effects of
sample design. The universe, or population, of trucks nonsampling error, the average of these estimates would
within the State was divided into five strata: ‘‘pickup,’’ equal the universe value. The standard error of the esti-
‘‘van,’’ ‘‘single-unit light,’’ ‘‘single-unit heavy,’’ and ‘‘truck mate is a measure of the variability among the estimates
tractor.’’ The ‘‘pickup’’ stratum consisted of all pickup from all possible samples of the same size and design. It
trucks. The ‘‘van’’ stratum consisted of panel trucks, vans measures how precisely we can expect to estimate the
(including minivans), utility-type vehicles (including jeeps), unknown universe value. The relative standard error (RSE),
and station wagons on truck chassis. The ‘‘single-unit expressed as a percentage, is the standard error of the

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estimate times 100 divided by the value being estimated. received. Several followups, by mail and telephone, were
Note that the RSE’s given in table 2, are derived from the done to reduce both types of nonresponse. The details to
sample and are themselves subject to sampling variability. account for total nonresponse and item nonresponse are
An estimate and its standard error, developed from a given below.
particular sample, can be used to construct an interval For most sections in table 2, total nonresponse is
estimate called a confidence interval. (The standard error handled, within the estimation procedure, by allocating
referred to here is itself an estimate developed from the characteristics to the total nonrespondents in proportion to
sample.) Associated with each interval is a percentage of the characteristics observed for the respondents. The
confidence (for example, 90 percent) which should be amount of bias introduced in this way depends on the
interpreted as follows. For each possible sample, assume extent that the nonrespondents differ, characteristically,
that an estimate and its standard error were obtained. from the respondents.
Then, for about 90 percent of all the samples, the interval For most sections in the table, item nonresponse is
from 1.65 standard errors below to 1.65 standard errors included as a separate line. For example, respondents who
above the estimate would include the unknown value being did not indicate the major uses of their trucks are included
estimated. The following is an example of a confidence in the ‘‘not reported’’ category. This line shows the part of
interval calculation: Assume the number of basic platform the total estimate (for that table section) which is missing
trucks given in table 2 is 20.5 thousand with an RSE of from the estimates by major use. Users should exercise
10.2 percent. Then the standard error of the estimate is caution in allocating the not reported figure to the major
20.5 x .102 = 2.09 thousand trucks. Now, the 90 percent uses, since the characteristics of item nonrespondents
confidence interval (the estimate plus or minus 1.65 stand- may differ significantly from those of the respondents. For
ard errors) is 20.5 plus or minus 3.4, or 17.1 to 23.9 some questions, a response was generated if it could be
thousand trucks. In table 2, some data cells have RSE’s derived from other data. For example, engine and body
that are large, and the resulting confidence intervals could characteristics were frequently determined through analy-
be quite wide. The user should use such estimates with sis of the vehicle identification number and charts based
caution. on manufacturers’ specifications. Missing length and aver-
age weight data were imputed for each individual truck
Nonsampling errors. Nonsampling errors cover all sources based on the response from a record with similar charac-
of errors in the estimates that cannot be attributed to teristics which were correlated with length and/or average
sampling variability. This includes errors in the reporting, weight.
collecting, and processing of data as well as the inability to
obtain responses from some sampled units. Nonsampling ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
errors lead to biases in the estimates. Bias exists if an
The following abbreviations and symbols are used in
estimate, averaged over all possible samples, does not
this publication:
equal the true value being estimated.
A major source of possible bias is nonresponse. There (NA) Not available due to new data item or defini-
are two types of nonresponse. ‘‘Total nonresponse’’ occurs tional differences.
when no response to the questionnaire was received. In (S) Withheld because estimate did not meet pub-
most cases, the form was never returned to the Census lication standards on the basis of either the
Bureau, after several attempts to elicit a response. For the response rate, associated standard error, or a
State, approximately 91.5 percent of the questionnaires consistency review.
were returned with some response. ‘‘Item nonresponse’’ (Z) Represents less than 50 trucks or .05 percent,
applies to an individual item or question which was unan- as appropriate for the data column.
swered, although some response to the questionnaire was RSE Relative standard error.

TRANSPORTATION—TRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY VIRGINIA VA–7
Table 1. TrucksmComparative Summary: 1992 and Earlier Years
[Percent. Data relate to State of registration. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Vehicular and operational Vehicular and operational
characteristics 1992 1987 1982 1977 characteristics 1992 1987 1982 1977

Total -------------------------------------- 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 YEAR MODEL

MAJOR USE 1 to 2 years old ---------------------------------- 12.1 19.5 11.4 14.2
3 to 4 years old ---------------------------------- 17.4 17.4 10.4 17.6
Over 4 years old --------------------------------- 70.5 63.2 78.2 68.2
Agriculture --------------------------------------- 4.6 4.9 9.3 11.2
Forestry and lumbering ---------------------------- .2 1.3 .5 1.0
Mining and quarrying ------------------------------ .4 .4 1.0 .9
Construction ------------------------------------- 8.5 11.7 9.8 8.1 VEHICLE ACQUISITION
Manufacturing ------------------------------------ .8 .8 1.2 1.6
Wholesale and retail trade ------------------------- 4.8 5.3 8.9 8.0 Purchased new ----------------------------------- 49.2 50.3 42.9 47.7
For-hire transportation ---------------------------- .9 2.3 3.3 3.5 Purchased used ---------------------------------- 50.1 48.8 55.3 50.4
Utilities and service ------------------------------- 6.4 4.5 5.9 8.2 Leased from someone, other, and not reported 2 3---- .8 .9 1.8 1.9
Personal transportation ---------------------------- 72.5 68.5 59.8 56.4
Other ------------------------------------------- 1.0 .2 .2 1.1

TRUCK TYPE
BODY TYPE
Single-unit trucks --------------------------------- 98.3 97.4 97.4 96.6
Pickup, panel, or minivan 1 ------------------------- 93.4 88.8 85.2 79.8 2 axles ---------------------------------------- 92.8 96.2 96.4 94.5
Platform and cattlerack ---------------------------- 2.0 3.8 4.9 7.1 3 axles or more -------------------------------- 5.5 1.2 1.1 2.0
Van --------------------------------------------- 1.0 2.0 3.5 4.8
Public utility -------------------------------------- .2 .2 .6 .7 Combination ------------------------------------- 1.7 2.6 2.6 3.4
Multistop or stepvans 2 ---------------------------- .7 1.1 .7 1.5 3 axles ---------------------------------------- (Z) .6 .2 (Z)
4 axles ---------------------------------------- .1 .6 .7 1.2
Dump ------------------------------------------- 1.1 1.9 1.9 2.5 5 axles or more -------------------------------- 1.6 1.3 1.7 2.0
Tank for liquids or dry bulk ------------------------ .3 .5 .8 1.5
Other ------------------------------------------- 1.3 1.6 2.3 2.2 Trailer not specified ----------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

VEHICLE SIZE
RANGE OF OPERATION
Light -------------------------------------------- 95.3 91.9 90.2 81.5
Medium ----------------------------------------- 2.0 2.4 3.0 7.7 Local -------------------------------------------- 73.3 79.0 77.6 84.8
Light-heavy -------------------------------------- 1.0 2.1 2.5 4.2 Short-range -------------------------------------- 16.5 13.0 10.0 9.6
Heavy-heavy ------------------------------------- 1.7 3.6 4.3 6.6 Long-range -------------------------------------- 4.5 3.0 5.2 2.0
Off-the-road and not reported ---------------------- 5.7 5.0 7.3 3.6

ANNUAL MILES
FUEL TYPE
Less than 5,000 ---------------------------------- 18.2 24.3 27.4 22.6
5,000 to 9,999 ----------------------------------- 21.6 26.8 26.7 23.9
10,000 to 19,999 --------------------------------- 41.5 33.5 34.9 36.8 Gasoline ----------------------------------------- 95.6 94.4 95.1 95.7
20,000 to 29,999 --------------------------------- 12.5 10.6 6.8 10.8 Diesel, liquefied gas, and other 2 -------------------- 4.4 5.6 4.4 4.3
30,000 or more ----------------------------------- 6.3 4.8 4.1 5.9 Not reported ------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) .5 (Z)

1Vans similar to panel trucks are included in pickup, panel, or minivan.
2New category or modified data line from 1987.
3Includes trucks which reported an "other" type of vehicle acquisition.

VA–8  VIRGINIA TRANSPORTATIONmTRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY
TIPS [UPF] S_CASTILLO [SPECPROJ,S_CASTILLO SPECPROJ 11/ 9/94 3:58 PM MACHINE: EPCV24 DATA:TIPS_DATA.DAT;214 11/ 9/94 15:57:00 TAPE: NOreel FRAME: 1
TSF:TIPS92-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:57 UTF:TIPS93-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:58 META:TIPS96-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:58:25
Table 2. TrucksmComparative Vehicular and Operational Characteristics: 1992 and
1987
[Data relate to State of registration. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Trucks, excluding pickups, panels, vans,
All trucks utilities, and station wagons
Relative standard error of estimate
Vehicular and operational Percent Percent (percent) for column m
characteristics change change
1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to 1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to
(thousands) (thousands) 1987 (thousands) (thousands) 1987

A B C D E F A B C D E F

Total trucks --------------------------------------- 1  516.7 1 139.1 33.1 99.7 127.3 –21.7 .3 .4 .5 1.2 2.1 2.4

MAJOR USE

Agriculture ----------------------------------------------- 70.1 56.3 24.5 12.5 19.3 –35.4 15.6 13.5 20.6 9.3 8.3 12.5
Forestry and lumbering ------------------------------------ 2.9 15.0 –80.5 2.9 5.2 –44.1 17.4 27.0 32.1 17.4 14.8 22.9
Mining and quarrying -------------------------------------- (S) 4.2 (S) 1.2 2.6 –51.2 (S) 41.2 (S) 23.5 22.3 32.4
Construction --------------------------------------------- 128.4 133.1 –3.6 26.1 29.7 –12.1 11.1 9.2 14.5 5.8 6.1 8.4
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------- 12.3 9.3 31.8 5.9 6.0 –.9 30.5 25.7 39.9 12.3 13.7 18.4

Wholesale trade ------------------------------------------ 25.2 24.6 2.5 8.0 10.2 –21.8 24.4 19.7 31.3 11.6 11.0 16.0
Retail trade ---------------------------------------------- 48.0 36.0 33.1 9.2 11.9 –23.3 18.7 17.8 25.8 11.2 17.0 20.4
For-hire transportation ------------------------------------ 13.0 24.9 –47.7 8.5 20.1 –57.8 24.6 12.1 27.4 9.1 6.0 10.9
Utilities -------------------------------------------------- 14.3 13.2 8.8 5.6 3.7 51.1 30.5 29.7 42.6 15.3 19.5 24.8
Services ------------------------------------------------- 82.7 37.6 119.9 11.0 5.6 96.0 14.7 18.6 23.7 10.1 16.4 19.3

Daily rental ---------------------------------------------- (S) 1.5 (S) .5 (S) (S) (S) 25.2 (S) 43.5 (S) (S)
One-way rental ------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)
Personal transportation ------------------------------------ 1  098.8 780.8 40.7 6.8 9.2 –25.4 2.1 2.2 3.1 12.8 20.9 24.5
Other --------------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)
Not in use ----------------------------------------------- 10.5 2.5 320.3 1.5 2.4 –37.4 41.7 20.9 46.6 25.5 21.7 33.5
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

BODY TYPE

Pickup--------------------------------------------------- 865.0 696.5 24.2 (Z) (Z) (Z) .5 .8 .9 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Minivan -------------------------------------------------- 169.9 34.4 394.0 (Z) (Z) (Z) 9.3 20.1 22.1 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Panel or van --------------------------------------------- 123.9 135.7 –8.7 (Z) (Z) (Z) 11.5 8.2 14.1 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Utility ---------------------------------------------------- 231.1 118.9 94.4 (Z) (Z) (Z) 7.4 9.4 11.9 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Station wagon -------------------------------------------- 27.3 26.4 3.2 (Z) (Z) (Z) 27.1 23.3 35.7 (Z) (Z) (Z)

Multistop or stepvan 1 ------------------------------------- 10.8 12.0 –10.0 10.8 12.0 –10.0 10.6 17.0 20.0 10.6 17.0 20.0
Platform with added devices ------------------------------- 6.6 6.1 8.4 6.6 6.1 8.4 13.4 14.5 19.7 13.4 14.5 19.7
Low boy or depressed center ------------------------------ 1.4 2.7 –47.7 1.4 2.7 –47.7 19.8 14.3 24.4 19.8 14.3 24.4
Basic platform -------------------------------------------- 21.2 30.4 –30.2 21.2 30.4 –30.2 6.8 6.2 9.1 6.8 6.2 9.1
Livestock truck ------------------------------------------- 1.8 4.4 –59.7 1.8 4.4 –59.7 27.2 19.3 33.3 27.2 19.3 33.3

Insulated nonrefrigerated van ------------------------------ (S) .8 (S) (S) .8 (S) (S) 38.7 (S) (S) 38.7 (S)
Insulated refrigerated van --------------------------------- 1.2 3.5 –66.5 1.2 3.5 –66.5 26.1 16.1 30.7 26.1 16.1 30.7
Drop-frame van ------------------------------------------ .5 (S) (S) .5 (S) (S) 47.0 (S) (S) 47.0 (S) (S)
Open-top van -------------------------------------------- .1 (S) (S) .1 (S) (S) 36.2 (S) (S) 36.2 (S) (S)
Basic enclosed van --------------------------------------- 12.9 16.2 –20.4 12.9 16.2 –20.4 8.4 7.8 11.4 8.4 7.8 11.4

Beverage ------------------------------------------------ 2.1 2.1 –2.1 2.1 2.1 –2.1 22.6 25.9 34.4 22.6 25.9 34.4
Public utility ---------------------------------------------- 2.8 2.8 1.2 2.8 2.8 1.2 21.7 23.2 31.8 21.7 23.2 31.8
Winch or crane ------------------------------------------- 1.0 2.1 –51.5 1.0 2.1 –51.5 32.8 26.0 41.9 32.8 26.0 41.9
Wrecker ------------------------------------------------- 4.1 5.2 –21.1 4.1 5.2 –21.1 17.8 34.8 39.1 17.8 34.8 39.1
Pole or logging ------------------------------------------- 1.9 2.8 –34.3 1.9 2.8 –34.3 21.7 20.6 30.0 21.7 20.6 30.0

Auto transport -------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Service truck --------------------------------------------- 4.0 2.0 97.2 4.0 2.0 97.2 18.2 29.4 34.5 18.2 29.4 34.5
Yard tractor ---------------------------------------------- .2 (S) (S) .2 (S) (S) 27.6 (S) (S) 27.6 (S) (S)
Oilfield truck --------------------------------------------- .6 (Z) (Z) .6 (Z) (Z) 47.1 (Z) (Z) 47.1 (Z) (Z)
Grain body ----------------------------------------------- 1.7 .9 90.4 1.7 .9 90.4 26.7 39.6 47.7 26.7 39.6 47.7

Garbage hauler ------------------------------------------- 1.6 1.4 16.1 1.6 1.4 16.1 23.2 28.1 36.4 23.2 28.1 36.4
Dump truck ---------------------------------------------- 16.7 21.5 –22.3 16.7 21.5 –22.3 7.1 7.0 10.0 7.1 7.0 10.0
Tank truck (liquids or gases) ------------------------------- 3.5 5.4 –35.2 3.5 5.4 –35.2 17.1 13.4 21.7 17.1 13.4 21.7
Tank truck (dry bulk) -------------------------------------- .3 (S) (S) .3 (S) (S) 49.7 (S) (S) 49.7 (S) (S)
Concrete mixer ------------------------------------------- 1.5 1.6 –6.5 1.5 1.6 –6.5 15.2 23.9 28.3 15.2 23.9 28.3
Other --------------------------------------------------- (S) .5 (S) (S) .5 (S) (S) 45.9 (S) (S) 45.9 (S)
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

ANNUAL MILES

Less than 5,000 ------------------------------------------ 276.3 277.1 –.3 34.0 40.6 –16.4 7.5 6.1 9.7 4.9 6.4 8.1
5,000 to 9,999 ------------------------------------------- 327.3 305.5 7.1 19.1 22.8 –16.2 6.9 5.9 9.1 7.3 7.5 10.4
10,000 to 19,999 ----------------------------------------- 629.0 381.5 64.9 21.2 27.9 –24.1 4.3 5.0 6.7 6.6 8.4 10.7
20,000 to 29,999 ----------------------------------------- 189.1 120.4 57.0 10.5 13.9 –24.4 9.7 10.3 14.2 9.5 9.2 13.2
30,000 to 49,999 ----------------------------------------- 70.2 38.4 82.9 9.6 9.2 4.1 16.0 17.5 23.7 9.7 9.2 13.3
50,000 to 74,999 ----------------------------------------- 18.6 9.2 102.6 3.6 5.8 –39.1 30.6 25.4 39.8 14.1 10.4 17.5
75,000 or more ------------------------------------------- (S) 7.0 (S) 1.8 7.0 –75.0 (S) 7.2 (S) 12.2 7.2 14.2

PRIMARY RANGE OF OPERATION

Local ---------------------------------------------------- 1  111.4 899.5 23.6 65.9 83.4 –21.0 2.2 1.8 2.9 2.7 3.7 4.6
Total short-range 1 ---------------------------------------- 250.3 148.4 68.7 22.7 25.8 –12.0 8.1 8.9 12.1 6.3 6.3 8.9
Short-range1 ------------------------------------------- 194.2 (NA) (NA) 18.3 (NA) (NA) 9.4 (NA) (NA) 7.2 (NA) (NA)
Short-range medium 1 ----------------------------------- 56.0 (NA) (NA) 4.4 (NA) (NA) 18.5 (NA) (NA) 15.6 (NA) (NA)
Total long-range 1 ----------------------------------------- 69.0 34.7 98.7 4.3 8.9 –51.3 16.8 18.4 24.9 14.2 9.0 16.8
Long-range medium 1 ------------------------------------ 37.7 (NA) (NA) 3.1 (NA) (NA) 22.7 (NA) (NA) 17.3 (NA) (NA)
Long-range1 ------------------------------------------- 31.3 (NA) (NA) 1.2 (NA) (NA) 25.5 (NA) (NA) 24.7 (NA) (NA)
Off-the-road ---------------------------------------------- 85.6 49.2 73.9 6.4 6.8 –6.2 14.8 16.4 22.1 12.8 14.2 19.1
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (S) 7.3 (S) (S) 2.4 (S) (S) 38.5 (S) (S) 21.9 (S)

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmTRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY VIRGINIA   VA–9
TIPS [UPF] S_CASTILLO [SPECPROJ,S_CASTILLO SPECPROJ 11/ 9/94 3:58 PM MACHINE: EPCV24 DATA:TIPS_DATA.DAT;214 11/ 9/94 15:57:00 TAPE: NOreel FRAME: 2
TSF:TIPS92-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:57 UTF:TIPS93-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:58 META:TIPS96-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:58:25
Table 2. TrucksmComparative Vehicular and Operational Characteristics: 1992 and
1987mCon.
[Data relate to State of registration. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Trucks, excluding pickups, panels, vans,
All trucks utilities, and station wagons
Relative standard error of estimate
Vehicular and operational Percent Percent (percent) for column m
characteristics change change
1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to 1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to
(thousands) (thousands) 1987 (thousands) (thousands) 1987

A B C D E F A B C D E F

WEEKS OPERATED1

Less than 1 ---------------------------------------------- 20.5 (NA) (NA) 2.8 (NA) (NA) 29.2 (NA) (NA) 19.6 (NA) (NA)
1 to 4 --------------------------------------------------- 29.5 (NA) (NA) 6.7 (NA) (NA) 23.4 (NA) (NA) 13.3 (NA) (NA)
5 to 8 --------------------------------------------------- 56.3 (NA) (NA) 6.2 (NA) (NA) 18.1 (NA) (NA) 13.6 (NA) (NA)
9 to 12 -------------------------------------------------- 66.0 (NA) (NA) 4.8 (NA) (NA) 17.0 (NA) (NA) 15.2 (NA) (NA)
13 to 16 ------------------------------------------------- 41.3 (NA) (NA) 4.4 (NA) (NA) 21.3 (NA) (NA) 15.9 (NA) (NA)
17 to 20 ------------------------------------------------- 41.0 (NA) (NA) 3.6 (NA) (NA) 21.6 (NA) (NA) 17.1 (NA) (NA)
21 to 24 ------------------------------------------------- 36.2 (NA) (NA) 5.5 (NA) (NA) 22.3 (NA) (NA) 14.2 (NA) (NA)
25 to 28 ------------------------------------------------- 54.2 (NA) (NA) 5.6 (NA) (NA) 18.6 (NA) (NA) 14.1 (NA) (NA)
29 to 32 ------------------------------------------------- 41.8 (NA) (NA) 2.9 (NA) (NA) 21.7 (NA) (NA) 20.2 (NA) (NA)
33 to 36 ------------------------------------------------- 57.8 (NA) (NA) 3.8 (NA) (NA) 18.3 (NA) (NA) 16.5 (NA) (NA)
37 to 40 ------------------------------------------------- 36.1 (NA) (NA) 5.3 (NA) (NA) 22.3 (NA) (NA) 14.0 (NA) (NA)
41 to 44 ------------------------------------------------- 42.0 (NA) (NA) 3.7 (NA) (NA) 20.9 (NA) (NA) 16.8 (NA) (NA)
45 to 48 ------------------------------------------------- 81.4 (NA) (NA) 8.1 (NA) (NA) 15.1 (NA) (NA) 11.2 (NA) (NA)
49 to 52 ------------------------------------------------- 912.1 (NA) (NA) 35.8 (NA) (NA) 3.0 (NA) (NA) 4.6 (NA) (NA)
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA)

BASE OF OPERATION

Percentage of miles traveled outside base-of-operation State:
Less than 25 percent ----------------------------------- 1  223.3 902.4 35.6 77.8 99.9 –22.2 1.8 1.9 2.6 2.1 3.0 3.7
25 to 49 percent --------------------------------------- 75.7 51.0 48.4 3.1 6.0 –48.9 16.0 16.2 22.8 19.0 14.3 23.8
50 to 74 percent --------------------------------------- 56.4 48.8 15.7 2.5 5.5 –54.6 18.7 16.8 25.1 19.3 13.1 23.3
75 to 100 percent -------------------------------------- 26.3 45.2 –41.8 2.6 6.5 –59.8 27.0 17.2 32.0 18.9 11.6 22.2
No home base 1 ---------------------------------------- .4 (NA) (NA) .4 (NA) (NA) 37.0 (NA) (NA) 37.0 (NA) (NA)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- 134.6 91.8 46.6 13.3 9.4 41.9 11.5 12.0 16.6 8.7 11.6 14.5

VEHICLE SIZE

Light ---------------------------------------------------- 1 445.9 1 046.4 38.2 35.4 36.2 –2.2 .4 .5 .7 4.8 6.9 8.4
Medium ------------------------------------------------- 29.7 27.5 8.0 23.2 25.8 –10.0 13.6 10.6 17.2 6.6 9.3 11.4
Light-heavy ---------------------------------------------- 14.7 24.2 –39.0 14.7 24.2 –39.0 8.7 7.1 11.2 8.7 7.1 11.2
Heavy-heavy --------------------------------------------- 26.3 41.1 –36.0 26.3 41.1 –36.0 4.2 3.1 5.2 4.2 3.1 5.2

AVERAGE WEIGHT (POUNDS)

Less than 6,001 ------------------------------------------ 1  343.4 974.0 37.9 9.3 11.5 –18.8 1.0 1.0 1.4 11.1 17.5 20.7
6,001 to 10,000 ------------------------------------------ 102.6 72.4 41.7 26.1 24.8 5.4 12.3 12.0 17.1 6.1 7.3 9.5
10,001 to 14,000 ----------------------------------------- 13.6 15.9 –14.6 11.5 14.2 –19.1 17.6 16.8 24.4 10.1 15.0 18.1
14,001 to 16,000 ----------------------------------------- 10.4 4.4 135.3 6.0 4.4 36.1 30.9 18.9 36.2 14.4 18.9 23.8
16,001 to 19,500 ----------------------------------------- 5.7 7.1 –20.6 5.7 7.1 –20.6 14.9 14.8 20.9 14.9 14.8 20.9
19,501 to 26,000 ----------------------------------------- 14.7 24.2 –39.0 14.7 24.2 –39.0 8.7 7.1 11.2 8.7 7.1 11.2
26,001 to 33,000 ----------------------------------------- 8.1 8.9 –9.2 8.1 8.9 –9.2 11.4 11.1 15.9 11.4 11.1 15.9
33,001 to 40,000 ----------------------------------------- 3.2 4.0 –20.7 3.2 4.0 –20.7 12.7 11.8 17.3 12.7 11.8 17.3
40,001 to 50,000 ----------------------------------------- 6.4 8.6 –25.2 6.4 8.6 –25.2 7.8 8.9 11.8 7.8 8.9 11.8
50,001 to 60,000 ----------------------------------------- 4.1 6.6 –38.0 4.1 6.6 –38.0 9.0 9.5 13.0 9.0 9.5 13.0
60,001 to 80,000 ----------------------------------------- 4.4 12.7 –65.4 4.4 12.7 –65.4 5.2 4.5 6.9 5.2 4.5 6.9
80,001 to 100,000 ---------------------------------------- .2 (S) (S) .2 (S) (S) 32.4 (S) (S) 32.4 (S) (S)
100,001 to 130,000 --------------------------------------- (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S)
130,001 or more ----------------------------------------- (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S)
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

TOTAL LENGTH (FEET)

Less than 20.0 1 ------------------------------------------ 1 439.9 1 036.6 38.9 32.0 29.6 8.3 .5 .6 .7 5.2 8.2 9.7
20.0 to 27.9 ---------------------------------------------- 46.6 62.3 –25.2 44.0 60.7 –27.6 6.1 5.1 7.9 4.0 4.5 6.0
28.0 to 35.9 ---------------------------------------------- 17.1 15.7 8.9 10.6 14.1 –24.6 22.6 12.7 26.0 9.3 8.3 12.5
36.0 to 40.9 ---------------------------------------------- 3.3 1.8 84.3 3.3 1.8 84.3 17.6 19.6 26.3 17.6 19.6 26.3
41.0 to 44.9 ---------------------------------------------- 1.9 (S) (S) 1.9 1.0 82.7 22.3 (S) (S) 22.3 34.0 40.6
45.0 or more --------------------------------------------- 7.9 20.1 –60.8 7.9 20.1 –60.8 5.4 3.4 6.4 5.4 3.4 6.4
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

YEAR MODEL

1993 ---------------------------------------------------- (S) (NA) (NA) .9 (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) 30.2 (NA) (NA)
1992 ---------------------------------------------------- 91.2 (NA) (NA) 1.3 (NA) (NA) 14.7 (NA) (NA) 26.5 (NA) (NA)
1991 ---------------------------------------------------- 84.3 (NA) (NA) 2.8 (NA) (NA) 15.2 (NA) (NA) 19.4 (NA) (NA)
1990 ---------------------------------------------------- 112.0 (NA) (NA) 4.7 (NA) (NA) 13.0 (NA) (NA) 15.3 (NA) (NA)
1989 ---------------------------------------------------- 151.9 (NA) (NA) 5.2 (NA) (NA) 11.1 (NA) (NA) 14.2 (NA) (NA)
1988 ---------------------------------------------------- 131.3 (S) (S) 6.2 (S) (S) 11.9 (S) (S) 13.1 (S) (S)
1987 ---------------------------------------------------- 152.2 71.5 112.9 5.6 4.3 32.2 11.1 14.1 17.9 13.6 16.8 21.6
1986 ---------------------------------------------------- 134.1 148.8 –9.9 8.1 7.7 6.0 11.8 9.4 15.0 11.9 12.9 17.5
1985 ---------------------------------------------------- 130.9 95.6 37.0 5.7 9.1 –37.4 12.0 11.9 16.9 14.1 19.5 24.1
1984 ---------------------------------------------------- 89.6 102.1 –12.3 4.9 4.8 .7 14.7 11.6 18.7 14.8 14.6 20.8
1983 ---------------------------------------------------- 52.4 60.0 –12.7 2.2 3.7 –40.0 19.6 15.4 24.9 22.1 17.7 28.3
Pre-1983 ------------------------------------------------ 379.6 659.5 –42.4 52.0 97.6 –46.7 6.1 3.0 6.8 3.4 2.6 4.3
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

See footnotes at end of table.

VA–10  VIRGINIA TRANSPORTATIONmTRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY
TIPS [UPF] S_CASTILLO [SPECPROJ,S_CASTILLO SPECPROJ 11/ 9/94 3:58 PM MACHINE: EPCV24 DATA:TIPS_DATA.DAT;214 11/ 9/94 15:57:00 TAPE: NOreel FRAME: 3
TSF:TIPS92-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:57 UTF:TIPS93-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:58 META:TIPS96-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:58:25
Table 2. TrucksmComparative Vehicular and Operational Characteristics: 1992 and
1987mCon.
[Data relate to State of registration. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Trucks, excluding pickups, panels, vans,
All trucks utilities, and station wagons
Relative standard error of estimate
Vehicular and operational Percent Percent (percent) for column m
characteristics change change
1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to 1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to
(thousands) (thousands) 1987 (thousands) (thousands) 1987

A B C D E F A B C D E F

VEHICLE ACQUISITION

Purchased new ------------------------------------------- 745.5 573.1 30.1 42.8 57.0 –24.9 3.7 3.5 5.1 4.1 5.4 6.8
Purchased used ------------------------------------------ 759.5 555.7 36.7 52.0 66.5 –21.8 3.6 3.6 5.1 3.4 3.3 4.7
Leased from someone else -------------------------------- 8.6 (S) (S) 4.2 2.1 97.6 36.3 (S) (S) 15.8 25.9 30.3
Other --------------------------------------------------- (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA)
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (S) 6.7 (S) (S) 1.7 (S) (S) 41.6 (S) (S) 27.3 (S)

LEASE CHARACTERISTICS2 3

Leased without driver ------------------------------------- 4.9 9.1 –45.9 4.9 5.9 –15.8 14.2 26.0 29.6 14.2 13.1 19.3
Leased with driver ---------------------------------------- .8 2.0 –59.7 .8 2.0 –59.7 28.6 23.7 37.2 28.6 23.7 37.2
Leased with owner-operator ------------------------------- 2.4 (S) (S) 2.4 1.0 130.8 20.8 (S) (S) 20.8 26.2 33.4
Provisions of lease:
Financing ---------------------------------------------- 1.8 (S) (S) 1.8 1.2 46.5 25.2 (S) (S) 25.2 28.4 37.9
Full maintenance --------------------------------------- 1.6 1.8 –13.2 1.6 1.8 –13.2 23.7 20.7 31.4 23.7 20.7 31.4
Maintenance on specific parts --------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Payment of taxes --------------------------------------- 1.5 1.3 13.5 1.5 1.3 17.5 26.0 20.6 33.2 26.0 21.1 33.5
Obtaining licenses and permits --------------------------- 1.9 1.8 6.4 1.9 1.8 6.4 23.1 16.8 28.6 23.1 16.8 28.6
Record keeping for leased trucks ------------------------ 1.5 .7 105.7 1.5 .7 105.7 26.1 25.6 36.6 26.1 25.6 36.6
Other ------------------------------------------------- .1 (S) (S) .1 (S) (S) 42.8 (S) (S) 42.8 (S) (S)

PRIMARY OPERATOR CLASSIFICATION

Not for hire ---------------------------------------------- 1  498.9 1 112.2 34.8 90.7 105.1 –13.8 .4 .5 .6 1.5 2.7 3.1
Business use ------------------------------------------- 368.8 325.3 13.4 82.9 96.4 –14.0 6.0 5.2 8.0 1.8 2.6 3.2
Personal transportation ---------------------------------- 1  106.1 780.4 41.7 7.3 8.7 –16.0 2.1 2.2 3.1 12.2 21.8 24.9
Mixedmbusiness use/personal transportation -------------- 24.0 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) 29.2 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
For hire ------------------------------------------------- 13.0 25.2 –48.3 8.5 20.4 –58.4 24.6 12.0 27.3 9.1 6.0 10.9
Motor carrier ------------------------------------------- 6.8 14.3 –52.6 6.8 14.3 –52.6 10.5 7.4 12.9 10.5 7.4 12.9
Owner/operator ---------------------------------------- 1.2 10.9 –88.8 1.2 6.1 –80.1 20.1 26.1 32.9 20.1 11.1 22.9
Independent ----------------------------------------- .9 10.0 –91.0 .9 5.2 –82.7 21.5 28.5 35.7 21.5 12.8 25.0
Leased to a company --------------------------------- .3 (S) (S) .3 (S) (S) 46.8 (S) (S) 46.8 (S) (S)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- .4 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) 48.7 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Daily rental ---------------------------------------------- (S) 1.5 (S) .5 (S) (S) (S) 25.2 (S) 43.5 (S) (S)
Mixedmnot for hire/for hire -------------------------------- (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S) (Z) (S) (S)
For-hire jurisdiction:
Interstate ---------------------------------------------- 2.3 6.5 –64.5 2.3 6.5 –64.5 13.3 9.0 16.0 13.3 9.0 16.0
Intrastate ---------------------------------------------- 3.7 6.5 –42.8 3.7 6.5 –42.8 15.3 12.1 19.5 15.3 12.1 19.5
Local -------------------------------------------------- 1.9 12.2 –84.6 1.9 7.4 –74.6 21.6 23.7 32.1 21.6 11.2 24.4
Not reported ------------------------------------------- .6 (S) (S) .4 (S) (S) 39.2 (S) (S) 39.8 (S) (S)
Type of carrier (interstate only):
Contract ----------------------------------------------- 1.0 1.6 –40.0 1.0 1.6 –40.0 18.5 18.2 25.9 18.5 18.2 25.9
Common ---------------------------------------------- 1.2 3.5 –66.1 1.2 3.5 –66.1 20.3 12.2 23.7 20.3 12.2 23.7
Exempt ------------------------------------------------ .1 .6 –82.1 .1 .6 –82.1 41.8 25.9 49.1 41.8 25.9 49.1
Not reported ------------------------------------------- (Z) .7 (S) (Z) .7 (S) (Z) 35.0 (S) (Z) 35.0 (S)
Kind of service: 1
Truckload ---------------------------------------------- 4.9 (NA) (NA) 4.9 (NA) (NA) 11.0 (NA) (NA) 11.0 (NA) (NA)
Less than truckload ------------------------------------- 3.0 (NA) (NA) 3.0 (NA) (NA) 17.9 (NA) (NA) 17.9 (NA) (NA)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- .6 (NA) (NA) .4 (NA) (NA) 38.4 (NA) (NA) 38.7 (NA) (NA)

PRIMARY PRODUCTS CARRIED

Farm products ------------------------------------------- 26.8 28.1 –4.7 5.1 11.1 –53.9 25.6 18.5 31.5 14.6 10.9 18.2
Live animals --------------------------------------------- 25.6 16.7 53.4 3.6 6.9 –48.1 26.9 24.5 36.4 17.9 15.2 23.5
Animal feed 1 --------------------------------------------- 11.0 (NA) (NA) 2.0 (NA) (NA) 40.3 (NA) (NA) 25.6 (NA) (NA)
Mining products ------------------------------------------ 1.5 1.6 –9.1 1.5 1.6 –9.1 20.6 22.3 30.3 20.6 22.3 30.3
Logs and other forest products ---------------------------- 7.0 6.1 14.7 4.8 4.4 7.2 33.1 29.2 44.2 14.8 16.0 21.8
Lumber and fabricated wood products ---------------------- 7.2 (S) (S) 2.9 3.4 –12.7 42.7 (S) (S) 19.3 18.4 26.7
Processed foods ----------------------------------------- 10.9 15.8 –31.1 6.4 9.4 –31.7 28.9 21.0 35.8 12.5 11.6 17.1
Textile mill products -------------------------------------- (S) 4.6 (S) 1.3 1.5 –12.1 (S) 48.5 (S) 28.0 31.5 42.1
Building materials ----------------------------------------- 36.0 33.0 9.2 16.3 21.3 –23.5 18.2 13.7 22.8 7.2 6.9 10.0
Household goods ----------------------------------------- (S) 3.7 (S) .7 2.1 –67.7 (S) 45.8 (S) 38.6 24.4 45.7
Furniture or hardware ------------------------------------- 4.7 (S) (S) 2.6 2.3 13.1 46.0 (S) (S) 22.0 21.8 31.0
Paper products ------------------------------------------- 1.2 1.7 –27.7 1.2 1.7 –27.7 27.8 23.2 36.2 27.8 23.2 36.2
Chemicals ----------------------------------------------- 10.6 (S) (S) 2.2 2.4 –9.0 40.0 (S) (S) 24.1 22.4 32.9
Petroleum ----------------------------------------------- 3.3 8.5 –61.5 3.3 5.4 –38.7 18.0 27.9 33.2 18.0 14.9 23.4
Plastics and/or rubber ------------------------------------ .6 (S) (S) .5 (S) (S) 42.9 (S) (S) 46.9 (S) (S)

Primary metal products ------------------------------------ (S) (S) (S) 1.5 .9 56.9 (S) (S) (S) 28.4 33.9 44.2
Fabricated metal products --------------------------------- 8.8 (S) (S) 2.3 1.7 32.5 43.0 (S) (S) 23.5 25.2 34.4
Machinery ----------------------------------------------- 26.0 10.3 151.8 4.5 5.5 –19.4 25.9 28.0 38.1 15.1 14.8 21.1
Transportation equipment --------------------------------- 17.3 9.2 87.0 6.1 5.9 3.8 28.8 31.3 42.5 14.2 30.9 34.0
Glass products ------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Miscellaneous products of manufacturing ------------------- 19.4 (S) (S) 2.2 1.9 12.8 31.0 (S) (S) 21.8 27.7 35.2
Industrial "waste" water 1 ---------------------------------- (S) .8 (S) (S) .8 (S) (S) 45.3 (S) (S) 45.3 (S)
Scrap, refuse, or garbage --------------------------------- 8.1 6.7 19.8 3.7 4.9 –25.5 39.3 27.3 47.8 16.6 16.8 23.7
Mixed cargoes ------------------------------------------- 9.1 17.5 –48.0 2.5 6.1 –59.6 42.1 24.7 48.8 21.3 12.8 24.9
Craftsman’s equipment ------------------------------------ 59.9 58.2 3.0 7.8 8.5 –8.8 17.4 15.1 23.0 12.8 13.5 18.6

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmTRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY VIRGINIA   VA–11
TIPS [UPF] S_CASTILLO [SPECPROJ,S_CASTILLO SPECPROJ 11/ 9/94 3:58 PM MACHINE: EPCV24 DATA:TIPS_DATA.DAT;214 11/ 9/94 15:57:00 TAPE: NOreel FRAME: 4
TSF:TIPS92-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:57 UTF:TIPS93-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:58 META:TIPS96-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:58:25
Table 2. TrucksmComparative Vehicular and Operational Characteristics: 1992 and
1987mCon.
[Data relate to State of registration. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Trucks, excluding pickups, panels, vans,
All trucks utilities, and station wagons
Relative standard error of estimate
Vehicular and operational Percent Percent (percent) for column m
characteristics change change
1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to 1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to
(thousands) (thousands) 1987 (thousands) (thousands) 1987

A B C D E F A B C D E F

PRIMARY PRODUCTS CARRIED mCon.

Recyclable products 1 ------------------------------------- 1.0 (NA) (NA) 1.0 (NA) (NA) 33.8 (NA) (NA) 33.8 (NA) (NA)
Hazardous waste (EPA manifest) 1 -------------------------- (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA)
Hazardous waste (non-EPA manifest) 1 ---------------------- (Z) (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA)
Personal transportation ------------------------------------ 1  098.8 780.8 40.7 6.8 9.2 –25.4 2.1 2.2 3.1 12.8 20.9 24.5
Passengers1 --------------------------------------------- 25.8 (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA) 28.6 (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA)
No load carried ------------------------------------------- 69.3 81.7 –15.2 3.9 3.9 1.5 16.7 13.1 21.2 17.9 20.5 27.2
Not in use ----------------------------------------------- 10.7 2.4 340.9 1.6 2.3 –28.8 41.1 21.4 46.3 24.9 22.2 33.3
Other --------------------------------------------------- 1.3 10.8 –87.7 1.2 1.4 –13.6 29.5 35.5 46.1 30.8 33.8 45.8
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CARRIED 3

Hazmat placard names: 1

Explosives 1.1 (formerly explosive A) ----------------------- (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA)
Explosives 1.2 (formerly explosive A) ----------------------- (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA)
Explosives 1.3 (formerly explosive B) ----------------------- .1 (NA) (NA) .1 (NA) (NA) 39.1 (NA) (NA) 39.1 (NA) (NA)
Explosives 1.4 (formerly dangerous) ------------------------ .5 (NA) (NA) .5 (NA) (NA) 32.4 (NA) (NA) 32.4 (NA) (NA)
Explosives 1.5 (formerly blasting agents) -------------------- .7 (S) (S) .7 (S) (S) 32.2 (S) (S) 32.2 (S) (S)

Explosives 1.6 (formerly dangerous) ------------------------ .6 (NA) (NA) .6 (NA) (NA) 30.5 (NA) (NA) 30.5 (NA) (NA)
Flammable gas ------------------------------------------- 1.4 .2 565.8 1.4 .2 565.8 24.9 37.0 44.6 24.9 37.0 44.6
Nonflammable gas ---------------------------------------- 1.2 .2 494.8 1.2 .2 494.8 25.2 37.0 44.8 25.2 37.0 44.8
Poisonous gas ------------------------------------------- .6 (NA) (NA) .6 (NA) (NA) 27.7 (NA) (NA) 27.7 (NA) (NA)
Flammable ----------------------------------------------- 2.5 4.1 –37.5 2.5 4.1 –37.5 17.2 14.5 22.5 17.2 14.5 22.5

Combustible --------------------------------------------- 1.3 1.8 –28.3 1.3 1.8 –28.3 24.2 20.6 31.7 24.2 20.6 31.7
Flammable solid ------------------------------------------ .7 .6 29.7 .7 .6 29.7 24.6 25.7 35.6 24.6 25.7 35.6
Spontaneously combustible (formerly flammable solid) -------- .4 (NA) (NA) .4 (NA) (NA) 36.5 (NA) (NA) 36.5 (NA) (NA)
Dangerous when wet (formerly flammable solid W) ----------- .6 (NA) (NA) .6 (NA) (NA) 28.7 (NA) (NA) 28.7 (NA) (NA)
Oxidizer ------------------------------------------------- .8 .6 51.4 .8 .6 51.4 27.2 25.7 37.4 27.2 25.7 37.4

Oxygen -------------------------------------------------- .8 (NA) (NA) .8 (NA) (NA) 28.8 (NA) (NA) 28.8 (NA) (NA)
Organic peroxide ----------------------------------------- .6 (NA) (NA) .6 (NA) (NA) 29.3 (NA) (NA) 29.3 (NA) (NA)
Poison (formerly poisons A and B, solids, and liquids) -------- .7 .6 25.1 .7 .6 25.1 25.4 25.7 36.1 25.4 25.7 36.1
Keep away from food ------------------------------------- .5 (NA) (NA) .5 (NA) (NA) 32.2 (NA) (NA) 32.2 (NA) (NA)
Radioactive ---------------------------------------------- .6 (S) (S) .6 (S) (S) 29.3 (S) (S) 29.3 (S) (S)

Corrosive ------------------------------------------------ 1.0 .7 38.7 1.0 .7 38.7 18.3 21.6 28.4 18.3 21.6 28.4
Class 9 -------------------------------------------------- .4 (NA) (NA) .4 (NA) (NA) 36.3 (NA) (NA) 36.3 (NA) (NA)
No hazardous materials carried ---------------------------- 1  493.5 1 107.4 34.9 85.0 115.8 –26.6 .3 .7 .7 1.8 2.4 3.0
Not reported --------------------------------------------- (S) 19.4 (S) (S) 5.6 (S) (S) 23.8 (S) (S) 15.8 (S)

TRUCK FLEET SIZE 1

1 ------------------------------------------------------- 426.3 (S) (S) 15.4 (S) (S) 5.9 (S) (S) 8.1 (S) (S)
2 to 5 --------------------------------------------------- 165.7 257.8 –35.7 28.3 39.8 –29.0 9.9 6.4 11.8 5.6 5.1 7.6
6 to 9 --------------------------------------------------- 39.2 (NA) (NA) 8.9 (NA) (NA) 20.5 (NA) (NA) 10.9 (NA) (NA)
10 to 24 ------------------------------------------------- 39.5 (NA) (NA) 11.2 (NA) (NA) 19.7 (NA) (NA) 9.3 (NA) (NA)
25 to 99 ------------------------------------------------- 43.6 (NA) (NA) 15.0 (NA) (NA) 18.0 (NA) (NA) 7.8 (NA) (NA)
100 or more --------------------------------------------- 35.4 (NA) (NA) 11.4 (NA) (NA) 20.4 (NA) (NA) 9.2 (NA) (NA)
Not reported --------------------------------------------- 767.1 (NA) (NA) 9.5 (NA) (NA) 3.6 (NA) (NA) 10.6 (NA) (NA)

MILES PER GALLON 1

Less than 5 ---------------------------------------------- 8.3 12.2 –31.8 8.3 12.2 –31.8 9.0 7.6 11.8 9.0 7.6 11.8
5 to 6.9 ------------------------------------------------- 26.0 48.4 –46.3 25.4 43.5 –41.7 5.3 6.9 8.7 5.3 4.2 6.8
7 to 8.9 ------------------------------------------------- 26.6 57.4 –53.5 21.8 31.0 –29.5 12.9 11.6 17.3 6.7 6.2 9.1
9 to 10.9 ------------------------------------------------ 96.3 (NA) (NA) 18.8 (NA) (NA) 13.0 (NA) (NA) 7.5 (NA) (NA)
11 to 12.9 ----------------------------------------------- 173.0 (NA) (NA) 11.1 (NA) (NA) 10.1 (NA) (NA) 10.3 (NA) (NA)
13 to 14.9 ----------------------------------------------- 181.1 (NA) (NA) 4.2 (NA) (NA) 10.1 (NA) (NA) 17.1 (NA) (NA)
15 or more ---------------------------------------------- 1  000.2 578.4 72.9 5.9 6.5 –8.9 2.5 3.5 4.3 14.0 36.4 39.1
15 to 20.9 --------------------------------------------- 696.3 (NA) (NA) 5.7 (NA) (NA) 3.9 (NA) (NA) 14.4 (NA) (NA)
21 to 24.9 --------------------------------------------- 220.6 (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) 9.1 (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA)
25 or more -------------------------------------------- 83.2 (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) 15.6 (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA)
Not reported --------------------------------------------- 5.1 3.6 43.3 4.2 (S) (S) 15.0 47.5 49.8 17.1 (S) (S)

EQUIPMENT TYPE3 4

Braking system ------------------------------------------- 108.1 127.3 –15.0 99.7 127.3 –21.7 .8 2.1 2.2 1.2 2.1 2.4
Hydraulic ---------------------------------------------- 31.5 32.7 –3.7 31.5 32.7 –3.7 5.3 6.0 8.0 5.3 6.0 8.0
Hydraulic (power) --------------------------------------- 35.0 40.8 –14.2 35.0 40.8 –14.2 4.9 5.0 7.0 4.9 5.0 7.0
Air ---------------------------------------------------- 29.0 41.3 –29.6 29.0 41.3 –29.6 4.1 2.8 5.0 4.1 2.8 5.0
Other1 ------------------------------------------------- 2.2 (NA) (NA) 2.2 (NA) (NA) 24.7 (NA) (NA) 24.7 (NA) (NA)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- 10.4 12.5 –16.7 1.9 12.5 –84.5 9.3 20.1 22.1 25.1 20.1 32.1

Antilock brakes 1 3 ---------------------------------------- 347.8 (NA) (NA) 7.8 (NA) (NA) 6.8 (NA) (NA) 11.3 (NA) (NA)
Power steering 3 ------------------------------------------ 1 213.7 498.7 143.3 73.8 (S) (S) 1.8 4.0 4.4 2.3 (S) (S)
Vehicle control aids for handicapped drivers 1 3 -------------- (S) (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA)
Air-conditioning3 ------------------------------------------ 908.9 319.8 184.2 20.0 (S) (S) 2.8 5.6 6.3 6.2 (S) (S)
Wheelchair lift 1 3 ----------------------------------------- (S) (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA) (S) (NA) (NA) (Z) (NA) (NA)

See footnotes at end of table.

VA–12  VIRGINIA TRANSPORTATIONmTRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY
TIPS [UPF] S_CASTILLO [SPECPROJ,S_CASTILLO SPECPROJ 11/ 9/94 3:58 PM MACHINE: EPCV24 DATA:TIPS_DATA.DAT;214 11/ 9/94 15:57:00 TAPE: NOreel FRAME: 5
TSF:TIPS92-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:57 UTF:TIPS93-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:58 META:TIPS96-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:58:25
Table 2. TrucksmComparative Vehicular and Operational Characteristics: 1992 and
1987mCon.
[Data relate to State of registration. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Trucks, excluding pickups, panels, vans,
All trucks utilities, and station wagons
Relative standard error of estimate
Vehicular and operational Percent Percent (percent) for column m
characteristics change change
1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to 1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to
(thousands) (thousands) 1987 (thousands) (thousands) 1987

A B C D E F A B C D E F

EQUIPMENT TYPE3 4mCon.

Engine retarder 3 ------------------------------------------ 6.1 (S) (S) 6.1 (S) (S) 7.9 (S) (S) 7.9 (S) (S)
Reflective materials 3 -------------------------------------- 14.7 (S) (S) 14.7 (S) (S) 8.0 (S) (S) 8.0 (S) (S)
Electronic vehicle management system 3 -------------------- 207.9 (S) (S) 1.9 (S) (S) 9.3 (S) (S) 22.4 (S) (S)
Electronic vehicle identification device (transponder, etc.) 3 ---- .2 (S) (S) .2 (S) (S) 35.4 (S) (S) 35.4 (S) (S)
Trip recorders/on board computer system 1 3 ---------------- 1.5 (S) (S) 1.5 (S) (S) 24.8 (S) (S) 24.8 (S) (S)
Navigational systems 3 ------------------------------------- .1 (S) (S) .1 (S) (S) 28.8 (S) (S) 28.8 (S) (S)

FUEL CONSERVATION EQUIPMENT 3 4

Aerodynamic features ------------------------------------- 5.3 5.4 –.8 5.3 5.4 –.8 12.5 12.0 17.3 12.5 12.0 17.3
Axle or drive ratio ---------------------------------------- 13.0 3.1 321.1 13.0 3.1 321.1 8.1 15.4 17.4 8.1 15.4 17.4
Fuel economy engine ------------------------------------- 16.3 2.3 623.2 16.3 2.3 623.2 6.5 14.7 16.0 6.5 14.7 16.0
Radial tires ---------------------------------------------- 1  247.6 675.1 84.8 54.1 (S) (S) 1.6 2.8 3.3 3.3 (S) (S)
Road speed governors ------------------------------------ 21.1 (S) (S) 21.1 (S) (S) 6.3 (S) (S) 6.3 (S) (S)
Variable fan drives ---------------------------------------- 13.2 (S) (S) 13.2 (S) (S) 7.5 (S) (S) 7.5 (S) (S)
Other fuel conservation devices ---------------------------- 3.3 .5 591.8 3.3 .5 591.8 15.0 43.4 45.9 15.0 43.4 45.9

MAINTENANCE3

General maintenance performed by m
Owner ------------------------------------------------- 873.9 637.4 37.1 38.6 51.2 –24.6 3.1 3.1 4.4 4.4 5.2 6.8
Company’s maintenance facilities ------------------------ 104.8 85.7 22.3 34.7 43.7 –20.5 11.5 9.6 15.0 4.6 4.3 6.3
Dealership’s service department ------------------------- 258.6 162.1 59.6 8.4 11.6 –27.5 8.0 8.9 11.9 11.4 16.7 20.2
Leasing company --------------------------------------- 1.4 (S) (S) 1.4 .7 107.7 26.3 (S) (S) 26.3 27.2 37.9
Independent garage ------------------------------------ 489.5 321.1 52.5 25.7 27.1 –4.9 5.3 5.7 7.8 6.0 6.6 8.9
Component distributorship ------------------------------- 10.0 (S) (S) 1.5 .9 74.2 42.4 (S) (S) 27.0 39.1 47.5
No one ------------------------------------------------ 9.7 (S) (S) 1.0 (S) (S) 44.7 (S) (S) 36.7 (S) (S)
Other ------------------------------------------------- 22.9 (S) (S) .9 (S) (S) 29.8 (S) (S) 36.9 (S) (S)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- 18.7 59.3 –68.5 2.5 6.5 –62.0 30.8 15.1 34.2 20.3 14.6 25.0
Major overhauls performed by m
Owner ------------------------------------------------- 152.3 159.0 –4.2 9.6 15.9 –39.2 10.9 8.8 14.0 10.4 8.9 13.7
Company’s maintenance facilities ------------------------ 45.1 41.9 7.6 18.9 28.6 –34.0 16.7 11.4 20.2 6.7 5.6 8.8
Dealership’s service department ------------------------- 201.1 126.2 59.3 10.5 12.8 –17.3 9.3 10.0 13.7 9.4 9.0 13.0
Leasing company --------------------------------------- 1.2 .8 56.5 1.2 .8 56.5 28.3 26.4 38.7 28.3 26.4 38.7
Independent garage ------------------------------------ 279.2 200.5 39.3 25.7 26.7 –3.5 7.6 7.6 10.8 5.9 6.6 8.9
Component distributorship ------------------------------- 14.6 17.4 –16.1 3.5 4.3 –17.9 33.2 26.3 42.3 17.5 16.1 23.8
No one ------------------------------------------------ 107.3 57.9 85.3 3.4 3.3 4.4 13.5 15.7 20.7 18.6 20.7 27.8
Other ------------------------------------------------- 15.5 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) 36.7 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- 745.4 559.3 33.3 32.5 40.9 –20.7 3.7 3.6 5.2 5.1 7.3 8.9

ENGINE TYPE AND SIZE

Engine -------------------------------------------------- 1 516.7 1 139.1 33.1 99.7 127.3 –21.7 .3 .4 .5 1.2 2.1 2.4
Gasoline ----------------------------------------------- 1 449.5 1 075.0 34.8 59.1 83.2 –29.0 .6 .7 .9 2.9 3.4 4.4
Diesel ------------------------------------------------- 63.8 63.7 .1 39.4 43.9 –10.3 11.5 8.9 14.6 3.8 2.9 4.8
Liquefied gas or other 1 ---------------------------------- (S) (Z) (Z) .6 (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) 45.3 (Z) (Z)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- (S) .4 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) 46.2 (S) (S) (S) (S)
Cylinders5 ----------------------------------------------- 1 516.7 1 139.1 33.1 99.7 127.3 –21.7 .3 .4 .5 1.2 2.1 2.4
4 ----------------------------------------------------- 347.4 235.8 47.3 1.8 (S) (S) 6.8 7.2 9.9 18.5 (S) (S)
6 ----------------------------------------------------- 559.1 296.5 88.6 24.1 23.8 1.0 4.6 6.1 7.6 5.5 5.6 7.8
8 ----------------------------------------------------- 557.0 487.6 14.2 48.8 54.3 –10.2 4.7 4.1 6.3 3.6 4.9 6.1
Other ------------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- 53.1 119.1 –55.4 25.0 48.7 –48.7 13.6 8.4 16.0 5.5 5.2 7.6
Cubic inch displacement 6 ---------------------------------- 1 516.2 1 138.8 33.1 99.2 127.2 –22.0 .3 .4 .5 1.2 2.1 2.4
Gasoline engines --------------------------------------- 1  449.5 1 075.0 34.8 59.1 83.2 –29.0 .6 .7 .9 2.9 3.4 4.4
Less than 200 ---------------------------------------- 533.1 319.7 66.8 (Z) .9 (S) 5.0 5.9 7.7 (Z) 44.4 (S)
200 to 299 ------------------------------------------- 244.6 141.7 72.6 2.2 6.8 –67.1 8.1 9.7 12.6 24.9 15.7 29.4
300 to 349 ------------------------------------------- 325.8 282.9 15.2 2.1 14.8 –85.5 7.1 6.3 9.5 24.3 14.2 28.1
350 to 399 ------------------------------------------- 239.5 240.6 –.5 23.3 38.8 –40.1 8.3 6.7 10.7 6.7 6.7 9.4
400 or more ----------------------------------------- 36.4 31.5 15.6 7.5 10.2 –26.8 21.5 18.6 28.4 13.2 11.6 17.5
Not reported ----------------------------------------- 70.0 58.7 19.3 24.0 (S) (S) 13.5 14.1 19.5 6.3 (S) (S)
Diesel engines ----------------------------------------- 63.8 63.7 .1 39.4 43.9 –10.3 11.5 8.9 14.6 3.8 2.9 4.8
Less than 400 ---------------------------------------- 19.9 24.3 –17.8 6.5 7.9 –18.1 27.1 21.2 34.5 12.3 11.0 16.5
400 to 599 ------------------------------------------- 25.1 11.0 129.4 14.2 7.5 89.4 19.9 22.2 29.9 8.6 10.5 13.6
600 to 799 ------------------------------------------- 6.8 11.6 –41.1 6.8 11.6 –41.1 7.7 6.4 10.0 7.7 6.4 10.0
800 or more ----------------------------------------- 3.3 7.7 –57.6 3.3 7.7 –57.6 6.8 6.8 9.6 6.8 6.8 9.6
Not reported ----------------------------------------- 8.7 9.3 –6.2 8.7 9.3 –6.6 7.1 8.5 11.1 7.2 8.5 11.1
Other engines ------------------------------------------ (S) (Z) (Z) .6 (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) 45.3 (Z) (Z)
Less than 400 ---------------------------------------- (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z)
400 or more ----------------------------------------- (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z)
Not reported 1 ---------------------------------------- (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z)

REFUELING LOCATION 1

Central company-owned fueling facility ---------------------- 27.3 (NA) (NA) 27.3 (NA) (NA) 5.4 (NA) (NA) 5.4 (NA) (NA)
Single contract fueling facility located off-site ---------------- 7.3 (NA) (NA) 7.3 (NA) (NA) 12.0 (NA) (NA) 12.0 (NA) (NA)
Public fueling stations ------------------------------------- 60.1 (NA) (NA) 60.1 (NA) (NA) 2.9 (NA) (NA) 2.9 (NA) (NA)
Other --------------------------------------------------- 3.3 (NA) (NA) 3.3 (NA) (NA) 18.4 (NA) (NA) 18.4 (NA) (NA)
Not reported --------------------------------------------- 10.1 (NA) (NA) 1.6 (NA) (NA) 9.4 (NA) (NA) 27.4 (NA) (NA)

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmTRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY VIRGINIA   VA–13
TIPS [UPF] S_CASTILLO [SPECPROJ,S_CASTILLO SPECPROJ 11/ 9/94 3:58 PM MACHINE: EPCV24 DATA:TIPS_DATA.DAT;214 11/ 9/94 15:57:00 TAPE: NOreel FRAME: 6
TSF:TIPS92-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:57 UTF:TIPS93-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:58 META:TIPS96-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:58:25
Table 2. TrucksmComparative Vehicular and Operational Characteristics: 1992 and
1987mCon.
[Data relate to State of registration. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Trucks, excluding pickups, panels, vans,
All trucks utilities, and station wagons
Relative standard error of estimate
Vehicular and operational Percent Percent (percent) for column m
characteristics change change
1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to 1992 trucks 1987 trucks 1992 to
(thousands) (thousands) 1987 (thousands) (thousands) 1987

A B C D E F A B C D E F

TRUCK TYPE AND AXLE ARRANGEMENT

Single-unit trucks ----------------------------------------- 1  492.6 1 109.8 34.5 84.6 102.8 –17.7 .4 .5 .6 1.7 2.7 3.2
2 axles ------------------------------------------------ 1  482.5 1 096.0 35.3 74.5 89.1 –16.4 .4 .5 .7 1.9 3.2 3.7
3 axles ------------------------------------------------ 9.0 12.2 –26.2 9.0 12.2 –26.2 5.9 7.6 9.6 5.9 7.6 9.6
4 axles or more ---------------------------------------- 1.1 1.6 –29.8 1.1 1.6 –29.8 16.1 23.0 28.1 16.1 23.0 28.1

Combinations -------------------------------------------- 24.0 29.3 –18.0 15.1 24.4 –38.4 18.5 10.1 21.1 6.3 3.8 7.4
Single-unit truck with trailer ------------------------------ 2.8 (S) (S) 2.8 (S) (S) 21.7 (S) (S) 21.7 (S) (S)
4 axles ---------------------------------------------- 2.4 (S) (S) 2.4 (S) (S) 23.5 (S) (S) 23.5 (S) (S)
5 axles or more -------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) (S)

Single-unit truck with utility trailer ------------------------- 12.5 8.4 48.2 3.5 3.6 –1.3 35.2 34.3 49.1 19.2 19.1 27.1
3 axles ---------------------------------------------- (S) (S) (S) (S) .6 (S) (S) (S) (S) (S) 47.9 (S)
4 axles ---------------------------------------------- 9.3 (S) (S) 2.8 1.2 139.7 40.6 (S) (S) 21.5 34.5 40.6
5 axles or more -------------------------------------- (S) 1.7 (S) (S) 1.7 (S) (S) 26.2 (S) (S) 26.2 (S)

Truck-tractor with single trailer --------------------------- 8.7 20.3 –57.2 8.7 20.3 –57.2 4.1 3.1 5.1 4.1 3.1 5.1
3 axles ---------------------------------------------- 1.1 1.3 –11.7 1.1 1.3 –11.7 10.6 20.0 22.6 10.6 20.0 22.6
4 axles ---------------------------------------------- 1.7 5.8 –70.9 1.7 5.8 –70.9 16.6 7.5 18.2 16.6 7.5 18.2
5 axles or more -------------------------------------- 5.9 13.2 –55.5 5.9 13.2 –55.5 4.0 4.3 5.9 4.0 4.3 5.9

Truck-tractor with double trailers ------------------------- .1 (S) (S) .1 (S) (S) 42.8 (S) (S) 42.8 (S) (S)
5 axles ---------------------------------------------- .1 (S) (S) .1 (S) (S) 47.9 (S) (S) 47.9 (S) (S)
6 axles ---------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)
7 axles or more -------------------------------------- (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z)

Truck-tractor with triple trailers --------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)
7 axles ---------------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)
8 axles or more -------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

Trailer not specified ------------------------------------- (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

Powered axles ------------------------------------------- 1  516.7 1 139.1 33.1 99.7 127.3 –21.7 .3 .4 .5 1.2 2.1 2.4
1 ----------------------------------------------------- 1 019.8 840.4 21.4 82.2 97.6 –15.7 2.5 2.1 3.3 1.6 2.9 3.3
2 ----------------------------------------------------- 494.6 298.0 66.0 17.3 29.0 –40.4 5.2 5.9 7.9 4.3 3.9 5.8
3 or more ---------------------------------------------- .2 .7 –77.0 .2 .7 –77.0 32.4 29.0 43.5 32.4 29.0 43.5
Not reported ------------------------------------------- (S) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

CAB TYPE7

Cab forward of engine ------------------------------------ 2.4 2.9 –17.0 2.4 2.9 –17.0 21.4 21.9 30.6 21.4 21.9 30.6
Cab over engine ------------------------------------------ 14.7 20.2 –27.5 14.7 20.2 –27.5 7.6 6.0 9.7 7.6 6.0 9.7
Conventional cab ----------------------------------------- 76.0 90.0 –15.5 76.0 90.0 –15.5 2.2 2.3 3.1 2.2 2.3 3.1
Cab beside engine ---------------------------------------- .9 (S) (S) .9 (S) (S) 37.0 (S) (S) 37.0 (S) (S)
Other --------------------------------------------------- 3.7 4.6 –19.4 3.7 4.6 –19.4 18.8 19.3 26.9 18.8 19.3 26.9
Not reported --------------------------------------------- 10.5 8.3 26.7 2.0 8.3 –75.9 9.3 29.1 30.5 24.6 29.1 38.1

PICKUPS, PANELS, VANS, UTILITIES, AND
STATION WAGONS

Total ---------------------------------------------------- 1  417.0 1 011.9 40.0 (Z) (Z) (Z) .3 .5 .6 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Pickups------------------------------------------------ 865.0 696.5 24.2 (Z) (Z) (Z) .5 .8 .9 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Minivans ----------------------------------------------- 169.9 34.4 394.0 (Z) (Z) (Z) 9.3 20.1 22.1 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Panels or vans ----------------------------------------- 123.9 135.7 –8.7 (Z) (Z) (Z) 11.5 8.2 14.1 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Utilities ------------------------------------------------ 231.1 118.9 94.4 (Z) (Z) (Z) 7.4 9.4 11.9 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Station wagons ----------------------------------------- 27.3 26.4 3.2 (Z) (Z) (Z) 27.1 23.3 35.7 (Z) (Z) (Z)

Driving wheels ------------------------------------------- 1  417.0 1 011.9 40.0 (Z) (Z) (Z) .3 .5 .6 (Z) (Z) (Z)
4-wheel drive ------------------------------------------ 477.3 269.1 77.4 (Z) (Z) (Z) 5.4 6.5 8.5 (Z) (Z) (Z)
2-wheel drive ------------------------------------------ 937.6 742.8 26.2 (Z) (Z) (Z) 2.7 2.4 3.6 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Front-wheel drive ------------------------------------- 258.5 31.5 721.0 (Z) (Z) (Z) 8.1 21.6 23.1 (Z) (Z) (Z)
Not reported ------------------------------------------- (S) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (S) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z) (Z)

1New or modified data line from 1987.
2Lease characteristics include both "leased from" and "leased to" vehicles. Lease provisions apply to a period of 1 year or more.
3Detail does not add to total because items were not applicable or multiple responses were possible.
4Pickups, panels, vans, and minivans were not requested to report the information shown in the Equipment Type section, except for power steering, wheelchair lift, vehicle control aids for
handicapped drivers, electronic vehicle management systems, and air-conditioning. In the Fuel Conservation Equipment section, they reported only radial tires.
5Data were derived from administrative records. "Not reported" indicates those trucks for which the cylinders are unknown.
6Data were derived from administrative records. "Not reported" indicates those trucks for which the cubic inch displacement is unknown.
7Pickups, panels, vans, and minivans are not included.

VA–14  VIRGINIA TRANSPORTATIONmTRUCK INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY
TIPS [UPF] S_CASTILLO [SPECPROJ,S_CASTILLO SPECPROJ 11/ 9/94 3:58 PM MACHINE: EPCV24 DATA:TIPS_DATA.DAT;214 11/ 9/94 15:57:00 TAPE: NOreel FRAME: 7
TSF:TIPS92-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:57 UTF:TIPS93-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:57:58 META:TIPS96-15574669.DAT;1 11/ 9/94 15:58:25