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Unit 6 Sources of Energy
THE VARIOUS FORMS AND SOURCES OF ENERGY
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6.1 The Various Forms and Sources of Energy
• Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object.
• Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. It is the energy that holds these particles together. • Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and propane are examples of stored chemical energy.
• Nuclear energy is energy obtained from the nucleus of some atoms.
Energy can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission.
The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium.
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• Kinetic energy is motion of objects. • Moving water and wind are good examples of kinetic energy.
• The Sun is the main source of heat energy. • Heat energy flows from a region with a higher temperature to a region with a lower temperature. • When heat energy is supplied to matter, its temperature rises. • Examples: i. Burning fuels ii. Sunshine iii. Volcanic explosions and hot springs iv. Electrical heaters v. Substances taking part in chemical reactions
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• Light energy enables us to see things things. • The Sun is the main source of light energy and is also known as solar energy. • Examples: i. A burning candle or firewood ii. Lightning flashes iii. Lighted filament bulbs or fluorescent lamps iv. The combustion of magnesium in oxygen
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• Sound energy is produced by vibrations and moves in the form of waves through air. • Sound energy can be transferred through solids, liquids and gases but cannot travel through a vacuum. • Examples: i. Audio-visual aids and musical instruments ii. A ticking clock iii. A ringing bell.
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• Mechanical energy is the total of kinetic energy and potential energy possessed by an object. • Mechanical energy is produced by machines or bodies changing their position. • Examples: i. a pendulum clock that oscillates ii. the downward and upward movement of a boy's legs when pedaling a bicycle
iii. the up and down movement of a see- saw
iv. the turning wheels of a vehicle v. a rotating fan blade
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• Electrical energy is the energy carried by electric current. • A large amount of electrical energy can be produced by generators and power plants. • Examples: i. A bicycle dynamo ii. Solar cells and solar panels iii. Generators in electric power stations iv. Lightning v. Batteries or dry cells vi. Accumulators
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Conservation of Energy
• Energy cannot be created or destroyed. • Energy can be transferred from one form to another. • Energy converters change one form of energy into another form.
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The Various Sources of Energy
Wind Waves 6/5/2009
Natural gas and petroleum
• Include coal, petroleum, natural gas.
How Is Petroleum Used ?
• Diesel can only be used in a diesel engine, a type of internal combustion engine used in many cars, boats, trucks, trains, buses, and farm and construction vehicles.
• Uses as fuel for car engines.
Liquefied petroleum (LPG)
Coal -- a fossil fuel
What is coal ? Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons Where do we use coal ?
HOW COAL IS USED
• FOR ELECTRIC POWER . Power plants burn coal to make steam. The steam turns turbines which generate electricity. • FOR MAKING STEEL Coal is baked in hot furnaces to make coke , which is used to smelt iron ore into iron needed for making steel.
is a solid carbon made from coal yschow SMKBPJ(A)
• Nuclear or radioactive substances such as uranium and plutonium are used to produce nuclear energy. • Nuclear energy is used for i. generating electrical energy ii. supplying energy for submarines and ships iii. producing atomic or hydrogen bombs iv. supplying energy for satellites, meteorological stations and lighthouses
• Geothermal energy is heat from within the earth. • We can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heat buildings or generate electricity
• What is Biomass? Biomass is organic material made from plants and animals. • Methane is used as fuel to heat water and produce electrical energy.
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BIOMASS AS A TRANPSORTATION FUEL
Environmental Benefits (Biomass)
• No net increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. • restore and ensure soil stability and health along with minimizing chemical residues and habitat destruction.
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• The kinetic energy of water can be used to generate hydroelectric energy. • The production and use of hydroelectric energy does not pollute the environment
• Wind energy is used for i. pumping water from ponds ii. moving sailing ships at sea iii. turning wind turbines to generate electrical energy • It is also a non-polluting energy because it does not produce any green house effect gases.
Parts of An Electric generating Windmill
• Solar Power is energy obtained by the sun in the form of light. • Solar energy is used for i. heating water in homes ii. producing electrical energy
Photovoltaic (PV devices) or “solar cells” – change sunlight directly into electricity
Solar energy can be collected by using various devices:
Solar cells. Used in calculators, watches and satellites. Solar panels. i. Absorb heat energy from the Sun. ii. Used to heat the water under the panel. iii. Usually found on rooftop. Solar furnaces. Generate electrical energy.
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The major disadvantages of solar energy
• The amount of sunlight that arrives at the earth's surface is not constant. It depends on . location, time of day, time of year, and weather conditions. • Because the sun doesn't deliver that much energy to any one place at any one time, a large surface area is required to collect the energy at a useful rate.
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• Waves are caused by the wind blowing over the surface of the ocean. Waves have potential and kinetic energy. • Waves can be used to generate electrical energy through the movements of the floats connected to the power station.
wave energy plants
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Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun sun, and the rotation of the earth. There are two-way systems that generate electricity on both the incoming and outgoing tides.
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Law of Conservation of Energy
• The law of conservation of energy says that energy is neither created nor destroyed. • When we use energy, it doesn’t disappear. • We change it from one form of energy into another.
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• Energy efficiency is the amount of useful energy you get from a system.
RENEWABLE AND NON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
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Nonrenewable and renewable energy sources ?
Nonrenewable energy sources • The sources of energy that can be replenished after • they have been used and will never run out. • Free and clean. Renewable energy sources • The sources of energy that cannot be replenished • after use. • They are used up much faster than they can be replaced.
Renewable and Non-renewable Energy Sources
The need to conserve energy
• The supply of energy in the form of fossil fuels is limited and it will be completely used up. • Energy conservation is an important part of lessening climate change. • Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of nonrenewable resources with renewable energy.
Efficient Use of Energy
• When a certain form of energy is used to do work, not all that energy is changed to useful energy. • A certain part of the energy is usually wasted as heat energy. • The efficient use of energy is the fraction or percentage of useful energy that does work.
• A bulb changes only 5% of the electrical energy that is supplied to it to light energy. 95% of the electrical energy is lost as heat energy.
Which do you use ?
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Buy energy efficient products.
Some effective ways to use energy efficiently: 1. Invest highly efficient equipment. 2. Construct buildings that use less energy. 3. Develop uses of alternative energy sources
1. Effective Insulation 2. High-Performance Windows 3. Tight Construction and ducts
4. Efficient Heating and Cooling equipment
5. Lighting and Appliances
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THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSERVING ENERGY SOURCES
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Use and Management of Energy Sources
• Energy sources are utilised in various fields: a. Transport b. Development c. Telecommunication d. Agriculture e. Industry
• Energy sources must be conserved because they are very important to us in our daily lives. • Alternative sources of energy which are free, should be used more often and more widely.
• To conserve sources of firewood, trees must be replanted to replace those that have been cut down.
What Can I Do to Save Energy?
Energy conservation • Energy conservation is any behavior that results in the use of less energy. Turning the lights off when you leave the room and recycling aluminum cans are both ways of conserving energy. Energy efficiency • Energy efficiency is the use of technology that requires less energy to perform the same function.
How Can Recycling Save Energy?
• Recycling means to use something again. • Newspapers can be used to make new newspapers. • Aluminum cans can be used to make new aluminum cans. • Glass jars can be used to make new glass jars. • Recycling often saves energy and natural resources through conservation.
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