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Earth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets. It is sometimes referred to as the world or the Blue Planet. Earth formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within its first billion years. Earth's biosphere then significantly altered the atmospheric and other basic physical conditions, which enabled the proliferation of organisms as well as the formation of the ozone layer, which together with Earth's magnetic field blocked harmful solar radiation, and permitted formerly ocean-confined life to move safely to land. The physical properties of the Earth, as well as its geological history and orbit, have allowed life to persist. Estimates on how much longer the planet will be able to continue to support life range from 500 million years (myr), to as long as 2.3 billion years (byr). Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid segments, or tectonic plates, that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of the surface is covered by salt water oceans, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands which together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. Earth's poles are mostly covered with ice that is the solid ice of the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice that is the polar ice packs. The planet's interior remains active, with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the magnetic field, and a thick layer of relatively solid mantle.
"The Blue Marble" photograph of Earth, taken from Apollo 17 Designations Alternative names Tellus or Terra, [note 1] Gaia Orbital characteristics Epoch J2000.0[note 2] Aphelion Perihelion Semi-major axis Eccentricity 152,098,232 km 1.01671388 AU[note 3] 147,098,290 km 0.98329134 AU[note 3] 149,598,261 km 1.00000261 AU 0.01671123
Orbital period 365.256363004 days 1.000017421 yr Average orbital speed 29.78 km/s 107,200 km/h
Mean anomaly 357.51716° Inclination 7.155° to Sun's equator 1.57869° to invariable plane
Longitude of 348.73936°[note 4] ascending node Argument of perihelion Satellites 114.20783°[note 5] 1 natural (the Moon), 8,300+ artificial (as of
Earth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Earth gravitationally interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon. During one orbit around the Sun, the Earth rotates about its own axis 366.26 times, creating 365.26 solar days, or one sidereal year.[note 7] The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular of its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days). The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. It began orbiting the Earth about 4.53 billion years ago (bya). The Moon's gravitational interaction with Earth stimulates ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tilt, and gradually slows the planet's rotation. The planet is home to millions of species of life, including the mineral resources of the planet and the products of the biosphere contribute resources that are used to support a global human population. These inhabitants are grouped into about 200 independent sovereign states, which interact through diplomacy, travel, trade, and military action. Human cultures have developed many views of the planet, including its personification as a planetary deity, its shape as flat, its position as the center of the universe, and in the modern Gaia Principle, as a single, self-regulating organism in its own right. humans. Both
1 March 2001) Physical characteristics Mean radius Equatorial radius Polar radius Flattening 6,371.0 km 6,378.1 km 6,356.8 km 0.0033528 40,007.86 km (meridional) Surface area 510,072,000 km2[note 6] 148,940,000 km2 land (29.2 %) 361,132,000 km2 water (70.8 %) Volume Mass 1.08321 × 1012 km3 5.97219 × 1024 kg 3.0 × 10−6 Suns Mean density 5.515 g/cm3 9.780327 m/s2
Circumference 40,075.017 km (equatorial)
1 Name and etymology 2 Chronology 2.1 Formation 2.2 Geological history 2.3 Evolution of life 2.4 Future 3 Composition and structure 3.1 Shape 3.2 Chemical composition 3.3 Internal structure 3.4 Heat 3.5 Tectonic plates 3.6 Surface 3.7 Hydrosphere 3.8 Atmosphere 3.8.1 Weather and climate 3.8.2 Upper atmosphere 3.9 Magnetic field 4 Orbit and rotation 4.1 Rotation 4.2 Orbit 4.3 Axial tilt and seasons 5 Moon 6 Asteroids and artificial satellites 7 Habitability 7.1 Biosphere 7.2 Natural resources and land use 7.3 Natural and environmental hazards 7.4 Human geography 8 Cultural and historical viewpoint 9 See also 10 Notes
surface gravity 0.99732 g Escape velocity 11.186 km/s Sidereal Equatorial rotation velocity Axial tilt Albedo 23°26'21".4119 0.367 (geometric) 0.306 (Bond) Surface temp. min mean max Kelvin 184 K 288 K 330 K Celsius −89.2 °C 15 °C 56.7 °C Atmosphere Surface pressure Composition 78.08% nitrogen (N2) (dry air) 20.95% oxygen (O2) 0.93% argon 0.039% carbon dioxide About 1% water vapor (varies with climate) 101.325 kPa (MSL) 0.99726968 d 1,674.4 km/h (465.1 m/s) rotation period 23h 56m 4.100s
"What on earth are you doing?"). The term almost exclusively exists in lowercase when appearing in common phrases. "Earth". therefore. deriving from Proto-Germanic *erthō. even without "the" preceding it (e. Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common. Another common convention is to spell the name with a capital when occurring absolutely (e. with the capitalized form as a variant of it. and Danish jord. Norwegian. "earth".org/wiki/Earth The earliest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4. "the Earth".8/19/13 Earth . Chronology Formation Main article: History of the Earth Artist's impression of the birth of the Solar System en. distinct from the senses of the term as a mass noun or verb (e. Earth's atmosphere) and lowercase when preceded by "the" (e. mother of the god Thor). referring to soil. the atmosphere of the earth).e. This is to distinguish it as a proper noun.". including Dutch aarde. the ground.Wikipedia. or "the earth"). German Erde. the name earth can be capitalized or spelled in lowercase interchangeably.5672 ± 0. "It does not cost the earth.0006 bya.g. earthing in the electrical sense. Earth has cognates in all other Germanic languages.wikipedia. In general English usage. the free encyclopedia 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Name and etymology The modern English noun earth developed from Middle English erthe (recorded in 1137).g. both as "Earth" or "the Earth". etc.g. it is inferred that the Earth must 3/26 . Many deliberately spell the name of the planet with a capital. itself from Old English eorthe (dating from before 725). The Earth is personified as a goddess in Germanic paganism (appearing as Jörð in Norse mythology. and Swedish.g.). either when used absolutely or prefixed with "the" (i.
The origin of the world's oceans was condensation augmented by water and ice delivered by asteroids. A nebula contains gas.54 ± 0. and is of particular interest because it preceded the Cambrian explosion. and en.8/19/13 Earth . which also broke apart 180 mya. a process ultimately driven by the continuous loss of heat from the earth's interior.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia The earliest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4. The assembly of the primordial Earth proceeded for 10–20 myr. therefore. Since the 1960s. and some of its mass merges with the Earth. In this scenario. it has been hypothesized that severe glacial action between 750 and 580 mya. Geological history Main article: Geological history of Earth Earth's atmosphere and oceans formed by volcanic activity and outgassing that included water vapor. which then resembled shrews. and then the planets grow out of that in tandem with the star. The most recent such event was 66 mya. and comets. mammalian life has diversified.5672 ± 0. ice grains and dust (including primordial nuclides).53 bya. it impacts with the Earth in a glancing blow. The present pattern of ice ages began about 40 mya and then intensified during the Pleistocene about 3 mya. Over the past 66 myr. a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. proto-planets. which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk. This hypothesis has been termed "Snowball Earth". Roughly 750 mya (million years ago).8 and 4. The Moon formed shortly thereafter. Continents formed by plate tectonics. when an asteroid impact triggered the extinction of the (non-avian) dinosaurs and other large reptiles. The formation and evolution of the Solar System bodies occurred in tandem with the Sun. True multicellular organisms formed as cells within colonies became increasingly specialized. Following the Cambrian explosion. In theory a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse. is not self-consistent. during the Neoproterozoic.000 years ago. the resultant oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere and formed a layer of ozone (a form of molecular oxygen [O3 ]) in the upper atmosphere. about 4. the Earth's magnetic field was established. then finally Pangaea. On time scales lasting hundreds of millions of years. but spared some small animals such as mammals. The Moon's formation remains debated. atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing while the newly forming Sun was only at 70% luminosity.0006 bya. The last continental glaciation ended 10. The development of photosynthesis allowed the Sun's energy to be harvested directly by life forms. Aided by the absorption of harmful ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer.000 years. By 3. to the Earth. one of the earliest known supercontinents. however.1 bya. Evolution of life Main article: Evolutionary history of life Highly energetic chemistry is thought to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 bya and half a billion years later the last common ancestor of all life existed. Rodinia.5 bya. The model. repeating every 40–100. life colonized the surface of Earth. there have been five major mass extinctions. The working hypothesis is that it formed by accretion from material loosed from the Earth after a Mars-sized object dubbed Theia impacted with Earth. A crust formed when the molten outer layer of the planet Earth cooled to form a solid as the accumulated water vapor began to act in the atmosphere.04 bya the primordial Earth had formed. High-latitude regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw. The continents later recombined to form Pannotia. the mass of Theia is 10% of the Earth's mass. when multicellular life forms began to proliferate. the supercontinents have formed and broken up three times. Between approximately 3.org/wiki/Earth 4/26 . In nebular theory planetesimals commence forming as particulate accrues by cohesive clumping and then by gravity. which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. about 535 mya. 600–540 mya.wikipedia. it is inferred that the Earth must have been formed by accretion around this time. The two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or. The incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of complex cells called eukaryotes. began to break apart. more likely. By 4. numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon. and by inference. covered much of the planet in a sheet of ice. In this model.
 The Earth's increasing surface temperature will accelerate the inorganic CO2 cycle. The planet was. as part of its evolution. although this may be extended up to 2. so animal life will become extinct within several million more years. as its outer layers are ejected into space as a planetary nebula. the star's total luminosity will slowly increase.000 km). the free encyclopedia several million years ago an African ape-like animal such as Orrorin tugenensis gained the ability to stand upright.000.Wikipedia. A 2008 simulation indicates that the Earth's orbit will decay due to tidal effects and drag. viewed from orbit. if not all. As a red giant. including the loss of the planet's oceans. allowed humans to influence the Earth in a short time span as no other life form had. without tidal effects.7 AU (250.000 km) from the Sun. and then civilization. After another billion years all surface water will have disappeared and the mean global temperature will reach 70 °C (158 °F). This enabled tool use and encouraged communication that provided the nutrition and stimulation needed for a larger brain.3 byr if the nitrogen is removed from the atmosphere. remaining life would have been destroyed by the Sun's increased luminosity (peaking at about 5.000 times its present level). The development of agriculture.000.8/19/13 Earth . when the star reaches its maximum radius. will become a red giant in about 5 byr. which allowed the evolution of the human race. Over 70% percent of Earth's surface is covered with water. humans. reducing its concentration to levels lethally low for plants (10 ppm for C4 photosynthesis) in approximately 500-900 myr. causing it to enter the red giant Sun's atmosphere and be vaporized. As a result of the steady accumulation of helium at the Sun's core. Earth's fate is less clear. where it may one day become incorporated into a new generation of planets and other celestial bodies. The luminosity of the Sun will grow by 10% over the next 1. due to reduced steam venting from mid-ocean ridges. which contains about half of the planet's species. though most. The lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere. The Earth is expected to be effectively habitable for about another 500 myr from that point. The Sun.1 byr and by 40% over the next 3.wikipedia. 27% of the water in the modern oceans will descend to the mantle in one billion years. the Earth will move to an orbit 1. and planet Earth Stratocumulus clouds over the Pacific. Future Main article: Future of the Earth See also: Risks to civilization.  The life cycle of the Sun The future of the planet is closely tied to that of the Sun. therefore. Climate models indicate that the rise in radiation reaching the Earth is likely to have dire consequences. The matter that once made up the Earth will be released into interstellar space. Models predict that the Sun will expand out to about 250 times its present radius. the Sun's core will collapse into a white dwarf.org/wiki/Earth 5/26 . the Sun will lose roughly 30% of its mass. After that. initially expected to escape envelopment by the expanded Sun's sparse outer atmosphere. roughly 1 AU (150. Composition and structure en.5 byr. Even if the Sun were eternal and stable. affecting both the nature and quantity of other life forms. so.
 The average diameter of the reference spheroid is about 12.6% 0. calcium (1.1%).6% 15. For this reason the furthest point on the surface from the Earth's center of mass is the Chimborazo volcano in Ecuador.17%. alumina. The largest local deviations in the rocky surface of the Earth are Mount Everest (8. Earth and Mars in true-color.3% 99.4% 1. which is less than the 0. and fastest rotation. the strongest magnetic field.8% 6. It is the largest of the four terrestrial planets in size and mass.8% 3.742 km. and all the commonest minerals of igneous rocks are of this nature.2% 16. with the other constituents occurring in minute quantities. meaning that it is a rocky body.1% 1.3% 3.4%). sulfur (4.9% en. oxygen (30. This bulge results from the rotation of the Earth.5% 1. Due to the equatorial bulge.5% 5. with smaller amounts of nickel (5. the core region is believed to be primarily composed of iron (88.000 of the distance from the equator to the North Pole through Paris. The silica functions principally as an acid. It is composed mostly of iron (32.4% 2. iron oxides. or 0. from the reference spheroid.2% 0.2% 48. and less than 1% trace elements.672 analyses of all kinds of rocks. Earth also has the highest density. which is approximately 40. nickel (1.4% 1.  Chemical composition See also: Abundance of elements on Earth The mass of the Earth is approximately 5. potash and soda. the free encyclopedia Main article: Earth science Further information: Earth physical characteristics tables Earth is a terrestrial planet. Size comparison of inner planets (left to right): Mercury. Of these four planets.2% 2.848 m above local sea level) and the Mariana Trench (10. the highest surface gravity.8% 2.1%).5%). Clarke deduced that 99.22% tolerance allowed in billiard balls.8%).000 km/π. magnesium (13. with the remaining 1. silicon (15.6% 99.5% 12.1%). although on a global scale. and aluminium (1. The principal oxides are silica.000.8%).22% were composed of 11 oxides (see the table at right). Ecuador.2% 6. Venus.1% 3. Chemical composition of the crust Composition Compound Formula silica alumina lime magnesia iron(II) oxide sodium oxide potassium oxide iron(III) oxide water carbon dioxide titanium dioxide phosphorus pentoxide Total SiO2 Al2 O3 CaO MgO FeO Na2 O K2O Fe2 O3 H2O CO2 TiO2 P2 O 5 Continental Oceanic 60.98 × 1024 kg. sulfur (2. sulfur and fluorine are the only important exceptions to this and their total amount in any rock is usually much less than 1%.7% 0.wikipedia. as the meter was originally defined as 1/10.4% 0.Wikipedia. a sphere flattened along the axis from pole to pole such that there is a bulge around the equator. chlorine. lime.org/wiki/Earth 6/26 .9%). Shape Main article: Figure of the Earth The shape of the Earth approximates an oblate spheroid. France. rather than a gas giant like Jupiter. and causes the diameter at the equator to be 43 km (kilometer) larger than the pole-to-pole diameter. these deviations are small: Earth has a tolerance of about one part in about 584.8/19/13 Earth . The geochemist F. The more common rock constituents of the Earth's crust are nearly all oxides. Clarke calculated that a little more than 47% of the Earth's crust consists of oxygen.8%). The furthermost point on the Earth's surface from its center.0% 2. forming silicates.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements. Local topography deviates from this idealized spheroid. Chimborazo. the surface locations farthest from the center of the Earth are the summits of Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador and Huascarán in Peru.5%). Due to mass segregation.3% 1. and is probably the only one with active plate tectonics.911 m below local sea level).9%). From a computation based on 1. magnesia. W.
and it is of the lithosphere that the tectonic plates are comprised.8–13.8/19/13 Earth . an extremely low viscosity liquid outer core lies above a solid inner core.22 × 10−9 124 × 10−9 36.4–4.40 × 1010 2. The crust is separated from the mantle by the Mohorovičić discontinuity.Wikipedia. Not to scale.000 °C (10. uranium-235. the free encyclopedia Internal structure Main article: Structure of the Earth The interior of the Earth. increasing the rates of mantle convection and plate tectonics.5° per year. but unlike the other terrestrial planets. the temperature may be up to 6.69 × 10−4 7.46 × 10−5 4.6 — 9. spanning a transition zone that separates the upper and lower mantle.04 × 108 2. a form of convection consisting of upwellings of higher-temperature rock. The major heat-producing isotopes in the Earth are potassium-40.27 × 10−12 1. and allowing the production of igneous rocks such as komatiites that are not formed today.1–0. — 2.9 × 10−9 2.4 3. and the pressure could reach 360 GPa. The inner core may rotate at a slightly higher angular velocity than the remainder of the planet. like that of the other terrestrial planets.64 × 10−5 1.4–5.org/wiki/Earth 7/26 . A portion of the core's thermal energy is transported toward the crust by mantle plumes. which is underlain by a highly viscous solid mantle. and thorium-232.9–12. by en. This extra heat production.08 × 10−12 The mean heat loss from the Earth is 87 mW m−2 . and the thickness of the crust varies: averaging 6 km (kilometers) under the oceans and 30-50 km on the continents. These plumes can produce hotspots and flood basalts. uranium-238. Important changes in crystal structure within the mantle occur at 410 and 660 km below the surface.2 12.47 × 109 5. scientists believe that early in Earth history. Beneath the mantle. The outer layer of the Earth is a chemically distinct silicate solid crust.wikipedia. rigid. More of the heat in the Earth is lost through plate tectonics.830 °F).8 × 10−9 0.25 × 10−13 3. Beneath the lithosphere is the asthenosphere. top of the upper mantle are collectively known as the lithosphere. is divided into layers by their chemical or physical (rheological) properties. Earth's heat production would have been much higher. Present-day major heat-producing isotopes Heat release Half-life Mean mantle concentration Heat release W kg isotope Isotope 238 U 235 U 232 Th 40 K years kg isotope kg mantle W kg mantle 9. advancing by 0. At the center of the planet. twice present-day at approximately 3 byr.2–2. The crust and the cold.91 × 10−12 1. Geologic layers of the Earth Depth km Density Component Layer Lithosphere[note 8] Crust[note 9] Upper mantle Mantle Asthenosphere Outer core Inner core g/cm3 0–60 0–35 35–60 35–2890 100–700 2890–5100 Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. a relatively lowviscosity layer on which the lithosphere rides.92 × 10−5 1.25 × 109 30. it has a distinct outer and inner core. before isotopes with short half-lives had been depleted. Because much of the heat is provided by radioactive decay.42 × 1013 W. would have increased temperature gradients within the Earth.9 3. for a global heat loss of 4.1 5100–6378 Heat Earth's internal heat comes from a combination of residual heat from planetary accretion (about 20%) and heat produced through radioactive decay (80%).
at which two plates come together. African. the ocean floor is subducted under the leading edges of the plates at convergent boundaries. plains. At the same time. These plates are rigid segments that move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries: Convergent boundaries. Indo-Australian Plate Antarctic. The planetary surface undergoes reshaping over geological time periods due to tectonics and erosion. at which two plates are pulled apart. with the Cocos Plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/year and the Pacific Plate moving 52–69 mm/year. with much of the continental shelf below sea level. deserts. Glaciation. and South American. thermal cycles. progressing at a typical rate of about 21 mm/year.9 67. as well as undersea volcanoes. Less common is basalt. Sedimentary rock is formed from the accumulation of sediment that becomes compacted together. coastal erosion. including a globe-spanning mid-ocean ridge system. the solid but less-viscous part of the upper mantle that can flow and move along with the plates. the Nazca Plate off the west coast of South South American Plate 43. North American.8% of the surface is covered by water. and chemical effects. oceanic trenches. Eurasian. Tectonic plates Main article: Plate tectonics The mechanically rigid outer layer of the Earth. The third form of rock material found on Earth is metamorphic rock. Divergent boundaries. and Transform boundaries. although they form only about 5% of the crust. is broken into pieces called tectonic plates.0 75.wikipedia.2% (148. the upwelling of mantle material at divergent boundaries creates mid-ocean ridges. mountain-building. The oldest oceanic crust is located in the Western Pacific. the free encyclopedia mantle upwelling associated with mid-ocean ridges. The submerged surface has mountainous features. Earthquakes. As the tectonic plates migrate across the planet. The continental crust consists of lower density material such as the igneous rocks granite and andesite.51 million sq mi) not covered by water consists of mountains. Surface Main articles: Landform and Extreme points of Earth The Earth's terrain varies greatly from place to place.8/19/13 Earth . and oceanic trench formation can occur along these plate boundaries. By comparison. The fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates. Indo-Australian.3 78. the oldest dated continental crust is 4.132 million km2 (139. The tectonic plates ride on top of the asthenosphere. the Caribbean Plate. plateaus. Nearly 75% of the continental surfaces are covered by sedimentary rocks.030 myr. which en. The final major mode of heat loss is through conduction through the lithosphere. The Australian Plate fused with the Indian Plate between 50 and 55 mya.43 million sq mi). most of the ocean floor is less than 100 myr old in age. The combination of these processes continually recycles the oceanic crust back into the mantle. The surface features built up or deformed through plate tectonics are subject to steady weathering from precipitation. and other geomorphologies.9 The seven major plates are the Pacific. At the other extreme.94 million km2 .org/wiki/Earth 8/26 . Due to this recycling. and large meteorite impacts also act to reshape the landscape. the slowest-moving plate is the Eurasian Plate. This equates to 361. the build-up of coral reefs. the lithosphere. the majority of which occurs in the oceans because the crust there is much thinner than that of the continents. and has an estimated age of about 200 myr. and their motion is strongly coupled with convection patterns inside the Earth's mantle. About 70. volcanic activity. Earth's main plates Plate name Pacific Plate African Plate[note 10] North American Plate Eurasian Plate Area 10 6 km2 103.Wikipedia.8 Antarctic Plate 60. The remaining 29. Other notable plates include the 47. or 57. oceanic plateaus and abyssal plains.2 Arabian Plate. submarine canyons.6 America and the Scotia Plate in the southern Atlantic Ocean. a denser volcanic rock that is the primary constituent of the ocean floors. in which two plates slide past one another laterally.
with the oceans acting as a large heat reservoir.848 m at the top of Mount Everest. pyroxene and olivine. with only 4.332 × 109 km3 . The oceans are also a reservoir of dissolved atmospheric gases. the earth has been divided arbitrarily into Eastern and Western Hemispheres.5% is fresh water.[note 11] The mass of the oceans is approximately 1.noaa.org/wiki/Earth 9/26 . Shifts in the oceanic temperature distribution can cause significant weather shifts. amphibole.5% salt). or both. The deepest underwater location is Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean with a depth of −10. Present-day Earth altimetry and bathymetry. The elevation of the land surface of the Earth varies from the low point of −418 m at the Dead Sea. carbon dioxide and other gaseous molecules. If all the land on Earth were spread evenly.5% of the water is saline. ranging between 8 km at the poles to 17 km at the equator. resulting in an estimated volume of 1. high temperatures. Close to 40% of the Earth's land surface is presently used for cropland and pasture.7%. lakes. water would rise to an altitude of more than 2. Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth The average salinity of the Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3. mica.8/19/13 Earth .3 × 107 km2 of cropland and 3.682 m. the feldspars. The most abundant silicate minerals on the Earth's surface include quartz.31% of the land surface. Besides being divided logically into Northern and Southern Hemispheres centered on the earths poles. such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. and underground waters down to a depth of 2. with some variation resulting from en. which are essential for the survival of many aquatic life forms.325 kPa.71% supporting permanent crops. with trace amounts of water vapor. The pedosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. is currently ice. Most of this salt was released from volcanic activity or extracted from cool. with a scale height of about 8. or an estimated 1.911.4 × 107 km2 of pastureland. including inland seas. Atmosphere Main article: Atmosphere of Earth The atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth averages 101.Wikipedia. or about 1/4400 of the total mass of the Earth.35 × 1018 metric tons. atmosphere.gov/mgg/topo/). to a 2005-estimated maximum altitude of 8.wikipedia.ngdc.7 km. Most fresh water. Sea water has an important influence on the world's climate. but technically includes all water surfaces in the world. while the remaining 2. Data from the National Geophysical Data Center's TerrainBase Digital Terrain Model (http://www. Hydrosphere Main article: Hydrosphere The abundance of water on Earth's surface is a unique feature that distinguishes the "Blue Planet" from others in the Solar System. The oceans cover an area of 3. Common carbonate minerals include calcite (found in limestone) and dolomite.[note 12] About 97. about 68.4 m. Currently the total arable land is 13. the free encyclopedia is created from the transformation of pre-existing rock types through high pressures. It exists at the interface of the lithosphere. It is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. The height of the troposphere varies with latitude. rivers. hydrosphere and biosphere.618 × 108 km2 with a mean depth of 3.000 m. igneous rocks. The Earth's hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans. The mean height of land above sea level is 840 m.5 km.
This change enabled the proliferation of aerobic organisms as well as the formation of the ozone layer which blocks ultraviolet solar radiation.7 bya.  Satellite cloud cover image of Earth using NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Water vapor generated through surface evaporation is transported by circulatory patterns in the atmosphere. Precipitation patterns vary widely. ranging from several meters of water per year to less than a millimeter. the average surface would be −18 °C.4 °C per degree of latitude away from the equator. Without this heat-retention effect. these are the tropical (or equatorial). the mean annual air temperature at sea level decreases by about 0. The amount of solar energy reaching the Earth's decreases with increasing latitude. As a result. carbon dioxide. This is a picture of Earth in ultraviolet light. This lowest layer is called the troposphere. causing small meteors to burn up before they strike the surface. and the surface below. Weather and climate Main articles: Weather and Climate The Earth's atmosphere has no definite boundary. The commonly used Köppen climate classification system (as modified by Wladimir Köppen's student Rudolph Geiger) has five broad groups (humid tropics. The result is atmospheric circulation that drives the weather and climate through redistribution of thermal energy. Most of the water is then transported to lower elevations by river systems and usually returned to the oceans or deposited into lakes. The primary atmospheric circulation bands consist of the trade winds in the equatorial region below 30° latitude and the westerlies in the mid-latitudes between 30° and 60°. which are further divided into more specific subtypes.8/19/13 Earth . humid air. Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved 2. and thermosphere. with the climate regions characterized by fairly uniform air masses. When atmospheric conditions permit an uplift of warm. particularly the thermohaline circulation that distributes thermal energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions. thereby raising the average temperature. Energy from the Sun heats this layer. This last phenomenon is known as the greenhouse effect: trace molecules within the atmosphere serve to capture thermal energy emitted from the ground. methane and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Other atmospheric functions important to life on Earth include transporting water vapor. forming the primarily nitrogen–oxygen atmosphere of today. and life would likely not exist. mesosphere. permitting life on land. Ranging from the equator to the polar regions. slowly becoming thinner and fading into outer space. Atmospheric circulation. and is a primary factor in the erosion of surface features over geological periods.org/wiki/Earth Above the troposphere. arid. this water condenses and settles to the surface as precipitation. causing expansion of the air. humid middle latitudes. Three-quarters of the atmosphere's mass is contained within the first 11 km of the planet's surface. but the night-side (left) shows bands of UV emission from the aurora caused by charged particles. topological features and temperature differences determine the average precipitation that falls in each region. The Earth can be subdivided into specific latitudinal belts of approximately homogeneous climate. This water cycle is a vital mechanism for supporting life on land. higher-density air.Wikipedia. 10/26 the atmosphere is usually divided into the stratosphere. and is replaced by cooler. the free encyclopedia weather and seasonal factors. in contrast to the current +15 °C. providing useful gases. Ocean currents are also important factors in determining climate. Earth's biosphere has significantly altered its atmosphere. subtropical. Each layer . The day-side (right) reflects a lot of UV light from the Sun. This lowerdensity air then rises. temperate and polar climates. Climate can also be classified based on the temperature and precipitation. continental and cold polar). and moderating temperature. taken from the surface of the Moon.wikipedia. Water vapor. At higher latitudes the sunlight reaches the surface at lower angles and it must pass through thicker columns of the atmosphere. Upper atmosphere See also: Outer space en.
each day varies between 0 and 2 SI ms longer. with the poles currently located proximate to the planet's geographic poles. Thermal energy causes some of the molecules at the outer edge of the Earth's atmosphere to increase their velocity to the point where they can escape from the planet's gravity. Magnetic field Main article: Earth's magnetic field The Earth's magnetic field is shaped roughly as a magnetic dipole. When the plasma enters the Earth's atmosphere at the magnetic poles.8/19/13 Earth . defined as 100 km above the Earth's surface. but the loss of reducing agents such as hydrogen is believed to have been a necessary precondition for the widespread accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere. The most recent reversal occurred approximately 700. As the Earth's solar day is now slightly longer than it was during the 19th century due to tidal acceleration. the field is generated within the molten outer core region where heat creates convection motions of conducting materials. Each layer has a different lapse rate. In the current.05 × 10−5 T. mesosphere. This causes field reversals at irregular intervals averaging a few times every million years. with global magnetic dipole moment of 7. Beyond these. This view from orbit shows the full Because unfixed hydrogen has a low molecular weight. it forms the aurora. oxygen-rich atmosphere most hydrogen is converted into water before it has an opportunity to escape. a pair of concentric. is a working definition for the boundary between atmosphere and space. the magnetic poles drift and periodically change alignment. Within the stratosphere is the ozone layer. The sunward edge of the bow shock is located at about 13 times the radius of the Earth. The deformed by the Earth's atmosphere. where the Earth's magnetic fields interact with the solar wind. Hence the ability of hydrogen to escape from the Earth's atmosphere may have influenced the nature of life that developed on the planet. The solar wind flows from left to right The field forms the magnetosphere.0025 SI seconds). Photosynthesis provided a source of free oxygen. generating electric currents. Instead.000 years ago. leakage of hydrogen into space contributes to the pushing of the Earth from an initially NASA image reducing state to its current oxidizing one. the magnetic field strength at the planet's surface is 3. it can achieve escape velocity  Moon partially obscured and more readily and it leaks into outer space at a greater rate than other gasses. Schematic of Earth's magnetosphere. The Kármán line. This causes a slow but steady leakage of the atmosphere into space. The collision between the magnetic field and the solar wind forms the Van Allen radiation belts. At the equator of the magnetic field. The convection movements in the core are chaotic. en. the atmosphere is usually divided into the stratosphere. These in turn produce the Earth's magnetic field. which deflects particles in the solar wind. the free encyclopedia Above the troposphere.400 seconds of mean solar time (86. defining the rate of change in temperature with height. According to dynamo theory.400. a component that partially shields the surface from ultraviolet light and thus is important for life on Earth. the exosphere thins out into the magnetosphere. torus-shaped regions of energetic charged particles. most of the hydrogen loss comes from the destruction of methane in the upper atmosphere.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth 11/26 . and thermosphere.91 × 1015 T m3 . Orbit and rotation Rotation Main article: Earth's rotation Earth's rotation period relative to the Sun—its mean solar day—is 86.wikipedia.
en. this is equivalent to an apparent diameter of the Sun or Moon every two minutes.500.2564 mean solar days.000 km/h). Apart from meteors within the atmosphere and low-orbiting satellites. the main apparent motion of celestial bodies in the Earth's sky is to the west at a rate of 15°/h = 15'/min. in seven minutes. When combined with the Earth–Moon system's common revolution around the Sun. an extreme case is reached where there is no daylight at all for part of the year—a polar night. It is currently about 20 light years above the galactic plane in the Orion spiral arm.4 ms. 384.32 days relative to the background stars.09053083288 seconds of mean solar time (UT1) (23h 56m 4. about 12.000 light years from the center of the galaxy. The Moon revolves with the Earth around a common barycenter every 27.09053083288s) as of 1982. Thus the sidereal day is shorter than the stellar day by about 8.000 km in radius.742 km.098903691 seconds of mean solar time (UT1). and the distance to the Moon. The orbital and axial planes are not precisely aligned: Earth's axis is tilted some 23. is 86. and the Earth–Moon plane is tilted up to ±5. In winter. on average it takes 24 hours—a solar day—for Earth to complete a full rotation about its axis so that the Sun returns to the meridian.164. with summer in the northern hemisphere occurring when the North Pole is pointing toward the Sun. From Earth. which is fast enough to travel a distance equal to the planet's diameter. the apparent sizes of the Sun and the Moon are approximately the same.[note 13] Earth's rotation period relative to the precessing or moving mean vernal equinox.[note 14] This is the maximum distance at which the Earth's gravitational influence is stronger than the more distant Sun and planets.53 days. is 29. or 23h 56m 4.8 km/s (107. Viewed from the celestial north pole. in about 3. Earth's axial tilt (or obliquity) and its relation to Axial tilt and seasons Main article: Axial tilt Due to the axial tilt of the Earth. Objects must orbit the Earth within this radius. of the Earth is about 1. alternating between lunar eclipses and solar eclipses. the period of the synodic month.wikipedia. the amount of sunlight reaching any given point on the surface varies over the course of the year. the climate becomes generally cooler and the days shorter. Orbit Main article: Earth's orbit Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 150 million kilometers the rotation axis and plane of orbit every 365. the Moon and their axial rotations are all counterclockwise.000 km. along with the Solar System. from the planet's surface. The Hill sphere. the free encyclopedia Earth's rotation period relative to the fixed stars. the motion of Earth.1 degrees against the Earth–Sun plane. Without this tilt. there would be an eclipse every two weeks. the Earth revolves in a counterclockwise direction about the Sun.8/19/13 Earth . Due to this motion. is situated in the Milky Way galaxy and orbits about 28. The length of the mean solar day in SI seconds is available from the IERS for the periods 1623–2005 and 1962–2005. this gives an apparent movement of the Sun eastward with respect to the stars at a rate of about 1°/day.4 degrees from the perpendicular to the Earth–Sun plane (the ecliptic). During the summer.5 hours. from new moon to new moon. with the South Pole oriented opposite the direction of the North Pole. is 86.org/wiki/Earth 12/26 .5 Gm or 1. The orbital speed of the Earth averages about 29. Viewed from a vantage point above the north poles of both the Sun and the Earth. called its stellar day by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). or they can become unbound by the gravitational perturbation of the Sun. In the southern hemisphere the situation is exactly reversed.Wikipedia. For bodies near the celestial equator. the day lasts longer and the Sun climbs higher in the sky. or one sidereal year. This causes seasonal change in climate.164. or gravitational sphere of influence.098903691s. misnamed its sidereal day. and winter taking place when the pole is pointed away. Above the Arctic Circle. Earth. which is one apparent Sun or Moon diameter every 12 hours.
the situation is reversed. the four seasons are determined by the solstices—the point in the orbit of maximum axial tilt toward or away from the Sun—and the equinoxes.org/wiki/Earth 13/26 . Spring Equinox is around March 20 and Autumnal Equinox is about September 23. the free encyclopedia By astronomical convention. Winter Solstice occurs on about December 21.wikipedia.Wikipedia. 2013). en. NASA's Cassini spacecraft photographs the Earth and Moon (visible bottom-right) from Saturn (July 19. Summer Solstice is near June 21. In the Southern hemisphere. Earth and Moon from Mars.8/19/13 Earth . In the northern hemisphere. the Earth can be seen to go through phases similar to the phases of the Moon. imaged by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. when the direction of the tilt and the direction to the Sun are perpendicular. with the Summer and Winter Solstices exchanged and the Spring and Autumnal Equinox dates switched. From space.
349 × 1022 kg 27 d 7 h 43.wikipedia. terrestrial. Moon Main article: Moon The Moon is a relatively large. there is a 14-month cycle called the Chandler wobble. Since the southern hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun at about the same time that the Earth reaches the closest approach to the Sun. The tilt does undergo nutation.html). The rotational velocity of the Earth also varies in a phenomenon known as length of day variation. a slight. In addition to an annual component to this motion.Wikipedia. This effect is much less significant than the total energy change due to the axial tilt.8 hours.7 m Semi-major axis 384.nasa. The natural satellites orbiting other planets are called "moons" after Earth's Moon. Characteristics Diameter 3. cyclical components. with a diameter about onequarter of the Earth's.php? categoryID=2363). Besides the radius of each object. although Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto. As a result. Due to their tidal interaction. (approximately 410 mya) there were 400 days in a year. The changing Earth–Sun distance causes an increase of about 6. These dates change over time due to precession and other orbital factors. the poles also migrate a few meters across the surface. irregular motion with a main period of 18. the free encyclopedia The angle of the Earth's tilt is relatively stable over long periods of time. Earth's perihelion occurs around January 3. leading to the lunar phases. During the Devonian period.nasa.9%[note 15] in solar energy reaching the Earth at perihelion relative to aphelion.400 km Details of the Earth–Moon system. different parts of its face are illuminated by the Sun. The Moon's axis is located by Cassini's third law. it always presents the same face to the planet. en. with each day lasting 21. Data from NASA (http://nssdc. for example. the radius to the Earth–Moon barycenter is shown.gov/planetary/factsh eet/moonfact.800 year cycle. and most of the excess energy is absorbed by the higher proportion of water in the southern hemisphere. Over millions of years. It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet. these tiny modifications—and the lengthening of Earth's day by about 23 µs a year—add up to significant changes. planet-like satellite.gov/view_set.474.6 years. this precession is the reason for the difference between a sidereal year and a tropical year.8 km Mass Orbital period 7. and the aphelion around July 4.gsfc. As the Moon orbits Earth. The orientation (rather than the angle) of the Earth's axis also changes over time. the Moon recedes from Earth at the rate of approximately 38 mm a year. the dark part of the face is separated from the light part by the solar terminator. the southern hemisphere receives slightly more energy from the Sun than does the northern over the course of a year. The same effect on the Moon has led to its tidal locking: its rotation period is the same as the time it takes to orbit the Earth. precessing around in a complete circle over each 25. This polar motion has multiple. Photos from NASA (http://visibleearth.org/wiki/Earth 14/26 . From the perspective of the Earth.8/19/13 Earth . The gravitational attraction between the Earth and Moon causes tides on Earth. which follow cyclical patterns known as Milankovitch cycles. which collectively are termed quasiperiodic motion. In modern times. Both of these motions are caused by the varying attraction of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge.
This hypothesis explains (among other things) the Moon's relative lack of iron and volatile elements. sustaining atmosphere and protective magnetic field all contribute to the current climatic conditions at the surface. exhibiting chaotic changes over millions of years. biomes are separated primarily by differences in latitude.Wikipedia. A scale representation of the relative sizes of. the Moon is just far enough away to have almost the same apparent-sized disk as the Sun. Earth's largest artificial satellite is the International Space Station. A planet that can sustain life is termed habitable. axial tilt. including 3753 Cruithne and 2002 AA29 . although the Sun's diameter is about 400 times as large as the Moon's. species diversity reaches a peak in humid lowlands at equatorial latitudes. A trojan asteroid companion. As of 2011. such as mineral fuels. The biosphere is divided into a number of biomes. the rotational axis might be chaotically unstable. The Earth provides liquid water—an environment where complex organic molecules can assemble and interact. The Earth's biosphere is generally believed to have begun evolving about 3. the free encyclopedia The Moon may have dramatically affected the development of life by moderating the planet's climate. This allows total and annular solar eclipses to occur on Earth. Paleontological evidence and computer simulations show that Earth's axial tilt is stabilized by tidal interactions with the Moon. states that it formed from the collision of a Marssize protoplanet called Theia with the early Earth. at high altitudes or in extremely arid areas are relatively barren of plant and animal life. The angular size (or solid angle) of these two bodies match because. as well as its orbital eccentricity. L4. rate of rotation.org/wiki/Earth 15/26 . as appears to be the case for Mars. Natural resources and land use Main articles: Natural resource and Land use The Earth provides resources that are exploitable by humans for useful purposes. 2010 TK7 .5 bya.000 pieces of space debris. Habitability See also: Planetary habitability The International Space Station is an artificial satellite that orbits Earth. that are difficult to replenish on a short time scale. geological history. The distance of the Earth from the Sun. There are also inoperative satellites and over 300. inhabited by broadly similar plants and animals. man-made satellites orbiting the Earth. Biosphere Main article: Biosphere A planet's life forms are sometimes said to form a "biosphere". even if life did not originate there. and the fact that its composition is nearly identical to that of the Earth's crust. Terrestrial biomes lying within the Arctic or Antarctic Circles. the giant impact theory. en. Viewed from Earth. The most widely accepted theory of the Moon's origin. of Earth in Earth's orbit around the Sun. Some theorists believe that without this stabilization against the torques applied by the Sun and planets to the Earth's equatorial bulge. and average distance between. Earth and Moon Asteroids and artificial satellites Earth has at least five co-orbital asteroids. height above sea level and humidity.wikipedia. is librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point. it is also 400 times more distant. On land. there are 931 operational. Some of these are non-renewable resources.8/19/13 Earth . and sufficient energy to sustain metabolism.
resulting from actions of erosion and plate tectonics. the determination of position and direction. and introduction of invasive species. The land-based ecosystem depends upon topsoil Urban areas 66–351 and fresh water. rather than rural. Canada. These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production. desertification). these events caused an average of 11. and the Planted forests 126–215 recycling of many organic wastes.2 billion in 2050. the study and practice of map making.250 square kilometres (958.871 The Earth's biosphere produces many useful biological products for humans. From 1980 to 2000.611 2. Human geography Main articles: Human geography and World Cartography. and half of the land area is either desert (14%).800 deaths per year.053 Mha of the Earth's land surface consisted of forest and woodlands. By 2020.143–3. although a number of nation-states have striven for world domination and failed. species extinction. This is predicted to produce changes such as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets. According to the United Nations. significant changes in weather and a global rise in average sea levels. blizzards. there are 59 dependent territories. It is estimated that only one-eighth of the surface of the Earth is suitable for humans to live on—three-quarters is covered by oceans. Historically. deforestation. In 1980. 6. areas. and a number of autonomous areas. loss of vegetation (overgrazing. tornadoes. loss of wildlife. en. Human population density varies widely around the world. Most of the growth is expected to take place in developing nations. volcanic eruptions. almost exactly at the South Pole. 2011.500–3.8/19/13 Earth . territories under dispute and other entities. (90°S) Independent sovereign nations claim the planet's entire land surface. acid rain and toxic substances. floods. In addition. soil degradation. 5. productive land 356–445 down from the land. sinkholes. providing and suitably quantifying the requisite information. there are 206 sovereign states. hurricanes. soil depletion. landslides. These bodies form concentrated sources for many metals and other useful elements. and the oceanic ecosystem depends upon dissolved nutrients washed Unused. natural gas and methane clathrate. and 1. Surveying.510–1. have developed alongside cartography and geography. Humans also live on the land by using building materials to construct shelters. oxygen. high mountains (27%). in Antarctica. 2000 Land use Mha Cropland Pastures 1. Estimated human land use. Many localized areas are subject to human-made pollution of the air and water. The estimated amount of irrigated land in 1993 was 2. but a majority live in Asia. petroleum. wood. wildfires.481. 60% of the world's population is expected to be living in urban.410 Natural forests 3. tsunamis. As of 2013. and to a lesser extent navigation. droughts. Projections indicate that the world's human population will reach 9. Mineral ore bodies have also been formed in Earth's crust through a process of Ore genesis. (82°28′N) The southernmost is the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station.Wikipedia. except for some parts of Antarctica and the odd unclaimed area of Bir Tawil between Egypt and Sudan. The northernmost permanent settlement in the world is Alert. the free encyclopedia Large deposits of fossil fuels are obtained from the Earth's crust. Earth has reached approximately seven billion human inhabitants as of October 31. more extreme temperature ranges. a scientific consensus exists linking human activities to global warming due to industrial carbon dioxide emissions. or other less suitable terrain. pharmaceuticals.788 Mha were grasslands and pasture.501 Mha was cultivated as croplands. Natural and environmental hazards Large areas of the Earth's surface are subject to extreme weather such as tropical cyclones. Earth has never had a sovereign government with authority over the entire globe. or typhoons that dominate life in those areas. including (but far from limited to) food. have historically been the disciplines devoted to depicting the Earth.org/wiki/Earth 16/26 . and other calamities and disasters. including the 193 United Nations member states. erosion.020 sq mi). Many places are subject to earthquakes. and vicariously geography.wikipedia. the determination of locations and distances. consisting of coal. on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut.
in particular a goddess. 2. Jennifer (2007-07-05).usgs. of these.gov/jsp/append5. a concept that has been credited to Pythagoras (6th century BC). where a is the semi-major axis and e is the eccentricity. assert that their interpretations of these creation myths in sacred texts are literal truth and should be considered alongside or replace conventional scientific accounts of the formation of the Earth and the origin and development of life. "Descriptor Terms (Feature Types)" (http://planetarynames. In many cultures a mother goddess is also portrayed as a fertility deity.N. USGS. The Earth at night in 2000. In the past. both secularly and periodically. ignoring all periodic variations. Cf. a composite of DMSP/OLS ground illumination data on a simulated night-time image of the world Unlike the rest of the planets in the Solar System. humankind did not begin to view the Earth as a moving object in orbit around the Sun until the 16th century.8/19/13 Earth . Such assertions are opposed by the scientific community and by other religious groups.jsp). is usually replaced every six months. 2010. The furthest humans have travelled from Earth is 400. The first human to orbit the Earth was Yuri Gagarin on April 12. Antarctica. from Apollo 8 See also Notes 1. Europe. South America.26064°.171 km. A variety of religious groups. The 7 continents of Earth: North America. 1961. the term terra is used only for naming extensive land masses on celestial bodies other than the Earth. 3. and. The U. The station's crew. Creation myths in many religions recall a story involving the creation of the Earth by a supernatural deity or deities. it provides a mechanism for armed intervention. currently six people. A prominent example is the creation–evolution controversy.wr. the free encyclopedia The United Nations is a worldwide intergovernmental organization that was created with the goal of intervening in the disputes between nations.73936° by the fact that any angle is equal to itself plus 360°.0 of the secular variation. Earth has often been personified as a deity. about 487 people have visited outer space and reached Earth orbit as of July 30. Normally the only humans in space are those on the International Space Station. twelve have walked on the Moon. en. achieved during the 1970 Apollo 13 mission. In total. ^ The reference lists the longitude of the ascending node as −11. ^ By International Astronomical Union convention. Australia Cultural and historical viewpoint Main article: Earth in culture The standard astronomical symbol of the Earth consists of a cross circumscribed by a circle. The quantities given are the values at the instant J2000. which is equivalent to 348. The difference between the Earth's perihelion and aphelion is exactly 5 million kilometers (accurate to five significant figures). ^ a b aphelion = a × (1 + e). but this was displaced by spherical Earth. serves primarily as a forum for international diplomacy and international law. ^ All astronomical quantities vary. Asia. perihelion = a × (1 – e). thereby avoiding armed conflict.wikipedia. 4. When the consensus of the membership permits. Africa. The first photograph ever taken by astronauts of an "Earthrise".Wikipedia. Blue. Retrieved 2007-07-05.org/wiki/Earth 17/26 . often associated with fundamentalist branches of Protestantism or Islam. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. there were varying levels of belief in a flat Earth.
jafrearsci. "Orbital Ephemerides of the Sun.archive.359A (http://adsabs. doi:10. Bibcode:1982A&A. CRC. Archived from the original (http://www. 1/10-millionth of the distance between the poles and the equator. ^ Humerfelt.700(3) m. K. Myles. Kaplan.nasa.org/reference/gephys/5_cazenave. Kinoshita. That is.Wikipedia. which is the sum of the longitude of the ascending node and the argument of perihelion.html). even though much of the rock which supports them lies below sea level.94719°.000 km because the metre was calibrated based precisely on this measurement – more specifically.landcover. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Williams. Due to the inverse square law.. ISBN 0-87590-851-9. Naval Observatory and Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. ^ This is the measurement taken by the vessel Kaikō in March 1995 and is believed to be the most accurate measurement to date. ^ a b c d Staff (2007-08-07). 12. Retrieved 2011-04-29.txt). 4.105..wikipedia.8/19/13 Earth . H.. (2000). See: Chorowicz.jafrearsci. S. ^ The total surface area of the Earth is 5. B. International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service. ^ The reference lists the longitude of perihelion.navy. 2001). . ^ For the Earth.. International Astronomical Union Commission 4: (Ephemerides). See table 8.. the average depth would be the ratio of the two.html?pid=4008). where m is the mass of the Earth. Cox. ^ Cazenave. ed. References 1. 10.com/? id=w8PK2XFLLH8C&pg=PA294). Topography and Distribution of Landforms" (http://web.gov/XSChap8.1016%2Fj. Retrieved 2008-08-03.. "The East African rift system". 9.org/10. P. 114. See the Challenger Deep article for more details. Astronomy and Astrophysics 105 (2): 359–361. ISBN 0-8493-0481-4.org/wiki/Earth 18/26 . IERS Technical Note No.gov/planetary/factsheet/earthfact. ^ a b Standish..379C (http://adsabs. ISBN 0-387-98746-0. 8. and mapping conventions for vertical datums. ^ Locally varies between 5 and 70 km. NASA.597.agu.no/~sigurdhu/WGS84_Eng. Retrieved 2011-02-25. "Reentry Assessment – US Space Command Fact Sheet" (http://www. Seidelmann. The ice shields of Antarctica and Greenland are counted as land. Clabon Walter.43.6% and 1. Lide.gsfc.26064°) = 102.S.019). 6. D.20783° + (−11. 5..csl?pid=46-25776). So the radius in A.10. 7.07. H. p.spaceref.iers. and M is the 14.org) datasets.870.edu/abs/2005JAfES. E. Calculation based upon 1 AU = 149. Allen's Astrophysical Quantities (http://books. "General Definitions and Numerical Standards" (http://www. "Geoid. Retrieved 2008-09-23.. SpaceRef Interactive.mil/GandG/wgs84/) from National GeospatialIntelligence Agency. the free encyclopedia 5. In Ahrens. 2011" (http://asa.. Retrieved 2008-08-03. Bibcode:2005JAfES. DC: American Geophysical Union.359A). Williams.(Table 8o-1) en. Global earth physics a handbook of physical constants. ^ Allen. "The new definition of universal time". ^ a b World Geodetic System (WGS-84). exact values for land and ocean coverage are not meaningful. David R.9% the energy at aphelion. Based on data from the Vector Map and Global Landcover (http://www. Jean (October 2005). ^ Locally varies between 5 and 200 km. the Hill radius is mass of the Sun.online. Guinot. D.1016/j.4% of the distance to perihelion.google. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (81st ed.. ^ Aphelion is 103. "Earth Fact Sheet" (http://nssdc.. The Astronomical Almanac. the radiation at perihelion is about 106.2005.html).jpl. or 2. McCarthy. Arthur N. ^ Including the Somali Plate. Dennis D. Moon. Thomas J.). "How WGS 84 defines Earth" (http://home. is about .usno.019 (http://dx. 10. 15.pdf) on 2006-10-16. Gérard.2005.html). a is an Astronomical Unit. Retrieved 2010-08-09. ^ a b Pidwirny.com/news/viewpr.379C).fr/eop-pc/models/constants. Retrieved 2011-05-07.2..U. Springer. 8.nga. Surface area of our planet covered by oceans and continents. Washington. James C. 11. Available online (http://earth-info. U. equal to itself plus 360°. Sigurd (October 26. Michael (2006-02-02). 12. 3. which is currently in the process of formation out of the African Plate. Journal of African Earth Sciences 43 (1–3): 379–410. ^ Aoki. ^ The Earth's circumference is (almost) exactly 40. 32.—Aoki.org/MainDisp. 11.doi.. (1982). ^ IERS Working Groups (2003). 6. (2004-09-01). 294. "Useful Constants" (http://hpiers.pdf) (PDF). ^ Due to natural fluctuations. 9. ambiguities surrounding ice shelves. the ultimate source of these figures.43.105.harvard.obspm. 2010).agu..pdf) (PDF). Anny (1995). G.org/web/20061016024803/http://www. Petit.1 × 108 km2.edu/abs/1982A&A. In McCarthy.7 km. ^ US Space Command (March 1. 13. David R. 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