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Venus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Venus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.[11] The planet is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6, bright enough to cast shadows.[13] Because Venus is an inferior planet from Earth, it never appears to venture far from the Sun: its elongation reaches a maximum of 47.8°. Venus reaches its maximum brightness shortly before sunrise or shortly after sunset, for which reason it has been referred to by ancient cultures as the Morning Star or Evening Star. Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, gravity, and bulk composition (Venus is both the closest planet to Earth and the planet closest in size to Earth). However, it has also been shown to be very different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth's. With a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System. It has no carbon cycle to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features, nor does it seem to have any organic life to absorb it in biomass. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. Venus may have possessed oceans in the past,[14] but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect.[15] The water has most probably photodissociated, and, because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field, the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind.[16] Venus's surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and periodically refreshed by volcanism.

Venus

Venus processed from two filters. The surface is obscured by a thick blanket of clouds. Designations Pronunciation Adjective
i

/ˈviːnəs/

Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean Orbital characteristics[2][4] Epoch J2000

Aphelion Perihelion Semi-major axis Eccentricity Orbital period 0.0067

108,939,000 km 0.728 213 AU 107,477,000 km 0.718 440 AU 108,208,000 km 0.723 327 AU

224.701 day 0.615 198 yr 1.92 Venus solar day

Synodic period

583.92 days[2] 35.02 km/s

Contents
1 Physical characteristics 1.1 Geography 1.2 Surface geology
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus

Average orbital speed Mean anomaly Inclination

50.115° 3.394 58° to Ecliptic1/29

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Venus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1.3 Internal structure 1.4 Atmosphere and climate 1.5 Magnetic field and core 2 Orbit and rotation 3 Observation 3.1 Transits of Venus 3.2 Ashen light 4 Studies 4.1 Early studies 4.2 Ground-based research 5 Exploration 5.1 Early efforts 5.2 Atmospheric entry 5.3 Surface and atmospheric science 5.4 Radar mapping 5.5 Current and future missions 5.6 Manned fly-by concept 5.7 Spacecraft timeline 6 In culture 6.1 Venus symbol 6.2 Cultural understandings 6.3 In literature 6.4 Colonization 7 Views 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links 11.1 Cartographic resources

Inclination

3.394 58° to Ecliptic 3.86° to Sun’s equator 2.19° to Invariable plane[3]

Longitude of ascending node Argument of perihelion Satellites

76.678° 55.186° None

Physical characteristics Mean radius Flattening Surface area Volume Mass Mean density Equatorial surface gravity Escape velocity Sidereal rotation period 0[5] 4.60 × 108 km2 0.902 Earths 9.28 × 1011 km3 0.866 Earths 4.8685 × 1024 kg 0.815 Earths 5.243 g/cm3 8.87 m/s2 0.904 g 10.36 km/s −243.018 5 day (Retrograde) 6,051.8 ± 1.0 km[5] 0.949 9 Earths

Physical characteristics
Venus is one of the four solar terrestrial planets, meaning that, like the Earth, it is a rocky body. In size and mass, it is similar to the Earth, and is often described as Earth's "sister" or "twin".[17] The diameter of Venus is 12,092 km (only 650 km less than the Earth's) and its mass is 81.5% of the Earth's. Conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth, owing to its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. The mass of the atmosphere of Venus is 96.5% carbon dioxide, with most of the remaining 3.5% being nitrogen.[18]

Equatorial rotation 6.52 km/h (1.81 m/s) velocity Axial tilt North pole right ascension North pole declination Albedo 0.67 (geometric)[7] 0.90 (Bond)[7] Surface temp. min mean Kelvin 735 K[2][11][12] Celsius 462 °C Apparent magnitude max 67.16° 177.3°[2] 18 h 11 min 2 s 272.76°[6]

Geography

brightest −4.9[8][9] (crescent) −3.8[10] (full)
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus

and highland regions Alpha Regio. Among these are flattopped volcanic features called "farra". mountains.[19][20] About 80% of the Venusian surface is covered by smooth. The ground shows evidence of extensive volcanism. consisting of 70% plains with wrinkle ridges and 10% smooth or lobate plains.0"[2] Atmosphere Surface pressure Composition 92 bar (9. and is the larger of the two highland regions at roughly the size of South America. These features are volcanic in origin. and 100–1.5% carbon dioxide ~3. the prime meridian was redefined to pass through the central peak in the crater Ariadne. and valleys commonly found on rocky planets. located south of Alpha Regio. volcanic plains. the Babylonian goddess of love.[27] The longitudes of physical features on Venus are expressed relative to its prime meridian.000 m high.[22] −3. after the Greek goddess of love. It was finally mapped in detail by Project Magellan in 1990–91. The former three features were named before the current system was adopted by the International Astronomical Union. after Ishtar. The original prime meridian passed through the radar-bright spot at the center of the oval feature Eve.7"–66.[26] Exceptions are Maxwell Montes. approximately 300–600 million years old.0017% carbon monoxide 0. and the sulfur in the atmosphere may indicate there have been some recent eruptions.[28] After the Venera missions were completed.002% water vapour 0. the highest mountain on Venus. Maxwell Montes.[23][24] In addition to the impact craters. which look somewhat like pancakes and range in size from 20–50 km across. and "coronae". one lying in the planet's northern hemisphere and the other just south of the equator.0012% helium 0.[21] Two highland "continents" make up the rest of its surface area.8[10] (full) Angular diameter 9.Wikipedia. features with both radial and concentric fractures resembling spider webs.8/19/13 Venus . A network of fractures and faults covers much of this area. Beta Regio and Ovda Regio. star-like fracture systems called "novae". the body that oversees planetary nomenclature. known as "arachnoids".015% sulfur dioxide 0. and is about the size of Australia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus 3/29 . Venus has some unique surface features. The planet has few impact craters.[29][30] Surface geology Main article: Geology of Venus en. Its peak is 11 km above the Venusian average surface elevation. lies on Ishtar Terra. circular rings of fractures sometimes surrounded by a depression.2 MPa) ~96. The northern continent is called Ishtar Terra.007% argon 0. named after James Clerk Maxwell.[25] Most Venusian surface features are named after historical and mythological women. demonstrating the surface is relatively young. The southern continent is called Aphrodite Terra. the free encyclopedia The Venusian surface was a subject of speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the 20th century.5% nitrogen 0. radial.0007% neon trace carbonyl sulfide trace hydrogen chloride trace hydrogen fluoride The absence of evidence of lava flow accompanying any of the visible caldera remains an enigma.

[36] Internal structure en.wikipedia. over a period of about 100 million years. The European Space Agency's Venus Express recorded abundant lightning in the high atmosphere.org/wiki/Venus 4/29 . then Magellan radar imaging between evaporates around 25 km above the surface). The only volcanic complex of this size on Earth is the Big Island of Hawaii. the free encyclopedia Much of the Venusian surface appears to have been shaped by volcanic activity. Venus has several times as many volcanoes as Earth.[25] This is not because Venus is more volcanically active than Earth.Wikipedia. Without plate tectonics to dissipate heat from its mantle.[33] Almost a thousand impact craters on Venus are evenly distributed across its surface. while on Earth. degradation is caused by subsequent impacts.[32] While rainfall drives thunderstorms on Earth. One possibility is that 1990 and 1994 ash from a volcanic eruption was generating the lightning. Another piece of evidence comes from measurements of sulfur dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. indicates the planet underwent a global resurfacing event about 300–600 million years ago.[23][24] followed by a decay in volcanism. Then.[25] Impact craters on the surface of Venus (image reconstructed from radar data) Venusian craters range from 3 km to 280 km in diameter. This may imply the levels had earlier been boosted by a large volcanic eruption. subduction occurs on an enormous scale. Venus is thought to be unable to sustain such a process. together with their well-preserved condition.[23][25] Several lines of evidence point to ongoing volcanic activity on Venus. No craters are smaller than 3 km. about 85% of the craters are in pristine condition. During the Soviet Venera program. On other cratered bodies. and it possesses 167 large volcanoes that are over 100 km across.8/19/13 Venus . because of the effects of the dense atmosphere on incoming objects. completely recycling the crust. Earth's oceanic crust is continually recycled by subduction at the boundaries of tectonic plates. Venus instead undergoes a cyclical process in which mantle temperatures rise until they reach a critical level that weakens the crust. the Venera 11 and Venera 12 probes detected a constant stream of lightning. and has an average age of about 100 million years. such as the Earth and the Moon. which dropped by a factor of 10 between 1978 and 1986. The number of craters. but because its crust is older.[34] Whereas Earth's crust is in continuous motion.[35] Incoming projectiles less than 50 metres in diameter will fragment and burn up in the atmosphere before reaching the ground. Objects with less than a certain kinetic energy are slowed down so much by the atmosphere that they do not create an impact crater.[31] while the Venusian surface is estimated to be 300–600 million years old. there is no rainfall on the surface of Venus Global radar view of the surface from (though sulfuric acid rain falls in the upper atmosphere. it is caused by wind and rain erosion. On the Moon. On Venus. and Venera 12 recorded a powerful clap of thunder soon after it landed. craters show a range of states of degradation.

8/19/13 Venus . The density at the surface is 65 kg/m³. the Venusian core is at least partially liquid because the two planets have been cooling at about the same rate. Studies have suggested that billions of years ago.[38] The slightly smaller size of Venus suggests pressures are significantly lower in its deep interior than Earth. generates the strongest greenhouse effect in the Solar System. The surface of Venus is often described as hellish. The CO2 -rich atmosphere. mantle.[47] [48] [49] Cloud structure in the Venusian atmosphere in 1979.[11][42] This makes the Venusian surface hotter than Mercury's.wikipedia.[23] Atmosphere and climate Main article: Atmosphere of Venus Venus has an extremely dense atmosphere. and that there may have been substantial quantities of liquid water on the surface. 6.[44] This temperature is higher than temperatures used to achieve sterilization. little direct information is available about the internal structure and geochemistry of Venus.[46] Although the surface conditions on the planet are no longer hospitable to any Earthlike life that may have formed prior to this event.0 °F) and maximum surface temperature of 420 °C (788 °F). which consists mainly of carbon dioxide and a small amount of nitrogen. after a period of 600 million to several billion years. the Venusian atmosphere was much more like Earth's than it is now. preventing it from cooling and providing a likely explanation for its lack of an internally generated magnetic field. Venus may lose its internal heat in periodic major resurfacing events. the free encyclopedia Without seismic data or knowledge of its moment of inertia. Like that of Earth.[45] a runaway greenhouse effect was caused by the evaporation of that original water. This results in reduced heat loss from the planet. along with thick clouds of sulfur dioxide. but because of the high density of the atmosphere at the Venusian surface.Wikipedia. but.[37] The similarity in size and density between Venus and Earth suggests they share a similar internal structure: a core. The atmospheric mass is 93 times that of Earth's atmosphere. which generated a critical level of greenhouse gases in its atmosphere.org/wiki/Venus 5/29 . which has a minimum surface temperature of −220 °C (−364. The principal difference between the two planets is the lack of evidence for plate tectonics on Venus. creating surface temperatures of at least 462 °C (864 °F). revealed by ultraviolet observations by Pioneer Venus Orbiter Synthetic stick absorption spectrum of a simple gas mixture corresponding to the Earth's atmosphere Thermal inertia and the transfer of heat by winds in the lower atmosphere mean that the temperature of the Venusian surface does not vary significantly between the night and day sides. and crust.[43] even though Venus is nearly twice Mercury's distance from the Sun and thus receives only 25% of Mercury's solar irradiance. Winds at the surface are slow. despite the planet's extremely slow rotation.[39] Instead.5% that of water. the possibility that a habitable niche still exists in the lower and middle cloud layers of Venus cannot yet be excluded. possibly because its crust is too strong to subduct without water to make it less viscous. they exert a significant amount of force against en. while the pressure at the planet's surface is about 92 times that at Earth's surface—a pressure equivalent to that at a depth of nearly 1 kilometre under Earth's oceans. moving at a few kilometres per hour.

org/wiki/Venus 6/29 .[53] Venusian winds move at up to 60 times the speed of the and Venusian atmosphere planet's rotation. and prevent visual observation of the Venusian surface. This radiation may result in cloud-to-cloud lightning discharges. lower wavelengths on the right.8/19/13 Venus .[58] In 2007 the Venus Express probe discovered that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole of the planet. Too volatile to condense on the surface. In 2006–07 Venus Express clearly detected whistler mode waves. the signatures of lightning. This alone would make it difficult for a human to walk through.[56] The only appreciable variation in temperature occurs with altitude. it rose in gas form to cooler higher elevations. ESA scientists reported that the ionosphere of the planet Venus streams outwards in a manner similar to "the ion tail seen streaming from a comet under similar conditions. Venus's small induced magnetosphere provides negligible protection to the atmosphere against cosmic radiation. The lightning rate is at least half of that on Earth. while Earth's fastest winds are only 10–20% rotation composition based on HITRAN [54] data[40] created using Hitran on the speed. 2013. The clouds of Venus are capable of producing lightning much like the clouds on Earth.[51][52] These clouds reflect and scatter about 90% of the sunlight that falls on them back into space. but speculation has ranged from elemental tellurium to lead sulfide (galena).[61] On January 29. even if the heat. Strong 300 km/h (190 mph) winds at the cloud tops circle the planet about every four to five earth days. In 1995.[50] Above the dense CO2 layer are thick clouds consisting mainly of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid droplets. the free encyclopedia obstructions. the Magellan probe imaged a highly reflective substance at the tops of the highest mountain peaks that bore a strong resemblance to terrestrial snow. The surface of Venus is effectively isothermal. [41] Green colour – water vapour. the Venusian surface is not as well lit. higher on the left).[57] Web system. red – carbon dioxide. albeit at a far higher temperature.[2][55] The planet's minute axial tilt—less than 3°. The identity of this substance is not known with certainty. it retains a constant temperature not only between day and night but between the equator and the poles.[66] en. This magnetic field is induced by an interaction between the ionosphere and the solar wind. The permanent cloud cover means that although Venus is closer than Earth to the Sun. where it then fell as precipitation.Wikipedia. Venera 4 found the Venusian magnetic field to be much weaker than that of Earth. WN – wavenumber (other colours have different meanings.[64][65] rather than by an internal dynamo in the core like the one inside the Earth. and transport dust and small stones across the surface. pressure and lack of oxygen were not a problem. compared to 23° on Earth—also minimizes seasonal temperature variation."[62][63] Magnetic field and core In 1967.[58] The existence of lightning had been controversial since the first suspected bursts were detected by the Soviet Venera probes. Their intermittent appearance indicates a pattern associated with weather activity.wikipedia. This substance arguably formed from a similar process to snow.[59][60] Another discovery made by the Venus Express probe in 2011 is that an ozone layer exists high in the atmosphere of Venus.

then there are none for about 60. Earth. and Mars in Orbit and rotation Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 0. Venus can come as close as 38. helium. so the entire liquid part of the core is at approximately the same temperature. simulations show it is adequate to produce a dynamo.[69] Size comparison of terrestrial planets (left to One possibility is Venus has no solid inner core. The state of the core is highly dependent on the concentration of sulfur.7 Earth days). As a result. there are 526 approaches less than 40 million km.[73] Venus's rotation has slowed down by 6.wikipedia. The solar wind then supplies energy that gives some of these ions sufficient velocity to escape the planet's gravity field.158 years. it makes the closest approach to Earth of any planet at an average distance of 41 million km. This erosion process results in a steady loss of low-mass hydrogen. ions of hydrogen and oxygen are being created by the dissociation of neutral molecules from ultraviolet radiation. thereby reducing the heat flux out of the core. Most planets also rotate on their axis in an anti-clockwise direction. on average. with an eccentricity of less than 0. a position known as inferior conjunction.org/wiki/Venus 7/29 . such as carbon dioxide.000. Instead. while higher-mass molecules.5 km/h (4. Atmospheric erosion by the solar wind probably led to the loss of most of the planet's water during the first billion years after it formed. The erosion has increased the ratio of higher-mass deuterium to lower-mass hydrogen in the upper atmosphere by 150 times compared to the ratio in the lower atmosphere.000 km. while its rotation is often thought to be too slow.[70] or its core true colour. convection occurs in the liquid outer layer of the core because the bottom of the liquid layer is much hotter than the top. A dynamo requires three things: a conducting liquid. and was expected also to contain a dynamo at its core. Another possibility is its core has already completely solidified. which is unknown at present.[69] The weak magnetosphere around Venus means the solar wind is interacting directly with the outer atmosphere of the planet.5 min per Venusian sidereal day since en.[72] During periods of greater eccentricity.Wikipedia. the minimum distances will become greater over tens of thousands of years. while on Earth rotation speed at the equator is about 1. A Venusian sidereal day thus lasts longer than a Venusian year (243 versus 224. Venus's orbit is the closest to circular.[2] All the planets of the Solar System orbit the Sun in an anti-clockwise direction as viewed from above the Sun's north pole. the heat energy from the core is being used to reheat the crust.[2] Owing to the decreasing eccentricity of Earth's orbit. Here.01.000 mi).65 days. From the year 1 to 5383. 67.[2] When Venus lies between the Earth and the Sun. rotation. Although all planetary orbits are elliptical. The core is thought to be electrically conductive and. and oxygen ions.000. no internal geodynamo is available to drive a magnetic field.670 km/h (1.2 million km. The equator of the Venusian surface rotates at 6.8/19/13 Venus . and completes an orbit every 224. This caused the mantle temperature to increase.[2] The planet reaches inferior conjunction every 584 days. but Venus rotates clockwise (called "retrograde" rotation) once every 243 Earth days—the slowest rotation period of any planet. On Venus.[71] right): Mercury.0 mph). Venus.[67][68] This implies the dynamo is missing because of a lack of convection in the Venusian core.72 AU (108. On Earth. and convection. are more likely to be retained. a global resurfacing event may have shut down plate tectonics and led to a reduced heat flux through the crust. is not currently cooling. the free encyclopedia The lack of an intrinsic magnetic field at Venus was surprising given it is similar to Earth in size.040 mph).

[10] Venus "overtakes" the Earth every 584 days as it orbits the Sun. Venus is hard to miss when it is at its brightest.[82] In the 17th century.[12] Venus may have formed from the solar nebula with a different rotation period and obliquity.6 times (yellow trail) in Earth's 365 days (blue trail) Venus has no natural satellites. apparent magnitude −4.75 Earth days (making the Venusian solar day shorter than Mercury's 176 Earth days).[74] Because of the retrograde rotation.[79] Observation Venus is always brighter than any star (apart from the Sun). to the "Morning Star".92 Venusian (solar) days long. but most were determined to be stars in the vicinity. the other inferior planet.7 AU) and completes an orbit every 224.[75][76] The 584-day average interval between successive close approaches to the Earth is almost exactly equal to 5 Venusian solar days. at 116.[77] but the hypothesis of a spin–orbit resonance with Earth has been discounted. a change that would have occurred over the course of billions of years. 2001 CK32 and 2012 XE133 .[80][81] Besides this quasi-satellite. according to the study. which was named Neith and numerous sightings were reported over the following 200 years. and an atmospheric tide created by solar heating of the thick Venusian atmosphere.[8] The planet is bright enough to be seen in a mid-day clear sky.org/wiki/Venus 8/29 . Alex Alemi's and David Stevenson's 2006 study of models of the early Solar System at the California Institute of Technology shows Venus likely had at least one moon created by a huge impact event billions of years ago.[83] About 10 million years later. the length of a solar day on Venus is significantly shorter than the sidereal day.[85] and the planet can be easy to see when the Sun is low on the horizon. one Venusian year is about 1.[2] As it does so. Venus is the second planet from the Sun and it revolves round the Sun approximately 1. Venus fades to about magnitude −3 when it is backlit by the Sun. it always lies within about 47° of the Sun. which tends to slow rotation. reaches a maximum elongation of only 28° and is often difficult to discern in twilight.Wikipedia. reaching to its current state because of chaotic spin changes caused by planetary perturbations and tidal effects on its dense atmosphere. which can destabilize large satellites orbiting the inner terrestrial planets.[12] To an observer on the surface of Venus. it has two other temporary co-orbitals. these were absorbed in the same way. visible before sunrise.8/19/13 Venus . As an inferior planet.65 days.[9] occurs during crescent phase when it is near the Earth.wikipedia. The rotation period of Venus may represent an equilibrium state between tidal locking to the Sun's gravitation. While Mercury. the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east. it changes from the "Evening Star". Giovanni Cassini reported a moon orbiting Venus. the free encyclopedia the Magellan spacecraft visited it 16 years ago.[84] If later impacts created moons.[79] though the asteroid 2002 VE68 presently maintains a quasi-orbital relationship with it. The greatest luminosity.9. visible after sunset. another impact reversed the planet's spin direction and caused the Venusian moon gradually to spiral inward until it collided and merged with Venus.[78] Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 108 million kilometres (about 0. An alternative explanation for the lack of satellites is the effect of strong solar tides. Its greater maximum elongation means it is visible in dark skies long after en.

when the planet passes between the Earth and the Sun.[90] Captain Cook's exploration of the east coast of Australia came after he had sailed to Tahiti in 1768 to observe a transit of Venus. Countless other people have mistaken Venus for something more exotic.5 years—a pattern first discovered in 1639 by English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks. and is at its brightest in the night sky.wikipedia. Venus is a commonly misreported "unidentified flying object". 2004 and June 5–6. Venus is at its largest and presents its "new phase" when it is between the Earth and the Sun.[91][92] Ashen light en. thus. the following pair will occur in December 2117 and December 2125. and presents a much larger "thin crescent" in telescopic views as it comes around to the near side between the Earth and the Sun. transits of Venus were important. Its atmosphere can be seen in a telescope by the halo of light refracted around the planet. 2012.[86] Phases of Venus and evolution of its apparent diameter Venus is always brighter than the brightest stars outside our solar system. President Jimmy Carter reported having seen a UFO in 1969. U. and hence the size of the Solar System as shown by Horrocks in 1639. Transits of Venus occur when the planet's inferior conjunction coincides with its presence in the plane of the Earth's orbit.[89] Historically. Transits of Venus occur in cycles of 243 years with the current pattern of transits being pairs of transits separated by eight years. Venus displays phases like those of the Moon in a telescopic view.org/wiki/Venus 9/29 . as can be seen here over the Pacific Ocean As it moves around its orbit. which later analysis suggested was probably the planet.Wikipedia.[10] Transits of Venus Main articles: Transits of Venus and Transit of Venus.[87] The latest pair was June 8.S. The planet presents a small "full" image when it is on the opposite side of the Sun. the free encyclopedia sunset. because they allowed astronomers to determine the size of the astronomical unit. 2012 The Venusian orbit is slightly inclined relative to the Earth's orbit. The transit could be watched live from many online outlets or observed locally with the right equipment and conditions. it usually does not cross the face of the Sun.5 years or 121. As the brightest pointlike object in the sky. It shows a larger "quarter phase" when it is at its maximum elongations from the Sun. at intervals of about 105.[88] 2004 transit of Venus The preceding pair of transits occurred in December 1874 and December 1882.8/19/13 Venus .

varying from crescent to gibbous to full and vice versa. at each of their respective homes.[100] The atmosphere complicated efforts to determine a rotation period for the planet. American astronomer Chester Smith Lyman observed a complete ring around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction. Observers have speculated it may result from electrical activity in the Venusian atmosphere. referred to in the tablet as the "bright queen of the sky".[95] The Romans designated the morning aspect of Venus as Lucifer. The first claimed observation of ashen light was made in 1643.Wikipedia.[93] Studies Early studies Venus was known to ancient civilizations both as the "morning star" and as the "evening star".org/wiki/Venus 10/29 Galileo's discovery that Venus showed phases (while remaining near the Sun in our sky) proved that it orbits the Sun and not the Earth . but the existence of the illumination has never been reliably confirmed. until the time of Pythagoras in the sixth century BC. and the evening aspect as Vesper. dated 1581 BCE. the cusps extended through more than 180°.wikipedia. The first recorded observation of a transit of Venus was made by Jeremiah Horrocks on 4 December 1639 (24 November under the Julian calendar in use at that time).8/19/13 Venus . and could support this view with detailed observations. the free encyclopedia A long-standing mystery of Venus observations is the so-called ashen light—an apparent weak illumination of the dark side of the planet. Schröter found when the planet was a thin crescent. seen when the planet is in the crescent phase. and when it is closest to the Sun in the sky.[96] The "black drop effect" as recorded during the 1769 transit When the Italian physicist Galileo Galilei first observed the planet in the early 17th century. Phosphorus and Hesperus. The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa. shows the Babylonians understood the two were a single object. and observers such as Italian-born astronomer Giovanni Cassini and Schröter incorrectly estimated en. This could be possible only if Venus orbited the Sun. Later. he found it showed phases like the Moon.[97] The atmosphere of Venus was discovered in 1761 by Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov. it shows a half-lit phase. it shows as a crescent or full phase.[98][99] Venus's atmosphere was observed in 1790 by German astronomer Johann Schröter. resulting from the physiological effect of observing a bright. He correctly surmised this was due to scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere.[94] The Greeks thought of the two as separate stars. crescent-shaped object. and this was among the first observations to clearly contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric model that the Solar System was concentric and centered on the Earth. along with his friend. William Crabtree. When Venus is furthest from the Sun in the sky. literally "Light-Bringer". names that reflect the early understanding that these were two separate objects. but it may be illusory. providing further evidence for an atmosphere.

and the first to any planet. The subsequent Mariner 2 mission. Venera 1 was launched on a direct impact trajectory.8/19/13 Venus . Its almost featureless disc gave no hint what its surface might be like.[104] Radar observations in the 1970s revealed details of the Venusian surface for the first time. yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it. radar and ultraviolet observations that more of its secrets were revealed.org/wiki/Venus Mariner 2. and it was only with the development of spectroscopic.833 km en. He surmised the planet must have a much longer rotation period than had previously been thought. The observations also revealed a bright region attributed to mountains.Wikipedia. passing 34. The first craft of the otherwise highly successful Soviet Venera program. Ross found that UV photographs revealed considerable detail that was absent in visible and infrared radiation.[102] Modern telescopic view of Venus Spectroscopic observations in the 1900s gave the first clues about the from Earth's surface Venusian rotation. but found he could not detect any rotation. launched in 1962 11/29 . with the launch of the Venera 1 probe.[105] These three features are now the only ones on Venus that do not have female names. but contact was lost seven days into the mission.[106] Exploration Main article: Observations and explorations of Venus Early efforts The first robotic space probe mission to Venus. began on 12 February 1961. which were close to the modern value. and provided the first measurements of the rotation period. the free encyclopedia periods of about 24 h from the motions of markings on the planet's apparent surface. Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus. after a 109-day transfer orbit on 14 December 1962. when Frank E.[103] Later work in the 1950s showed the rotation was retrograde. when the probe was about 2 million km from Earth. designated the Alpha and Beta regions. which was called Maxwell Montes. and the echoes revealed two highly reflective regions.wikipedia. It was estimated to have passed within 100. Pulses of radio waves were beamed at the planet using the 300 m (980 ft) radio telescope at Arecibo Observatory. The first UV observations were carried out in the 1920s.000 km of Venus in mid-May. Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the 1960s. became the world's first successful interplanetary mission.[107] The United States exploration of Venus also started badly with the loss of the Mariner 1 probe on launch. He suggested this was due to a very dense.[101] Ground-based research Little more was discovered about Venus until the 20th century.

Wikipedia.[110] Surface and atmospheric science Venera 7 represented an effort to return data from the planet's surface. Mariner 2 also obtained improved estimates of its mass and of the astronomical unit.wikipedia. and its slower than intended parachute descent meant its batteries ran down before the probe reached the surface.96 km. The probes were strengthened to improve their crush depth to 25 bar and were equipped with smaller parachutes to achieve a faster descent. the probe was refitted for a Venus mission. neither was expected to survive to the surface. they were both crushed at altitudes of approximately 20 km before going on to strike the surface on the night side of Venus. It was the first man-made object to enter the atmosphere and strike the surface of another planet. the first telemetry received from the surface of another planet.[110] Pioneer Venus Multiprobe One day later on 19 October 1967. Venera 4 showed the surface temperature was even hotter than Mariner 2 had measured. The Venusian atmosphere was considerably denser than Venera 4's designers had anticipated. A suite of instruments more sensitive than those on Mariner 2. After returning descent data for 93 minutes.8/19/13 Venus . in particular its radio occultation experiment. confirming previous Earth-based measurements[108] and finally ending any hopes that the planet might harbour ground-based life.[110] On 18 October 1967. the parachute is believed to have partially torn.[112] in an early example of space cooperation. impact. The module was precooled before entry and equipped with a specially reefed parachute for a rapid 35-minute descent. returned data on the composition. pressure and density of the Venusian atmosphere. but was unable to detect either a magnetic field or radiation belts. Since then-current atmospheric models of Venus suggested a surface pressure of between 75 and 100 bar. they encountered Venus a day apart on 16 and 17 May. While entering the atmosphere on 15 December 1970. Mariner 5 was originally built as backup for the Mars-bound Mariner 4.[111] The joint Venera 4 – Mariner 5 data was analysed by a combined Soviet-American science team in a series of colloquia over the following year. yet not fatal. when that mission was successful. Its microwave and infrared radiometers revealed that while the Venusian cloud tops were cool. the Soviet Union launched the twin probes Venera 5 and Venera 6 five days apart in January 1969. Venera 4's last pressure reading was 18 bar at an altitude of 24. supplying temperature data for 23 minutes. the surface was extremely hot—at least 425 °C. Mariner 5 conducted a fly-by at a distance of less than 4000 km above the cloud tops. and the probe struck the surface with a hard. at almost 500 °C. and the atmosphere was 90 to 95% carbon dioxide. Probably tilted onto its side. the free encyclopedia above the surface of Venus.[109] Atmospheric entry The Soviet Venera 3 probe crash-landed on Venus on 1 March 1966. Its communication system failed before it was able to return any planetary data. it returned a weak signal.[110] en.org/wiki/Venus 12/29 . and was constructed with a reinforced descent module capable of withstanding a pressure of 180 bar.[113] Armed with the lessons and data learned from Venera 4. Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed science experiments. After returning atmospheric data for a little over 50 minutes.

with Venera 11 and Venera 12 detecting Venusian electrical storms. returning the first colour photographs of the surface. On 5 February 1974. and subject to high winds and powerful convection cells.[119] The Pioneer Venus orbiter Pioneer Venus topography data displayed in Winkel Tripel projection In 1985. The images.[114] In the meantime. Venera 9. The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe released a total of four probes.[118] The Venera program came to a close in October 1983. and attempted to measure the compressibility of the soil with an impact probe. winds and heat fluxes. the two spacecraft of the Vega program each dropped a Venera-style probe (of which Vega 1's partially failed) and released a balloon-supported aerobot into the upper atmosphere. which passed through Venera 15/16 topography data the inner Solar System that year.[116] The Pioneer Venus Orbiter was inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on 4 December 1978.wikipedia. after entering the atmosphere on 22 July 1972. All four missions deployed parachutes for braking in the upper atmosphere. when Venera 15 and Venera 16 were placed in orbit to conduct mapping of the Venusian terrain with synthetic aperture radar.[118] and Venera 13 and Venera 14. the best then achieved. and remained there for over 13 years. the dense lower atmosphere providing enough friction to allow for unaided soft landings. and discovered the Venusian atmosphere was more turbulent than previously believed. The balloons achieved an equilibrium altitude of around 53 km. Mariner 10 passed within 5790 km of Venus. which entered the atmosphere of Venus on 22 October 1975. but ultraviolet light revealed details in the clouds that had never been seen in Earth-bound observations. showed the planet to be almost featureless in visible light. then released them at altitudes of 50 km. Venera 10 showed basalt-like rock slabs interspersed with weathered material. the Soviet Union took advantage of the opportunity to combine missions to Venus and Comet Halley.8/19/13 Venus .[118] Venera 14 struck its own ejected camera lens cap and its probe failed to contact the soil. sent the first images of the Venusian landscape. which entered the atmosphere on 9 December 1978.[117] Four more Venera lander missions took place over the next four years. Both Venera 13 and 14 analysed soil samples with an on-board X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. the United States had sent the Mariner 10 probe on a gravitational slingshot trajectory past Venus on its way to Mercury.org/wiki/Venus 13/29 .[115] The American Pioneer Venus project consisted of two separate missions. studying the atmosphere and mapping the surface with radar. on 11 and 15 displayed in Winkel Tripel projection June 1985. They remained operational for around 46 hours. The two landing sites presented very different terrains in the immediate vicinities of the landers: Venera 9 had landed on a 20-degree slope scattered with boulders around 30–40 cm across.[120][121] en. returning data on its composition.Wikipedia. landing on 1 and 5 March 1982. returning over 4000 photographs as it did so. where pressure and temperature are comparable to those at Earth's surface. and Venera 10. the free encyclopedia The Venera program continued with Venera 8 sending data from the surface for 50 minutes. which entered the atmosphere three days later. En route to Halley.

The United States' Magellan probe was launched on 4 May 1989. Launched on 9 November 2005 by a Russian SoyuzFregat rocket procured through Starsem.[127] The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) devised a Venus orbiter. Magellan imaged over 98% of the Venusian surface by radar. to slow its trajectory for an eventual orbital insertion of Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER collected scientific data on both those fly-bys.[122] and mapped 95% of its gravity field.[129] The European Space Agency (ESA) hopes to launch a mission to Mercury in 2014. but Magellan was the last dedicated mission to Venus for over a decade. Akatsuki (formerly "Planet-C"). as well as the determination of the existence of current surface volcanism.wikipedia.[124][125] Venera 13 landing site Current and future missions NASA's MESSENGER mission to Mercury performed two fly-bys of Venus in October 2006 and June 2007. In 1994. with a mission to map the surface of Venus with radar.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Radar mapping Early Earth-based radar provided a basic idea of the surface. including mapping of the planet's plasma environment and surface characteristics.[127] The probe is undertaking a detailed study of the Venusian atmosphere and clouds. which will perform two fly-bys of Venus before it reaches Mercury orbit in 2020.org/wiki/Venus 14/29 . which was launched on 20 May 2010. Planned investigations included surface imaging with an infrared camera and experiments designed to confirm the presence of lightning.[130] Position of Venera landing sites returning images form the surface en. but the craft failed to enter orbit in December 2010. One of the first results from Venus Express is the discovery that a huge double atmospheric vortex exists at the south pole of the planet. called BepiColombo. particularly temperatures. Hopes Magellan radar topographical map of remain that the probe can successfully hibernate and make another Venus (false colour) insertion attempt in six years. The Pioneer Venus and the Veneras provided improved resolution.[126] The Venus Express probe was designed and built by the European Space Agency.[27] The highresolution images it obtained during its 4½ years of operation far surpassed all prior maps and were comparable to visible-light photographs of other planets. Magellan was sent to its destruction into the atmosphere of Venus to quantify its density. it successfully assumed a polar orbit around Venus on 11 April 2006.[123] Venus was observed by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft during fly-bys on their respective missions to the outer planets. at the end of its mission.8/19/13 Venus .

to make remote-sensing observations around the planet and deploying a lander.org/wiki/Venus . The spacecraft would have passed approximately 5. Timeline by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (up to 2011)[134] Elements and Mission Launch Notes result Sputnik 7 Venera 1 Mariner 1 Sputnik 19 Mariner 2 Sputnik 20 Sputnik 21 Cosmos 21 Venera 1964A Venera 1964B 4 February 1961 12 February 1961 22 July 1962 25 August 1962 27 August 1962 Impact (attempted) Fly-by (contact lost) Fly-by (launch failure) Fly-by (attempted) Fly-by Responsible USSR USSR USA USSR USA USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR 1 September 1962 Fly-by (attempted) 12 September 1962 Fly-by (attempted) 11 November 1963 19 February 1964 1 March 1964 Fly-by (launch failure) Fly-by (launch failure) 15/29 Attempted Venera test flight? en. and aeroplanes. The Venera-D (Russian: Венера-Д) probe is a proposed Russian space probe to Venus. NASA has proposed a lander mission called the Venus In-Situ Explorer to land on Venus to study surface conditions and investigate the elemental and mineralogical features of the regolith. capable of surviving for a long duration on the surface.8/19/13 Venus . Other proposed Venus exploration concepts include rovers. "Surface and Atmosphere Geochemical Explorer" (SAGE).100 mi) from the surface of Venus about four months later.Wikipedia.wikipedia.[133] The mission was planned to NASA. A Venus atmospheric and surface probe mission. was selected by NASA as a candidate mission study in the 2009 New Frontiers selection. cooled Venus Rover devised by was proposed in the late 1960s.[133] Spacecraft timeline This is a list of attempted and successful spacecraft that have left Earth to explore Venus more closely.[134] Venus has also been imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope in Earth orbit. and would have used a Saturn V to send three men to fly past Venus in a flight lasting approximately one year.000 km (3. using Apollo program hardware. and distant telescopic observations are another source of information about Venus.[131] but the mission was not selected for flight. to be launched around 2016. the free encyclopedia Under its New Frontiers Program.[132] Manned fly-by concept Main article: Manned Venus Flyby Artist's impression of a Stirling A manned Venus fly-by mission. The probe would be equipped with a core sampler to drill into the surface and study pristine rock samples not weathered by the harsh surface conditions. based on the Venera design. balloons. [128] launch in late October or early November 1973.

Wikipedia. planned) Possible reattempt in 2016 Planned Mercury orbiter 16/29 en.org/wiki/Venus .wikipedia.8/19/13 USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USA USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USA USSR USSR USA USA USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USSR USA USA USA USA ESA JPN ESA Venera 1964B Cosmos 27 Zond 1 Venera 2 Venera 3 Cosmos 96 Venera 1965A Venera 4 Mariner 5 Cosmos 167 Venera 5 Venera 6 Venera 7 Cosmos 359 Venera 8 Cosmos 482 Mariner 10 Venera 9 Venera 10 Pioneer Venus 1 Pioneer Venus 2 Venera 11 Venera 12 Venera 13 Venera 14 Venera 15 Venera 16 Vega 1 Vega 2 Magellan Galileo Cassini Venus . the free encyclopedia 1 March 1964 Fly-by (launch failure) 27 March 1964 2 April 1964 Fly-by (attempted) Fly-by (contact lost) 12 November 1965 Fly-by (contact lost) 16 November 1965 Lander (contact lost) 23 November 1965 Lander (attempted?) 23 November 1965 Fly-by (launch failure) 12 June 1967 14 June 1967 17 June 1967 5 January 1969 10 January 1969 17 August 1970 22 August 1970 27 March 1972 31 March 1972 8 June 1975 14 June 1975 20 May 1978 8 August 1978 Probe Fly-by Probe (attempted) Probe Probe Lander Probe (attempted) Probe Probe (attempted) Mercury fly-by Orbiter and lander Orbiter and lander Orbiter Probes 4 November 1973 Fly-by 9 September 1978 Fly-by bus and lander 14 September 1978 Fly-by bus and lander 30 October 1981 2 June 1983 7 June 1983 Fly-by bus and lander Orbiter Orbiter Comet Halley fly-by Comet Halley fly-by Jupiter orbiter/probe Saturn orbiter Mercury orbiter 4 November 1981 Fly-by bus and lander 15 December 1984 Lander and balloon 21 December 1984 Lander and balloon 4 May 1989 18 October 1989 15 October 1997 Orbiter Fly-by Fly-by Flyby (x2) MESSENGER 3 August 2004 Venus Express 9 November 2005 Orbiter Akatsuki BepiColombo 7 December 2010 July 2014 Orbiter (attempted) Fly-by (x2.

Selene/Luna—but the female mythological figures who personified them were named after them. the "Bringer of Dawn". Venus is the only planet in the Solar System that is named after a female figure.37) identified the planet Venus with Isis.wikipedia. Phosphoros (Latinized Phosphorus).[138] The Babylonians named the planet Ishtar (Sumerian Inanna). By Hellenistic times. a poetic term later used to refer to the fallen angel cast out of heaven. and in Western alchemy stood for the metal copper.[b] The Romans.8/19/13 ESA JPN Venus .[137] Clementine star tracker image of the Moon obscuring the Sun.[141] Likewise.[145] Hesperos would be translated into Latin as Vesper and Phosphoros as Lucifer ("Light Bearer"). and goddess of love. the Ancient Greeks called the morning star Φωσφόρος. ii.[137] The Venus symbol also represents femininity. the free encyclopedia BepiColombo July 2014 Fly-by (x2. though the Latin adjective is the rarely used Venerean. named the planet Venus after their goddess of love. Eosphoros (Latinized Eosphorus). Earth and its moon also have feminine names in many languages—Gaia/Terra. The evening star they called Hesperos (Latinized Hesperus) (Ἓσπερος.org/wiki/Venus 17/29 .[a] (Three dwarf planets – Ceres.[147] en.[146] Pliny the Elder (Natural History. the ancient Greeks realized the two were the same planet. It is described in Babylonian cuneiformic texts such as the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa. who derived much of their religious pantheon from the Greek tradition. the "Bringer of Light" or Ἐωσφόρος. Venus has been known since prehistoric times and as such has gained an entrenched position in human culture. thereby representing a deity that presided over birth and death. Aphrodite (Αφροδίτη) (Phoenician Astarte). which relates observations that possibly date from 1600 BCE. planned) Planned Mercury orbiter In culture The adjective Venusian is commonly used for items related to Venus.[140] The Ancient Egyptians believed Venus to be two separate bodies and knew the morning star as Tioumoutiri and the evening star as Ouaiti. the archaic Cytherean is still occasionally encountered. not the other way around.[139] She had a dual role as a goddess of war. believing Venus to be two bodies. and the symbol for Venus has sometimes been understood to stand for the mirror of the goddess. the "star of the evening"). with Venus on top Cultural understandings As one of the brightest objects in the sky.[144] a planetary name that is retained in modern Greek. Eris and Haumea – along with many of the first discovered asteroids[135] and some moons (such as the Galilean moons) also have feminine names.)[136] Venus symbol Main article: Venus symbol The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same as that used in biology for the female sex: a circle with a small cross beneath.Wikipedia.[137] Polished copper has been used for mirrors from antiquity.[142][143] which they named after their goddess of love. the personification of womanhood.

Findings from the first missions to Venus showed the reality to be quite different.wikipedia. In some parts of Pahlavi literature the deities Aredvi Sura and Anahita are regarded as separate entities.[154] Venus plays a prominent role in Pawnee mythology.[155] In the metaphysical system of Theosophy. g.[158] The genre reached its peak between the 1930s and 1950s. in Prague.[157] See also: Venus (mythology) and Venus (astrology) Rooftop observers of the 2012 Venus In literature Main article: Venus in fiction The impenetrable Venusian cloud cover gave science fiction writers free rein to speculate on conditions at its surface. especially in Persian mythology. in the Greater Bundahishn. which they call Barnumbirr. is from Venus. and "sang" much of the country into life. the free encyclopedia In Iranian mythology. the first one as a personification of the mythical river and the latter as a goddess of fertility. in the early hours before dawn. Barnumbirr is also an important creator-spirit in the Dreaming. it possessed a substantial atmosphere. all the more so when early observations showed that not only was it similar in size to Earth.[153] Venus is important in many Australian aboriginal cultures. Czech Republic that of the Yolngu people in Northern Australia. who developed a religious calendar based in part upon its motions.Wikipedia. it is believed that on the etheric plane of Venus there is a civilization that existed hundreds of millions of years before Earth's[156] and it is also believed that the governing deity of Earth. a North American native tribe. The Persian name of the planet today is "Nahid".[148][149][150][151] The planet Venus was important to the Maya civilization. and along this rope. As she approaches. They named it Noh Ek'. the planet was frequently depicted as warmer. which is associated with the planet Venus. which derives from Anahita and later in history from the Pahlavi language Anahid. the Great Star. with the aid of a richly decorated "Morning Star Pole". showing that they still love and remember them.8/19/13 Venus . such as transit. but still habitable by humans.org/wiki/Venus 18/29 . The Pawnee. at a time when science had revealed some aspects of Venus. and Xux Ek'. e. so science fiction authors tried to keep pace.[160] en. Sanat Kumara.[159] As scientific knowledge of Venus advanced. the Wasp Star. Closer to the Sun than Earth. and held the motions of Venus to determine the propitious time for events such as war. the planet usually corresponds to the goddess Anahita. particularly by conjecturing human attempts to terraform Venus.[152] The Maasai people named the planet Kileken. practised a morning star ritual in which a girl was sacrificed to the morning star. and could compute it to within a hundredth part of a day. As the goddess Aredvi Sura Anahita—and simply called Anahita as well—both deities are unified in other descriptions. the people are able to communicate with their dead loved ones. The Maya were aware of the planet's synodic period. The Yolngu gather after sunset to await the rising of Venus. she draws behind her a rope of light attached to the Earth. until as late as 1838. In the Avestan text Mehr Yasht (Yasht 10) there is a possible early link to Mithra. and are represented by the planet. but not yet the harsh reality of its surface conditions. and brought this particular genre to an end. and have an oral tradition about it called The Orphan Boy.

in false colour See also Aspects of Venus Mariner 10 Space probe to Venus en.8/19/13 Venus .[162] Among the many engineering challenges are the dangerous amounts of sulfuric acid at these heights. Chinese and Indian) indicating that the effects of the near-collision were global. nearly collided with the Earth. which Velikovsky claimed had somehow been ejected from Jupiter as a comet. The atmospheric pressure and temperature approximately fifty kilometres above the surface are similar to those at the Earth's surface and Earth air (nitrogen and oxygen) would be a lifting gas in the Venusian atmosphere of mostly carbon dioxide. a surface colony on Venus is out of the question with current technology. This has led to proposals for "floating cities" in the Venusian atmosphere. Mexican. He cites legends in many other cultures (such as Greek. The scientific community rejected his wildly unorthodox book.org/wiki/Venus 19/29 .[161] Colonization Main articles: Colonization of Venus and Terraforming of Venus Owing to its extremely hostile conditions. the free encyclopedia Perhaps the strangest appearance of Venus in popular culture is as the harbinger of destruction in Immanuel Velikovsky's Worlds in Collision (1950). In this intensely controversial book.Wikipedia.wikipedia.[162] Views Venus in 630 nm light Ultraviolet view of Venus by the Hubble telescope. Velikovsky argued that many seemingly unbelievable stories in the Old Testament are true recollections of times when Venus. but it became a bestseller. He contended that Venus caused most of the strange events of the Exodus story.[162] Aerostats (lighter-than-air balloons) could be used for initial exploration and ultimately for permanent settlements.

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mpg.si.hu/venusz-terkep-elte-ttk-kavucs.noaa. includes full transcript.8/19/13 Venus . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.gov/jsp/SystemSearch2.edu/resources/vc/vchome.org/w/index.com/wiki/Venus) Chasing Venus. 50. 4/2009.com/astronomy/episode-50-venus/) Astronomy Cast episode No.wikipedia.htm) Smithsonian Institution Libraries Venus Crater Database (http://www. additional terms may apply. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.S. p. the free encyclopedia Geody Venus (http://www. a non-profit organization.elte.usgs.usgs. Meghan (2009).Wikipedia. Inc. en. By using this site.gov/videos/Venus.pdf ).navy.usno.sil.pdf) Movie of Venus (http://sos.usra.shtml) Lunar and Planetary Institute Calculate/show the current phase of Venus (http://aa. Cartographic resources PDS Map-a-Planet & Venus Nomenclature (http://pdsmaps.htm) Gazeteer of Planetary Nomenclature – Venus (USGS) (http://planetarynames. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.worldwindcentral.mil/data/docs/diskmap.mov) at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Retrieved from "http://en.com/?world=venus).php?title=Venus&oldid=568844317" Categories: Venus Terrestrial planets This page was last modified on 16 August 2013 at 20:15.wikipedia. Thorsten Dambeck: The Blazing Hell Behind the Veil (http://www.php) (U. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham.edu/exhibitions/chasingvenus/intro..wr. Observing the Transits of Venus (http://www.de/english/illustrationsDocumentation/multimedia/mpResearch/2009/heft04/pdf12. Naval Observatory) Venus (http://www.astronomycast. MaxPlanckResearch.org/wiki/Venus 29/29 .jsp?System=Venus) Map of Venus (http://planetologia.htm).sixtysymbols.wr.geody. "Venus" (http://www. 26–33 Gray. a search engine for surface features Maps of Venus in NASA World Wind (http://www.com/videos/venus.lpi.gov/PDS/public/explorer/html/fmappick. Sixty Symbols.

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