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Alabama 1997

Issued December 1999

EC97TCF-AL

1997 Economic Census
Transportation
1997 Commodity Flow Survey

U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Department of Commerce
BUREAU OF TRANSPORTATION STATISTICS Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This report was prepared in the Service The staff of the Administrative and Cus-
Sector Statistics Division under the direc- tomer Services Division, Walter C. Odom,
tion of Thomas E. Zabelsky, Assistant Chief, performed planning, design, compo-
Chief for Current Service and Transporta- sition, editorial review, and printing plan-
tion Programs. Planning, implementation, ning and procurement for the publications,
and compiling of this report were under Internet products, and report forms.
the supervision of John L. Fowler, Chief, Margaret A. Smith provided publication
Commodity Flow Survey Branch, assisted coordination and editing.
by Wanda Dougherty, Debra Corbett,
We also acknowledge the contributions of
Bruce Dembroski, Shirley Gray,
the following Department of Transporta-
Michael Jones, Stephanie Kelley,
tion (DOT) representatives in the overall
Mabel Ocasio, Bonnie Opalko, Joyce
planning and design of the survey: Rolf
Price, Barbara Selinske, Eli Serrano,
Schmitt, Associate Director for Transpor-
and Michael Sprung. Sample design and
tation Studies, Bureau of Transportation
statistical methodology were developed
Statistics, assisted by Susan Lapham,
under the general direction of Howard
Russ Capelle, Ronald J. Duych, and
Hogan and Carl A. Konschnik, former
Felix Ammah-Tagoe.
Assistant Chiefs, and Ruth E. Detlefsen,
current Assistant Chief, Research and The Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Cen-
Methodology. Sample design and estima- ter for Transportation Analysis, under the
tion were under the supervision of Patrick former and current direction of Mike
Cantwell, former Chief, and Jock Black, Bronzini and David Greene, respec-
current Chief, Program Research and tively, provided all mileage data for this
Development Branch, assisted by report, using its transportation network
William C. Davie Jr., David L. Kinyon, modeling system, under the supervision of
Jacklyn R. Jonas, and M. Cristina Cruz. Frank Southworth and assisted by
Frame construction, sample control, impu- Shih-Miao Chin, Bruce Peterson, Jane
tation, and quality control procedures Rollow, and Angela Gibson.
were developed under the supervision of
Carol King, Chief, Statistical Methods Special acknowledgment is also due to the
Branch, assisted by James Hunt. many businesses whose cooperation was
essential to the publication of these data.
The processing system and computer pro-
grams were developed and implemented
by the OAO programming group, led by
Jacques Wilmore and assisted
by Harold N. Bobbitt and Robert J.
Jeffrey. Steve G. McCraith, Chief, Quin-
quennial Surveys Branch, Economic Statis-
tical Methods and Programming Division
and Joseph F. Keehan provided general
support.

Coordination of data collection efforts was
under the direction of Judith N. Petty,
Chief, National Processing Center, assisted
by Matthew Aulbach, Linda Broadus,
Grant Goodwin, Carlene Bottorff,
Teresa Branstetter, and Jack Miller.
Alabama 1997
EC97TCF-AL

Issued December 1999

1997 Economic Census
Transportation
1997 Commodity Flow Survey

U.S. Department of U.S. Department of Commerce
Transportation William M. Daley,
Rodney E. Slater, Secretary
Secretary Robert L. Mallett,
Mortimer L. Downey, Deputy Secretary
Deputy Secretary
Economics
BUREAU OF TRANSPORTATION and Statistics
STATISTICS Administration
Dr. Ashish Sen, Robert J. Shapiro,
Director Under Secretary for
Rick Kowalewski, Economic Affairs
Deputy Director
Rolf R. Schmitt, U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Associate Director for Kenneth Prewitt,
Transportation Studies Director
ECONOMICS
AND STATISTICS
ADMINISTRATION

Economics
and Statistics
Administration
Robert J. Shapiro,
Under Secretary
for Economic Affairs

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU BUREAU OF TRANSPORTATION
Kenneth Prewitt, STATISTICS
Director Dr. Ashish Sen,
William G. Barron, Director
Deputy Director Rick Kowalewski,
Deputy Director
Paula J. Schneider,
Principal Associate Director Rolf R. Schmitt,
Associate Director for
for Programs
Transportation Studies
Frederick T. Knickerbocker,
Associate Director
for Economic Programs
Thomas L. Mesenbourg,
Assistant Director
for Economic Programs

Carole A. Ambler,
Chief, Service Sector
Statistics Division
CONTENTS

Introduction to the Economic Census ............................. 1
1997 Commodity Flow Survey ................................... 3

TABLES

1a. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1997 ............................................ 9
1b. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: 1997 and 1993 ................................... 9
1c. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for State of
Origin: Percent of Total for 1997 and 1993 ................. 10
2. Shipment Characteristics by Total Modal Activity for State of
Origin: 1997 ............................................ 10
3. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and
Distance Shipped for State of Origin: 1997 ................. 11
4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and
Shipment Size for State of Origin: 1997 .................... 14
5. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity for State of
Origin: 1997 ............................................ 17
6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: 1997 .................... 18
7. Shipment Characteristics by State of Destination for State of
Origin: 1997 ............................................ 33
8. Inbound Shipment Characteristics by State of Origin for State of
Destination: 1997 ....................................... 34

APPENDIXES

A. Comparability With the 1993 Commodity Flow Survey ......... A–1
B. Reliability of the Estimates ................................. B–1
C. Sample Design, Data Collection, and Estimation.............. C–1
D. Standard Classification of Transported Goods Code
Information ............................................. D–1
E. Sample Report Forms and Instructions ...................... E–1

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA iii
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Introduction to the Economic Census

PURPOSES AND USES OF THE ECONOMIC CENSUS published in printed reports. For more information, includ-
ing a description of electronic and printed reports being
The economic census is the major source of facts about issued, see the Internet site, or write to U.S. Census
the structure and functioning of the Nation’s economy. It Bureau, Washington, DC 20233-8300, or call Customer
provides essential information for government, business, Services at 301-457-4100.
industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United
States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Cen- HISTORICAL INFORMATION
sus Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years,
covering years ending in 2 and 7. The economic census has been taken as an integrated
program at 5-year intervals since 1967 and before that for
The economic census furnishes an important part of the
1954, 1958, and 1963. Prior to that time, individual com-
framework for such composite measures as the gross
ponents of the economic census were taken separately at
domestic product estimates, input/output measures, pro-
varying intervals.
duction and price indexes, and other statistical series that
The economic census traces its beginnings to the 1810
measure short-term changes in economic conditions. Spe-
Decennial Census, when questions on manufacturing were
cific uses of economic census data include the following:
included with those for population. Coverage of economic
• Policymaking agencies of the Federal Government use activities was expanded for the 1840 Decennial Census
the data to monitor economic activity and assess the and subsequent censuses to include mining and some
effectiveness of policies. commercial activities. The 1905 Manufactures Census was
the first time a census was taken apart from the regular
• State and local governments use the data to assess decennial population census. Censuses covering retail and
business activities and tax bases within their jurisdic- wholesale trade and construction industries were added in
tions and to develop programs to attract business. 1930, as were some covering service trades in 1933. Cen-
suses of construction, manufacturing, and the other busi-
• Trade associations study trends in their own and com- ness service censuses were suspended during World War
peting industries, which allows them to keep their mem- II.
bers informed of market changes. The 1954 Economic Census was the first census to be
fully integrated: providing comparable census data across
• Individual businesses use the data to locate potential economic sectors, using consistent time periods, con-
markets and to analyze their own production and sales cepts, definitions, classifications, and reporting units. It
performance relative to industry or area averages. was the first census to be taken by mail, using lists of
firms provided by the administrative records of other Fed-
BASIS OF REPORTING eral agencies. Since 1963, administrative records also
have been used to provide basic statistics for very small
The economic census is conducted on an establishment firms, reducing or eliminating the need to send them cen-
basis. A company operating at more than one location is sus questionnaires.
required to file a separate report for each store, factory, The range of industries covered in the economic cen-
shop, or other location. Each establishment is assigned a suses expanded between 1967 and 1992. The census of
separate industry classification based on its primary activ- construction industries began on a regular basis in 1967,
ity and not that of its parent company. and the scope of service industries, introduced in 1933,
was broadened in 1967, 1977, and 1987. While a few
AVAILABILITY OF ADDITIONAL DATA transportation industries were covered as early as 1963, it
was not until 1992 that the census broadened to include
Reports in Print and Electronic Media all of transportation, communications, and utilities. Also
new for 1992 was coverage of financial, insurance, and
All results of the 1997 Economic Census are available real estate industries. With these additions, the economic
on the Census Bureau Internet site (www.census.gov) and census and the separate census of governments and cen-
on compact discs (CD-ROM) for sale by the Census Bureau. sus of agriculture collectively covered roughly 98 percent
Unlike previous censuses, only selected highlights are of all economic activity.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY INTRODUCTION 1
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Printed statistical reports from the 1992 and earlier SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION
censuses provide historical figures for the study of long- More information about the scope, coverage, classifica-
term time series and are available in some large libraries. tion system, data items, and publications for each of the
All of the census reports printed since 1967 are still avail- economic censuses and related surveys is published in the
able for sale on microfiche from the Census Bureau. Guide to the 1997 Economic Census and Related Statistics
CD-ROMs issued from the 1987 and 1992 Economic Cen- at www.census.gov/econguide. More information on the
suses contain databases including nearly all data pub- methodology, procedures, and history of the censuses will
lished in print, plus additional statistics, such as ZIP Code be published in the History of the 1997 Economic Census
statistics, published only on CD-ROM. at www.census.gov/econ/www/history.html.

2 INTRODUCTION TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
1997 Commodity Flow Survey

GENERAL

The 1997 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) is undertaken SIC code Title
through a partnership between the Bureau of the Census, 10, ex. 108 Metal mining (excluding metal mining services)
U.S. Department of Commerce, and the Bureau of Trans- 12, ex. 124 Coal mining (excluding coal mining services)
portation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation. 13 Oil and gas extraction1
This survey produces data on the movement of goods in 14, ex. 148 Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals,
the United States. It provides information on commodities except fuels (excluding nonmetallic minerals
shipped, their value, weight, and mode of transportation, services)
as well as the origin and destination of shipments of 20 Food and kindred products
manufacturing, mining, wholesale, and selected retail 21 Tobacco products
establishments. The CFS was last conducted in 1993. See 22 Textile mill products
the Comparability With the 1993 Commodity Flow Survey 23 Apparel and other finished products made from
table (Appendix A) for a comparison between the 1997 fabrics and similar materials
and 1993 surveys. The data from the CFS are used by pub- 24 Lumber and wood products, except furniture
lic policy analysts and for transportation planning and 25 Furniture and fixtures
decision-making to assess the demand for transportation 26 Paper and allied products
facilities and services, energy use, and safety risk and 27, ex. 279 Printing, publishing, and allied industries
environmental concerns. (excluding service industries for the
printing trade)
This report presents data at the state level. Additional
28 Chemicals and allied products
reports will include data for the United States, census
29 Petroleum refining and related industries
regions, divisions, and selected metropolitan areas, as
well as selected data on exports and hazardous material 30 Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products
shipments. 31 Leather and leather products
32 Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products
INDUSTRY COVERAGE 33 Primary metal industries
34 Fabricated metal products, except machinery
The 1997 CFS covers business establishments in min- and transportation equipment
ing, manufacturing, wholesale trade, and selected retail 35 Industrial and commercial machinery and
industries. The survey also covers selected auxiliary estab- computer equipment
lishments (e.g., warehouses) of in-scope multiunit and 36 Electronic and other electrical equipment and
retail companies. The survey coverage excludes establish- components, except computer equipment
ments classified as farms, forestry, fisheries, govern- 37 Transportation equipment
ments, construction, transportation, foreign establish- 38 Measuring, analyzing, and controlling
instruments; photographic, medical and
ments, services, and most establishments in retail. optical goods; watches and clocks
The industries covered, as defined in the 1987 Standard 39 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
Industrial Classification Manual (SIC), are listed in the fol-
50 Wholesale trade—durable goods
lowing table:
51 Wholesale trade—nondurable goods
596 Catalog and mail-order houses
1
We included establishments classified in SIC 13, Oil and Gas
Extraction, in the initial coverage of the 1997 CFS. However,
because of unresolved industry-wide reporting issues, we have
removed shipments from these establishments from our 1997
CFS tabulations. The data collected from these establishments will
be used as input to a special report at a later date.
Similarly, because establishments in SIC 13 are responsible for
the overwhelming number of shipments classified in SCTG 16,
Crude Petroleum, we have removed all shipments with SCTG 16
from the 1997 CFS publication results.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 1997 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 3
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
SHIPMENT COVERAGE multimodal sequence. This was done for any origin-
destination pair of domestic ZIP Code locations, and for
The CFS captures data on shipments originating from any internal ZIP Code of origin, via U.S. export port, to for-
selected types of business establishments located in the eign (export) destination. Mileages between origin-
50 states and the District of Columbia. The data do not destination ZIP Code centroids were computed by finding
cover shipments originating from business establishments the minimum impedance path over mathematical repre-
located in Puerto Rico and other U.S. possessions and ter- sentations of the highway, rail, waterway, air, and pipeline
ritories. Shipments traversing the U.S. from a foreign loca- networks and then summing the lengths of individual
tion to another foreign location (e.g., from Canada to links on these paths. Impedance is computed as a
Mexico) are not included, nor are shipments from a for- weighted combination of distance, time, and cost factors.
eign location to a U.S. location. Imported products are The ORNL multimodal network database is composed
included in the CFS at the point that they left the import- of individual modal-specific networks representing each of
er’s domestic location for shipment to another location. the major transportation modes—highway, rail, waterway,
Shipments that are shipped through a foreign territory air, and pipeline. The links of these specific modal net-
with both the origin and destination in the U.S. are works are the representation of line-haul transportation
included in the CFS data. The mileages calculated for these facilities. The nodes represent intersections and inter-
shipments exclude the international segments (e.g., ship- changes, and the access points to the transportation net-
ments from New York to Michigan through Canada do not work. To simulate local access, test links are created from
include any mileages for Canada). Export shipments are each five-digit ZIP Code centroid to nearby nodes on the
network. For the truck network, local access is assumed to
included, with the domestic destination defined as the
exist everywhere. For the other modes this is not true.
port of exit from the U.S.
Before any test links are created for these modes, a search
The ‘‘Industry Coverage’’ section of the text lists the SIC
procedure is used to determine if and where such net-
groups covered by the CFS. Other industry areas that are works are most likely to provide access to the ZIP Code.
not covered, but may have significant shipping activity, For shipments involving more than one mode, such as
include agriculture, government, and retail (other than truck-rail or rail-water shipments, intermodal transfer links
warehouses and SIC 5961, Catalog and Mail-Order are added to the network database for the purpose of con-
Houses). For agriculture specifically, this means that the necting the individual modal networks together for rout-
CFS did not cover shipments of agricultural products from ing purposes. An intermodal terminals database and a
the farm site to the processing centers or terminal eleva- number of terminal transfer models were developed at
tors (most likely short-distance local movements), but ORNL to identify likely transfer points for different classes
does cover the shipments of these products from the ini- of freight. A measure of link impedance was calculated for
tial processing centers or terminal elevators onward. each access, line-haul, and intermodal transfer link tra-
versed by a shipment. These impedances were mode spe-
MILEAGE CALCULATIONS cific and are based on various link characteristics. For
example, the set of link characteristics for the highway
To compute shipment mileages for the 1997 CFS, The network included speed impacting factors, such as the
Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) at Oak Ridge presence of divided or undivided roadway, the degree of
National Laboratory (ORNL) developed an integrated, inter- access control, rural or urban setting, type of pavement,
modal transportation network modeling system. A secure number of lanes, degree of urban congestion, and length
data site was setup at ORNL to process census-supplied of the link. Link impedance measures are also assigned to
files containing data elements for individual CFS shipment the local access links. Intermodal transfer link impedances
records. Each record contained the ZIP Code of shipment are estimated in terms of the time it takes to move goods
origin and destination, and the mode or mode sequence through such a transfer. In the case of rail and air freight,
reported. Each record also contained information on the intercarrier transfer penalties are also considered in order
type of commodity moved, its weight, dollar value and to obtain proper route selections. A minimum path algo-
whether containerized or a hazardous material. Export rithm is used to find the minimum impedance path
shipments were also identified on the records, along with between a shipment’s origin ZIP Code centroid and desti-
data on U.S. port of exit and foreign destination city and nation ZIP Code centroid. The cumulative length of the
country. Encrypted data files were transmitted and local access plus line-haul links on this path provides the
returned from ORNL after processing, with turnaround of estimated shipment distance. When rail was involved
most files on a week-by-week basis. In this manner many these shipment distances may be averaged over more
shipment-specific data problems encountered by ORNL in than one path between an origin-destination pair.
their routing procedures were reported back to census in a
timely fashion, allowing census to call back some shippers Mileage Data for Pipeline Shipments
and thereby confirm, correct, or recover missing or other- In the tables, we do not show ton-miles or average
wise unusable data. The ORNL system computed mile- miles per shipment for pipeline shipments. For most of
ages, by mode, for all single modes and for any reported these shipments, the respondents reported the shipment

4 1997 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
destination as a pipeline facility on the main pipeline net- 1. Parcel delivery/courier/U.S. Postal Service. Deliv-
work. Therefore, for the majority of these shipments, the ery services, parcels, packages, and other small ship-
resulting mileage represented only the access distance ments that typically weigh less than 100 pounds.
through feeder pipelines to the main pipeline network, Includes bus parcel delivery service.
and not the actual distance through the main pipeline net-
2. Private truck. Trucks operated by a temporary or
work. Pipeline shipments are included in the U.S. totals for
permanent employee of an establishment or the
ton-miles and average miles per shipment.
buyer/receiver of the shipment.

DISCLOSURE RULES 3. For-hire truck. Trucks that carry freight for a fee col-
lected from the shipper, recipient of the shipment, or
In accordance with Federal law governing Census an arranger of the transportation.
Bureau reports, no data are published that would disclose
the operations of an individual firm or establishment. 4. Railroad. Any common carrier or private railroad.

5. Shallow draft vessels. Barges, ships, or ferries oper-
EXPLANATION OF TERMS ating primarily on rivers and canals; in harbors, the
Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Intrac-
Average miles per shipment. For the 1993 CFS, we
oastal Waterway, the Inside Passage to Alaska, major
excluded shipments of STCC 27, Printed Matter, from our
bays and inlets; or in the ocean close to the shoreline.
calculation of average miles per shipment. We made this
decision after determining that respondents in the 1993 6. Deep draft vessel. Barges, ships, or ferries operat-
CFS shipping newspapers, magazines, catalogs, etc., had ing primarily in the open ocean. Shipping on the Great
used widely varying definitions of the term ‘‘shipment.’’ Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway is classified with
For the 1997 CFS, we made numerous efforts through- shallow draft vessels.
out our data collection and editing to produce consistent
7. Pipeline. Movements of oil, petroleum, gas, slurry,
results from establishments shipping SCTG 29, Printed
etc., through pipelines that extend to other establish-
Products. As a result, we have included printed products
ments or locations beyond the shipper’s establish-
in the average miles per shipment calculations for the
ment. Aqueducts for the movement of water are not
1997 CFS.
included.
Commodity. Products that an establishment produces,
8. Air. Commercial or private aircraft, and all air service
sells, or distributes. This does not include items that are
for shipments that typically weigh more than 100
considered as excess or byproducts of the establishment’s
pounds. Includes air freight and air express.
operation. Respondents reported the description and the
five-digit SCTG code for the major commodity contained in 9. Other mode. Any mode not listed above.
the shipment, defined as the commodity with the greatest
weight in the total shipment. 10. Unknown. The shipment was not carried by a parcel
delivery/courier/U.S. Postal Service, and the respon-
Distance shipped. In some tables, shipment data are dent could not determine what mode of transportation
presented for various ‘‘distance shipped’’ intervals. Ship- was used.
ments were categorized into these ‘‘distance shipped’’
In the tables, we have used additional terms for mode,
intervals based on the great circle distance between their
which we define as follows:
origin and destination ZIP Code centroids. All other
distance-related data in this and other tables (i.e., ton- 1. Air (includes truck and air). Shipments that used
miles and average miles per shipment) are based on the air or a combination of truck and air.
mileage calculations produced by Oak Ridge National
Laboratories. (See the ‘‘Mileage Calculations’’ section for 2. Single modes. Shipments using only one of the
more details.) above-listed modes, except parcel or other and
unknown.
Great circle distance. The shortest distance between
3. Multiple modes. Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier
two points on the earth’s surface.
shipments or shipments for which two or more of the
Mode of transportation. The type of transportation following modes of transportation were used:
used for moving the shipment to its domestic destination.
Private truck
For exports, the domestic destination was the port of exit.
For-hire truck
Rail
Mode Definitions
Shallow draft vessel
In the instructions to the respondent, we defined the Deep draft vessel
possible modes as follows: Pipeline

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 1997 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 5
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
We did not allow for multiple modes in combination exclude any mileages through Canada (see the ‘‘Mileage
with ‘‘parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier,’’ Calculations’’ section for more details). Aggregated pound-
‘‘unknown,’’ or ‘‘other.’’ By their nature, these ship- miles were converted to ton-miles. The ton-miles data are
ments may already include various kinds of multiple- displayed in millions.
mode activity. For example, if the respondent reported
Tons shipped. The total weight of the entire shipment.
a shipment’s mode of transportation as parcel and air,
Respondents reported the weight in pounds. Aggregated
we treated the shipment as parcel only.
pounds were converted to short-tons (2,000 pounds). The
4. Other multiple modes. Shipments using any other tons data are displayed in thousands.
mode combinations not specifically listed in the Total modal activity. The overall activity (e.g., ton-miles)
tables. of a specific mode of transportation, whether used in a
5. Other and unknown modes. Shipments for which single-mode shipment, or as part of a multiple-mode ship-
modes were not reported, or were reported by the ment. For example, the total modal activity for private
respondent as ‘‘Other’’ or ‘‘Unknown.’’ truck is the total ton-miles carried by private truck in
single-mode shipments, combined with the total ton-miles
6. Truck. Shipments using for-hire truck only, private carried by private truck in all multiple-mode shipments
truck only, or a combination of for-hire truck and pri- that include private truck (private truck and for-hire truck,
vate truck. private truck and rail, private truck and air, etc.)

7. Water. Shipments using shallow draft vessel only, Value of shipments. The dollar value of the entire ship-
deep draft vessel only, or Great Lakes vessel only. ment. This was defined as the net selling value, f.o.b.
Combinations of these modes, such as shallow draft plant, exclusive of freight charges and excise taxes. The
vessel and Great Lakes vessel are included as ‘‘Other value data are displayed in millions of dollars.
multiple modes.’’
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS
8. Great Lakes. In the tables in this publication, ‘‘Great
The following abbreviations and symbols are used in
Lakes’’ appears as a single mode. ORNL’s transporta-
the tables for this publication:
tion network and mileage calculation system allowed
for separate mileage calculations for Great Lakes D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing
between the origin and destination ZIP Codes (see the data for individual companies.
‘‘Mileage Calculations’’ section for more details). – Represents zero or less than 1 unit of
measure.
Other Definitions and Terms S Data do not meet publication standards due
Shipment. A shipment (or delivery) is an individual move- to high sampling variability or other reasons.
ment of commodities from an establishment to a customer CFS Commodity Flow Survey.
or to another location of the originating company (includ- lb Pounds.
ing a warehouse, distribution center, retail or wholesale n.e.c. Not elsewhere classified.
outlet). A shipment uses one or more modes of transporta- NA Not applicable.
tion including parcel delivery, U.S. Postal Service, courier, n.o.s. Not otherwise specified.
private truck, for-hire truck, rail, water, pipeline, air, and
other modes. OTHER TRANSPORTATION DATA

Users of transportation data may be especially inter-
Standard Classification of Transported Goods
ested in the following reports:
(SCTG). The commodities shown in this report are classi-
fied using the SCTG coding system. The SCTG coding sys- Economic Census: Transportation Sector covers
tem was developed jointly by agencies of the United establishments that provide passenger and freight trans-
States and Canadian governments based on the Harmo- portation to the general public, government, or other busi-
nized System to address statistical needs in regard to nesses.
products transported. Published data include kind of business, geographic
location, total operating revenue, annual and first quarter
Ton-miles. The weight times the mileage for a shipment.
payroll, and number of employees for pay period includ-
The respondents reported shipment weight in pounds, as
ing March 12.
described below. Mileage was calculated as the distance
between the shipment origin and destination ZIP Codes. Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey covers state and
For shipments by truck, rail, or shallow draft vessels, the U.S. level statistics on the physical and operational charac-
mileage excludes international segments. For example, teristics of the Nation’s truck, van, minivan, and sport util-
mileages from Alaska to the continental United States ity vehicle population. Some of the types of data collected

6 1997 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
include number of vehicles, major use, body type, annual source, total expenses and expenses percentage of motor
miles, model year, vehicle size, fuel type, operator classifi- carrier freight revenue by commodity type, size of ship-
cation, engine size, range of operation, weeks operated, ments handled, length of haul, and vehicle fleet inventory.
products carried, and hazardous materials carried. This
survey shows comparative statistics reflecting percent All results of the 1997 Economic Census are available
changes in number of vehicles between 1997 and 1992 on the Census Bureau Internet site http://www.census.gov
for most characteristics. and on compact discs (CD-ROM).

Transportation Annual Survey covers firms with paid For more information on any Census Bureau product,
employees that provide commercial motor freight trans- including a description of electronic and printed reports
portation and public warehousing services. Data collected being issued, see the web site or call Customer Services at
include operating revenue and operating revenue by 301-457-4100.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 1997 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY 7
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Table 1a. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

All modes ...................................................... 101 547 100.0 256 234 100.0 49 022 100.0 338

Single modes ..................................................... 91 104 89.7 247 897 96.7 46 940 95.8 168

Truck1 .................................................................. 80 878 79.6 203 544 79.4 28 425 58.0 157
For~hire truck .......................................................... 43 953 43.3 85 985 33.6 17 581 35.9 479
Private truck ........................................................... 36 564 36.0 117 127 45.7 10 619 21.7 63

Rail .................................................................... 7 449 7.3 34 531 13.5 16 373 33.4 717

Water .................................................................. 685 .7 8 802 3.4 2 116 4.3 253
Shallow draft .......................................................... 685 .7 8 802 3.4 2 116 4.3 253
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. 1 973 1.9 24 – 21 – 1 006
Pipeline2 ................................................................ S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 6 545 6.4 S S 603 1.2 628

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 6 107 6.0 215 – 124 .3 628
Truck and rail ............................................................ 436 .4 S S 469 1.0 1 217
Truck and water ......................................................... S S S S S S S
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – 5 387
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – 3 – 5 – 1 805

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 3 898 3.8 6 813 2.7 1 480 3.0 87

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

1"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for~hire truck only, or a combination of private truck and for~hire truck.
2CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil. See "Mileage Calculations" section for details of CFS coverage.

Table 1b. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997 and
1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles Average miles per shipment

Mode of transportation 1997 1993
(million (million Percent 1997 1993 Percent 1997 1993 Percent Percent
dollars) dollars) change (thousands) (thousands) change (millions) (millions) change 1997 1993 change

All modes ................. 101 547 88 845 14.3 256 234 218 864 17.1 49 022 40 772 20.2 338 248 36.6

Single modes................ 91 104 81 978 11.1 247 897 201 554 23.0 46 940 37 683 24.6 168 172 –2.4

Truck1 ............................. 80 878 73 412 10.2 203 544 171 039 19.0 28 425 22 416 26.8 157 139 12.9
For~hire truck ..................... 43 953 39 223 12.1 85 985 77 924 10.3 17 581 15 740 11.7 479 423 13.1
Private truck ..................... 36 564 34 001 7.5 117 127 92 952 26.0 10 619 6 639 60.0 63 58 8.9

Rail ............................... 7 449 6 477 15.0 34 531 27 075 27.5 16 373 14 167 15.6 717 725 –1.1

Water ............................. 685 848 –19.2 8 802 3 322 165.0 2 116 1 082 95.5 253 1 819 –86.1
Shallow draft ..................... 685 701 –2.3 8 802 3 253 170.6 2 116 887 138.6 253 190 33.1
Great Lakes ...................... – – – – – – – – – – – –
Deep draft ....................... – S S – 69 –100.0 – S S – 7 118 –100.0

Air (includes truck and air) ........... 1 973 1 225 61.0 24 14 67.6 21 16 33.5 1 006 913 10.2
Pipeline2 ........................... S S S S S S S S S S S S

Multiple modes .............. 6 545 4 567 43.3 S 4 606 S 603 2 120 –71.6 628 500 25.8

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier . 6 107 4 022 51.9 215 176 21.6 124 97 27.0 628 498 26.1
Truck and rail ...................... 436 293 48.6 S 421 S 469 230 104.1 1 217 1 208 .7
Truck and water .................... S 227 S S 3 543 S S 1 593 S S 588 S
Rail and water ...................... – S S – S S – S S 5 387 928 480.6
Other multiple modes ............... – – S 3 – S 5 – S 1 805 – S

Other and unknown modes ... 3 898 2 300 69.4 6 813 12 704 –46.4 1 480 969 52.7 87 164 –46.9

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

1"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for~hire truck only, or a combination of private truck and for~hire truck.
2CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil. See "Mileage Calculations" section for details of CFS coverage.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 9
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 1c. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: Percent of
Total for 1997 and 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value (percent) Tons (percent) Ton~miles (percent)
Mode of transportation
1997 1993 1997 1993 1997 1993

All modes ................................................. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Single modes................................................ 89.7 92.3 96.7 92.1 95.8 92.4

Truck1 ............................................................. 79.6 82.6 79.4 78.1 58.0 55.0
For~hire truck ..................................................... 43.3 44.1 33.6 35.6 35.9 38.6
Private truck ..................................................... 36.0 38.3 45.7 42.5 21.7 16.3

Rail ............................................................... 7.3 7.3 13.5 12.4 33.4 34.7

Water ............................................................. .7 1.0 3.4 1.5 4.3 2.7
Shallow draft ..................................................... .7 .8 3.4 1.5 4.3 2.2
Great Lakes ...................................................... – – – – – –
Deep draft ....................................................... – S – – – S

Air (includes truck and air) ........................................... 1.9 1.4 – – – –
Pipeline2 ........................................................... S S S S S S

Multiple modes .............................................. 6.4 5.1 S 2.1 1.2 5.2

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ................................. 6.0 4.5 – – .3 .2
Truck and rail ...................................................... .4 .3 S .2 1.0 .6
Truck and water .................................................... S .3 S 1.6 S 3.9
Rail and water ...................................................... – S – S – S
Other multiple modes ............................................... – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ................................... 3.8 2.6 2.7 5.8 3.0 2.4

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

1"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for~hire truck only, or a combination of private truck and for~hire truck.
2CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil. See "Mileage Calculations" section for details of CFS coverage.

Table 2. Shipment Characteristics by Total Modal Activity for State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because
of rounding]

Ton~miles
Mode of transportation1
Number Average miles
(millions) Percent per shipment

Total ................................................... 49 022 100.0 337

Truck ......................................................... 28 478 58.1 156
Rail .......................................................... 16 790 34.3 739
Shallow draft .................................................. 2 123 4.3 265
Great Lakes ................................................... 2 – 790
Deep draft .................................................... – – 5 735

Air ........................................................... 20 – 945
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 124 .3 628
Pipeline ....................................................... S S S
Other and unknown modes ...................................... 1 480 3.0 87

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished
estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However, figures obtained in this manner are subject to these
same limitations.

1Data represent activity for a given mode across single and multiple mode shipments. For example, "Truck" ton~miles
includes total ton~miles for shipments moving by truck only plus ton~miles for truck segments only of multiple mode shipments.

10 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 3. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Distance Shipped for State
of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Number Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent

All modes ....................................... 101 547 100.0 256 234 100.0 49 022 100.0
Less than 50 miles .......................................... 23 263 22.9 127 810 49.9 3 067 6.3
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 10 798 10.6 43 490 17.0 3 814 7.8
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 18 571 18.3 35 873 14.0 8 668 17.7
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 18 892 18.6 29 101 11.4 12 407 25.3
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 16 462 16.2 12 403 4.8 9 519 19.4
750 to 999 miles ............................................ 6 429 6.3 4 238 1.7 4 530 9.2
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 3 194 3.1 1 078 .4 1 524 3.1
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 3 006 3.0 1 885 .7 4 549 9.3
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 932 .9 355 .1 945 1.9

Single modes...................................... 91 104 100.0 247 897 100.0 46 940 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 21 924 24.1 123 186 49.7 2 942 6.3
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 10 111 11.1 42 896 17.3 3 760 8.0
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 17 016 18.7 34 408 13.9 8 237 17.5
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 16 980 18.6 28 543 11.5 12 123 25.8
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 14 027 15.4 11 716 4.7 9 002 19.2

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 5 284 5.8 4 068 1.6 4 360 9.3
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 2 764 3.0 1 014 .4 1 433 3.1
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 2 264 2.5 1 741 .7 4 217 9.0
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 734 .8 325 .1 865 1.8

Truck1 .............................................. 80 878 100.0 203 544 100.0 28 425 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 20 941 25.9 109 479 53.8 2 450 8.6
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 9 825 12.1 40 750 20.0 3 540 12.5
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 15 637 19.3 20 912 10.3 4 099 14.4
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 13 740 17.0 S S 8 039 28.3
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 11 735 14.5 7 617 3.7 5 481 19.3

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 4 334 5.4 2 054 1.0 2 055 7.2
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 2 503 3.1 710 .3 960 3.4
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 1 555 1.9 595 .3 1 240 4.4
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 609 .8 216 .1 561 2.0

For~hire truck........................................ 43 953 100.0 85 985 100.0 17 581 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 4 249 9.7 34 706 40.4 773 4.4
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 3 053 6.9 22 048 25.6 1 936 11.0
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 7 798 17.7 11 218 13.0 2 163 12.3
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 10 519 23.9 8 214 9.6 3 688 21.0
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 10 204 23.2 6 661 7.7 4 796 27.3

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 3 826 8.7 1 811 2.1 1 812 10.3
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 2 311 5.3 613 .7 827 4.7
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 1 419 3.2 529 .6 1 104 6.3
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 573 1.3 185 .2 483 2.7

Private truck ........................................ 36 564 100.0 117 127 100.0 10 619 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 16 650 45.5 74 720 63.8 1 674 15.8
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 6 759 18.5 18 683 16.0 1 602 15.1
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 7 770 21.3 9 614 8.2 1 919 18.1
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 3 137 8.6 S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 1 413 3.9 790 .7 561 5.3

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 494 1.4 230 .2 229 2.2
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 186 .5 95 – 130 1.2
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 124 .3 60 – 126 1.2
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 30 – 29 – 73 .7

Rail ................................................. 7 449 100.0 34 531 100.0 16 373 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 623 8.4 9 272 26.9 428 2.6
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 209 2.8 1 530 4.4 167 1.0
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 976 13.1 10 066 29.2 2 939 17.9
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 2 625 35.2 6 088 17.6 3 363 20.5
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 1 485 19.9 4 009 11.6 3 427 20.9

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 763 10.2 2 012 5.8 2 303 14.1
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 127 1.7 303 .9 472 2.9
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 588 7.9 1 146 3.3 2 975 18.2
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 52 .7 S S S S

Water ............................................... 685 100.0 8 802 100.0 2 116 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... S S 3 451 39.2 S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. S S S S S S
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 166 24.2 3 424 38.9 1 199 56.6
250 to 499 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ S S S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –

Shallow draft ........................................ 685 100.0 8 802 100.0 2 116 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... S S 3 451 39.2 S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. S S S S S S
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 166 24.2 3 424 38.9 1 199 56.6
250 to 499 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ S S S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 11
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 3. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Distance Shipped for State
of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Number Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent

Single modesmCon.
Great Lakes ......................................... – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –
Deep draft ........................................... – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –
Air (includes truck and air) ........................... 1 973 100.0 24 100.0 21 100.0
Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 9 .5 S S – .1
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 237 12.0 6 25.8 1 5.8
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 423 21.4 3 10.7 2 8.0
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 788 40.0 S S S S
750 to 999 miles ............................................ 187 9.5 1 5.5 1 6.9
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ S S 1 5.0 2 7.8
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 121 6.1 1 3.3 2 7.8
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 73 3.7 S S S S
Pipeline2 ............................................ S S S S S S
Less than 50 miles .......................................... S S S S S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. S S S S S S
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – S S
250 to 499 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – S S
750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – S S
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – S S
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – S S
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – S S
Multiple modes .................................... 6 545 100.0 S S 603 100.0
Less than 50 miles .......................................... 524 8.0 S S S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 510 7.8 30 2.0 3 .5
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 1 118 17.1 86 5.6 19 3.2
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 1 233 18.8 123 8.1 S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 1 583 24.2 S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 624 9.5 52 3.4 55 9.1
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 368 5.6 18 1.2 S S
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 467 7.1 77 5.1 189 31.4
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 120 1.8 9 .6 25 4.2

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ................. 6 107 100.0 215 100.0 124 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 490 8.0 23 10.8 1 .6
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 506 8.3 25 11.8 2 1.9
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 1 104 18.1 41 19.2 8 6.4
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 1 191 19.5 42 19.3 19 15.0
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 1 437 23.5 43 20.1 31 25.4

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 574 9.4 17 7.9 17 14.1
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 359 5.9 9 4.0 12 9.7
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 331 5.4 9 4.0 18 14.8
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 113 1.9 6 2.7 15 12.3

Truck and rail ....................................... 436 100.0 S S 469 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... S S S S S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. S S S S S S
100 to 249 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
250 to 499 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ S S S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ S S 35 2.7 38 8.0
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ S S S S S S
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 135 31.1 69 5.3 171 36.4
2,000 miles or more ......................................... S S S S S S

Truck and water ..................................... S S S S S S

Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ S S S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... S S S S S S

See footnotes at end of table.

12 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 3. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Distance Shipped for State
of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Number Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent

Multiple modesmCon.

Rail and water ....................................... – 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0

Other multiple modes ................................ – 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ......................... 3 898 100.0 6 813 100.0 1 480 100.0

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 815 20.9 3 655 53.7 52 3.5
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 177 4.5 564 8.3 52 3.5
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 437 11.2 S S S S
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 679 17.4 S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 853 21.9 527 7.7 376 25.4

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 521 13.4 119 1.7 115 7.8
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 62 1.6 S S S S
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 275 7.1 67 1.0 143 9.6
2,000 miles or more ......................................... S S 20 .3 55 3.7
– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

1"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for~hire truck only, or a combination of private truck and for~hire truck.
2CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil. See "Mileage Calculations" section for details of CFS coverage.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 13
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for State of
Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and shipment size
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

All modes .................................................... 101 547 100.0 256 234 100.0 49 022 100.0 338
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 6 800 6.7 188 – 68 .1 452
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 2 103 2.1 152 – 38 – 246
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 6 969 6.9 1 011 .4 197 .4 186
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 2 330 2.3 506 .2 106 .2 207
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 1 467 1.4 391 .2 74 .2 189
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 18 536 18.3 8 825 3.4 1 864 3.8 206
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 46 246 45.5 73 879 28.8 17 032 34.7 230
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 7 819 7.7 104 231 40.7 9 773 19.9 96
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 9 277 9.1 67 050 26.2 19 869 40.5 469

Single modes ................................................... 91 104 100.0 247 897 100.0 46 940 100.0 168

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 2 497 2.7 83 – 12 – 152
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 1 114 1.2 97 – 11 – 108
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 5 691 6.2 899 .4 162 .3 167
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 2 164 2.4 481 .2 101 .2 207
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 1 390 1.5 371 .1 69 .1 186

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 17 374 19.1 8 357 3.4 1 773 3.8 203
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 44 149 48.5 70 892 28.6 16 158 34.4 226
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 7 722 8.5 102 721 41.4 9 597 20.4 96
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 9 002 9.9 63 996 25.8 19 059 40.6 469

Truck1 ............................................................ 80 878 100.0 203 544 100.0 28 425 100.0 157

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 2 123 2.6 82 – 10 – 137
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 929 1.1 95 – 10 – 98
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 4 847 6.0 895 .4 157 .6 162
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 1 843 2.3 479 .2 98 .3 203
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 1 375 1.7 370 .2 68 .2 184

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 17 212 21.3 8 339 4.1 1 756 6.2 202
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 43 590 53.9 70 464 34.6 15 680 55.2 221
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 7 471 9.2 101 994 50.1 9 240 32.5 94
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 1 488 1.8 S S 1 405 4.9 S

For~hire truck ..................................................... 43 953 100.0 85 985 100.0 17 581 100.0 479

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 368 .8 9 – 7 – 761
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 269 .6 9 – 6 – 658
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 2 055 4.7 173 .2 115 .7 671
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 895 2.0 100 .1 67 .4 676
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 781 1.8 87 .1 47 .3 537

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 9 006 20.5 2 110 2.5 1 107 6.3 540
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 26 423 60.1 31 748 36.9 11 694 66.5 383
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 3 432 7.8 49 540 57.6 3 860 22.0 78
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 725 1.6 2 209 2.6 679 3.9 414

Private truck ...................................................... 36 564 100.0 117 127 100.0 10 619 100.0 63

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 1 755 4.8 72 – 4 – 41
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 658 1.8 87 – 4 – 45
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 2 764 7.6 720 .6 41 .4 56
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 938 2.6 378 .3 31 .3 79
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 592 1.6 283 .2 20 .2 71

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 8 133 22.2 6 203 5.3 631 5.9 94
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 16 924 46.3 38 316 32.7 3 784 35.6 100
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 4 039 11.0 52 453 44.8 S S 108
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 762 2.1 S S S S 41

Rail .............................................................. 7 449 100.0 34 531 100.0 16 373 100.0 717

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. S S S S S S 388
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S 556
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S 529
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S 1 968

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... S S 12 – 13 – 1 217
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 463 6.2 409 1.2 470 2.9 1 080
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 238 3.2 634 1.8 357 2.2 549
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 6 725 90.3 33 476 96.9 15 533 94.9 677

Water ............................................................ 685 100.0 8 802 100.0 2 116 100.0 253

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 685 100.0 8 802 100.0 2 116 100.0 253

Shallow draft ..................................................... 685 100.0 8 802 100.0 2 116 100.0 253

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 685 100.0 8 802 100.0 2 116 100.0 253

See footnotes at end of table.

14 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for State of
Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and shipment size
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

Single modesmCon.
Great Lakes ...................................................... – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –
Air (includes truck and air) ........................................ 1 973 100.0 24 100.0 21 100.0 1 006
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 373 18.9 1 5.0 1 5.4 994
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 185 9.4 1 4.7 1 5.1 994
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 844 42.8 4 17.9 5 21.3 1 110
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 321 16.3 2 8.3 2 9.8 1 042
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 12 .6 – 1.6 S S 945
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 142 7.2 7 27.8 4 17.7 578
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... S S S S S S 1 201
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ......................................................... S S S S S S S
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... S S S S S S S
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – S S S
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S S
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – S S S
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S S
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – S S S
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... S S S S S S S
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... S S S S S S S
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... S S S S S S S
Multiple modes ................................................. 6 545 100.0 S S 603 100.0 628
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 4 065 62.1 95 6.2 56 9.3 634
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 908 13.9 47 3.1 27 4.4 575
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 972 14.9 54 3.5 32 5.3 540
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 94 1.4 8 .5 4 .7 501
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 61 .9 11 .7 5 .8 S

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 32 .5 5 .3 S S 952
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 323 4.9 232 15.2 299 49.6 1 328
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... S S 36 2.4 25 4.1 656
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... S S S S S S 664

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................... 6 107 100.0 215 100.0 124 100.0 628

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 4 065 66.6 95 44.1 56 45.1 634
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 908 14.9 47 21.7 27 21.7 575
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 972 15.9 54 25.0 32 25.8 540
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 94 1.5 8 3.9 4 3.6 501
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 61 1.0 11 5.0 5 3.8 S

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... S S S S S S 102
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –

Truck and rail ..................................................... 436 100.0 S S 469 100.0 1 217

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S 932

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... S S S S S S 1 443
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 323 74.0 232 17.8 298 63.6 1 327
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... S S 32 2.5 20 4.4 617
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... S S S S S S 662

Truck and water .................................................. S S S S S S S

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – .5 – – – .1 7 343
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... S S S S S S 7 079
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... S S S S S S 1 170
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 15
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 4. Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and Shipment Size for State of
Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and shipment size
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

Multiple modesmCon.

Rail and water .................................................... – 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 5 387

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – 100.0 – 100.0 – 100.0 5 387
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –

Other multiple modes ............................................. – 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0 1 805

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – 100.0 3 100.0 5 100.0 1 805

Other and unknown modes ...................................... 3 898 100.0 6 813 100.0 1 480 100.0 87

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 238 6.1 10 .1 1 – 69
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 81 2.1 9 .1 – – S
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 306 7.9 58 .8 3 .2 S
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 72 1.8 16 .2 2 .1 S
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 16 .4 9 .1 1 – S

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 1 130 29.0 464 6.8 85 5.8 241
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 1 774 45.5 2 755 40.4 576 38.9 S
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 59 1.5 1 474 21.6 S S S
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 222 5.7 S S 661 44.6 S
– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

1"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for~hire truck only, or a combination of private truck and for~hire truck.
2CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil. See "Mileage Calculations" section for details of CFS coverage.

16 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 5. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity for State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG Commodity description
code Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

All commodities ........................................... 101 547 100.0 256 234 100.0 49 022 100.0 338

01 Live animals and live fish .......................................... 173 .2 125 – 90 .2 658
02 Cereal grains .................................................... S S S S S S 37
03 Other agricultural products ......................................... 767 .8 1 682 .7 199 .4 107
04 Animal feed and products of animal origin, n.e.c. ..................... 1 433 1.4 7 194 2.8 722 1.5 S
05 Meat, fish, seafood, and their preparations ........................... 3 056 3.0 1 836 .7 938 1.9 229

06 Milled grain products and preparations, and bakery products ........... 493 .5 386 .2 88 .2 S
07 Other prepared foodstuffs and fats and oils .......................... 2 928 2.9 4 408 1.7 868 1.8 160
08 Alcoholic beverages .............................................. 636 .6 482 .2 17 – 22
09 Tobacco products ................................................ 856 .8 51 – 20 – 213
10 Monumental or building stone ...................................... S S S S S S 18

11 Natural sands .................................................... 57 – S S S S 66
12 Gravel and crushed stone ......................................... 222 .2 36 211 14.1 2 087 4.3 48
13 Nonmetallic minerals n.e.c. ........................................ S S 2 905 1.1 1 053 2.1 188
14 Metallic ores and concentrates ..................................... S S S S S S 258
15 Coal ............................................................ 1 258 1.2 30 993 12.1 4 531 9.2 48

17 Gasoline and aviation turbine fuel................................... 3 405 3.4 12 659 4.9 489 1.0 29
18 Fuel oils ......................................................... 776 .8 3 605 1.4 213 .4 S
19 Coal and petroleum products, n.e.c. ................................ 791 .8 4 671 1.8 1 434 2.9 80
20 Basic chemicals .................................................. 3 346 3.3 7 460 2.9 3 200 6.5 238
21 Pharmaceutical products .......................................... 1 764 1.7 33 – 7 – 538

22 Fertilizers........................................................ 409 .4 2 382 .9 845 1.7 122
23 Chemical products and preparations, n.e.c. .......................... 2 909 2.9 1 271 .5 S S 251
24 Plastics and rubber ............................................... 3 869 3.8 1 585 .6 994 2.0 235
25 Logs and other wood in the rough .................................. 964 .9 40 817 15.9 1 829 3.7 52
26 Wood products ................................................... 3 409 3.4 12 443 4.9 2 651 5.4 192

27 Pulp, newsprint, paper, and paperboard ............................. 4 610 4.5 8 949 3.5 6 453 13.2 320
28 Paper or paperboard articles ....................................... 963 .9 977 .4 177 .4 116
29 Printed products .................................................. 1 439 1.4 324 .1 96 .2 687
30 Textiles, leather, and articles of textiles or leather ..................... 10 828 10.7 2 120 .8 931 1.9 702
31 Nonmetallic mineral products ...................................... 1 816 1.8 16 613 6.5 2 427 5.0 110

32 Base metal in primary or semifinished forms and in finished basic
shapes ......................................................... 7 502 7.4 11 212 4.4 5 294 10.8 219
33 Articles of base metal ............................................. 4 857 4.8 4 208 1.6 2 801 5.7 286
34 Machinery ....................................................... 5 053 5.0 753 .3 332 .7 201
35 Electronic and other electrical equipment and components and office
equipment ...................................................... 10 688 10.5 688 .3 365 .7 615
36 Motorized and other vehicles (including parts) ........................ 4 765 4.7 957 .4 491 1.0 119

37 Transportation equipment, n.e.c. ................................... 926 .9 251 .1 216 .4 888
38 Precision instruments and apparatus ................................ 498 .5 10 – 5 – 322
39 Furniture, mattresses and mattress supports, lamps, lighting fittings, and
illuminated signs ................................................ 1 720 1.7 501 .2 365 .7 592
40 Miscellaneous manufactured products .............................. 7 110 7.0 2 965 1.2 936 1.9 393
41 Waste and scrap ................................................. 393 .4 2 130 .8 282 .6 84
43 Mixed freight ..................................................... 3 171 3.1 2 000 .8 312 .6 170
~~ Commodity unknown.............................................. 359 .4 S S S S 242

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

Note: Data exclude shipments of SCTG 16, Crude Petroleum. See the section "Industry Coverage" for additional information.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 17
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

ALL COMMODITIES

Total ............................................... 101 547 100.0 256 234 100.0 49 022 100.0 338

Single modes ........................................... 91 104 89.7 247 897 96.7 46 940 95.8 168

Truck1 ........................................................ 80 878 79.6 203 544 79.4 28 425 58.0 157
For~hire truck ................................................ 43 953 43.3 85 985 33.6 17 581 35.9 479
Private truck ................................................. 36 564 36.0 117 127 45.7 10 619 21.7 63

Rail .......................................................... 7 449 7.3 34 531 13.5 16 373 33.4 717

Water ........................................................ 685 .7 8 802 3.4 2 116 4.3 253
Shallow draft ................................................ 685 .7 8 802 3.4 2 116 4.3 253
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... 1 973 1.9 24 – 21 – 1 006
Pipeline2 ...................................................... S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 6 545 6.4 S S 603 1.2 628

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 6 107 6.0 215 – 124 .3 628
Truck and rail .................................................. 436 .4 S S 469 1.0 1 217
Truck and water ............................................... S S S S S S S
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – 5 387
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – 3 – 5 – 1 805

Other and unknown modes .............................. 3 898 3.8 6 813 2.7 1 480 3.0 87

SCTG 01, LIVE ANIMALS AND LIVE FISH

Total ................................................. 173 100.0 125 100.0 90 100.0 658

Single modes ........................................... 173 100.0 125 100.0 90 100.0 658

Truck1 ........................................................ 173 100.0 125 100.0 90 100.0 658
For~hire truck ................................................ 141 81.4 99 79.1 71 79.0 667
Private truck ................................................. S S S S S S 629

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. – – – – – – –

SCTG 02, CEREAL GRAINS

Total ................................................. S S S S S S 37

Single modes ........................................... S S S S S S 44

Truck1 ........................................................ S S S S S S 45
For~hire truck ................................................ S S S S S S 69
Private truck ................................................. S S S S S S 35

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ S S S S S S 6
Shallow draft ................................................ S S S S S S 6
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 7

See footnotes at end of table.

18 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 03, OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

Total ................................................. 767 100.0 1 682 100.0 199 100.0 107

Single modes ........................................... 733 95.6 1 667 99.1 185 93.2 101

Truck1 ........................................................ 733 95.6 1 667 99.1 185 93.2 101
For~hire truck ................................................ 107 13.9 S S S S 208
Private truck ................................................. 627 81.7 S S 160 80.8 99

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 551

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 1 – S S S S 522
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 981
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 18

SCTG 04, ANIMAL FEED AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL
ORIGIN, N.E.C.

Total ................................................. 1 433 100.0 7 194 100.0 722 100.0 S

Single modes ........................................... 1 348 94.1 6 725 93.5 667 92.3 50

Truck1 ........................................................ 1 276 89.1 6 449 89.6 565 78.3 S
For~hire truck ................................................ 347 24.2 1 093 15.2 311 43.0 393
Private truck ................................................. 929 64.9 5 355 74.4 254 35.2 24

Rail .......................................................... 71 5.0 277 3.8 102 14.1 357

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 726

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S 726
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 14

SCTG 05, MEAT, FISH, SEAFOOD, AND THEIR
PREPARATIONS

Total ................................................. 3 056 100.0 1 836 100.0 938 100.0 229

Single modes ........................................... 3 040 99.5 1 824 99.3 916 97.7 227

Truck1 ........................................................ 3 033 99.2 1 817 99.0 914 97.4 224
For~hire truck ................................................ 2 120 69.3 1 289 70.2 787 83.9 569
Private truck ................................................. 853 27.9 479 26.1 116 12.3 97

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 284

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 2 164
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S 833
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... S S S S S S 7 079
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 16 .5 S S S S 202

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 19
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 06, MILLED GRAIN PRODUCTS AND
PREPARATIONS, AND BAKERY PRODUCTS

Total ................................................. 493 100.0 386 100.0 88 100.0 S

Single modes ........................................... 480 97.3 381 98.7 85 97.6 S

Truck1 ........................................................ 480 97.3 381 98.7 85 97.6 S
For~hire truck ................................................ 186 37.6 205 53.1 43 49.0 157
Private truck ................................................. 294 59.7 176 45.6 43 48.7 S

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 1 .3 S S – – 624

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 1 .3 S S – – 624
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 316

SCTG 07, OTHER PREPARED FOODSTUFFS AND FATS
AND OILS

Total ................................................. 2 928 100.0 4 408 100.0 868 100.0 160

Single modes ........................................... 2 857 97.6 4 389 99.6 865 99.7 59

Truck1 ........................................................ 2 737 93.5 4 092 92.8 723 83.3 59
For~hire truck ................................................ 387 13.2 455 10.3 171 19.7 468
Private truck ................................................. 2 350 80.3 3 637 82.5 552 63.6 45

Rail .......................................................... 121 4.1 297 6.7 142 16.3 482

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 18 .6 2 – 1 .2 864

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 18 .6 2 – 1 .2 864
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 52 1.8 S S S S 41

SCTG 08, ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

Total ................................................. 636 100.0 482 100.0 17 100.0 22

Single modes ........................................... 636 100.0 482 100.0 17 100.0 22

Truck1 ........................................................ 636 100.0 482 100.0 17 100.0 22
For~hire truck ................................................ 165 25.9 42 8.7 5 30.5 114
Private truck ................................................. 472 74.1 440 91.3 12 69.5 21

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. – – – – – – –

See footnotes at end of table.

20 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 09, TOBACCO PRODUCTS

Total ................................................. 856 100.0 51 100.0 20 100.0 213

Single modes ........................................... 815 95.2 49 95.9 17 86.3 111

Truck1 ........................................................ 815 95.2 49 95.9 17 86.3 111
For~hire truck ................................................ S S S S S S 782
Private truck ................................................. 779 91.0 47 91.3 15 75.9 101

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 1 242

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S 1 242
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 42

SCTG 10, MONUMENTAL OR BUILDING STONE

Total ................................................. S S S S S S 18

Single modes ........................................... S S S S S S 18

Truck1 ........................................................ S S S S S S 18
For~hire truck ................................................ S S S S S S 171
Private truck ................................................. S S S S S S 16

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. – – – – – – –

SCTG 11, NATURAL SANDS

Total ................................................. 57 100.0 S S S S 66

Single modes ........................................... 57 100.0 S S S S 66

Truck1 ........................................................ 56 98.2 S S S S 65
For~hire truck ................................................ 49 86.2 S S S S S
Private truck ................................................. S S S S S S 21

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 403

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. – – – – – – –

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 21
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 12, GRAVEL AND CRUSHED STONE

Total ................................................. 222 100.0 36 211 100.0 2 087 100.0 48

Single modes ........................................... 211 95.1 33 939 93.7 2 040 97.8 51

Truck1 ........................................................ 197 88.8 32 246 89.1 1 592 76.3 49
For~hire truck ................................................ 85 38.1 11 350 31.3 529 25.4 S
Private truck ................................................. 113 50.7 20 896 57.7 1 063 50.9 51

Rail .......................................................... 14 6.3 1 693 4.7 448 21.5 268

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S S

SCTG 13, NONMETALLIC MINERALS N.E.C.

Total ................................................. S S 2 905 100.0 1 053 100.0 188

Single modes ........................................... S S 2 900 99.8 1 046 99.3 187

Truck1 ........................................................ S S 1 773 61.0 310 29.5 146
For~hire truck ................................................ 100 12.0 1 305 44.9 241 22.9 205
Private truck ................................................. S S 468 16.1 S S 100

Rail .......................................................... 65 7.9 1 127 38.8 736 69.8 653

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – 3 – 5 .5 619

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S 59
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – 3 – 5 .5 1 805

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 1 149

SCTG 14, METALLIC ORES AND CONCENTRATES

Total ................................................. S S S S S S 258

Single modes ........................................... S S S S S S 258

Truck1 ........................................................ S S S S S S 16
For~hire truck ................................................ – – – – – – –
Private truck ................................................. S S S S S S 16

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 436

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. – – – – – – –

See footnotes at end of table.

22 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 15, COAL

Total ................................................. 1 258 100.0 30 993 100.0 4 531 100.0 48

Single modes ........................................... 1 170 93.0 28 813 93.0 4 145 91.5 47

Truck1 ........................................................ 369 29.3 10 241 33.0 S S 44
For~hire truck ................................................ 350 27.8 9 660 31.2 S S 45
Private truck ................................................. S S S S S S 24

Rail .......................................................... 597 47.4 14 063 45.4 2 746 60.6 227

Water ........................................................ S S S S S S 208
Shallow draft ................................................ S S S S S S 208
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 79

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 79
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 251

SCTG 17, GASOLINE AND AVIATION TURBINE FUEL

Total ................................................. 3 405 100.0 12 659 100.0 489 100.0 29

Single modes ........................................... 3 390 99.6 12 593 99.5 483 98.9 29

Truck1 ........................................................ 3 390 99.6 12 593 99.5 483 98.9 29
For~hire truck ................................................ 785 23.1 3 233 25.5 194 39.6 59
Private truck ................................................. 2 605 76.5 9 360 73.9 290 59.3 23

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 29

SCTG 18, FUEL OILS

Total ................................................. 776 100.0 3 605 100.0 213 100.0 S

Single modes ........................................... 771 99.3 3 576 99.2 212 99.4 S

Truck1 ........................................................ 771 99.3 3 576 99.2 212 99.4 S
For~hire truck ................................................ 163 21.0 895 24.8 S S 112
Private truck ................................................. 608 78.3 2 681 74.4 105 49.4 25

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 18

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 23
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 19, COAL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

Total ................................................. 791 100.0 4 671 100.0 1 434 100.0 80

Single modes ........................................... 780 98.6 4 653 99.6 1 432 99.8 81

Truck1 ........................................................ 473 59.8 2 464 52.7 421 29.3 61
For~hire truck ................................................ 292 36.9 1 829 39.2 365 25.4 212
Private truck ................................................. 181 22.9 634 13.6 56 3.9 40

Rail .......................................................... 202 25.6 1 276 27.3 958 66.8 764

Water ........................................................ S S S S S S 86
Shallow draft ................................................ S S S S S S 86
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 34

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S 34
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 58

SCTG 20, BASIC CHEMICALS

Total ................................................. 3 346 100.0 7 460 100.0 3 200 100.0 238

Single modes ........................................... 2 615 78.2 7 055 94.6 S S 122

Truck1 ........................................................ 1 667 49.8 2 316 31.0 606 18.9 100
For~hire truck ................................................ 1 398 41.8 1 491 20.0 498 15.6 437
Private truck ................................................. 269 8.1 824 11.0 S S 31

Rail .......................................................... 684 20.4 2 823 37.8 1 545 48.3 537

Water ........................................................ S S S S S S 535
Shallow draft ................................................ S S S S S S 535
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 1 154
Pipeline2 ...................................................... S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S 16 .2 S S S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S S
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 1 364
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 278

SCTG 21, PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

Total ................................................. 1 764 100.0 33 100.0 7 100.0 538

Single modes ........................................... 850 48.2 25 75.9 3 46.3 108

Truck1 ........................................................ 850 48.2 25 75.9 3 46.3 108
For~hire truck ................................................ 40 2.3 3 9.4 1 13.7 S
Private truck ................................................. 810 45.9 22 66.5 2 32.6 103

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 901 51.1 7 20.8 3 46.4 633

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 901 51.1 7 20.8 3 46.4 633
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 13 .8 S S S S 110

See footnotes at end of table.

24 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 22, FERTILIZERS

Total ................................................. 409 100.0 2 382 100.0 845 100.0 122

Single modes ........................................... 389 95.3 2 293 96.3 844 99.9 173

Truck1 ........................................................ 370 90.5 2 149 90.2 759 89.8 170
For~hire truck ................................................ 233 57.1 S S S S 450
Private truck ................................................. 137 33.4 837 35.1 S S 71

Rail .......................................................... 19 4.5 139 5.8 85 10.1 601

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 179

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S 179
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S S

SCTG 23, CHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND
PREPARATIONS, N.E.C.

Total ................................................. 2 909 100.0 1 271 100.0 S S 251

Single modes ........................................... 2 554 87.8 1 212 95.4 S S 234

Truck1 ........................................................ 1 589 54.6 790 62.2 356 55.6 232
For~hire truck ................................................ 990 34.0 567 44.6 S S 538
Private truck ................................................. 599 20.6 223 17.6 27 4.2 96

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 582

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 513
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S 23 1.8 S S 354

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 92 3.2 S S S S 353
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 1 097
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 60

SCTG 24, PLASTICS AND RUBBER

Total ................................................. 3 869 100.0 1 585 100.0 994 100.0 235

Single modes ........................................... 3 507 90.6 1 509 95.2 900 90.6 190

Truck1 ........................................................ 3 385 87.5 1 460 92.1 838 84.3 182
For~hire truck ................................................ 2 609 67.4 1 159 73.1 797 80.2 625
Private truck ................................................. 775 20.0 300 18.9 41 4.1 51

Rail .......................................................... 114 3.0 49 3.1 61 6.2 1 307

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S 1 – S S 790
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 126 3.3 13 .8 S S 531

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 105 2.7 5 .3 3 .3 531
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 968
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 236 6.1 63 4.0 S S S

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 25
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 25, LOGS AND OTHER WOOD IN THE ROUGH

Total ................................................. 964 100.0 40 817 100.0 1 829 100.0 52

Single modes ........................................... 933 96.8 40 214 98.5 1 802 98.5 53

Truck1 ........................................................ 882 91.4 39 588 97.0 1 706 93.3 52
For~hire truck ................................................ 292 30.3 9 159 22.4 464 25.3 S
Private truck ................................................. 589 61.1 30 429 74.5 1 243 67.9 52

Rail .......................................................... 52 5.4 S S 96 5.2 S

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 618

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. – – – – – – –
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 618
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 42

SCTG 26, WOOD PRODUCTS

Total ................................................. 3 409 100.0 12 443 100.0 2 651 100.0 192

Single modes ........................................... 3 342 98.0 12 323 99.0 2 624 99.0 185

Truck1 ........................................................ 2 976 87.3 10 151 81.6 1 914 72.2 179
For~hire truck ................................................ 1 681 49.3 6 403 51.5 1 281 48.3 240
Private truck ................................................. 1 251 36.7 3 619 29.1 567 21.4 135

Rail .......................................................... 359 10.5 2 073 16.7 705 26.6 378

Water ........................................................ 7 .2 98 .8 S S 82
Shallow draft ................................................ 7 .2 98 .8 S S 82
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 19 .6 19 .2 10 .4 632

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 3 – S S S S 635
Truck and rail .................................................. 17 .5 19 .2 10 .4 550
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S 18 .7 S

SCTG 27, PULP, NEWSPRINT, PAPER, AND
PAPERBOARD

Total ................................................. 4 610 100.0 8 949 100.0 6 453 100.0 320

Single modes ........................................... 4 500 97.6 8 609 96.2 6 174 95.7 314

Truck1 ........................................................ 2 694 58.4 4 487 50.1 2 382 36.9 250
For~hire truck ................................................ 2 255 48.9 3 762 42.0 2 179 33.8 576
Private truck ................................................. 436 9.5 716 8.0 202 3.1 80

Rail .......................................................... 1 806 39.2 4 122 46.1 3 793 58.8 887

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 196
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 676

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S – – – – 447
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 1 098
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 203

See footnotes at end of table.

26 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 28, PAPER OR PAPERBOARD ARTICLES

Total ................................................. 963 100.0 977 100.0 177 100.0 116

Single modes ........................................... 947 98.3 973 99.6 174 98.0 89

Truck1 ........................................................ 919 95.4 957 97.9 168 94.9 87
For~hire truck ................................................ 564 58.5 578 59.2 122 69.0 205
Private truck ................................................. 355 36.9 378 38.7 S S 50

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 310

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 2 218
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S – .2 S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S – .2 S
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S S

SCTG 29, PRINTED PRODUCTS

Total ................................................. 1 439 100.0 324 100.0 96 100.0 687

Single modes ........................................... 907 63.0 291 89.7 76 79.5 S

Truck1 ........................................................ 904 62.8 290 89.6 76 79.2 S
For~hire truck ................................................ 563 39.2 193 59.7 72 75.5 419
Private truck ................................................. 341 23.7 97 29.9 S S S

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 751
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 505 35.1 26 8.1 17 17.5 775

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 503 35.0 25 7.8 15 16.2 775
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 1 187
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 27 1.9 S S S S 291

SCTG 30, TEXTILES, LEATHER, AND ARTICLES OF
TEXTILES OR LEATHER

Total ................................................. 10 828 100.0 2 120 100.0 931 100.0 702

Single modes ........................................... 10 171 93.9 2 047 96.6 843 90.6 686

Truck1 ........................................................ 10 166 93.9 2 047 96.5 843 90.6 688
For~hire truck ................................................ 5 067 46.8 1 102 52.0 648 69.6 884
Private truck ................................................. 5 099 47.1 944 44.5 195 21.0 119

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... 4 – – – – – 338
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 595 5.5 62 2.9 79 8.5 742

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 527 4.9 31 1.5 S S 741
Truck and rail .................................................. 68 .6 30 1.4 S S 1 675
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S S

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 27
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 31, NONMETALLIC MINERAL PRODUCTS

Total ................................................. 1 816 100.0 16 613 100.0 2 427 100.0 110

Single modes ........................................... 1 781 98.0 16 120 97.0 2 247 92.6 103

Truck1 ........................................................ 1 656 91.2 14 907 89.7 1 651 68.0 96
For~hire truck ................................................ 967 53.3 5 051 30.4 1 303 53.7 342
Private truck ................................................. 689 37.9 9 855 59.3 348 14.3 31

Rail .......................................................... 122 6.7 1 213 7.3 595 24.5 647

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 858
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 666

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 4 .2 – – – – 648
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 1 025
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 28 1.6 484 2.9 S S 183

SCTG 32, BASE METAL IN PRIMARY OR SEMIFINISHED
FORMS AND IN FINISHED BASIC SHAPES

Total ................................................. 7 502 100.0 11 212 100.0 5 294 100.0 219

Single modes ........................................... 7 234 96.4 10 712 95.5 5 078 95.9 181

Truck1 ........................................................ 6 017 80.2 7 743 69.1 2 457 46.4 164
For~hire truck ................................................ 4 142 55.2 5 421 48.3 2 042 38.6 433
Private truck ................................................. 1 872 25.0 2 321 20.7 415 7.8 89

Rail .......................................................... 1 180 15.7 2 139 19.1 2 328 44.0 1 088

Water ........................................................ S S S S S S 346
Shallow draft ................................................ S S S S S S 346
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 1 040
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S 4 – 351

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S 3 – 351
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – 5 387
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 107 1.4 S S S S 224

SCTG 33, ARTICLES OF BASE METAL

Total ................................................. 4 857 100.0 4 208 100.0 2 801 100.0 286

Single modes ........................................... 4 491 92.5 4 135 98.3 2 764 98.7 226

Truck1 ........................................................ 3 678 75.7 2 817 66.9 1 320 47.1 212
For~hire truck ................................................ 2 310 47.6 2 051 48.7 1 059 37.8 571
Private truck ................................................. 1 228 25.3 556 13.2 144 5.1 71

Rail .......................................................... 804 16.6 1 318 31.3 1 444 51.6 1 203

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S – – – – 1 011
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 285 5.9 24 .6 20 .7 550

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 250 5.2 14 .3 8 .3 550
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 1 425
Truck and water ............................................... S S S S S S 1 170
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 80 1.7 49 1.2 S S 60

See footnotes at end of table.

28 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 34, MACHINERY

Total ................................................. 5 053 100.0 753 100.0 332 100.0 201

Single modes ........................................... 4 465 88.4 719 95.4 317 95.5 114

Truck1 ........................................................ 4 456 88.2 718 95.3 317 95.4 109
For~hire truck ................................................ 2 895 57.3 441 58.5 260 78.1 414
Private truck ................................................. 1 561 30.9 277 36.8 57 17.2 28

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 1 039
Pipeline2 ...................................................... S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 416 8.2 11 1.4 5 1.5 378

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 404 8.0 10 1.3 3 1.0 378
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 2 171
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – 7 343
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 172 3.4 24 3.2 10 3.0 77

SCTG 35, ELECTRONIC AND OTHER ELECTRICAL
EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS AND OFFICE
EQUIPMENT

Total ................................................. 10 688 100.0 688 100.0 365 100.0 615

Single modes ........................................... 8 100 75.8 587 85.3 299 81.8 233

Truck1 ........................................................ 6 610 61.8 578 84.1 292 80.0 158
For~hire truck ................................................ 5 598 52.4 405 58.8 277 75.8 699
Private truck ................................................. 1 006 9.4 S S 15 4.2 41

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... 1 490 13.9 9 1.3 7 1.8 1 130
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 1 714 16.0 35 5.1 29 7.9 842

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 1 708 16.0 34 4.9 26 7.0 842
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 2 499
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 874 8.2 66 9.6 37 10.3 S

SCTG 36, MOTORIZED AND OTHER VEHICLES
(INCLUDING PARTS)

Total ................................................. 4 765 100.0 957 100.0 491 100.0 119

Single modes ........................................... 3 484 73.1 827 86.5 415 84.4 79

Truck1 ........................................................ 3 416 71.7 824 86.1 408 83.0 75
For~hire truck ................................................ 2 495 52.4 586 61.2 348 70.8 432
Private truck ................................................. 920 19.3 238 24.8 60 12.2 43

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 3 038

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S 2 .2 1 .2 863
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 323 6.8 20 2.1 5 1.0 S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 316 6.6 S S 5 .9 S
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 988
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S 110 11.5 S S S

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 29
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 37, TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, N.E.C.

Total ................................................. 926 100.0 251 100.0 216 100.0 888

Single modes ........................................... 750 81.0 240 95.7 194 90.1 939

Truck1 ........................................................ 504 54.5 151 60.2 99 45.8 782
For~hire truck ................................................ 487 52.6 133 53.1 88 40.7 963
Private truck ................................................. 15 1.7 16 6.3 10 4.5 S

Rail .......................................................... S S 89 35.3 95 44.0 1 132

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... 158 17.1 1 .3 1 .4 1 179
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 857

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S 854
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 2 480
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 91 9.8 S S S S 955

SCTG 38, PRECISION INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS

Total ................................................. 498 100.0 10 100.0 5 100.0 322

Single modes ........................................... S S 7 66.6 3 66.7 213

Truck1 ........................................................ 152 30.5 6 59.0 S S 143
For~hire truck ................................................ 131 26.3 5 53.4 S S 409
Private truck ................................................. 21 4.2 1 5.5 – .8 24

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 838
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 169 33.9 3 30.6 2 32.2 380

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 164 33.0 3 29.3 1 25.8 380
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 2 472
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 128

SCTG 39, FURNITURE, MATTRESSES AND MATTRESS
SUPPORTS, LAMPS, LIGHTING FITTINGS, AND
ILLUMINATED SIGNS

Total ................................................. 1 720 100.0 501 100.0 365 100.0 592

Single modes ........................................... 1 647 95.7 478 95.4 334 91.5 537

Truck1 ........................................................ 1 629 94.7 477 95.2 333 91.2 508
For~hire truck ................................................ 864 50.2 183 36.5 146 40.0 849
Private truck ................................................. 664 38.6 264 52.8 158 43.4 222

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 958

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... 12 .7 S S S S 995
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 46 2.7 11 2.1 S S 912

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 25 1.5 3 .6 2 .7 900
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 1 782
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 27 1.6 13 2.5 S S 400

See footnotes at end of table.

30 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

SCTG 40, MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURED
PRODUCTS

Total ................................................. 7 110 100.0 2 965 100.0 936 100.0 393

Single modes ........................................... 6 489 91.3 2 921 98.5 913 97.5 182

Truck1 ........................................................ 6 438 90.5 2 898 97.8 887 94.7 174
For~hire truck ................................................ 2 513 35.3 1 619 54.6 683 73.0 617
Private truck ................................................. S S S S 204 21.8 49

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 1 139

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 1 254
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 529 7.4 24 .8 16 1.7 644

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 519 7.3 21 .7 13 1.4 644
Truck and rail .................................................. S S S S S S 884
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. 92 1.3 20 .7 8 .9 S

SCTG 41, WASTE AND SCRAP

Total ................................................. 393 100.0 2 130 100.0 282 100.0 84

Single modes ........................................... 392 99.7 2 122 99.6 281 99.7 103

Truck1 ........................................................ 304 77.3 1 528 71.8 136 48.1 92
For~hire truck ................................................ 158 40.2 993 46.6 101 35.8 102
Private truck ................................................. 146 37.2 535 25.1 35 12.3 77

Rail .......................................................... 56 14.3 S S S S 226

Water ........................................................ 32 8.1 S S S S 396
Shallow draft ................................................ 32 8.1 S S S S 396
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S S S 209

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S S S 209
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S 1 .3 S

SCTG 43, MIXED FREIGHT

Total ................................................. 3 171 100.0 2 000 100.0 312 100.0 170

Single modes ........................................... 3 131 98.7 1 996 99.8 309 99.3 137

Truck1 ........................................................ 3 128 98.6 1 996 99.8 309 99.2 132
For~hire truck ................................................ 92 2.9 S S S S 506
Private truck ................................................. 3 036 95.7 1 954 97.7 298 95.5 118

Rail .......................................................... – – – – – – –

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 1 192
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... 29 .9 3 .1 2 .7 768

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 29 .9 3 .1 2 .7 768
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 115

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 31
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 6. Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation
Number Number Number Average miles
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent per shipment

COMMODITY UNKNOWN

Total ................................................. 359 100.0 S S S S 242

Single modes ........................................... 333 92.5 S S S S 300

Truck1 ........................................................ 331 92.1 S S S S 300
For~hire truck ................................................ S S S S S S 450
Private truck ................................................. S S S S S S 291

Rail .......................................................... S S S S S S 258

Water ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Shallow draft ................................................ – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ................................................. – – – – – – –
Deep draft .................................................. – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ....................................... S S S S S S 329
Pipeline2 ...................................................... – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ......................................... S S S S – – S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. S S S S – – S
Truck and rail .................................................. – – – – – – –
Truck and water ............................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ................................................. – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ........................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes .............................. S S S S S S 326

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

1"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for~hire truck only, or a combination of private truck and for~hire truck.
2CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil. See "About the Data" section for details of CFS coverage.

Note: Data exclude shipments of SCTG 16, Crude Petroleum. See the section "Industry Coverage" for additional information.

32 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 7. Shipment Characteristics by State of Destination for State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
State of destination
Number Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent

Total ...................................................... 101 547 100.0 256 234 100.0 49 022 100.0

NEW ENGLAND STATES

Connecticut ........................................................ 310 .3 98 – 120 .2
Maine ............................................................. 109 .1 49 – 71 .1
Massachusetts ..................................................... 512 .5 247 .1 317 .6
New Hampshire .................................................... 63 – 23 – 32 –
Rhode Island ....................................................... 104 .1 51 – 72 .1
Vermont ........................................................... 9 – S S S S

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES

New Jersey ........................................................ 1 047 1.0 427 .2 426 .9
New York .......................................................... 1 512 1.5 548 .2 614 1.3
Pennsylvania ....................................................... 1 793 1.8 2 174 .8 2 264 4.6

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES

Illinois ............................................................. 2 456 2.4 1 952 .8 1 427 2.9
Indiana ............................................................ 1 742 1.7 1 206 .5 691 1.4
Michigan........................................................... 2 472 2.4 1 348 .5 1 129 2.3
Ohio .............................................................. 2 538 2.5 2 432 .9 1 666 3.4
Wisconsin ......................................................... 906 .9 659 .3 630 1.3

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES

Iowa .............................................................. 413 .4 376 .1 383 .8
Kansas ............................................................ 492 .5 215 – 179 .4
Minnesota ......................................................... 537 .5 356 .1 422 .9
Missouri ........................................................... 1 352 1.3 1 100 .4 681 1.4
Nebraska .......................................................... S S 79 – 83 .2
North Dakota ....................................................... 42 – 36 – 53 .1
South Dakota ...................................................... S S 30 – 38 –

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES

Delaware .......................................................... 73 – 38 – 34 –
District of Columbia ................................................. 17 – S S S S
Florida ............................................................ 5 363 5.3 8 529 3.3 2 895 5.9
Georgia ........................................................... 8 751 8.6 10 061 3.9 2 447 5.0
Maryland .......................................................... 860 .8 310 .1 256 .5
North Carolina ...................................................... 3 122 3.1 2 404 .9 1 304 2.7
South Carolina ..................................................... 2 644 2.6 1 734 .7 801 1.6
Virginia ............................................................ 1 153 1.1 907 .4 604 1.2
West Virginia ....................................................... 584 .6 318 .1 220 .4

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

Alabama ........................................................... 34 369 33.8 174 884 68.3 10 416 21.2
Kentucky .......................................................... 1 435 1.4 1 694 .7 739 1.5
Mississippi ......................................................... 2 748 2.7 11 319 4.4 1 480 3.0
Tennessee ......................................................... 5 737 5.6 S S S S

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

Arkansas .......................................................... 1 312 1.3 1 207 .5 525 1.1
Louisiana .......................................................... 2 626 2.6 2 532 1.0 909 1.9
Oklahoma ......................................................... 608 .6 322 .1 237 .5
Texas ............................................................. 5 408 5.3 4 942 1.9 3 549 7.2

MOUNTAIN STATES

Arizona ............................................................ 274 .3 89 – 157 .3
Colorado .......................................................... S S 249 .1 343 .7
Idaho.............................................................. 109 .1 91 – 235 .5
Montana ........................................................... 57 – 66 – 133 .3
Nevada ............................................................ S S 48 – 92 .2
New Mexico ........................................................ 63 – 18 – 22 –
Utah .............................................................. 140 .1 92 – 181 .4
Wyoming .......................................................... 39 – 5 – 8 –

PACIFIC STATES

Alaska............................................................. 5 – S S S S
California .......................................................... 2 734 2.7 1 656 .6 4 046 8.3
Hawaii............................................................. S S S S S S
Oregon ............................................................ 208 .2 154 – 407 .8
Washington ........................................................ 503 .5 179 – 483 1.0

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA 33
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table 8. Inbound Shipment Characteristics by State of Origin for State of Destination: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. Detail may not add to total because of rounding]

Value Tons Ton~miles
State of origin
Number Number Number
(million dollars) Percent (thousands) Percent (millions) Percent

Total ...................................................... 102 491 100.0 253 122 100.0 53 441 100.0

NEW ENGLAND STATES

Connecticut ........................................................ 414 .4 137 – 167 .3
Maine ............................................................. 87 – 34 – 52 .1
Massachusetts ..................................................... S S 52 – 62 .1
New Hampshire .................................................... 258 .3 10 – 12 –
Rhode Island ....................................................... 63 – S S S S
Vermont ........................................................... S S 14 – 17 –

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES

New Jersey ........................................................ 1 226 1.2 236 – 235 .4
New York .......................................................... 1 303 1.3 547 .2 627 1.2
Pennsylvania ....................................................... 2 239 2.2 766 .3 694 1.3

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES

Illinois ............................................................. 2 397 2.3 4 700 1.9 3 390 6.3
Indiana ............................................................ 2 234 2.2 1 234 .5 660 1.2
Michigan........................................................... 1 258 1.2 1 093 .4 910 1.7
Ohio .............................................................. 3 016 2.9 2 550 1.0 1 819 3.4
Wisconsin ......................................................... 1 634 1.6 355 .1 305 .6

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES

Iowa .............................................................. 521 .5 307 .1 280 .5
Kansas ............................................................ 473 .5 260 .1 243 .5
Minnesota ......................................................... 646 .6 427 .2 556 1.0
Missouri ........................................................... 1 176 1.1 711 .3 468 .9
Nebraska .......................................................... 269 .3 165 – 174 .3
North Dakota ....................................................... 21 – 12 – 18 –
South Dakota ...................................................... 66 – S S S S

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES

Delaware .......................................................... 144 .1 116 – 112 .2
District of Columbia ................................................. S S S S S S
Florida ............................................................ 2 598 2.5 2 895 1.1 1 173 2.2
Georgia ........................................................... 9 020 8.8 11 085 4.4 2 483 4.6
Maryland .......................................................... 222 .2 50 – 40 –
North Carolina ...................................................... S S 1 519 .6 790 1.5
South Carolina ..................................................... 1 986 1.9 1 353 .5 577 1.1
Virginia ............................................................ 1 420 1.4 2 521 1.0 1 436 2.7
West Virginia ....................................................... 289 .3 2 725 1.1 2 239 4.2

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

Alabama ........................................................... 34 369 33.5 174 884 69.1 10 416 19.5
Kentucky .......................................................... 1 703 1.7 7 838 3.1 3 456 6.5
Mississippi ......................................................... 3 008 2.9 9 782 3.9 S S
Tennessee ......................................................... 5 211 5.1 8 763 3.5 1 379 2.6

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

Arkansas .......................................................... 784 .8 1 156 .5 480 .9
Louisiana .......................................................... 2 116 2.1 4 393 1.7 1 321 2.5
Oklahoma ......................................................... 387 .4 595 .2 519 1.0
Texas ............................................................. 3 739 3.6 2 345 .9 1 769 3.3

MOUNTAIN STATES

Arizona ............................................................ S S 24 – 41 –
Colorado .......................................................... 393 .4 2 845 1.1 4 510 8.4
Idaho.............................................................. S S 48 – 112 .2
Montana ........................................................... S S S S S S
Nevada ............................................................ 18 – 3 – S S
New Mexico ........................................................ 42 – S S S S
Utah .............................................................. 78 – S S S S
Wyoming .......................................................... S S 3 218 1.3 5 061 9.5

PACIFIC STATES

Alaska............................................................. S S S S S S
California .......................................................... 3 000 2.9 370 .1 861 1.6
Hawaii............................................................. 5 – 4 – 19 –
Oregon ............................................................ 167 .2 61 – 166 .3
Washington ........................................................ 1 408 1.4 245 .1 663 1.2

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However,
figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

34 ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Appendix A.
Comparability With the 1993 Commodity Flow Survey

The Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) restores a data pro- 1993. For the 1997 CFS, the Census Bureau incorporated
gram on commodity flows that the Census Bureau con- improvements identified from the evaluation of previous
ducted as a part of its 5-year economic census program surveys and additional research. The following table
from 1963 through 1977. The CFS was first conducted in shows a comparison of the 1993 and 1997 surveys.

Item 1993 1997
1. Industry coverage Manufacturers (minor exceptions) Manufacturers (minor exceptions)
Mining (except mining services and oil and Mining (except mining services)
gas extraction)
All wholesale All wholesale
Video tape distributers
Catalog mail-order houses Catalog mail-order houses
Auxiliaries (e.g., warehouses) Auxiliaries (e.g., warehouses)

2. Commodity classification Standard Transportation Commodity Standard Classification of Transported Goods
system Classification (STCC), developed by (SCTG).
the American Association of Railroads (AAR).

3. Sample size Approximately 200,000 establishments were Approximately 100,000 establishments were
selected from a universe of about 800,000 selected from a universe of about 800,000
in-scope establishments on the 1992 in-scope establishments on the 1995
Standard Statistical Establishment List (SSEL). Standard Statistical Establishment List (SSEL).

4. Survey methodology Respondents took a sample of their Respondents took a sample of their individual
individual outbound shipments for a 2-week outbound shipments for a 1-week period
period during each of the four calendar during each of the four calendar quarters of
quarters of 1993. 1997.
Respondents reported key characteristics for Respondents reported key characteristics for
each sampled shipment. each sampled shipment.

5. Reported mode of Rail Rail
transportation
For-hire truck For-hire truck
Private truck Private truck
Air Air
Inland water and/or Great Lakes Shallow draft vessel
Deep sea water Deep draft vessel
Pipeline Pipeline
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier Parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier
Other Other
Unknown Unknown

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX A A–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Item 1993 1997

6. Data items requested on For each shipment: For each shipment:
questionnaire
Total value Total value
Total weight Total weight
Major commodity (STCC) Major commodity (SCTG)
All modes of transportation All modes of transportation
Multiple origins (respondents specifically Single origin (assumed to be the mailing
requested to report all shipment origins for address unless the respondent provided a
the sampled establishment and report the different physical location address).
appropriate origin for each shipment; assumed
to always be the mailing address if no other
origins listed).
Destination Destination
Containerized (Y/N) Containerized (Y/N)
Hazardous material (Y/N) Hazardous material (UN/NA codes)
Export (Y/N) Export (Y/N)
If export, mode of export, foreign country,and If export, mode of export, foreign country,and
city of destination. city of destination.

A–2 APPENDIX A TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Appendix B.
Reliability of the Estimates

An estimate based on a sample survey potentially con- sample and are also subject to sampling variability. (Tech-
tains two types of errors—sampling and nonsampling. nically, we should refer to the estimated standard error or
Sampling error occurs because characteristics differ the estimated coefficient of variation of an estimator. How-
among sampling units and because only a subset of the ever, we have omitted this detail for the sake of brevity.) It
entire population is measured in a sample survey. Non- is important to note that the standard error and coefficient
sampling error encompasses all other factors that contrib- of variation only measure sampling variability. They do
ute to the total error of a sample survey estimate. The not measure any biases in the estimates. All coefficients of
accuracy of a survey result may be affected by these two variation are expressed as percents. Standard errors for
types of errors. the corresponding percentage estimates are also provided.
Sampling and nonsampling errors are often measured An estimate of an unknown population value and its
by the quantities, bias and variance. The bias of an esti- approximate standard error can be used to construct a
mator of an unknown population value is the difference, confidence interval. A confidence interval is a range about
averaged over all possible samples of the same size and a given estimator that has a specified probability, or confi-
design, between the estimator and the unknown popula- dence, of containing the unknown population value. If, for
tion value. Any systematic error, or inaccuracy that affects each possible sample, an estimate of an unknown popula-
all samples of a specified design in a similar way, may bias tion value and the estimate’s approximate standard error
the resulting estimates. Variance is the squared difference, were obtained, then:
averaged over all possible samples of the same size and
1. For approximately 90 percent of the possible samples,
design, between an estimator and its average value.
the interval from 1.65 standard errors below to 1.65
Descriptions of sampling and nonsampling errors for the
standard errors above the estimate would include the
1997 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) are provided in the
unknown population value.
following sections.
2. For approximately 95 percent of the possible samples,
SAMPLING ERROR the interval from two standard errors below to two
standard errors above the estimate would include the
Because the estimates are based on a sample, exact
unknown population value.
agreement with the results that would be obtained from a
complete enumeration of all the shipments made in 1997
NONSAMPLING ERROR
from all establishments included on the CFS sampling
frame is not expected. However, because probability sam- Nonsampling error encompasses all other factors that
pling was used at each stage of selection, it is possible to contribute to the total error of a sample survey estimate
estimate the sampling variability of the survey estimates. and may also occur in censuses. It is often helpful to think
For CFS estimates, sampling variability arises from each of of nonsampling error as arising from deficiencies or mis-
the three stages of sampling. (See Appendix C for a takes in the survey process. In the CFS, nonsampling error
description of the sample design.) can be attributed to many sources: (1) nonresponse, (2)
The particular sample used in this survey is one of a response errors, (3) differences in the interpretation of the
large number of samples of the same size and design that questions, (4) mistakes in coding or keying the data
could have been selected. If all possible samples had been obtained, and (5) other errors of collection, response, cov-
surveyed, under the same conditions, an estimate of an erage, and processing. Although no direct measurement of
unknown population value could have been obtained from the potential biases because of nonsampling error has
each sample. The estimates obtained from these samples been obtained, precautionary steps were taken in all
give rise to a distribution of estimates for the unknown phases of the collection, processing, and tabulation of the
population value. A statistical measure of the variability data in an effort to minimize its influence.
among these estimates is the standard error, which can be A potentially large source of bias in the estimates is due
approximated from any one sample. The coefficient of to nonresponse. Nonresponse is defined as the inability to
variation (or relative standard error) of an estimate is the obtain all the intended measurements or responses from
standard error of the estimate divided by the estimate. all the selected establishments. Four levels of nonre-
Measures of sampling variability, such as the standard sponse can occur in the CFS: item, shipment, quarter
error or coefficient of variation, are estimated from the (reporting week), and establishment. Item nonresponse

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX B B–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
occurs either when a question is unanswered or the returned to the Census Bureau, after several attempts to
response to the question fails computer or analyst edits. elicit a response. Approximately 67 percent of the
Item nonresponse is corrected by imputation. (Imputation sampled establishments provided at least one quarter of
is the procedure by which a missing value is replaced by a data that contributed to tabulations.
predicted value obtained from an appropriate model.)
Some possible sources of bias that are attributed to
Shipment, quarter, and establishment nonresponse are
respondent-conducted sampling include misunderstanding
used to describe the inability to obtain sufficient informa-
the definition of a shipment, constructing an incomplete
tion about a sampled shipment, quarter, or establishment,
frame of shipments from which to sample, ordering the
respectively, that prevents it from contributing to tabula-
shipment sampling frame by selected shipment character-
tions. Shipment and quarter nonresponse are corrected
istics, and selecting shipment records by a method other
during the estimation procedure by reweighting.
Reweighting allocates characteristics to the nonrespon- than the one specified in the questionnaire’s instructions.
dents in proportion to the characteristics observed for the We often contacted respondents who reported shipments
respondents. The amount of bias introduced by this non- having atypically large value or weight when compared to
response adjustment procedure depends on the extent to the rest of their reported shipments. Upon contact, if we
which the nonrespondents differ, characteristically, from are able to collect information on all of a given respon-
the respondents. Establishment nonresponse is corrected dent’s large shipments made either for a particular report-
during the estimation procedure by the SIC-level adjust- ing week or for the entire quarter, then we identify these
ment weight. (See Appendix C for a description of the esti- large shipments as certainty shipments. (See Appendix C
mation procedure.) In most cases of establishment nonre- for a description of how certainty shipments are used in
sponse, none of the four questionnaires have been the estimation process.)

B–2 APPENDIX B TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Table B–1a. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
Mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

All modes ...................................................... 4.0 – 15.4 – 12.7 – 9.4

Single modes ..................................................... 4.2 1.4 15.8 .8 13.2 1.0 7.1

Truck ................................................................... 4.0 1.5 18.0 2.7 15.7 2.9 7.2
For~hire truck .......................................................... 3.5 1.7 19.4 2.6 7.1 3.0 4.9
Private truck ........................................................... 8.4 1.9 19.2 3.5 35.1 3.1 9.7

Rail .................................................................... 15.4 .9 13.5 2.4 14.0 3.1 9.1

Water .................................................................. 30.0 .2 28.0 1.1 30.9 1.3 38.8
Shallow draft .......................................................... 30.0 .2 28.0 1.1 30.9 1.3 38.8
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. 21.8 .4 33.9 – 43.1 – 6.2
Pipeline ................................................................. S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 13.3 .7 S S 32.8 .3 8.3

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 14.0 .7 13.4 – 16.1 – 8.4
Truck and rail ............................................................ 21.1 .1 S S 42.1 .3 16.0
Truck and water ......................................................... S S S S S S S
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – 33.3
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – 33.3

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 21.2 .8 23.9 .7 29.5 .9 29.1

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

Table B–1b. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation for
State of Origin: 1997 and 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles Average miles per shipment

Coefficient of variation of Coefficient of variation of Coefficient of variation of Coefficient of
Mode of transportation Standard Standard Standard Standard
number number number variation
error of error of error of error of
percent percent percent percent
1997 1993 change 1997 1993 change 1997 1993 change 1997 1993 change

All modes ................. 4.0 3.3 6.0 15.4 5.8 19.3 12.7 3.0 15.6 9.4 4.9 14.5

Single modes................ 4.2 3.4 6.0 15.8 5.0 20.3 13.2 2.7 16.8 7.1 7.0 9.7

Truck.............................. 4.0 4.2 6.4 18.0 5.3 22.3 15.7 3.5 20.4 7.2 7.0 11.4
For~hire truck ..................... 3.5 6.6 8.4 19.4 7.9 23.1 7.1 3.5 8.9 4.9 4.7 7.7
Private truck ..................... 8.4 3.6 9.8 19.2 6.9 25.7 35.1 5.4 56.9 9.7 7.0 13.0

Rail ............................... 15.4 6.8 19.3 13.5 7.5 19.7 14.0 6.0 17.6 9.1 2.3 9.3

Water ............................. 30.0 25.3 31.7 28.0 27.2 103.3 30.9 25.8 78.7 38.8 26.0 6.5
Shallow draft ..................... 30.0 25.1 38.3 28.0 27.7 106.6 30.9 24.7 94.4 38.8 44.1 78.1
Great Lakes ...................... – – – – – – – – – – – –
Deep draft ....................... – S S – 44.8 – – S S – 29.3 –

Air (includes truck and air) ........... 21.8 16.9 44.3 33.9 37.7 84.9 43.1 32.3 72.0 6.2 10.2 13.1
Pipeline ........................... S S S S S S S S S S S S

Multiple modes .............. 13.3 7.5 21.9 S 38.3 S 32.8 38.0 14.2 8.3 5.4 12.5

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier . 14.0 8.0 24.5 13.4 5.8 17.7 16.1 10.1 24.1 8.4 5.5 12.6
Truck and rail ...................... 21.1 24.6 48.1 S 38.5 S 42.1 21.7 96.7 16.0 15.6 22.5
Truck and water .................... S 23.5 S S 40.0 S S 39.5 S S 37.4 S
Rail and water ...................... – S S – S S – S S 33.3 31.6 266.8
Other multiple modes ............... – – S – – S – – S 33.3 – S

Other and unknown modes ... 21.2 14.9 43.9 23.9 33.2 21.9 29.5 14.8 50.5 29.1 17.8 18.1

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–3
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–1c. Standard Error of Percentage for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of
Transportation for State of Origin: Percent of Total for 1997 and 1993
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value (percent) Tons (percent) Ton~miles (percent)
Mode of transportation
1997 1993 1997 1993 1997 1993

All modes ................................................. – – – – – –

Single modes................................................ 1.4 .6 .8 1.6 1.0 1.9

Truck.............................................................. 1.5 .7 2.7 1.5 2.9 1.8
For~hire truck ..................................................... 1.7 1.5 2.6 1.8 3.0 1.3
Private truck ..................................................... 1.9 1.2 3.5 2.2 3.1 .8

Rail ............................................................... .9 .6 2.4 .9 3.1 1.9

Water ............................................................. .2 .3 1.1 .4 1.3 .7
Shallow draft ..................................................... .2 .2 1.1 .4 1.3 .5
Great Lakes ...................................................... – – – – – –
Deep draft ....................................................... – S – – – S

Air (includes truck and air) ........................................... .4 .3 – – – –
Pipeline ........................................................... S S S S S S

Multiple modes .............................................. .7 .3 S .8 .3 1.8

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ................................. .7 .3 – – – –
Truck and rail ...................................................... .1 – S – .3 .1
Truck and water .................................................... S – S .6 S 1.4
Rail and water ...................................................... – S – S – S
Other multiple modes ............................................... – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ................................... .8 .3 .7 1.5 .9 .3

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

Table B–2. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Total Modal Activity for the
State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Ton~miles
Average miles
Mode of transportation Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage variation

Total ................................................... 12.7 – 9.4

Truck ......................................................... 15.7 2.9 7.2
Rail .......................................................... 14.0 3.1 8.6
Shallow draft .................................................. 30.7 1.3 36.4
Great Lakes ................................................... – – 33.3
Deep draft .................................................... 19.0 – 31.6

Air ........................................................... 43.8 – 6.5
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................. 16.1 – 8.4
Pipeline ....................................................... S S S
Other and unknown modes ...................................... 29.5 .9 29.1

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

B–4 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–3. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and
Distance Shipped for State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

All modes ....................................... 4.0 – 15.4 – 12.7 –
Less than 50 miles .......................................... 5.5 .8 18.4 2.8 21.2 1.0
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 10.0 .8 21.5 1.2 21.3 1.2
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 9.1 1.0 7.0 2.0 7.3 2.0
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 5.8 .8 44.8 2.5 38.0 4.0
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 6.0 1.0 6.2 .7 6.4 2.0
750 to 999 miles ............................................ 7.8 .4 20.9 .5 22.7 1.7
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 27.2 .9 7.5 – 7.7 .3
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 7.7 .3 26.3 .3 28.8 2.3
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 15.9 .1 16.4 – 16.8 .5

Single modes...................................... 4.2 – 15.8 – 13.2 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 5.6 1.0 19.2 3.1 22.6 1.1
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 10.6 .9 21.8 1.2 21.5 1.3
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 9.7 1.1 5.5 2.1 5.1 1.8
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 5.4 .9 45.8 2.5 39.0 4.1
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 5.3 .9 7.6 .7 7.7 2.2

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 9.4 .4 20.7 .5 22.7 1.7
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 32.8 1.0 8.0 – 8.0 .4
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 12.5 .3 26.5 .3 29.1 2.3
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 19.0 .1 17.3 – 18.0 .5

Truck ............................................... 4.0 – 18.0 – 15.7 –
Less than 50 miles .......................................... 5.6 1.0 21.0 3.7 26.2 1.7
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 11.0 .9 23.1 1.4 22.9 1.8
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 10.6 1.3 9.6 2.3 9.2 2.0
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 3.7 1.0 S S 44.4 4.6
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 6.4 .9 9.2 .7 9.1 2.3

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 8.6 .4 9.4 .2 9.5 .8
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 36.6 1.0 11.6 .1 11.5 .7
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 10.4 .2 13.3 – 13.4 .6
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 25.3 .2 19.5 – 19.5 .3

For~hire truck........................................ 3.5 – 19.4 – 7.1 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 8.8 .9 22.9 3.2 21.2 .8
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 6.0 .5 44.7 4.4 43.9 3.3
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 3.5 .7 11.5 2.0 9.4 1.2
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 5.6 1.1 5.0 1.5 5.0 1.2
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 7.3 1.3 9.5 1.4 9.4 2.2

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 9.2 .6 10.3 .5 10.4 1.0
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 39.5 1.8 12.9 .2 12.6 .8
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 9.6 .3 12.8 .1 13.0 .7
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 27.8 .3 25.4 – 25.3 .5

Private truck ........................................ 8.4 – 19.2 – 35.1 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 7.1 2.9 23.8 6.2 32.2 4.8
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 17.2 1.5 17.7 3.2 15.0 3.0
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 19.3 2.0 13.2 2.6 13.5 4.7
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 6.6 1.0 S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 11.2 .4 18.9 .2 18.9 2.0

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 15.3 .2 15.3 – 15.0 .6
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 14.3 – 33.3 – 33.4 .6
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 31.7 .1 34.2 – 33.0 .5
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 36.2 – 41.5 – 40.9 .5

Rail ................................................. 15.4 – 13.5 – 14.0 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 31.2 1.6 30.4 4.8 36.9 .6
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 26.2 1.1 40.5 1.8 34.7 .5
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 11.4 2.0 15.5 7.0 14.5 3.7
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 26.6 4.6 22.4 2.3 23.0 3.1
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 14.7 2.4 12.1 1.3 12.6 3.8

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 27.1 1.7 37.8 1.2 39.6 2.9
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 17.8 .4 18.5 .2 19.4 .6
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 28.7 2.5 36.7 1.0 38.4 4.3
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 49.8 .6 S S S S

Water ............................................... 30.0 – 28.0 – 30.9 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... S S 49.5 13.5 S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. S S S S S S
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 41.5 13.2 41.6 13.2 41.3 15.0
250 to 499 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ S S S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –

Shallow draft ........................................ 30.0 – 28.0 – 30.9 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... S S 49.5 13.5 S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. S S S S S S
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 41.5 13.2 41.6 13.2 41.3 15.0
250 to 499 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ S S S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –

See footnotes at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–5
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–3. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and
Distance Shipped for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

Single modesmCon.
Great Lakes ......................................... – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –
Deep draft ........................................... – – – – – –
Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –
Air (includes truck and air) ........................... 21.8 – 33.9 – 43.1 –
Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 41.0 1.1 S S 42.7 .1
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 45.8 5.2 29.1 6.9 26.8 3.1
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 32.6 7.3 33.1 3.1 31.1 1.9
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 40.9 6.5 S S S S
750 to 999 miles ............................................ 42.2 3.2 16.4 1.5 15.9 2.0
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ S S 24.3 1.9 22.6 3.2
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 33.7 2.1 37.1 1.2 37.8 2.2
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 40.0 1.2 S S S S
Pipeline ............................................. S S S S S S
Less than 50 miles .......................................... S S S S S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. S S S S S S
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – S S
250 to 499 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – S S
750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – S S
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – S S
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – S S
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – S S
Multiple modes .................................... 13.3 – S S 32.8 –
Less than 50 miles .......................................... 14.5 1.8 S S S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 21.2 .8 28.1 1.7 27.0 .2
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 20.3 1.3 41.4 3.3 49.1 .7
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 13.7 .9 42.1 5.9 S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 16.7 2.4 S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 17.8 1.7 30.2 4.6 28.9 4.5
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 20.7 .7 48.2 .8 S S
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 14.3 1.0 41.6 5.1 42.9 6.9
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 19.3 .4 29.8 1.3 29.7 3.1

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ................. 14.0 – 13.4 – 16.1 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 12.1 1.4 27.6 1.5 35.7 .2
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 21.2 .9 25.2 1.5 24.4 .4
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 20.9 1.5 20.3 2.0 18.2 1.1
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 14.4 .7 13.1 1.6 13.3 1.5
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 17.5 2.5 16.9 1.9 17.7 1.9

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 17.7 1.4 14.7 .9 15.2 1.0
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 21.4 .8 11.0 .7 11.1 1.2
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 17.7 .7 21.8 .9 21.9 2.4
2,000 miles or more ......................................... 22.0 .5 43.3 .7 43.3 2.2

Truck and rail ....................................... 21.1 – S S 42.1 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... S S S S S S
50 to 99 miles .............................................. S S S S S S
100 to 249 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
250 to 499 miles ............................................ S S S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ S S S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ S S 45.3 9.6 42.3 8.5
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ S S S S S S
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 33.0 8.9 47.2 10.0 47.8 9.7
2,000 miles or more ......................................... S S S S S S

Truck and water ..................................... S S S S S S

Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ S S S S S S

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... S S S S S S

See footnotes at end of table.

B–6 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–3. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and
Distance Shipped for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Mode of transportation and distance shipped
(based on Great Circle Distance) Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

Multiple modesmCon.

Rail and water ....................................... – – – – – –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –

Other multiple modes ................................ – – – – – –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... – – – – – –
50 to 99 miles .............................................. – – – – – –
100 to 249 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
250 to 499 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
500 to 749 miles ............................................ – – – – – –

750 to 999 miles ............................................ – – – – – –
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ – – – – – –
2,000 miles or more ......................................... – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ......................... 21.2 – 23.9 – 29.5 –

Less than 50 miles .......................................... 21.4 3.3 41.3 10.4 30.5 3.0
50 to 99 miles .............................................. 30.2 1.3 28.3 8.0 28.9 2.5
100 to 249 miles ............................................ 29.9 1.9 S S S S
250 to 499 miles ............................................ 25.8 3.4 S S S S
500 to 749 miles ............................................ 44.5 3.9 45.9 3.0 43.6 6.1

750 to 999 miles ............................................ 32.9 3.7 39.5 .7 38.5 1.8
1,000 to 1,499 miles ........................................ 37.5 .4 S S S S
1,500 to 1,999 miles ........................................ 45.6 1.8 27.3 .8 27.0 5.4
2,000 miles or more ......................................... S S 48.1 .2 45.8 2.7
– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–7
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–4. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and
Shipment Size for State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
Mode of transportation and shipment size Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

All modes .................................................... 4.0 – 15.4 – 12.7 – 9.4
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 11.6 .6 7.3 – 18.8 – 10.4
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 7.7 .2 9.7 – 15.2 – 12.1
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 4.2 .4 4.9 – 8.9 – 7.7
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 7.9 .2 6.6 – 7.1 – 6.3
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 6.9 .1 7.4 – 5.2 – 7.4
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 6.5 1.1 8.1 .6 5.1 .4 7.7
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 7.2 1.9 11.1 2.4 5.8 3.2 8.0
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 7.8 .7 22.9 2.9 37.8 3.4 12.5
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 13.9 1.0 18.5 2.5 13.3 2.9 13.7
Single modes ................................................... 4.2 – 15.8 – 13.2 – 7.1
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 9.9 .2 9.7 – 11.2 – 18.9
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 10.5 .1 13.9 – 5.6 – 8.7
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 5.6 .5 6.7 – 11.7 – 9.6
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 9.1 .2 6.9 – 7.9 – 6.2
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 8.0 .2 7.5 – 5.0 – 7.8
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 7.1 1.2 8.0 .5 5.1 .4 7.7
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 7.6 1.9 11.0 2.4 6.4 3.3 7.1
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 7.7 .8 23.2 3.1 38.6 3.5 12.5
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 14.4 1.2 19.4 2.4 13.5 3.0 14.2
Truck ............................................................ 4.0 – 18.0 – 15.7 – 7.2
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 10.7 .2 9.8 – 12.6 – 20.7
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 10.4 .1 14.0 – 5.3 – 9.6
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 4.0 .4 6.7 – 12.1 .1 9.8
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 8.1 .2 6.9 – 8.4 – 6.6
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 8.1 .2 7.5 – 5.0 – 7.7
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 7.1 1.4 8.0 .7 5.0 .6 7.6
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 7.8 2.3 11.0 3.8 6.4 4.9 6.9
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 8.1 .8 23.3 2.9 39.6 5.0 13.0
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 25.5 .4 S S 37.9 1.4 S

For~hire truck ..................................................... 3.5 – 19.4 – 7.1 – 4.9

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 21.3 .2 16.9 – 20.4 – 8.3
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 22.0 .1 9.6 – 7.3 – 7.2
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 6.8 .4 13.2 – 14.5 .1 4.7
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 12.9 .3 10.5 – 10.6 – 4.1
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 11.8 .2 7.2 – 7.1 – 8.6

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 10.6 1.8 7.6 .4 6.1 .3 4.9
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 4.8 2.3 11.2 4.5 6.8 3.8 5.8
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 10.0 .7 30.3 5.1 24.2 3.5 12.1
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 28.2 .5 26.3 1.1 22.6 .8 13.9

Private truck ...................................................... 8.4 – 19.2 – 35.1 – 9.7

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 12.3 .4 12.2 – 11.6 – 10.8
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 10.3 .2 15.5 – 15.3 – 10.8
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 6.5 .8 7.1 .1 14.2 .1 12.0
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 9.2 .3 8.5 – 20.9 .1 15.5
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 14.6 .3 9.1 – 11.7 – 11.3

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 7.4 1.5 10.1 1.3 7.2 1.5 11.6
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 17.6 3.2 12.2 4.3 7.0 7.5 11.5
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 11.9 1.6 26.0 3.8 S S 21.1
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 41.6 .8 S S S S 41.2

Rail .............................................................. 15.4 – 13.5 – 14.0 – 9.1

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. S S S S S S 31.6
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... S S 33.8 – 37.4 – 23.2
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 19.8 1.8 17.7 .4 20.1 .9 16.6
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 28.1 1.0 27.0 .7 28.3 .8 38.3
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 16.4 2.0 13.9 .8 14.8 1.2 7.4

Water ............................................................ 30.0 – 28.0 – 30.9 – 38.8

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 30.0 – 28.0 – 30.9 – 38.8

Shallow draft ..................................................... 30.0 – 28.0 – 30.9 – 38.8

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 30.0 – 28.0 – 30.9 – 38.8

See footnote at end of table.

B–8 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–4. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and
Shipment Size for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
Mode of transportation and shipment size Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

Single modesmCon.
Great Lakes ...................................................... – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ........................................................ – – – – – – –
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –
Air (includes truck and air) ........................................ 21.8 – 33.9 – 43.1 – 6.2
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 33.5 5.1 13.8 1.8 12.9 2.2 5.9
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 29.0 2.5 19.0 1.1 19.6 1.6 7.4
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 24.5 7.7 18.2 6.7 23.3 7.3 11.2
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 44.2 4.5 36.3 4.6 34.5 4.3 38.1
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 44.7 .3 42.6 .7 S S 21.2
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 33.2 5.9 33.5 7.5 46.4 7.0 18.6
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... S S S S S S 30.0
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –
Pipeline .......................................................... S S S S S S S
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... S S S S S S S
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – S S S
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S S
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – S S S
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S S
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – S S S
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... S S S S S S S
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... S S S S S S S
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... S S S S S S S
Multiple modes ................................................. 13.3 – S S 32.8 – 8.3
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 16.8 3.4 15.2 6.3 22.9 4.5 8.6
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 12.1 1.2 14.8 3.0 21.6 2.3 9.6
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 11.1 1.6 11.2 3.2 9.2 2.7 8.3
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 33.1 .5 38.7 .7 23.0 .3 23.3
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 39.6 .3 38.5 .5 24.5 .4 S
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 46.9 .2 49.7 1.0 S S 29.8
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 20.8 1.1 39.8 6.1 38.0 6.5 15.7
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... S S 31.7 3.4 32.4 2.0 37.1
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... S S S S S S 45.8
Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ............................... 14.0 – 13.4 – 16.1 – 8.4
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 16.8 3.0 15.2 2.9 22.9 3.8 8.6
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 12.1 1.5 14.8 1.4 21.6 2.0 9.6
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 11.1 1.8 11.2 2.0 9.2 3.3 8.3
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 33.1 .6 38.7 .9 23.0 .8 23.3
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 39.7 .4 38.6 1.4 24.6 .8 S
1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... S S S S S S 48.9
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ..................................................... 21.1 – S S 42.1 – 16.0
Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... S S S S S S 24.6
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 20.8 5.6 39.8 17.0 38.0 6.6 15.9
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... S S 37.2 7.6 39.6 4.4 39.8
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... S S S S S S 47.1

Truck and water .................................................. S S S S S S S

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – .5 – .1 – .1 33.3
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... S S S S S S 31.6
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... S S S S S S 31.6
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –

See footnote at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–9
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–4. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Mode of Transportation and
Shipment Size for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]
Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
Mode of transportation and shipment size Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

Multiple modesmCon.

Rail and water .................................................... – – – – – – 33.3

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – 33.3
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – –

Other multiple modes ............................................. – – – – – – 33.3

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... – – – – – – –
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. – – – – – – –
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ – – – – – – –

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... – – – – – – –
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... – – – – – – –
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... – – – – – – 33.3

Other and unknown modes ...................................... 21.2 – 23.9 – 29.5 – 29.1

Less than 50 lb .......................................................... 23.3 1.3 27.3 .1 23.5 – 16.1
50 to 99 lb .............................................................. 27.9 .7 34.9 – 30.9 – S
100 to 499 lb ............................................................ 26.9 2.4 37.2 .4 18.0 .1 S
500 to 749 lb ............................................................ 46.3 .8 42.1 .1 45.7 – S
750 to 999 lb ............................................................ 29.4 .3 43.4 – 45.3 .1 S

1,000 to 9,999 lb ......................................................... 21.4 5.3 26.5 7.5 15.8 3.5 21.5
10,000 to 49,999 lb ....................................................... 35.9 6.9 32.8 5.9 22.7 5.8 S
50,000 to 99,999 lb ....................................................... 36.8 .7 40.3 7.2 S S S
100,000 lb or more ....................................................... 32.5 .9 S S 49.4 10.5 S
– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

B–10 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–5. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity for
State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
SCTG Average miles
Commodity description Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
code
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

All commodities ........................................... 4.0 – 15.4 – 12.7 – 9.4

01 Live animals and live fish .......................................... 31.8 – 30.0 – 30.9 – 13.7
02 Cereal grains .................................................... S S S S S S 29.3
03 Other agricultural products ......................................... 42.3 .3 47.3 .3 46.8 .2 13.9
04 Animal feed and products of animal origin, n.e.c. ..................... 18.1 .2 27.7 .4 31.9 .6 S
05 Meat, fish, seafood, and their preparations ........................... 13.3 .5 15.6 .2 19.5 .5 25.4

06 Milled grain products and preparations, and bakery products ........... 22.1 .1 21.7 – 24.7 – S
07 Other prepared foodstuffs and fats and oils .......................... 22.7 .6 23.9 .5 25.0 .6 42.7
08 Alcoholic beverages .............................................. 12.4 – 17.5 – 25.2 – 10.9
09 Tobacco products ................................................ 15.6 .1 21.6 – 40.0 – 34.1
10 Monumental or building stone ...................................... S S S S S S 28.3

11 Natural sands .................................................... 35.0 – S S S S 21.6
12 Gravel and crushed stone ......................................... 32.0 – 33.5 2.4 20.0 .6 37.8
13 Nonmetallic minerals n.e.c. ........................................ S S 22.8 .3 13.0 .3 23.5
14 Metallic ores and concentrates ..................................... S S S S S S 30.2
15 Coal ............................................................ 14.9 .2 15.6 2.4 17.7 2.2 24.3

17 Gasoline and aviation turbine fuel................................... 25.7 .9 25.3 1.6 26.0 .4 16.6
18 Fuel oils ......................................................... 20.5 .2 18.1 .4 37.9 .2 S
19 Coal and petroleum products, n.e.c. ................................ 18.0 .2 21.1 .6 17.5 .7 26.5
20 Basic chemicals .................................................. 30.2 .9 44.3 .7 46.8 1.5 33.1
21 Pharmaceutical products .......................................... 34.4 .6 32.6 – 24.7 – 18.1

22 Fertilizers........................................................ 29.4 .1 36.6 .4 41.6 1.0 44.8
23 Chemical products and preparations, n.e.c. .......................... 34.9 .9 43.1 .1 S S 22.3
24 Plastics and rubber ............................................... 14.8 .6 23.8 .2 22.1 .5 17.9
25 Logs and other wood in the rough .................................. 24.9 .2 31.9 3.6 25.7 .9 12.5
26 Wood products ................................................... 8.2 .4 14.8 .8 6.9 .7 7.2

27 Pulp, newsprint, paper, and paperboard ............................. 15.6 .7 17.6 .7 22.0 2.1 20.6
28 Paper or paperboard articles ....................................... 22.5 .2 22.3 .1 20.0 – 24.5
29 Printed products .................................................. 20.3 .3 18.1 – 15.6 – 14.5
30 Textiles, leather, and articles of textiles or leather ..................... 9.4 .9 7.7 – 9.3 .4 7.2
31 Nonmetallic mineral products ...................................... 13.5 .2 13.1 1.3 8.2 .5 18.1

32 Base metal in primary or semifinished forms and in finished basic
shapes ......................................................... 7.0 .6 12.1 .7 17.7 1.8 16.8
33 Articles of base metal ............................................. 9.9 .6 21.2 .6 23.5 1.5 15.4
34 Machinery ....................................................... 13.4 .6 23.4 – 26.6 .2 13.4
35 Electronic and other electrical equipment and components and office
equipment ...................................................... 14.1 1.5 15.9 – 12.5 .2 12.6
36 Motorized and other vehicles (including parts) ........................ 15.0 .6 7.1 – 13.4 .1 17.3

37 Transportation equipment, n.e.c. ................................... 23.3 .2 29.6 – 29.4 .1 9.5
38 Precision instruments and apparatus ................................ 45.3 .2 32.7 – 38.1 – 35.3
39 Furniture, mattresses and mattress supports, lamps, lighting fittings, and
illuminated signs ................................................ 12.0 .2 16.5 – 16.7 .1 11.0
40 Miscellaneous manufactured products .............................. 34.4 1.9 31.3 .5 23.9 .2 18.0
41 Waste and scrap ................................................. 22.3 – 28.6 .3 31.9 .2 22.3
43 Mixed freight ..................................................... 15.4 .6 18.0 .2 18.8 .2 17.3
~~ Commodity unknown.............................................. 43.2 .1 S S S S 20.2

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–11
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

ALL COMMODITIES

Total ......................................................... 4.0 – 15.4 – 12.7 – 9.4

Single modes ..................................................... 4.2 1.4 15.8 .8 13.2 1.0 7.1

Truck ................................................................... 4.0 1.5 18.0 2.7 15.7 2.9 7.2
For~hire truck .......................................................... 3.5 1.7 19.4 2.6 7.1 3.0 4.9
Private truck ........................................................... 8.4 1.9 19.2 3.5 35.1 3.1 9.7

Rail .................................................................... 15.4 .9 13.5 2.4 14.0 3.1 9.1

Water .................................................................. 30.0 .2 28.0 1.1 30.9 1.3 38.8
Shallow draft .......................................................... 30.0 .2 28.0 1.1 30.9 1.3 38.8
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. 21.8 .4 33.9 – 43.1 – 6.2
Pipeline ................................................................. S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 13.3 .7 S S 32.8 .3 8.3

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 14.0 .7 13.4 – 16.1 – 8.4
Truck and rail ............................................................ 21.1 .1 S S 42.1 .3 16.0
Truck and water ......................................................... S S S S S S S
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – 33.3
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – 33.3

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 21.2 .8 23.9 .7 29.5 .9 29.1

SCTG 01, LIVE ANIMALS AND LIVE FISH

Total ........................................................... 31.8 – 30.0 – 30.9 – 13.7

Single modes ..................................................... 31.8 – 30.0 – 30.9 – 13.7

Truck ................................................................... 31.8 – 30.0 – 30.9 – 13.7
For~hire truck .......................................................... 40.3 10.8 38.1 10.6 41.6 12.5 19.1
Private truck ........................................................... S S S S S S 27.9

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ – – – – – – –

SCTG 02, CEREAL GRAINS

Total ........................................................... S S S S S S 29.3

Single modes ..................................................... S S S S S S 24.4

Truck ................................................................... S S S S S S 24.3
For~hire truck .......................................................... S S S S S S 31.6
Private truck ........................................................... S S S S S S 31.5

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. S S S S S S 31.6
Shallow draft .......................................................... S S S S S S 31.6
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 39.8

See footnote at end of table.

B–12 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 03, OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

Total ........................................................... 42.3 – 47.3 – 46.8 – 13.9

Single modes ..................................................... 41.4 3.7 47.7 6.1 45.0 2.6 14.3

Truck ................................................................... 41.4 3.7 47.7 6.1 45.0 2.6 14.3
For~hire truck .......................................................... 47.3 11.4 S S S S 30.2
Private truck ........................................................... 42.7 11.4 S S 44.7 10.4 18.5

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 26.1

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 48.6 .1 S S S S 27.0
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 29.3

SCTG 04, ANIMAL FEED AND PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN,
N.E.C.

Total ........................................................... 18.1 – 27.7 – 31.9 – S

Single modes ..................................................... 16.6 2.6 24.4 2.2 30.5 3.2 49.0

Truck ................................................................... 16.2 3.2 24.5 2.7 33.3 7.2 S
For~hire truck .......................................................... 36.5 5.2 37.1 4.0 48.4 6.6 13.9
Private truck ........................................................... 15.5 5.9 27.9 4.7 34.7 5.2 43.3

Rail .................................................................... 36.9 1.7 35.1 1.4 47.0 6.3 23.8

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 30.1

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S 30.1
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 34.3

SCTG 05, MEAT, FISH, SEAFOOD, AND THEIR PREPARATIONS

Total ........................................................... 13.3 – 15.6 – 19.5 – 25.4

Single modes ..................................................... 13.4 .2 15.8 .5 19.8 1.7 26.0

Truck ................................................................... 13.4 .3 16.0 .8 19.8 1.7 26.6
For~hire truck .......................................................... 18.2 5.0 21.6 5.2 22.3 4.0 8.6
Private truck ........................................................... 15.2 4.3 14.7 4.4 22.0 3.0 34.5

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 31.6

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 33.0
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S 28.3
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... S S S S S S 31.6
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 35.7 .2 S S S S 37.6

See footnote at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–13
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 06, MILLED GRAIN PRODUCTS AND PREPARATIONS,
AND BAKERY PRODUCTS

Total ........................................................... 22.1 – 21.7 – 24.7 – S

Single modes ..................................................... 22.5 1.9 21.6 .7 24.6 1.3 S

Truck ................................................................... 22.5 1.9 21.6 .7 24.6 1.3 S
For~hire truck .......................................................... 25.8 11.9 34.3 11.2 40.4 13.0 33.1
Private truck ........................................................... 38.8 11.9 32.2 11.4 22.7 13.1 S

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 42.3 .2 S S 46.8 .2 28.4

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 42.3 .2 S S 46.8 .2 28.4
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 31.5

SCTG 07, OTHER PREPARED FOODSTUFFS AND FATS AND
OILS

Total ........................................................... 22.7 – 23.9 – 25.0 – 42.7

Single modes ..................................................... 23.1 1.3 23.9 .2 25.1 .3 19.4

Truck ................................................................... 23.7 2.8 25.4 3.2 31.7 8.2 19.6
For~hire truck .......................................................... 30.1 2.2 21.7 6.1 22.5 3.9 14.3
Private truck ........................................................... 24.6 3.8 28.0 7.0 37.8 10.1 10.7

Rail .................................................................... 48.8 1.9 41.8 3.1 33.0 8.1 26.7

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 40.4 .6 37.4 – 44.4 .2 15.4

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 40.4 .6 37.4 – 44.4 .2 15.4
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 45.8 1.3 S S S S 29.8

SCTG 08, ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES

Total ........................................................... 12.4 – 17.5 – 25.2 – 10.9

Single modes ..................................................... 12.4 – 17.5 – 25.2 – 10.9

Truck ................................................................... 12.4 – 17.5 – 25.2 – 10.9
For~hire truck .......................................................... 44.6 10.2 44.6 6.8 44.8 12.2 25.8
Private truck ........................................................... 18.9 10.2 21.1 6.8 39.7 12.2 12.2

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ – – – – – – –

See footnote at end of table.

B–14 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 09, TOBACCO PRODUCTS

Total ........................................................... 15.6 – 21.6 – 40.0 – 34.1

Single modes ..................................................... 15.9 2.0 21.9 1.7 36.9 4.4 25.0

Truck ................................................................... 15.9 2.0 21.9 1.7 36.9 4.4 25.0
For~hire truck .......................................................... S S S S S S 31.2
Private truck ........................................................... 15.1 3.0 22.9 3.7 43.7 11.2 27.2

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 28.0

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S 28.0
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 31.6

SCTG 10, MONUMENTAL OR BUILDING STONE

Total ........................................................... S S S S S S 28.3

Single modes ..................................................... S S S S S S 28.3

Truck ................................................................... S S S S S S 28.3
For~hire truck .......................................................... S S S S S S 31.6
Private truck ........................................................... S S S S S S 29.0

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ – – – – – – –

SCTG 11, NATURAL SANDS

Total ........................................................... 35.0 – S S S S 21.6

Single modes ..................................................... 35.0 – S S S S 21.6

Truck ................................................................... 34.9 .8 S S S S 21.6
For~hire truck .......................................................... 35.7 2.6 S S S S S
Private truck ........................................................... S S S S S S 22.8

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 31.6

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ – – – – – – –

See footnote at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–15
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 12, GRAVEL AND CRUSHED STONE

Total ........................................................... 32.0 – 33.5 – 20.0 – 37.8

Single modes ..................................................... 31.8 1.9 34.3 2.9 20.5 2.1 34.7

Truck ................................................................... 33.4 5.0 36.4 5.5 25.4 9.9 36.2
For~hire truck .......................................................... 37.2 6.1 47.6 5.4 35.4 8.3 S
Private truck ........................................................... 31.8 7.2 30.9 6.1 35.2 10.8 32.7

Rail .................................................................... 45.8 4.4 36.2 5.0 40.0 8.7 26.7

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S S

SCTG 13, NONMETALLIC MINERALS N.E.C.

Total ........................................................... S S 22.8 – 13.0 – 23.5

Single modes ..................................................... S S 22.8 .2 13.1 .5 23.1

Truck ................................................................... S S 34.5 7.6 29.4 6.7 18.8
For~hire truck .......................................................... 37.6 12.2 43.7 8.5 35.0 6.3 28.0
Private truck ........................................................... S S 46.5 6.0 S S 20.8

Rail .................................................................... 31.8 10.2 19.7 7.5 15.6 6.5 11.7

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – 31.6

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – 33.3

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 32.4

SCTG 14, METALLIC ORES AND CONCENTRATES

Total ........................................................... S S S S S S 30.2

Single modes ..................................................... S S S S S S 30.2

Truck ................................................................... S S S S S S 29.8
For~hire truck .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Private truck ........................................................... S S S S S S 29.8

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 27.9

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ – – – – – – –

See footnote at end of table.

B–16 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 15, COAL

Total ........................................................... 14.9 – 15.6 – 17.7 – 24.3

Single modes ..................................................... 13.7 3.0 14.5 3.1 17.5 4.2 31.5

Truck ................................................................... 35.9 6.2 37.0 6.8 S S 18.2
For~hire truck .......................................................... 38.6 6.6 40.1 7.2 S S 20.3
Private truck ........................................................... S S S S S S 39.7

Rail .................................................................... 16.6 8.9 15.2 9.0 15.3 9.9 12.1

Water .................................................................. S S S S S S 28.4
Shallow draft .......................................................... S S S S S S 28.4
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 31.6

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 30.2

SCTG 17, GASOLINE AND AVIATION TURBINE FUEL

Total ........................................................... 25.7 – 25.3 – 26.0 – 16.6

Single modes ..................................................... 25.9 1.8 25.5 1.7 26.5 2.7 15.3

Truck ................................................................... 25.9 1.8 25.5 1.7 26.5 2.7 15.3
For~hire truck .......................................................... 48.5 5.6 44.1 5.8 47.1 6.9 34.5
Private truck ........................................................... 26.9 6.5 26.9 6.6 20.7 7.0 24.4

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 37.4

SCTG 18, FUEL OILS

Total ........................................................... 20.5 – 18.1 – 37.9 – S

Single modes ..................................................... 20.9 1.3 18.5 1.3 37.9 .6 S

Truck ................................................................... 20.9 1.3 18.5 1.3 37.9 .6 S
For~hire truck .......................................................... 19.8 7.9 22.8 7.5 S S 26.6
Private truck ........................................................... 26.7 8.9 24.2 8.4 40.7 10.2 26.6

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... – – – – – – –

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 27.4

See footnote at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–17
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 19, COAL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, N.E.C.

Total ........................................................... 18.0 – 21.1 – 17.5 – 26.5

Single modes ..................................................... 18.0 .9 21.1 .3 17.6 .2 28.3

Truck ................................................................... 18.3 6.5 17.3 7.7 27.6 8.9 26.2
For~hire truck .......................................................... 28.8 7.2 23.5 8.4 32.5 7.7 18.1
Private truck ........................................................... 23.7 6.3 28.5 5.0 32.3 2.1 22.2

Rail .................................................................... 20.5 5.1 15.2 6.7 18.1 8.9 14.3

Water .................................................................. S S S S S S 31.6
Shallow draft .......................................................... S S S S S S 31.6
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 36.3

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S 36.3
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 28.1

SCTG 20, BASIC CHEMICALS

Total ........................................................... 30.2 – 44.3 – 46.8 – 33.1

Single modes ..................................................... 30.5 6.8 47.0 3.8 S S 33.8

Truck ................................................................... 26.1 6.3 28.3 9.8 31.8 7.8 41.1
For~hire truck .......................................................... 32.9 6.3 44.4 3.2 39.4 4.6 9.4
Private truck ........................................................... 21.9 4.2 40.7 9.5 S S 45.3

Rail .................................................................... 33.4 4.5 44.0 5.9 49.1 6.7 11.8

Water .................................................................. S S S S S S 28.7
Shallow draft .......................................................... S S S S S S 28.7
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 30.3
Pipeline ................................................................. S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S 40.3 .2 S S S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S S
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 30.9
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 39.2

SCTG 21, PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

Total ........................................................... 34.4 – 32.6 – 24.7 – 18.1

Single modes ..................................................... 34.1 11.0 37.5 5.3 26.7 10.7 37.4

Truck ................................................................... 34.1 11.0 37.5 5.3 26.7 10.7 37.4
For~hire truck .......................................................... 32.7 4.3 32.4 8.8 37.0 13.1 S
Private truck ........................................................... 34.8 10.4 42.3 9.1 39.7 8.6 20.6

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 46.4 10.9 29.0 5.2 37.8 10.4 18.9

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 46.4 10.9 29.0 5.2 37.8 10.4 18.9
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 49.4 .2 S S S S 44.7

See footnote at end of table.

B–18 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 22, FERTILIZERS

Total ........................................................... 29.4 – 36.6 – 41.6 – 44.8

Single modes ..................................................... 30.1 2.2 37.8 2.3 41.7 .2 29.9

Truck ................................................................... 31.7 5.4 40.8 7.0 47.7 9.9 30.8
For~hire truck .......................................................... 49.9 14.7 S S S S 18.1
Private truck ........................................................... 36.2 14.1 47.7 13.2 S S 33.1

Rail .................................................................... 46.2 3.7 45.8 5.4 48.5 9.8 26.2

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 41.5

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S 41.5
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S S

SCTG 23, CHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND PREPARATIONS, N.E.C.

Total ........................................................... 34.9 – 43.1 – S S 22.3

Single modes ..................................................... 33.9 3.6 43.3 1.8 S S 23.5

Truck ................................................................... 22.0 12.1 39.2 10.6 49.3 11.6 24.0
For~hire truck .......................................................... 24.9 7.3 44.4 7.7 S S 14.2
Private truck ........................................................... 19.1 6.7 34.0 7.7 33.8 4.9 35.1

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 25.6

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 31.6
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S 44.5 1.9 S S 31.2

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 49.8 1.3 S S S S 31.5
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 29.9
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 30.5

SCTG 24, PLASTICS AND RUBBER

Total ........................................................... 14.8 – 23.8 – 22.1 – 17.9

Single modes ..................................................... 15.9 2.1 25.2 2.1 24.0 4.0 19.2

Truck ................................................................... 16.6 3.0 26.0 3.0 25.8 5.5 19.6
For~hire truck .......................................................... 20.6 4.9 31.9 4.8 27.2 5.1 6.2
Private truck ........................................................... 27.5 4.6 38.2 4.9 34.5 1.5 19.3

Rail .................................................................... 37.6 1.3 37.4 1.7 36.0 3.4 25.8

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S 35.3 – S S 14.0
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 25.8 1.2 47.8 .7 S S 16.1

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 23.2 1.2 26.1 .2 28.0 .2 16.2
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 30.1
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 36.5 1.8 46.5 1.9 S S S

See footnote at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–19
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 25, LOGS AND OTHER WOOD IN THE ROUGH

Total ........................................................... 24.9 – 31.9 – 25.7 – 12.5

Single modes ..................................................... 25.2 1.7 32.1 .8 26.0 .8 11.8

Truck ................................................................... 27.4 3.6 32.9 1.6 28.1 6.0 8.4
For~hire truck .......................................................... 30.6 9.8 34.0 9.6 30.1 9.8 S
Private truck ........................................................... 34.2 10.8 38.5 10.7 32.9 11.4 6.7

Rail .................................................................... 26.3 3.3 S S 33.2 5.5 S

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 31.6

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... – – – – – – –
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 37.6

SCTG 26, WOOD PRODUCTS

Total ........................................................... 8.2 – 14.8 – 6.9 – 7.2

Single modes ..................................................... 8.2 .7 14.7 .3 7.0 .3 6.0

Truck ................................................................... 8.5 1.6 12.8 4.2 9.7 3.9 7.3
For~hire truck .......................................................... 10.4 3.0 17.1 4.9 13.9 5.0 7.5
Private truck ........................................................... 9.6 2.8 17.0 4.3 14.0 2.7 8.7

Rail .................................................................... 15.7 1.6 47.2 4.1 15.3 4.0 30.0

Water .................................................................. 41.0 – 46.9 .5 S S 42.7
Shallow draft .......................................................... 41.0 – 46.9 .5 S S 42.7
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 38.0 .2 39.7 .1 40.3 .1 17.0

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 35.7 – S S S S 19.7
Truck and rail ............................................................ 46.1 .2 40.5 .1 41.8 .1 47.9
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S 46.0 .3 S

SCTG 27, PULP, NEWSPRINT, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD

Total ........................................................... 15.6 – 17.6 – 22.0 – 20.6

Single modes ..................................................... 15.9 1.4 18.1 1.8 23.1 2.4 20.3

Truck ................................................................... 16.4 3.3 16.8 4.6 18.2 4.3 23.9
For~hire truck .......................................................... 21.8 5.2 21.8 6.5 21.4 5.4 5.2
Private truck ........................................................... 29.0 3.5 34.1 3.1 42.6 2.1 30.1

Rail .................................................................... 20.0 3.9 27.3 4.9 31.1 5.0 6.5

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 31.6
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 26.6

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S 36.8 – 38.9 – 19.2
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 30.0
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 23.8

See footnote at end of table.

B–20 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 28, PAPER OR PAPERBOARD ARTICLES

Total ........................................................... 22.5 – 22.3 – 20.0 – 24.5

Single modes ..................................................... 23.2 3.1 22.5 1.2 20.8 2.2 19.8

Truck ................................................................... 23.0 3.0 22.6 1.5 21.4 3.1 19.8
For~hire truck .......................................................... 24.9 6.3 27.7 8.3 14.6 6.5 40.4
Private truck ........................................................... 35.4 6.5 42.3 8.5 S S 16.9

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 32.0

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 29.0
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S 49.3 .4 S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S 49.3 .4 S
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S S

SCTG 29, PRINTED PRODUCTS

Total ........................................................... 20.3 – 18.1 – 15.6 – 14.5

Single modes ..................................................... 36.0 9.2 22.4 9.7 24.4 12.9 S

Truck ................................................................... 36.2 9.1 22.4 9.6 24.4 12.9 S
For~hire truck .......................................................... 43.2 7.6 24.4 12.3 25.3 12.9 20.0
Private truck ........................................................... 31.7 8.3 44.3 9.3 S S S

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 23.5
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 27.2 8.9 29.1 7.0 29.7 11.0 9.8

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 27.5 8.9 31.2 7.1 33.5 11.2 9.8
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 42.2 1.7 S S S S 24.9

SCTG 30, TEXTILES, LEATHER, AND ARTICLES OF TEXTILES
OR LEATHER

Total ........................................................... 9.4 – 7.7 – 9.3 – 7.2

Single modes ..................................................... 9.5 1.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 2.4 8.9

Truck ................................................................... 9.5 1.4 8.4 1.5 8.3 2.4 9.0
For~hire truck .......................................................... 7.3 4.0 7.9 4.8 9.8 2.9 5.2
Private truck ........................................................... 17.7 4.3 20.4 5.4 11.7 2.6 34.7

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. 42.8 – 47.4 – 49.4 – 38.0
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 23.4 1.1 28.8 1.1 33.5 2.1 6.1

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 28.4 1.2 47.7 .9 S S 6.2
Truck and rail ............................................................ 41.1 .4 49.0 .9 S S 19.9
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S S

See footnote at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–21
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 31, NONMETALLIC MINERAL PRODUCTS

Total ........................................................... 13.5 – 13.1 – 8.2 – 18.1

Single modes ..................................................... 13.7 .3 13.7 1.6 6.6 3.1 20.3

Truck ................................................................... 14.6 1.6 15.5 2.7 6.0 4.0 20.1
For~hire truck .......................................................... 21.4 5.8 11.9 6.8 9.9 3.5 13.6
Private truck ........................................................... 23.2 6.7 27.1 9.2 19.2 4.0 33.9

Rail .................................................................... 19.6 1.7 23.2 2.7 17.5 3.6 16.3

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 30.3
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 16.9

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 40.2 .1 47.1 – 45.5 – 17.0
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 19.1 .3 45.1 1.5 S S 32.0

SCTG 32, BASE METAL IN PRIMARY OR SEMIFINISHED FORMS
AND IN FINISHED BASIC SHAPES

Total ........................................................... 7.0 – 12.1 – 17.7 – 16.8

Single modes ..................................................... 7.5 1.8 12.3 2.7 19.3 4.5 14.4

Truck ................................................................... 7.6 2.5 11.0 5.2 15.5 8.1 12.2
For~hire truck .......................................................... 10.1 3.0 14.1 4.5 17.9 7.4 7.1
Private truck ........................................................... 11.1 2.8 15.2 3.6 19.6 1.7 16.0

Rail .................................................................... 20.4 2.8 25.9 4.8 43.4 8.3 15.9

Water .................................................................. S S S S S S 30.0
Shallow draft .......................................................... S S S S S S 30.0
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 24.9
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S 44.2 – 33.9

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S 47.1 – 33.8
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – 33.3
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 44.4 .7 S S S S 34.0

SCTG 33, ARTICLES OF BASE METAL

Total ........................................................... 9.9 – 21.2 – 23.5 – 15.4

Single modes ..................................................... 11.3 2.9 21.2 .6 23.7 .7 11.7

Truck ................................................................... 8.3 4.7 17.6 8.1 18.0 12.1 12.2
For~hire truck .......................................................... 13.2 4.2 22.4 6.6 22.1 10.3 4.4
Private truck ........................................................... 16.6 5.1 21.3 5.4 24.7 4.4 15.7

Rail .................................................................... 40.1 4.9 42.8 8.2 36.7 12.6 23.4

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S 40.5 – 39.7 – 14.9
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 38.9 3.0 24.3 .6 27.4 .6 10.9

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 46.0 3.1 35.0 .6 32.7 .6 11.1
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 29.1
Truck and water ......................................................... S S S S S S 31.6
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 32.5 .4 40.8 .3 S S 35.5

See footnote at end of table.

B–22 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 34, MACHINERY

Total ........................................................... 13.4 – 23.4 – 26.6 – 13.4

Single modes ..................................................... 14.3 2.4 24.5 1.4 27.7 4.8 13.7

Truck ................................................................... 14.3 2.5 24.5 1.4 27.7 4.9 14.0
For~hire truck .......................................................... 19.0 5.0 30.6 6.9 33.8 6.8 15.1
Private truck ........................................................... 17.0 4.7 22.0 6.4 23.1 5.7 7.5

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 24.4
Pipeline ................................................................. S S S S S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 19.8 2.2 15.8 .5 24.3 1.6 8.8

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 20.6 2.2 17.4 .4 19.3 .4 8.9
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 30.0
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – 33.3
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 46.8 1.1 43.2 1.2 36.4 3.3 29.9

SCTG 35, ELECTRONIC AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
AND COMPONENTS AND OFFICE EQUIPMENT

Total ........................................................... 14.1 – 15.9 – 12.5 – 12.6

Single modes ..................................................... 21.0 6.4 20.5 5.8 17.1 5.4 16.1

Truck ................................................................... 23.8 5.9 20.8 5.8 17.5 5.4 16.5
For~hire truck .......................................................... 28.8 6.6 19.1 7.0 19.1 6.0 4.2
Private truck ........................................................... 23.1 2.4 S S 33.0 2.8 31.4

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. 24.0 3.2 25.2 .6 24.0 .5 9.0
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 17.4 4.3 18.0 1.8 18.4 2.6 10.4

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 17.6 4.3 20.0 1.8 22.2 2.7 10.4
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 38.6 3.6 48.8 5.3 46.2 4.5 S

SCTG 36, MOTORIZED AND OTHER VEHICLES (INCLUDING
PARTS)

Total ........................................................... 15.0 – 7.1 – 13.4 – 17.3

Single modes ..................................................... 11.8 6.7 10.4 5.2 15.6 6.0 35.3

Truck ................................................................... 11.9 6.6 10.5 5.2 16.2 6.5 34.4
For~hire truck .......................................................... 17.6 5.7 14.4 6.2 19.3 6.9 14.5
Private truck ........................................................... 17.4 4.7 19.9 4.8 28.0 4.1 10.9

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 29.8

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S 41.6 – 39.2 – 17.9
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 42.7 2.5 49.2 1.2 25.1 .5 S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 44.0 2.5 S S 29.1 .4 S
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S 35.7 4.8 S S S

See footnote at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–23
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 37, TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, N.E.C.

Total ........................................................... 23.3 – 29.6 – 29.4 – 9.5

Single modes ..................................................... 23.3 5.8 30.7 8.7 32.2 8.7 8.1

Truck ................................................................... 30.1 5.6 30.7 8.9 32.0 10.1 12.6
For~hire truck .......................................................... 31.6 6.5 32.6 6.2 34.1 6.8 8.7
Private truck ........................................................... 21.4 1.2 26.2 6.0 25.6 5.9 S

Rail .................................................................... S S 48.4 9.4 45.1 11.3 24.6

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. 29.7 6.0 24.9 .5 25.7 .5 6.2
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 27.5

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S 19.3
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 27.3
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 9.8 6.3 S S S S 31.6

SCTG 38, PRECISION INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS

Total ........................................................... 45.3 – 32.7 – 38.1 – 35.3

Single modes ..................................................... S S 43.9 12.4 47.9 14.6 21.7

Truck ................................................................... 37.7 8.8 44.8 11.6 S S 28.8
For~hire truck .......................................................... 42.5 8.5 47.6 12.9 S S 23.6
Private truck ........................................................... 34.2 5.9 38.2 5.7 47.1 1.0 21.0

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 36.5
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 38.2 11.7 34.2 13.0 31.6 14.9 38.2

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 39.7 12.0 36.3 13.4 33.5 16.4 38.3
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 42.6

SCTG 39, FURNITURE, MATTRESSES AND MATTRESS
SUPPORTS, LAMPS, LIGHTING FITTINGS, AND ILLUMINATED
SIGNS

Total ........................................................... 12.0 – 16.5 – 16.7 – 11.0

Single modes ..................................................... 12.2 1.2 17.5 1.8 18.7 3.6 14.4

Truck ................................................................... 12.5 1.3 17.7 1.8 18.8 3.5 16.0
For~hire truck .......................................................... 19.5 6.9 19.3 8.4 16.9 8.5 6.2
Private truck ........................................................... 23.9 8.0 36.5 10.5 45.2 10.9 37.2

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 31.6

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. 49.0 .4 S S S S 20.1
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 32.1 .9 41.7 1.1 S S 5.4

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 23.2 .3 27.4 .2 22.5 .2 5.3
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 29.0
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 42.7 .6 49.5 1.3 S S 26.5

See footnote at end of table.

B–24 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

SCTG 40, MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS

Total ........................................................... 34.4 – 31.3 – 23.9 – 18.0

Single modes ..................................................... 36.5 1.9 31.7 .5 24.3 .4 26.5

Truck ................................................................... 36.8 2.2 31.8 .7 24.1 1.5 24.5
For~hire truck .......................................................... 14.7 8.6 32.1 7.7 29.8 4.9 6.6
Private truck ........................................................... S S S S 43.4 5.8 15.7

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 28.7

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 27.6
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 25.7 1.8 17.1 .4 14.9 .5 7.6

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 26.8 1.8 21.7 .4 19.3 .5 7.6
Truck and rail ............................................................ S S S S S S 28.4
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ 26.9 .6 23.1 .2 40.2 .2 S

SCTG 41, WASTE AND SCRAP

Total ........................................................... 22.3 – 28.6 – 31.9 – 22.3

Single modes ..................................................... 22.3 .4 28.7 .4 31.9 .2 16.0

Truck ................................................................... 23.7 6.8 29.6 7.1 31.3 9.3 14.4
For~hire truck .......................................................... 32.3 6.6 36.9 8.1 34.6 5.7 29.3
Private truck ........................................................... 25.4 9.7 25.5 10.3 34.0 9.9 17.1

Rail .................................................................... 49.5 5.5 S S S S 36.9

Water .................................................................. 43.9 3.3 S S S S 26.7
Shallow draft .......................................................... 43.9 3.3 S S S S 26.7
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. – – – – – – –
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S S S 31.6

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S S S 31.6
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S 49.3 .2 S

SCTG 43, MIXED FREIGHT

Total ........................................................... 15.4 – 18.0 – 18.8 – 17.3

Single modes ..................................................... 15.2 .4 18.0 – 18.9 .4 12.9

Truck ................................................................... 15.2 .5 18.0 .1 19.0 .5 12.4
For~hire truck .......................................................... 43.3 3.6 S S S S 28.7
Private truck ........................................................... 15.9 3.5 19.2 7.1 20.9 8.5 17.9

Rail .................................................................... – – – – – – –

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 26.0
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... 41.6 .4 43.7 – 45.0 .4 25.4

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... 41.6 .4 43.7 – 45.0 .4 25.4
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 31.6

See footnote at end of table.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–25
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–6. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by Two~Digit Commodity and
Mode of Transportation for State of Origin: 1997mCon.
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
Average miles
SCTG code, description, and mode of transportation Coefficient of Coefficient of Coefficient of per shipmentm
variation of Standard error variation of Standard error variation of Standard error coefficient of
number of percentage number of percentage number of percentage variation

COMMODITY UNKNOWN

Total ........................................................... 43.2 – S S S S 20.2

Single modes ..................................................... 46.4 8.4 S S S S 20.5

Truck ................................................................... 46.7 10.2 S S S S 21.1
For~hire truck .......................................................... S S S S S S 30.2
Private truck ........................................................... S S S S S S 25.1

Rail .................................................................... S S S S S S 31.6

Water .................................................................. – – – – – – –
Shallow draft .......................................................... – – – – – – –
Great Lakes ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Deep draft ............................................................ – – – – – – –

Air (includes truck and air) ................................................. S S S S S S 31.6
Pipeline ................................................................. – – – – S S S

Multiple modes ................................................... S S S S 33.0 7.9 S

Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier ....................................... S S S S 33.0 7.9 S
Truck and rail ............................................................ – – – – – – –
Truck and water ......................................................... – – – – – – –
Rail and water ........................................................... – – – – – – –
Other multiple modes ..................................................... – – – – – – –

Other and unknown modes ........................................ S S S S S S 27.8

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

B–26 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–7. Measures of Reliability for Shipment Characteristics by State of Destination for
State of Origin: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
State of destination
Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

Total .............................................. 4.0 – 15.4 – 12.7 –

NEW ENGLAND STATES

Connecticut ................................................ 21.0 – 21.8 – 23.5 –
Maine ..................................................... 29.6 – 26.9 – 27.8 –
Massachusetts ............................................. 14.3 – 16.9 – 18.0 .2
New Hampshire ............................................ 16.9 – 22.6 – 23.7 –
Rhode Island ............................................... 39.3 – 36.8 – 37.3 –
Vermont ................................................... 34.4 – S S S S

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES

New Jersey ................................................ 10.7 .1 21.0 – 21.1 .1
New York .................................................. 13.0 .2 12.0 – 13.1 .2
Pennsylvania ............................................... 13.5 .2 34.1 .4 38.6 1.7

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES

Illinois ..................................................... 12.5 .3 18.1 .1 19.8 .4
Indiana .................................................... 31.1 .6 14.6 – 14.2 .2
Michigan................................................... 16.1 .4 13.7 .1 13.2 .4
Ohio ...................................................... 9.8 .3 12.2 .1 11.8 .5
Wisconsin ................................................. 10.4 .1 9.1 – 10.2 .1

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES

Iowa ...................................................... 26.0 – 38.1 – 45.9 .2
Kansas .................................................... 17.6 – 17.0 – 18.3 –
Minnesota ................................................. 14.3 – 17.3 – 17.9 .2
Missouri ................................................... 9.1 .1 15.8 .1 14.4 .2
Nebraska .................................................. S S 34.2 – 34.4 –
North Dakota ............................................... 34.3 – 41.0 – 41.6 –
South Dakota .............................................. S S 48.8 – 50.0 –

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES

Delaware .................................................. 20.7 – 33.6 – 33.0 –
District of Columbia ......................................... 31.5 – S S S S
Florida .................................................... 5.5 .3 15.9 .8 13.6 .8
Georgia ................................................... 6.6 .4 7.7 .5 13.2 .3
Maryland .................................................. 29.2 .3 17.6 – 16.6 .1
North Carolina .............................................. 9.1 .3 9.7 .1 9.0 .3
South Carolina ............................................. 15.2 .3 11.3 – 15.1 .1
Virginia .................................................... 9.2 .1 12.9 – 12.7 .2
West Virginia ............................................... 32.2 .2 23.2 – 21.7 .1

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

Alabama ................................................... 4.6 .8 17.2 3.1 14.6 2.9
Kentucky .................................................. 11.4 .1 20.9 .2 31.0 .4
Mississippi ................................................. 9.9 .2 27.6 .6 13.0 .5
Tennessee ................................................. 19.1 .8 S S S S

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

Arkansas .................................................. 8.1 – 15.3 – 16.8 .1
Louisiana .................................................. 12.0 .3 17.7 .2 17.7 .3
Oklahoma ................................................. 21.7 .2 23.1 – 22.5 .1
Texas ..................................................... 9.2 .5 23.6 .3 18.7 .5

MOUNTAIN STATES

Arizona .................................................... 26.2 – 26.0 – 26.5 .1
Colorado .................................................. S S 21.4 – 21.1 .2
Idaho...................................................... 23.2 – 39.4 – 41.3 .2
Montana ................................................... 29.0 – 47.9 – 47.0 .1
Nevada .................................................... S S 29.6 – 28.2 –
New Mexico ................................................ 21.7 – 21.8 – 20.8 –
Utah ...................................................... 17.1 – 25.6 – 27.2 –
Wyoming .................................................. 43.8 – 34.5 – 33.8 –

PACIFIC STATES

Alaska..................................................... 39.5 – S S S S
California .................................................. 8.5 .3 30.3 .3 32.7 2.3
Hawaii..................................................... S S S S S S
Oregon .................................................... 18.7 – 26.9 – 28.1 .3
Washington ................................................ 22.2 .1 26.0 – 26.3 .4

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY ALABAMA APPENDIX B B–27
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Table B–8. Measures of Reliability for Inbound Shipment Characteristics by State of Origin for
State of Destination: 1997
[For explanation of terms and meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

Value Tons Ton~miles
State of origin
Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of Coefficient of Standard error of
variation of number percentage variation of number percentage variation of number percentage

Total .............................................. 3.5 – 11.5 – 5.9 –

NEW ENGLAND STATES

Connecticut ................................................ 17.2 – 41.3 – 40.3 .1
Maine ..................................................... 18.9 – 41.2 – 42.2 –
Massachusetts ............................................. S S 32.6 – 32.5 –
New Hampshire ............................................ 47.5 .1 29.4 – 31.0 –
Rhode Island ............................................... 17.9 – S S S S
Vermont ................................................... S S 46.3 – 47.2 –

MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES

New Jersey ................................................ 12.7 .1 25.2 – 26.0 .1
New York .................................................. 13.0 .2 33.4 – 35.1 .4
Pennsylvania ............................................... 22.3 .5 21.9 – 22.5 .3

EAST NORTH CENTRAL STATES

Illinois ..................................................... 11.6 .3 23.5 .7 26.4 1.9
Indiana .................................................... 26.8 .6 19.1 – 17.8 .3
Michigan................................................... 17.4 .2 29.1 .1 29.8 .4
Ohio ...................................................... 8.3 .3 15.7 .2 16.7 .6
Wisconsin ................................................. 30.7 .4 20.8 – 17.4 .1

WEST NORTH CENTRAL STATES

Iowa ...................................................... 13.3 – 13.9 – 14.9 –
Kansas .................................................... 13.9 – 29.6 – 32.2 .1
Minnesota ................................................. 25.7 .2 47.3 – 49.7 .4
Missouri ................................................... 17.7 .2 20.5 – 21.8 .3
Nebraska .................................................. 25.9 – 44.4 – 43.6 .1
North Dakota ............................................... 45.6 – 37.9 – 37.9 –
South Dakota .............................................. 23.9 – S S S S

SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES

Delaware .................................................. 33.7 – 38.9 – 39.7 –
District of Columbia ......................................... S S S S S S
Florida .................................................... 8.5 .2 15.8 .2 16.4 .3
Georgia ................................................... 6.2 .6 11.4 .7 12.0 .6
Maryland .................................................. 20.7 – 26.9 – 25.9 –
North Carolina .............................................. S S 12.3 .1 13.1 .2
South Carolina ............................................. 6.7 .2 13.3 – 14.4 .1
Virginia .................................................... 15.4 .2 27.6 .4 30.8 .9
West Virginia ............................................... 16.8 – 34.1 .3 42.2 1.5

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

Alabama ................................................... 4.6 2.0 17.2 3.9 14.6 3.1
Kentucky .................................................. 25.0 .4 24.0 .8 24.7 1.5
Mississippi ................................................. 16.1 .5 40.2 1.9 S S
Tennessee ................................................. 20.6 1.0 19.9 .7 19.5 .5

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL STATES

Arkansas .................................................. 12.8 .1 21.2 .1 19.2 .1
Louisiana .................................................. 10.9 .2 20.6 .6 12.0 .4
Oklahoma ................................................. 15.6 – 24.5 – 29.6 .3
Texas ..................................................... 11.8 .4 11.8 .2 15.0 .4

MOUNTAIN STATES

Arizona .................................................... S S 31.5 – 31.5 –
Colorado .................................................. 19.5 – 39.3 .6 39.6 3.3
Idaho...................................................... S S 31.6 – 31.7 –
Montana ................................................... S S S S S S
Nevada .................................................... 29.6 – 48.0 – S S
New Mexico ................................................ 43.9 – S S S S
Utah ...................................................... 26.7 – S S S S
Wyoming .................................................. S S 42.0 .6 42.0 3.7

PACIFIC STATES

Alaska..................................................... S S S S S S
California .................................................. 13.3 .4 19.8 – 19.9 .4
Hawaii..................................................... 41.7 – 40.5 – 40.1 –
Oregon .................................................... 19.4 – 28.9 – 29.1 .1
Washington ................................................ 36.9 .5 22.2 – 22.1 .2

– Represents data cell equal to zero or less than 1 unit of measure.
D Denotes figures withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual companies.
S Data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons.

Note: For description of development and uses of measures of reliability, see Appendix B, Reliability of the Estimates.

B–28 APPENDIX B ALABAMA TRANSPORTATIONmCOMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Dec. 9, 1999
Appendix C.
Sample Design, Data Collection, and Estimation

INTRODUCTION SIC grouping. For each group of establishments, a bound-
ary (or cutoff) that divides the certainty establishments
The primary goal for the 1997 Commodity Flow Survey from the noncertainty establishments is determined using
(CFS) is to estimate shipping volumes (value, tons, and the Lavallee-Hidiroglou algorithm. If an establishment’s
ton-miles) by commodity and mode of transportation at measure of size is greater than the cutoff, the establish-
varying levels of geographic detail. A detailed description ment is selected ‘‘with certainty’’. Establishments selected
of the sample design for the 1997 CFS is provided below. ‘‘with certainty’’ were assured of being selected and repre-
sented only themselves (i.e., have a selection probability
SAMPLE DESIGN of one and a sampling weight of one). No certainty cutoffs
are set for auxiliary establishments because they only
The sample for the 1997 CFS is selected using a strati-
make up a small portion of the estimated total value of
fied three-stage design in which the first-stage sampling
shipments for all establishments on the sampling frame.
units are establishments, the second-stage sampling units
Establishments not selected with certainty makeup the
are groups of four 1-week periods (reporting weeks)
noncertainty universe. We stratify the noncertainty uni-
within the survey year, and the third-stage sampling units
verse by SIC recode, National Transportation Analysis
are shipments.
Region (NTAR), and a flag used to differentiate auxiliary
establishments from nonauxiliary establishments. Each SIC
First Stage
recode is constructed from a group of related three-digit
To create the first-stage sampling frame, we extracted a SIC codes. The NTARs, developed by the Department of
subset of establishment records from the 1995 Standard Transportation as combinations of Bureau of Economic
Statistical Establishment List (SSEL). The SSEL is a data- Analysis (BEA) Areas, collectively provide a mutually exclu-
base, maintained by the Bureau of the Census, that con- sive and exhaustive coverage of the United States. Finally,
tains a record for each establishment with employees. (An the auxiliary stratification came about because establish-
establishment is a single physical location where business ments with different types of operation may have different
transactions take place.) Establishments having nonzero shipping practices. We refer to a particular SIC recode-
payroll in 1994 and classified in the mining, manufactur- NTAR-auxiliary flag combination as a primary stratum.
ing, wholesale, or selected retail industries, as defined by We further stratify the noncertainty establishments
the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual, within each primary stratum using the measure of size
are included on the sampling frame. Auxiliary establish- previously described. We refer to these measure-of-size
ments (e.g. warehouses and central administrative offices) strata as substrata of the primary strata. The measure of
with shipping activity are also included. Auxiliary estab- size stratification increases the efficiency of the sample
lishments are establishments that are primarily involved in design. The Dalenius-Hodges cumulative rule is used to
rendering support services for other establishments within set the substratum boundaries. We then use Neyman allo-
the same company, instead of for the public, government, cation to determine the sample size required within each
or other business firms. All other establishments con- substratum to meet a coefficient of variation constraint on
tained on the sampling frame are referred to as nonauxil- the primary stratum total measure of size. Within each
iary establishments. For each establishment we extracted substratum, a simple random sample of establishments is
sales, payroll, number of employees, name and address selected without replacement.
information, as well as a primary identifier. We also com- To arrive at the final sample size, we allocated addi-
puted a measure of size for each establishment. The mea- tional establishments to some of the strata so that the
sure of size for a particular establishment is designed to probability of selecting any establishment is no less than 1
approximate the establishment’s total value of shipments in 100. In total, the first-stage sample comprises 102,739
for 1994. establishments.
To reduce the amount of sampling variability and
Second Stage
because estimates are desired for each commodity, we
used a stratified design with a certainty component for The frame for the second stage of sampling consists of
each three-digit SIC. To accomplish this, each establish- 52 one-week reporting periods (reporting weeks) during
ment on the sampling frame is classified into a three-digit the interval from December 29, 1996, to December 26,

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX C C–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
1997. Each establishment selected for the 1997 CFS was the shipment contributes. The tabulation weight is a prod-
systematically assigned to report for a group of four uct of seven different weights. A description of each
reporting weeks throughout the survey year. The four weight follows.
reporting weeks in a given group are separated by 12 CFS respondents provide data for a sample of ship-
weeks. For example, an establishment might be requested
ments made by their respective establishments in the sur-
to report data for the 5th, 18th, 31st, and 44th weeks of
vey year. For each establishment, we produce an estimate
the survey year.
of that establishment’s total value of shipments for the
Third Stage entire survey year. To do this, we use four different
For each of the four reporting weeks in which an estab- weights, the shipment weight, the shipment nonresponse
lishment is asked to report, we request the respondent to weight, the quarter weight, and the quarter nonresponse
construct a sampling frame that consists of all shipments weight.
made by their establishment in each particular reporting Like establishments, we identify shipments as either
week. For any particular reporting week, if an establish- certainty or noncertainty. (See the Nonsampling Error sec-
ment makes 40 or fewer shipments during that week, we tion in Appendix B for a description of how certainty ship-
ask the respondent to provide information about all of ments are identified.) For noncertainty shipments, the
their establishment’s shipments from that week, i.e., no shipment weight is defined as the ratio of the total num-
sampling is required. For establishments making more
ber of noncertainty shipments (as reported by the respon-
than 40 shipments in a given reporting week, we ask the
dent) made by an establishment in a reporting week to the
respondent to select a systematic sample of these ship-
number of sampled noncertainty shipments for the same
ments and to provide us with information only about the
week. This weight uses the data from the sampled ship-
selected shipments. The size of a particular respondent’s
ments to represent all the establishment’s shipments
sample for a given reporting week should be between 20
made in the reporting week. However, some respondents
and 40 shipments, depending on the total number of ship-
ments the establishment made during that reporting fail to provide sufficient information about a sampled
week. shipment. For example, a respondent may not be able to
provide value, weight, or a destination ZIP Code for some
DATA COLLECTION of the sampled shipments. If these data items cannot be
Each establishment selected into the CFS sample is imputed, then these shipments would not contribute to
mailed a questionnaire for each of its four reporting tabulations and are deemed ‘‘unusable.’’ (A usable ship-
weeks. For a given establishment, we request the respon- ment is one that has valid entries for value, weight, and
dent to provide the following information about their origin and destination ZIP Codes.) To account for these
establishment’s shipments: domestic destination or port ‘‘unusable’’ shipments, we apply the shipment nonre-
of exit, commodity, value, weight, mode(s) of transporta- sponse weight. For noncertainty shipments from a particu-
tion, the date on which the shipment was made, and an lar establishment’s reporting week, this weight is equal to
indication of whether the shipment was an export, hazard- the ratio of the number of sampled shipments for the
ous material, or containerized. For shipments that include reporting week to the number of ‘‘usable’’ shipments for
more than one commodity, respondents are instructed to the same week. The shipment weight and shipment nonre-
report the commodity that makes up the greatest percent- sponse weight for certainty shipments from a particular
age of the shipment’s weight. For exports, we also ask the
establishment’s reporting week are both equal to one.
respondent to provide the mode of export and the foreign
destination city and country. The quarter weight inflates an establishment’s estimate
We used two versions of the questionnaire to collect for a particular reporting week to an estimate for the cor-
data from the sampled establishments—the CFS-1000 and responding quarter. For noncertainty shipments, the quar-
the CFS-2000. Each establishment received the CFS-1000 ter weight is equal to 13. The quarter weight for most cer-
in each of its first three reporting weeks. However, for the tainty shipments is also equal to 13. However, if a
fourth reporting week, a subsample of approximately respondent is able to provide information about all large
25,000 establishments received the CFS-2000, while the (or certainty) shipments made in the quarter containing
remaining establishments received the CFS-1000. The CFS- the reporting week, then the quarter weight for each of
2000 requests the respondent to provide additional infor- these shipments would be one. For each establishment,
mation about their establishment’s access to on-site and the quarterly estimates are added to produce an estimate
off-site shipping facilities, as well as transportation equip- of the establishment’s value of shipments for the entire
ment. See Appendix E for a copy of each questionnaire. survey year. Whenever an establishment does not provide
the Census Bureau with a response for each of its four
ESTIMATION reporting weeks, we compute a quarter nonresponse
Each shipment has associated with it a single tabulation weight. The quarter nonresponse weight for a particular
weight, that is used in computing all estimates to which establishment is defined as the ratio of the number of

C–2 APPENDIX C TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
quarters for which the establishment was in business in The adjusted value of shipments estimate for an estab-
the survey year to the total number of quarters (reporting lishment is then weighted by the establishment weight.
weeks) for which we received usable shipment data from This weight is equal to the inverse of the establishment’s
the establishment. probability of being selected into the sample.
Using these four component weights, we compute an A final adjustment weight, called the SIC-level adjust-
estimate of each establishment’s value of shipments for ment weight, uses preliminary results of the 1997 Eco-
the entire survey year. We then multiply this estimate by a nomic Census to account for establishments from which
weight that adjusts the estimate using value of shipments we did not receive a response (including establishments
and sales data obtained from other Census Bureau surveys from which we did not receive any usable shipment data)
and preliminary results of the 1997 Economic Census. and for changes in the population of establishments
This weight, called the establishment-level adjustment between the time the first-stage sampling frame was con-
weight, attempts to correct for any sampling or nonsam- structed (1995) and the year in which the data were col-
pling errors that occur during the sampling of shipments lected (1997). Separate SIC-level adjustment weights are
by the respondent. determined for nonauxiliary and auxiliary establishments.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX C C–3
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Appendix D.
Standard Classification of Transported Goods Code
Information

The commodities shown in this report are classified it remains perfectly functional for tracking rail-only move-
using the Standard Classification of Transported Goods ments). These include the deregulation of trucking, the
(SCTG) coding system. The SCTG coding system was cre- enactment of North American Free Trade Agreement
ated jointly by agencies of the United States and Canadian (NAFTA), changes in logistics practices, the emergence of
governments based on the Harmonized System (HS) of plastics and composite materials to replace metals and
product classification which is used worldwide. The pur- glass, the obsolescence of many categories of wood prod-
pose of the SCTG coding system was to specifically ucts, and the very rapid recent development of high-tech
address statistical needs in regard to products trans- electronic goods. Because the CFS is a shipper survey, the
ported. CFS collects information about shipments moving on all
In the past, Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) data have modes. As a consequence, STCC classifications frequently
been collected and reported using product classifications provide inadequate detail for identifying products that are
found in the Standard Transportation Commodity Classifi- significant for modes, such as truck and air. It is for these
cation (STCC) system. These classifications were devel- reasons that the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS)
oped in the early 1960s by the American Association of has sponsored the development of a new product code to
Railroads (AAR) to analyze commodity movements by rail. collect and report CFS data.
The original purpose of the STCC was for identification of In 1997 the CFS provided respondents with a listing of
commodities for purposes of assigning rates for Interstate SCTG codes and descriptions at the five-digit level to use
Commerce Commission (ICC) regulated rail carriers. The in assigning a commodity code for each shipment. For
STCC continues to be used by the AAR as a tariff mecha- shipments of more than one commodity, we instructed
nism. respondents to use the five-digit code for the major com-
At the time that the Commodity Transportation Survey modity, defined as the commodity of greatest total weight
(CTS) (the CTS—the predecessor of the CFS) was first con- in the shipment.
ducted in 1963, STCC codes were still useful for analyzing Additional information on the SCTG system can be
most important aspects of the U.S. transportation system. found on the Internet through the BTS web page at
Since then, many changes have taken place that have http://www.bts.gov. Comments or questions on the SCTG
gradually made the STCC code less useful for tracking should be directed to http://cfs@bts.gov.
domestic product movements across all modes (although

TRANSPORTATON—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX D D–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Appendix E.
Sample Report Forms and Instructions

The sample report forms and instructions are shown on the following pages.

Note: The CFS-2000 was sent to a subsample of establishments to obtain additional information
about the use of transportation equipment and facilities.

TRANSPORTATION—COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
OMB No. 0607-0828: Approval Expires 10/31/99
FORM CFS-1000 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
(11-1-96) 1997 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

CENSUS OF TRANSPORTATION

Reporting period:

Please return by:

RETURN TO
©

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
1201 East 10th Street
Jeffersonville IN 47132-0001
(Please correct any error in name, address, and ZIP Code)
BEFORE COMPLETING YOUR REPORT, please read the Item C Is this establishment’s physical location the same
accompanying instruction guide. If book figures are not as the address shown in the label? (PO boxes or
available for requested data, please provide estimates. If you rural routes are not physical locations.)
have any questions, please call 1–800–772–7851.
1 Yes
2 No — Enter physical location below.
Through this survey, we are requesting data on a
representative sample of your outbound shipments, to help
us produce key statistics used by transportation planners Number and street
and managers. We greatly appreciate your assistance in this
program.
City, town, village, etc. State ZIP Code
Item A Is the establishment name shown in the
mailing address correct?
NOTE — The rest of this questionnaire requests information about
shipments (or deliveries) from the establishment located at the
address in the mailing label.
1 Yes
2 No — Enter correct name. If you entered a different address in item C — Please complete the
form for shipments originating from the location listed in item C.
Item D Please enter the total number of outbound shipments
(or deliveries), including customer pick-up, for the
one-week reporting period shown above. If book figures
are not available, please provide your best estimate.
Item B Mark (X) the ONE box which best describes this
establishment during the one-week period shown This number should reflect all
above. shipments and deliveries leaving
this location during the one-week
reporting period. Please see
1 In operation Instruction Guide for a definition of
2 Temporarily or seasonally inactive Month Day Year "shipment."
3 Ceased operation — Give date DO NOT PROCEED UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED ITEM D.

YOUR RESPONSE IS REQUIRED BY LAW. Title 13, United States Code, requires businesses and other organizations
that receive this questionnaire to answer the questions and return the report to the Census Bureau. By the same law,
YOUR CENSUS REPORT IS CONFIDENTIAL. It may be seen only by Census Bureau employees and may be used
only for statistical purposes. Further, copies retained in respondents’ files are immune from legal process.

E–2 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Item E SAMPLING INSTRUCTIONS

Our goal in this section is to identify a sample of your shipments that you will provide data on. Through the
use of a sample, we can avoid asking you for information on all of your shipments, while still obtaining
statistically accurate information.

FINDING YOUR SELECTION RATE

If you reported 40 or fewer shipments in item D, please enter "1" as your selection rate in the box below, then
go directly to item F and enter the information for each of your shipments.

If you reported 41 or more shipments in item D, we will now ask you to select and report on a sample of your
shipments. Following the steps below will result in a sample of 20 to 40 shipments to report on in item F.
Number of shipments entered Selection rate
In the table at right, identify in item D
the selection rate that 1— 40 1
corresponds to the number
you entered in item D, and 41— 80 2
enter it in the box below. 81— 100 3
101— 200 5
201— 400 10
401— 800 20
801— 1600 40
Please enter your
selection rate. 1601— 3200 80
3201— 6400 160
6401—12800 320

More than 12800 Call Census at 1–800–772–7851

CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE. —
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS

If a
Shipment Shipment value hazardous
Shipment date (excluding Commodity material,
Shipment weight
Line No.

ID shipping costs) code from Commodity description enter the
in pounds
Number (c) in whole SCTG Manual "UN" or
dollars "NA"
Month

number
Day

(a) (b) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

0 123-5 4 26 4,235 140 3 5 1 2 0 Electrical transformers

00 402H 4 26 125,300 626,500 1 7 1 0 0 Gasoline 1 2 0 3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (k) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Page 2 FORM CFS-1000 (11-1-96)

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–3
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
SELECTING YOUR SAMPLE OF SHIPMENTS
1. Use the file or combination of files that best reflects your full range of outbound shipping activities.
2. Begin with the first shipment. Count the shipments until you reach your selection rate. Select this
shipment to report on in item F.
3. Continue counting with the next shipment. Count this shipment as 1 and continue until you reach the
selection rate again. Select this shipment to report on in item F.
4. Repeat step 3 until you reach the last shipment for the one-week period. If the last shipment is counted
as the selection rate, select this shipment to report on in item F. If the last shipment is not
counted as the selection rate, do not report this shipment. 1
In the . 2 Select
following 1
If the selection If the selection
examples, 5 Select 2 Select
rate is 5, select rate is 2, select
each every fifth 4
every other . 1
rectangle shipment. 3
shipment. .
represents 2
one 1 2 Select
shipment. 5 Select 1
4 2 Select
3 1
2 2 Select
1 1

Once you have selected your sample of shipments, please proceed to item F and enter the requested information
for each selected shipment. Examples of completed lines for two shipments are provided on lines "0" and "00" below.
If you have difficulties constructing a file of shipments or have questions about how to select the sample of
your shipments, please call our toll-free number for assistance: 1–800–772–7851.

Mode(s) of
Foreign destination
Containerized?

transport to
Export? (Y/N)

Export mode
U.S. destination U.S. (for export shipments only)
(Complete for all shipments.) destination Note: In column (j) enter the U.S. port,

Line No.
Enter all that airport, or border crossing of exit.
apply in order
(Y/N)

(j) used. Use (m)
codes below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(i) (k) (l) (n) (o)

N Los Angeles C A 9 0 0 4 0 2, 4, 3 N 0

N New York N Y 1 0 4 5 4 5 Y London England 6 00

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9
5 — Shallow draft vessel 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep draft vessel 8 — Air 0 — Unknown
FORM CFS-1000 (11-1-96) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 4. Page 3

E–4 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

If a
Shipment Shipment value hazardous
Shipment date (excluding Commodity material,
Shipment weight
Line No.

ID shipping costs) code from Commodity description enter the
in pounds
Number (c) in whole SCTG Manual "UN" or
dollars "NA"
Month
number
Day
(a) (b) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (k) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Page 4 FORM CFS-1000 (11-1-96)

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–5
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Mode(s) of Foreign destination
Containerized?

Export mode
transport to

Export? (Y/N)
U.S. destination U.S. (for export shipments only)
(Complete for all shipments.) destination Note: In column (j) enter the U.S. port,

Line No.
Enter all that airport, or border crossing of exit.
apply in order
(Y/N)

(j) (m)
used. Use
City State ZIP Code codes below. City Country
(i) (k) (l) (n) (o)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34
5 — Shallow draft vessel 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep draft vessel 8 — Air 0 — Unknown
FORM CFS-1000 (11-1-96) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 6. Page 5

E–6 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

If a
Shipment Shipment value hazardous
Shipment date (excluding Commodity material,
Shipment weight
ID shipping costs) code from Commodity description
Line No.

in pounds enter the
Number in whole SCTG Manual "UN" or
(c) dollars
Month "NA"
number
Day
(a) (b) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

35

36

37

38

39

40
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (k) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Item G 1. Do this establishment’s outbound Item H Enter the total value of shipments for the
shipments leave more than one site one-week reporting period. This figure
within this physical location? should represent all products leaving this
establishment for the one-week period.
An estimate is acceptable.
Yes
Total value in whole dollars
No

2. Are the records for outbound shipments
from this location maintained in a number
of separate files (e.g., separate files for
each commodity, or for each shipping
site) at this location?
Item I In the last three months did this location
have any individual shipments with a
value over $2,000,000?
Yes

No
Yes

If yes to item G1 or item G2: No

3. Would it be easier to receive a separate
questionnaire for each file or each
shipment site?

Yes

No

Item J CERTIFICATION
Name of person to contact regarding this report – Please print Telephone number – Include area code Date

Signature Title

Page 6 FORM CFS-1000 (11-1-96)

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–7
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Mode(s) of
Foreign destination
Containerized?

transport to

Export? (Y/N)

Export mode
U.S. destination U.S. (for export shipments only)
(Complete for all shipments.) destination Note: In column (j) enter the U.S. port,

Line No.
Enter all that airport, or border crossing of exit.
apply in order
(Y/N)

(j) used. Use (m)
codes below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(i) (k) (l) (n) (o)

35

36

37

38

39

40
5 — Shallow draft vessel 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep draft vessel 8 — Air 0 — Unknown

Remarks

THANK YOU FOR COMPLETING YOUR REPORT

FORM CFS-1000 (11-1-96) Page 7

E–8 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
OMB No. 0607-0828: Approval Expires 10/31/99
FORM CFS-2000 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
(6-9-97) 1997 COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

CENSUS OF TRANSPORTATION

Reporting period:

Please return by:

RETURN TO
©

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
1201 East 10th Street
Jeffersonville IN 47132-0001
(Please correct any error in name, address, and ZIP Code)
BEFORE COMPLETING YOUR REPORT, please read the Item C Is this establishment’s physical location the same
accompanying instruction guide. If book figures are not as the address shown in the label? (PO boxes or
available for requested data, please provide estimates. If you rural routes are not physical locations.)
have any questions, please call 1–800–772–7851.
1 Yes
2 No — Enter physical location below.
Through this survey, we are requesting data on a
representative sample of your outbound shipments, to help
us produce key statistics used by transportation planners Number and street
and managers. We greatly appreciate your assistance in this
program.
City, town, village, etc. State ZIP Code
Item A Is the establishment name shown in the
mailing address correct?
NOTE — The rest of this questionnaire requests information about
shipments (or deliveries) from the establishment located at the
address in the mailing label.
1 Yes
2 No — Enter correct name. If you entered a different address in item C — Please complete the
form for shipments originating from the location listed in item C.
Item D Please enter the total number of outbound shipments
(or deliveries), including customer pick-up, for the
one-week reporting period shown above. If book figures
are not available, please provide your best estimate.
Item B Mark (X) the ONE box which best describes this
establishment during the one-week period shown This number should reflect all
above. shipments and deliveries leaving
this location during the one-week
reporting period. Please see
1 In operation Instruction Guide for a definition of
2 Temporarily or seasonally inactive Month Day Year "shipment."
3 Ceased operation — Give date DO NOT PROCEED UNTIL YOU HAVE
COMPLETED ITEM D.

YOUR RESPONSE IS REQUIRED BY LAW. Title 13, United States Code, requires businesses and other organizations
that receive this questionnaire to answer the questions and return the report to the Census Bureau. By the same law,
YOUR CENSUS REPORT IS CONFIDENTIAL. It may be seen only by Census Bureau employees and may be used
only for statistical purposes. Further, copies retained in respondents’ files are immune from legal process.

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–9
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Item E SAMPLING INSTRUCTIONS

Our goal in this section is to identify a sample of your shipments that you will provide data on. Through the
use of a sample, we can avoid asking you for information on all of your shipments, while still obtaining
statistically accurate information.

FINDING YOUR SELECTION RATE

If you reported 40 or fewer shipments in item D, please enter "1" as your selection rate in the box below, then
go directly to item F and enter the information for each of your shipments.

If you reported 41 or more shipments in item D, we will now ask you to select and report on a sample of your
shipments. Following the steps below will result in a sample of 20 to 40 shipments to report on in item F.
Number of shipments entered Selection rate
In the table at right, identify in item D
the selection rate that 1— 40 1
corresponds to the number
you entered in item D, and 41— 80 2
enter it in the box below. 81— 100 3
101— 200 5
201— 400 10
401— 800 20
801— 1600 40
Please enter your
selection rate. 1601— 3200 80
3201— 6400 160
6401—12800 320

More than 12800 Call Census at 1–800–772–7851

CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE.
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS

If a
Shipment Shipment value hazardous
Shipment date (excluding Commodity material,
Shipment weight
Line No.

ID shipping costs) code from Commodity description enter the
in pounds
Number (c) in whole SCTG Manual "UN" or
dollars "NA"
Month

number
Day

(a) (b) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

0 123-5 4 26 4,235 140 3 5 1 2 0 Electrical transformers

00 402H 4 26 125,300 626,500 1 7 1 0 0 Gasoline 1 2 0 3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (k) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Page 2 FORM CFS-2000 (6-9-97)

E–10 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
SELECTING YOUR SAMPLE OF SHIPMENTS
1. Use the file or combination of files that best reflects your full range of outbound shipping activities.
2. Begin with the first shipment. Count the shipments until you reach your selection rate. Select this
shipment to report on in item F.
3. Continue counting with the next shipment. Count this shipment as 1 and continue until you reach the
selection rate again. Select this shipment to report on in item F.
4. Repeat step 3 until you reach the last shipment for the one-week period. If the last shipment is counted
as the selection rate, select this shipment to report on in item F. If the last shipment is not
counted as the selection rate, do not report this shipment. 1
In the . 2 Select
following 1
If the selection If the selection
examples, 5 Select 2 Select
rate is 5, select rate is 2, select
each every fifth 4
every other . 1
rectangle shipment. 3
shipment. .
represents 2
one 1 2 Select
shipment. 5 Select 1
4 2 Select
3 1
2 2 Select
1 1

Once you have selected your sample of shipments, please proceed to item F and enter the requested information
for each selected shipment. Examples of completed lines for two shipments are provided on lines "0" and "00" below.
If you have difficulties constructing a file of shipments or have questions about how to select the sample of
your shipments, please call our toll-free number for assistance: 1–800–772–7851.

Mode(s) of
Foreign destination
Containerized?

transport to
Export? (Y/N)

Export mode
U.S. destination U.S. (for export shipments only)
(Complete for all shipments.) destination Note: In column (j) enter the U.S. port,

Line No.
Enter all that airport, or border crossing of exit.
apply in order
(Y/N)

(j) used. Use (m)
codes below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(i) (k) (l) (n) (o)

N Los Angeles C A 9 0 0 4 0 2, 4, 3 N 0

N New York N Y 1 0 4 5 4 5 Y London England 6 00

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9
5 — Shallow draft vessel 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep draft vessel 8 — Air 0 — Unknown
FORM CFS-2000 (6-9-97) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 4. Page 3

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–11
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

If a
Shipment Shipment value hazardous
Shipment date (excluding Commodity material,
Shipment weight
Line No.

ID shipping costs) code from Commodity description enter the
in pounds
Number (c) in whole SCTG Manual "UN" or
dollars "NA"
Month
number

Day
(a) (b) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (k) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued
Page 4 FORM CFS-2000 (6-9-97)

E–12 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Mode(s) of Foreign destination
Containerized?

Export mode
transport to

Export? (Y/N)
U.S. destination U.S. (for export shipments only)
(Complete for all shipments.) destination Note: In column (j) enter the U.S. port,

Line No.
Enter all that airport, or border crossing of exit.
apply in order
(Y/N)

(j) (m)
used. Use
City State ZIP Code codes below. City Country
(i) (k) (l) (n) (o)

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34
5 — Shallow draft vessel 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep draft vessel 8 — Air 0 — Unknown
FORM CFS-2000 (6-9-97) PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 6. Page 5

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–13
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

If a
Shipment Shipment value hazardous
Shipment date (excluding Commodity material,
Shipment weight
ID shipping costs) code from Commodity description
Line No.

in pounds enter the
Number in whole SCTG Manual "UN" or
(c) dollars
Month "NA"
number
Day
(a) (b) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)

35

36

37

38

39

40

Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (k) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued

Item G Enter the total dollar value of all shipments for the Item H In the last three months did this location have
one-week reporting period. This figure should any individual shipments with a value over
represent all products leaving this establishment for $2,000,000?
the one-week period. An estimate is acceptable.
Yes
Total value in whole dollars
No

Item I AVAILABILITY AND USE OF ON-SITE SHIPPING FACILITIES

In column (b), check "Yes" or "No" for each type of shipping facility to indicate whether or not this type of facility
existed on-site during 1997. For each "Yes" in column (b), check "Yes" or "No" in column (c) to indicate whether or
not you used the facility on your premises for outbound shipments during 1997.

Did you use this facility on your
Type of shipping facility Was a shipping facility of this type premises for outbound shipments
on your premises during 1997? during 1997?
(a) (b) (c)

1 Yes 1 Yes
1. Rail siding 2 No 2 No

1 Yes 1 Yes
2. Dock on the Great Lakes 2 No 2 No

1 Yes 1 Yes
3. Dock on inland water 2 No 2 No

1 Yes 1 Yes
4. Dock on deep sea water 2 No 2 No

1 Yes 1 Yes
5. Airport/landing strip capable of
handling your shipments 2 No 2 No

1 Yes 1 Yes
6. Pipeline terminal 2 No 2 No
Page 6 FORM CFS-2000 (6-9-97)

E–14 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Mode(s) of
Foreign destination
Containerized?

transport to

Export? (Y/N)

Export mode
U.S. destination U.S. (for export shipments only)
(Complete for all shipments.) destination Note: In column (j) enter the U.S. port,

Line No.
Enter all that airport, or border crossing of exit.
apply in order
(Y/N)

(j) used. Use (m)
codes below.
City State ZIP Code City Country
(i) (k) (l) (n) (o)

35

36

37

38

39

40
5 — Shallow draft vessel 7 — Pipeline 9 — Other mode
6 — Deep draft vessel 8 — Air 0 — Unknown

Item J USE OF OFF-SITE SHIPPING FACILITIES
In column (b), check "Yes" or "No" for each type of shipping facility to indicate whether or not you used an off-site
facility of that type for outbound shipments during 1997. For each "Yes", enter the miles to that off-site facility in
column (c), and the mode of transport used to reach that facility in column (d). The modes are listed below.

Distance to the off-site facility of this Mode of transport used
Did you use this type of off-site type that you used most in 1997 to reach that facility
Type of shipping facility facility for outbound (Report in miles – estimates are (Enter a code from the
shipments during 1997? acceptable) list below)
(a) (b) (c) (d)

1 Yes
1. Rail siding 2 No

1 Yes
2. Dock on the Great Lakes 2 No

1 Yes
3. Dock on inland water 2 No

1 Yes
4. Dock on deep sea water 2 No

5. Airport/landing strip 1 Yes
capable of handling
your shipments 2 No

1 Yes
6. Pipeline terminal 2 No

1 – Trailer on Flat Car (TOFC) 3 – For-Hire Truck 5 – Water 7 – Air
2 – Private Truck 4 – Rail 6 – Pipeline 8 – Other

PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 8.

FORM CFS-2000 (6-9-97) Page 7

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–15
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
Item K USE AND AVAILABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT
During 1997, did this location use any of the following types of equipment for outbound shipments? Please check "Yes" or "No." For
rail cars reported in number 1 below, enter the approximate percentage of your total outbound rail shipments that used that type of
rail car. These percentages should add to 100%. If you had no rail shipments, leave the percentages blank.

Was this type of equipment Percentage of total
Equipment used for outbound shipments rail shipments
during 1993?
(a) (b) (c)
1. Rail cars that:
1 Yes
a. Your company owned/leased 2 No

1 Yes
b. A common carrier owned/leased 2 No

1 Yes
c. Another party owned/leased (e.g. receiver) 2 No

2. Trucks with 6 or more tires or
truck-tractors that: 1 Yes
a. Your company owned 2 No

1 Yes
b. Your company leased, with driver 2 No

1 Yes
c. Your company leased, without driver 2 No

1 Yes
3. Truck trailers that your company owned or leased 2 No

1 Yes
4. Aircraft that your company owned or leased 2 No

1 Yes
5. Barges that your company owned or leased 2 No
6. Other equipment that your company owned or leased – Specify
1 Yes
2 No

Item L TRANSPORTATION DECISIONS

During 1997, who generally decided on the mode of transportation for your outbound shipments? Check the appropriate box.
1 Your company 2 Receiver of shipment 3 Other
Remarks

Item M CERTIFICATION
Name of person to contact regarding this report – Please print Telephone number – Include area code Date

Signature Title

Page 8 FORM CFS-2000 (6-9-97)

E–16 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
CFS-1100 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
(11-7-96) BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

Instructions for
Completing the
Commodity
Flow Survey
TIPS FOR COMPLETING THE CFS QUESTIONNAIRE
Please read all instructions.

You may use estimates if book figures are not readily available.

If you have questions about completing the survey, a Census Bureau
representative will be glad to assist you. You can call us at 1-800-772-7851.

Some instructions are included on the questionnaire itself. However,
due to space limitations, most of the instructions and definitions are
included in separate reference materials. These include this instruction
guide, and a listing of commodity codes to be used for classifying
individual shipments in this survey.

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–17
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
PART I – GENERAL INFORMATION
Frequently Asked Questions About the
Commodity Flow Survey (CFS)

Why are you conducting the CFS?

The CFS produces valuable measures of the demands on the
nation’s transportation system.
The results of the CFS are used by transportation policy makers
to analyze future transportation needs.

Who reports in the CFS?
The CFS covers a sample of establishments in the mining,
manufacturing, wholesale, and selected retail industries.

Why is my participation important?

Your establishment was selected as part of a sample designed to
represent a wide range of industries and geographic regions.
Your report helps ensure quality results.

Is this survey mandatory?
Yes. The CFS is mandatory under the authority of Title 13,
United States Code (USC).

Will my data be kept confidential?
Yes. The same law that requires your participation, Title 13,
USC, also guarantees your data will be kept strictly confidential.
The reports you provide the Census Bureau cannot be used for
purposes of taxation, regulation, or investigation.
Your report is used only to develop summary data that do not
reveal the activities of individual firms or establishments.

How often must I report?
You will be sent four questionnaires in all: one during each
quarter of 1997.
The CFS will not be conducted again until 2002.

Page 2 CFS-1100 (11-7-96)

E–18 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
PART II – INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING YOUR QUESTIONNAIRE

Items A – C
Please enter the information requested on your establishment’s name,
operational status, and physical location.

Item D
Enter in the space provided your total number of outbound shipments for the
one week reporting period on the front of the questionnaire.
Please include in this count any materials picked up by the customer
("customer pick-up").

What we mean by a "shipment":
For the purposes of this survey, a shipment is a single movement of goods,
commodities, products, etc. from your location to a customer or to another
location of your company.
"Commodities" refer to items that your location produces, sells, or distributes,
not to items that are considered by-products of your location’s operation.

What we don’t mean by a "shipment":

Do not include as shipments items such as inter-office memos, payroll checks,
business correspondence, etc.
Do not include as shipments items such as refuse, scrap paper, waste, and
recyclable materials unless your location is in the business of selling or
providing these materials to others.

A special note about "shipments":
A full, or partial, truckload should be counted as a single shipment only if all
the commodities on the truck are destined for one location.
If a truck makes multiple deliveries on a route, please count each stop as
one shipment.

Item E: Sampling Instructions
If you reported 40 or fewer shipments in Item D, complete Item F (Shipment
Characteristics) for all of your shipments covered by the one-week reporting
period.
If you reported more than 40 shipments in Item D, follow the instructions in
Item E in order to select a sample of shipments on which to report in Item F.
By asking you to select a sample of your shipments for the one-week
reporting period, we avoid asking you for information on all your
shipments, while still obtaining statistically accurate information.
Reminder: The files you are sampling from should reflect the full
range of your location’s shipping activities in terms of modes of
transportation used, commodities shipped, and destinations.
We’re here to answer your questions! If you have questions about the
sampling process (or any part of the questionnaire) please call us at
1-800-772-7851.

CFS-1100 (11-7-96) Page 3

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–19
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
PART II – INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING
YOUR QUESTIONNAIRE – Continued

Item F: Shipment Characteristics
v Shipment ID Number (column b) – Enter the invoice number, shipment number, or
some other unique identification number that your establishment could use to find this
particular shipping document if questions arise regarding your report.
v Shipment Date (column c) – Enter the month and day of the shipment. If shipment
date is not available, use the invoice/shipping document date. Use numbers only.
v Shipment Value (column d) – Enter the dollar value, in whole dollars, of the entire
shipment. The value should not include freight charges or excise taxes (i.e., report the
net selling value, f.o.b. plant). If the value is not readily available from your records,
please estimate.
v Shipment Weight (column e) – Enter the weight of the total shipment in whole
pounds. If weight is not readily available from your records, please estimate.
v Commodity Code (column f) – Please use the list of Standard Classification of
Transported Goods (SCTG) Codes in the enclosed SCTG Manual to select the proper
code. For shipments with more than one commodity, enter only the code for the
commodity with the greatest weight.
v Commodity Description (column g) – Enter a brief description of the commodity
shipped. For shipments with more than one commodity, describe only the commodity
with the greatest weight. Do not use trade names, catalog numbers, or other codes not
familiar to persons outside your business.

Item F SHIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS

Shipment Shipment value
Shipment date (excluding Commodity
Shipment weight
Line No.

ID shipping costs) code from Commodity description
in pounds
Number (c) in whole SCTG Manual
dollars
Month

Day

(a) (b) (d) (e) (f) (g)

0 123-5 4 26 4,235 140 3 6 1 2 0 Electrical transformers

00 123-6 4 26 125,300 626,500 1 7 1 0 0 Gasoline

1

2

3

4
Mode of transport codes 1 — Parcel delivery, courier, or U.S. 2 — Private truck 4 — Railroad
for columns (k) and (n) Postal Service 3 — For-hire truck Continued

Page 4 CFS-1100 (11-7-96)

E–20 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
PART II – INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING
YOUR QUESTIONNAIRE – Continued

Item F: Shipment Characteristics – Continued
v For Hazardous Materials (column h) – If shipment is a hazardous material, enter the
4-digit United Nations or North American number.
v Containerized (column i) – Indicate whether or not the shipment was containerized by
entering "Y" or "N" (yes or no). Containerized means that the shipment left your
establishment in an intermodal container or stackable tank without permanently
attached wheels. These containers typically vary from 20 to 53 feet in length, and are
carried on truck chassis, trains, and ships.
v U.S. Destination: City, State, and ZIP Code (column j) – For domestic shipments,
enter the city, state, and 5-digit ZIP Code of the buyer/receiver as it appears on the
shipping document. Use the "ship to" address. Use the two letter state abbreviation
shown in Part IV.
For export shipments, report the U.S. port of exit as the destination
city. The port of exit is the port or airport from which the shipment left the
country. In case of land shipments into Mexico or Canada, it is the border
crossing.
v Mode(s) of Transport (column k) – Enter the code(s) for all modes of transport used
for the shipment to its U.S. destination (i.e., the destination reported in column j). Codes
are located on the bottom of pages 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the questionnaire. Enter in the
sequence used, all that apply. See Part III for definitions of each mode.
For Customer Pick-up: Report the mode(s) of transportation used, if
known. Otherwise, report mode as "0" (unknown).
For Export Shipments: List only the mode(s) of transport used to reach
the port, airport, or border crossing of exit.

Mode(s) of
If a
Containerized?

transport to
hazardous U.S.
material,
U.S. destination
destination
enter the Enter all that
"UN" or apply using
(Y/N)

"NA" (j) codes shown
number below.
City State ZIP Code
(h) (i) (k)

N Los Angeles C A 9 0 0 4 0 2, 4, 3

N New York N Y 1 0 4 5 4 5

CFS-1100 (11-7-96) Page 5

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–21
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
PART II – INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING
YOUR QUESTIONNAIRE – Continued

Item F: Shipment Characteristics – Continued

v Export Shipment (column l) – Indicate whether or not the shipment is intended for
export outside of the United States, by entering a "Y" or "N" (yes or no). For purposes of
this survey, shipments to Puerto Rico and U.S. territories and possessions are
considered exports.
v Foreign Destination: City and Country (column m) –- If the shipment is an export,
enter the foreign city and country of destination. For U.S. Destination (column j),
enter the U.S. port , airport, or border crossing of exit. In column (k), enter the mode of
transport used to the U.S. destination.
v Export Mode (column n) – If the shipment is an export, enter the code for the mode of
transport by which the shipment left the country. Codes are located at the bottom of
pages 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the questionnaire.

Foreign destination
Export? (Y/N)

(for export shipments only)

Export mode
Note: In column (j) enter the U.S. port,

Line No.
airport, or border crossing of exit.
(m)

City Country
(l) (n) (o)

N 0

Y London England 6 00

1

2

3

4

5

Items G – I
Please enter the information requested.

Item J: Certification
Please enter the name and telephone number of the person to contact in the event that
we have a question about your report.

Page 6 CFS-1100 (11-7-96)

E–22 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
PART III – MODE DEFINITIONS

Parcel delivery/Courier/U.S. Postal Service – Delivery services that carry letters, parcels,
packages, and other small shipments that typically weigh less than 100 pounds. Includes bus
parcel delivery service.
Private truck – Trucks operated by a temporary or permanent employee of this
establishment or the buyer/receiver of the shipment.
For-hire truck – Trucks that carry freight for a fee collected from the shipper, recipient of the
shipment, or an arranger of the transportation.
Railroad– Any common carrier or private railroad.
Shallow draft vessel – Barges, ships, or ferries operating primarily on rivers and canals; in
harbors, the Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Intracoastal Waterway, the Inside
Passage to Alaska, major bays and inlets; or in the ocean close to the shoreline.
Deep draft vessel – Barges, ships, or ferries operating primarily in the open ocean.
Shipping on the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway is classified with shallow draft
vesels.
Pipeline – Movements of oil, petroleum, gas, slurry, etc. through pipelines that extend to
other establishments or locations beyond the shipper’s establishment. Aqueducts for the
movement of water are not included.
Air – Commercial or private aircraft, and all air service for shipments that typically weigh
more than 100 pounds. Includes air freight and air express.
Other mode – Any mode not listed above.
Unknown – The shipment was not carried by a parcel delivery/courier/U.S. Postal service,
and you cannot determine what mode of transportation is used.
Note: Commodities that are "shipped" under their own power, such as boats, barges, ferries,
ships, aircraft, trucks, and trains should be classified with the appropriate mode above.
Commodities shipped under their own power for which an appropriate mode is not listed
(e.g., buses, recreational vehicles) should be listed as "other" mode.

CFS-1100 (11-7-96) Page 7

TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY APPENDIX E E–23
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
PART IV -- STATE ABBREVIATION LIST

State Abbrev. State Abbrev.

Alabama AL Montana MT
Alaska AK Nebraska NE
Arizona AZ Nevada NV
Arkansas AR New Hampshire NH
California CA New Jersey NJ
Colorado CO New Mexico NM
Connecticut CT New York NY
Delaware DE North Carolina NC
Dist. of Col. DC North Dakota ND
Florida FL Ohio OH
Georgia GA Oklahoma OK
Hawaii HI Oregon OR
Idaho ID Pennsylvania PA
Illinois IL Rhode Island RI
Indiana IN South Carolina SC
Iowa IA South Dakota SD
Kansas KS Tennessee TN
Kentucky KY Texas TX
Louisiana LA Utah UT
Maine ME Vermont VT
Maryland MD Virginia VA
Massachusetts MA Washington WA
Michigan MI West Virginia WV
Minnesota MN Wisconsin WI
Mississippi MS Wyoming WY
Missouri MO

NOTICE - We estimate that it will take an average of 2 hours to complete this form. This
includes time to read instructions, assemble and review information, and record answers on
the form. If you have any comments regarding this estimate or any other aspect of this
survey, send them to the Associate Director for Administration, Attn: Paperwork Reduction
Project 0607-0189, Room 3104, Federal Building 3, Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC
20233-0001. Respondents are not required to respond to any information collection unless it
displays a valid approval number in the top right corner on the front of the questionnaire.

Page 8 FORM CFS-1100 (11-4-96)

E–24 APPENDIX E TRANSPORTATION–COMMODITY FLOW SURVEY
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census
EC97TCF-AL 1997 Alabama 1997 Economic Census 1997 Commodity Flow Survey USCENSUSBUREAU