# UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE

PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR OIL WELLS IN ANISOTROPIC RESERVOIRS

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE FACULTY in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

By

JING LU Norman, Oklahoma 2008

PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR OIL WELLS IN ANISOTROPIC RESERVOIRS

A DISSERTATION APPROVED FOR THE MEWBOURNE SCHOOL OF PETROLEUM AND GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

BY _______________________________ Dr. Djebbar Tiab, Chair

_______________________________ Dr. Roy Knapp

_______________________________ Dr. Faruk Civan

_______________________________ Dr. Samuel Osisanya

_______________________________ Dr. John Pigott

© Copyright by JING LU 2008 All Rights Reserved.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I can not use my words to express my deep gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Djebbar Tiab. Whatever success I have gotten is due to his encouragement. His knowledge, dedication to research and ideas have been invaluable throughout the last three years.

Expressions of sincere appreciations and gratitude go to professors Faruk Civan, Roy Knapp, Samuel Osisanya, and John Pigott for serving as

members of my graduate committee and for academic assistance when I needed.

Special recognitions go to my friends, Bin Qin, Shengli Chen, Heng Li, Yan Chen, Zunyi Xia, Yanfen Zhang, Anh Dinh, Alpheous Igbokoyi, Dora Restrepo and Tomas Restrepo for their continuous support and

encouragement to finish my doctoral studies.

It was a pleasure and a valuable professional experience to associate with all the members of Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, I thank all of them for their corporations, friendship and

iv

kindness which made my study at the University of Oklahoma meaningful and enjoyable.

Deepest appreciations are extended to my wife for her love and many sacrifices she poured to give me the opportunity to pursue higher education.

Finally, I thank my parents for their support and understanding during the years of my academic adventures.

v

5
RESERVOIR AND WELL MODELS Circular Cylinder Reservoir Model Box-Shaped Reservoir Model Sector Fault Reservoir Model Channel Reservoir Model Mathematical Model
22 25 29 34 35 37
vi
.4 2.3
Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Horizontal Wells 11
1.TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT x xiv xvi
1.2 2.2
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Productivity Index Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Vertical Wells
1 3
5
1.3 2.4
Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Multiple Wells System 17
2. 1.1 2.1 1. 2.

3.4
Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo .
PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR 73 73 80 87
4.
PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR 44 44 52 56 59
3.1 3.2 4.
PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR 94
5.3 3.2
Productivity Equations for a Channel Reservoir
vii
.Steady State Shape Factors Calculation Productivity Equations In Steady State
5.1 4.2 3.Steady State Shape Factors Calculation Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI
4.1
Productivity Equations for a Sector Fault Reservoir 94 101
5.3
Productivity Equations In Pseudo .

6.Steady State
8.2
Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo .3
Pseudo .
PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE HORIZONTAL WELL 104
6.Steady State Productivity Equation for a Box-Shaped Reservoir 114 120
6.2
Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo .1 8.1
Steady State Productivity Equation for a Circular Cylinder Reservoir 104
6.2
Pseudo .
PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A RECTANGULAR RESERVOIR 166 167 188
8.4
Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI
7.
PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A CIRCULAR RESERVOIR 136 137 156
7.1 7.Steady State
viii
.Steady State Productivity Equation for a Circular Cylinder Reservoir 112
6.

SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES
194 199 201 202
APPENDIX A: SYSTEMS OF UNITS APPENDIX B: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR APPENDIX C: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR APPENDIX D: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR APPENDIX E: NOMENCLATURE
206
209
217
223 227
ix
. 10.9. 11.

1 Table 3.2 Table 3.LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table 3.10 Table 3.4 Table 3.3 Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well
49 50 50 58 59 60
62
Table 3.8 Table 3.5 66 68 70 71 77 83
86 90 92 93
Table 4.1 Table 4.1 Shape Factors for a Rectangular Reservoir Shape Factors of a Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circular Reservoir Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.11 Table 3.3
Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well 64 Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.6
x
.4 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.5 Productivity Indexes for Example 4.2 Table 4.1 Expected Productivity for Example 3.5 Table 4.7
Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.9 Table 3.5 Table 3.1 Shape Factors with Different Off-Center Ratios Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.3 Table 3.6 Table 3.1 Pseudo Skin Factor for Example 3.4 Table 4.12 Table 4.

2 Table 5.6 Table 6.11
130 132 134
Table 6.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.4 Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well Well Locations.5 Table 6.1
xi
.1 Table 6.4 Table 6. Reservoir and Fluid Properties
96 96 98 99 102 110
Table 5.2 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.4 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.10 Table 6.2
111 113 118 121 122
Table 6.1 Flow Rates Calculated by Different Productivity Equations Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.7
124 125 127 128
Table 6.12 Table 6.Table 5.9 Table 6.3 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.13 Table 7.2 Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 5.8 Table 6.1
Sector Shape Functions for Special Sector Angles and Wellbore Location Angles Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.1 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.3 Table 6.2 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.5 Table 6.

3 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.3 Production Functions for Multiple Wells in an Isotropic Circular Reservoir
143 146 149 150
151
Table 7.5 Well Locations for Example 8.1
Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 7.3 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.1 Surface Production Rates for Example 8. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.3 Table 7.5 Table 8. Skin Factors.4 154 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.4 Well Locations for Example 8.Data for Example 7.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.1 Well Locations for Example 8.3 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.6 Table 7.7 Well Locations.2 Table 7.8 162 164
175 177 180 181 182 184 185 186 187 191
Table 8.7 Table 7.1 Table 7.3 Table 8.11
192
xii
.5 Surface Production Rates for Example 7.4 Table 8.7 Table 8.10 Table 8.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.1 Well Locations for Example 7.8 Table 8.9 Table 8.7 Well Locations.4 Table 7. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.5 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.8 Table 8.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.6 Table 8.2 Table 8.

3
197
Table 9.2
196
Table 9.1
Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Circular Cylinder Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Box-Shaped Reservoir.3
xiii
.4
198 207 207 208
Table A.Table 9. Sector Reservoir and Channel Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Horizontal Well in an Anisotropic Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Multiple Vertical Wells System in an Anisotropic Reservoir SI Base Quantities Field Units System and Field Metric Units System Units Conversion Factors
196
Table 9.2 Table A.1 Table A.

8 Figure 2.7
xiv
.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.6 Figure 3.2
63 65 67 69 70 72
Figure 3.6
Symmetric Two-Well System Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir Vertical Well In a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Horizontal Well In a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Multiple Wells System in a Circular Reservoir Vertical Well In a Box-Shaped Reservoir Horizontal Well In a Box-Shaped Reservoir Fully Penetrating Vertical Well in a Rectangular Reservoir Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir Vertical Well in a Sector Fault Reservoir Vertical Well in a Channel Reservoir Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well
18 20 25 26 28 29 30
33 33 34 36 61
Figure 2.5 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.1 Figure 2.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 2.LIST OF FIGURES
Page
Figure 1.9 Figure 3.7 Figure 2.3 Figure 3.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.

1 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.Figure 4.1 Figure 6.7 Figure 6.6
Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well 128 Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well Multiple Wells Located at Vertexes of a Regular Polygon Effect of Off-Center Distance on Productivity Index Pseudo-Steady State Flow to a Well in a Circular Reservoir Multiple Wells Located at Centers of Equal-Area Small Rectangles 129
131 133 135
Figure 6.2
A Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circle Effect of Off-Vertex Distance on Productivity Index Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well
84 100 122
124 126
Figure 6.2 Figure 7.8 Figure 7.1
153 155
Figure 7.1
184
xv
.3
164
Figure 8.4 Figure 6.1 Figure 5.5 Figure 6.

a library of new productivity equations is provided. the behavior during pseudo-steady state or steady state flow.
The effects of permeability anisotropy on well performance are discussed. Wells may be located arbitrarily in an anisotropic reservoir. Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long-time performance behavior of a well. several combinations of closed and/or constant pressure boundary conditions are considered at vertical and lateral reservoir boundaries. that is. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown.
This dissertation examines the production performance of oil wells with constant flow rates in different shapes of anisotropic reservoirs. Well productivity is often evaluated using the productivity index. Convenient algorithms to calculate shape factor and pseudo skin factor
xvi
. etc. sector.) are investigated.ABSTRACT
Well productivity is one of primary concerns in field development and provides the basis for field development strategy. channel.
Well responses in a variety of reservoir models (circular. rectangular.

where n is the number of wells. The proposed equations which relate the production rate vector to the pressure drawdown vector provide simple. accurate and fast analytical tools to evaluate well performance without dividing the cluster into single well drainage areas. Charts are presented whereby the effects of a variety of reservoir and wellbore parameters on productivity index can be compared.due to partial penetration are provided.
The main conclusions of this study are:
xvii
. anisotropic reservoir are provided. Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well are also presented.
Steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. Multiwell productivity index (MPI) is obtained by solving a square matrix equation of dimension n. The effects of well pattern and mechanical skin factor on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system are investigated. Influence of reservoir boundaries on the well responses is investigated. Comparison of different drive mechanisms is presented.

its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. and a weak function of payzone thickness.
(4) For a horizontal well. the effect of the radius on productivity can be ignored. the off-center well and centered well have the same productivity whether the lateral boundary is impermeable or at constant pressure.
xviii
. reservoir size. the permeability parallel to the well in the horizontal plane.(1) Different productivity equations should be used under different reservoir boundary conditions. horizontal permeability. and a weak function of payzone thickness. location of the well in vertical direction in payzone. location of producing portion. off-center distance and reservoir size.
(2) If a circular cylinder reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water. the permeability perpendicular to the well in horizontal plane. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. vertical permeability. and if the circular cylinder radius is very large compared to the pay zone thickness. vertical permeability. and the effect of the off-center distance on well productivity is also negligible.
(3) For a partially penetrating vertical well.

radial permeability. reservoir boundary conditions. well pattern and mechanical skin factor have significant effects on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system. horizontal permeability.(5) For a multiple fully penetrating vertical of wells system.
xix
.

To determine the economical feasibility of drilling a well.
The productivity index expresses an intuitive feeling that. the behavior during pseudo-steady state or steady state flow (Cheng. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Well productivity is one of primary concerns in field development and provides the basis for field development strategy. Indeed. it has been long ago observed by petroleum engineers that in a bounded reservoir or a reservoir with strong water drive. 1993).1. petroleum engineers need reliable methods to estimate its expected productivity. 2003). the ratio of production rate to some pressure difference between the reservoir and the well must depend on the geometry of the reservoir/well system only (Raghavan. that is. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown. Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long time performance behavior of a well. the productivity index of a well stabilizes in a long time asymptote. once the well production is “stabilized”.
1
. Well productivity is often evaluated using the productivity index.

Using the assumption of a uniform flux wellbore. such as horizontal and vertical permeabilities.
2
. etc. investigating the factors and parameters that influence or control the productivity index is our major interest.A hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with a single well can be produced in two substantially different regimes (Khalmanova. 2004):
(1) The pressure on the well is maintained at a constant level while the rate of flow from the well is decreasing along with the average reservoir pressure.
(2) The rate of flow from the well is held constant while the wellbore pressure and the average reservoir pressure decrease. drainage dimensions. Maximizing well
productivity at a minimum cost is our objective. Therefore. a library of new solutions to productivity equations is provided. the effects of parameters on well productivity will be made.
This study examines the production performance of oil wells with constant flow rates in different shapes of anisotropic reservoirs. and well location. well producing length and penetration degree.

introduces different reservoir models and well models. presents productivity equations for single horizontal well.1)
where Q is well flow rate. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown. presents productivity equations for multiple vertical wells system. The third section. P is the w i w flowing bottomhole pressure. which is the fifth section of this study. Chapters Three. conclusions and recommendations. During the transient flow period. The fourth section. Chapters Nine.1 Productivity Index
Productivity index. P is the initial reservoir pressure. In the last
section. The second section. The first section. The transient productivity index is calculated before the flow reaches the pseudo-steady state or steady state regime. PI .
3
. Chapter Six. presents productivity equations for single vertical well. Chapter Two. presents summary. Chapter One. Four and Five.
1. Chapters Seven and Eight.The study has been divided into six sections. presents the basic productivity equations in the literature. Ten and Eleven. the productivity index is defined as (Cheng. 2003): PI = Q w P −P i w (1.

The expression for the productivity index is (Cheng. the difference between the average reservoir pressure and pressure in the wellbore approaches a constant with respect to time. the average reservoir pressure is used instead of the initial reservoir pressure and hence the productivity index is basically constant. e
For a bounded reservoir with no-flow boundaries. During this period. flow enters the pseudosteady state regime when the pressure transient reaches all boundaries after drawdown for a sufficiently long time. the productivity index during steady state flow is a constant. Therefore.
4
.2)
where P is the outer boundary pressure. the rate of pressure decline is almost identical at all points in the reservoir and wellbore. flow reaches the steady state regime after the pressure transient reaches the constant pressure boundary. In the definition of pseudo-steady state productivity index. Rate and pressure become constant with time at all points in the reservoir and wellbore once steady state flow is established. 2003):
PI = w P −P e w Q
(1. Therefore.When a reservoir is bounded with a constant pressure boundary (such as a gas cap or an aquifer).

The pseudo-steady state productivity index is defined as (Cheng..4 D D
5
. F = 86. the productivity equation of a fully penetrating vertical well in a homogeneous. C is the total compressibility of reservoir. which can be obtained from a a material balance for the reservoir. φ is the porosity.2 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Vertical Wells
Substituting Darcy's equation into the equation of continuity. 1994):
Q =F w D
2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB ) e w ln( R / R ) e w
(1. in field metric units.3)
where P is the average reservoir pressure.001127 .4) is in field units. 2003):
PI = w P −P a w Q
(1.
1. i.e.5)
where F is the unit conversion factor (Butler. and B is formation t volume factor. In field units. isotropic reservoir is obtained below (Butler.
P =P − a i
0.234Q Bt w C Vφ t
(1. Equation (1. D
F = 0. 1994).4)
where V is the reservoir volume. t is the production time.

Q =F w D
2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) e w 2 ln[( R − R 2 ) /( R R )] e 0 e w
(1. that is. the flow rate of a fully penetrating vertical well in a closed circular drainage area can be obtained from (Butler. Ge (1982) introduced the following equation.7)
where P is the average reservoir pressure in a circular drainage area. 1994):
Q =F w D
2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w ln( R / R ) − 3 / 4 e w
(1. which accounts for asymmetrical positioning of a well within its isotropic circular drainage area. 0
Equation (1. to calculate the productivity for an off-center well in steady state.
6
.Equation (1. but the most common one is to prevent or delay the unwanted fluids into the wellbore. with constant pressure outer boundary. Assuming pseudo-steady state.5) is only applicable to a vertical well which is located at the center of a circular drainage area.6)
where R is the off-center distance from the circular drainage area center. This may be done for a variety of reasons. only a portion of the pay zone is perforated.5) is based on the circular drainage area with constant pressure outer boundary. a
In many oil and gas reservoirs the producing wells are completed as partially penetrating wells.

If a vertical well partially penetrates the formation. Equation (1. there is an added resistance to flow in the vicinity of the wellbore. The streamlines converge and the area for flow decreases. a pseudo skin. i. which included flow of fluid in the vertical direction.10)
7
. which results in added resistance.8)
The problem of fluid flow into wells with partial penetration has received much attention in the past.e. Several authors have developed solutions to the two dimensional diffusivity equation.
Brons and Marting's pseudo skin factor equation (1961):
S
ps
= ( 1 − 1)[ln(h ) − G (η )] D v η v
(1. They obtained analytical and semi-empirical expressions for pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. Thus.5) may be rewritten to include the pseudo skin factor S
ps
due to partial penetration as
Q =F w D
2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB ) e w ln( R / R ) + S e w ps
(1.9)
where
K h h =( H ) D τRw K v
(1.

363η v + 11.75 L 1 pr
(1.45η v3 − 4.948 − 7. and
G (η v ) = 2.τ = 1 if well producing from the top (or bottom) of the formation.15)
h is the distance from the top of the reservoir to the top of the open 1
interval. τ = 2n if well with n intervals open to production.
ηv =
L
pr H pr
is the producing well length.13)
where
A=
H h + 0.675η v3
(1. τ = 2 if
well only producing from the central section.12)
where L
Papatzacos's pseudo skin factor equation (1988):
S
ps
= ( 1 − 1) ln(
πh
ηv
D ) + ( 1 ) ln[( η v )( A − 1)1 / 2 ] ηv 2 2 + ηv B − 1
(1.14)
and
B=
H h + 0.
(1.11)
ηv
is the partially penetrating factor for vertical well. perforated interval.e.
8
.25 L 1 pr
(1. i.

and A is drainage area.
Rarely do wells drain ideally shaped drainage areas.It must be pointed out that the above pseudo skin factor equations are only applicable to a reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries.16)
where C
9
. Equation (1. either because of the presence of natural boundaries or because of lopsided production rates in adjoining wells.
To account for irregular drainage shapes or asymmetrical positioning of a well within its drainage area. Even if they are assigned regular geographic drainage areas.2458 A /(C R 2 )] A w 2 A
is shape factor. a series of shape factors was developed by Dietz (1965). The drainage area is then shaped by the assigned production share of a particular well.7) can be generalized for any shape into the equation below:
Q
w
= FD
2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w 1 ln[2. they become distorted after production commences.
(1.

1990). 1990). Their calculations.
Peaceman procedure aspect ratio. (1954).Dietz (1965) evaluated shape factor C
A
for various geometries. presumably because of truncation of the infinite sums (Peaceman. but still turned out to be slightly in error. corresponding to pseudo-steady state. (1968) carried out summations of exponential integrals to obtain dimensionless pressure drops at various points within a square drainage area. The linear portions of the pressure drop curves so obtained.
(1990)
presented
a
successive
refinement
numerical
to calculate the shape factor of a rectangle with arbitrary
10
. and then used superposition of various square shapes to obtain pressure drops for rectangular shapes. from the straight line portion of various build-up curves presented by Mattews et al. were then used to obtain shape factors for various rectangles. He obtained his results graphically.
Earlougher et al. for rectangles of various aspect ratios with single well in various locations. in
particular. Hence his values of C
A
are of limited accuracy (Peaceman. were far more accurate than those of Dietz.

Thus. it is more expensive to drill a horizontal well than a vertical one. Because of its large flow area. Recent interest in horizontal wells has been accelerating because of improved drilling and completion technology. Although some theoretically rigorous semi-analytic models have been developed. a horizontal well may be several times more productive than a vertical one draining the same volume.1. The performance of a horizontal well can be strongly influenced by the partial penetration and the anisotropy of horizontal to vertical permeability. to determine the economical feasibility of drilling a horizontal well. modeling of a horizontal well is much more complex than modeling a vertical well.3 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Horizontal Wells
A worldwide interest exists today in drilling horizontal wells to increase productivity. they are often very complicated and lack flexibility
11
. Available analytical models usually contain a number of simplifying assumptions.
A horizontal well has quite different flow geometry (3D) from that of a vertical well (1D symmetrical radial flow). Therefore. This has led to increased efficiency and economics in oil recovery. the engineers need reliable methods to estimate its expected productivity. However.

These models estimate the productivity under steady state flow. such as horizontal permeability. the 3D flow problem of a horizontal well is approximated by two 2D problems. this information usually suffers from incompleteness and large errors.
There are basically two categories of methods for calculation of horizontal well productivity: analytical and semi-analytical models. However. As a result. can affect the behavior of a horizontal well. On the other hand.. that is. fluid flow potential theory was the foundation for developing analytical models for prediction of well productivity. In these models. our estimation or evaluation of productivity in a horizontal well is more difficult. 2D horizontal flow to a vertical fracture and 2D vertical flow to a horizontal well. The
12
. It is obvious that such methodology is not rigorous and that the resulting solutions are applicable only as an initial screen and for comparison with vertical well productivity. vertical permeability. In earlier studies of horizontal wells.in dealing with multiple types of boundary conditions. effective well length etc. These factors are the basic information needed to model a horizontal well. many factors.
Borisov (1964) developed one of the earliest analytical models for calculating steady state oil production from a horizontal well.

Q = w 2πK H∆P /( µB) h w ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ βH ⎜ ln ⎜ 2a + 4a − L ⎟ + ( ) ln[βH /(2 R )] ⎟ ⎜ w L L ⎟ ⎜
⎝ ⎠
(1.17)
Giger (1984) proposed a model similar to Borisov’s.
13
.19)
where a is the semi-major axis of the drainage ellipse.
Q = w 2πK L∆P /( µB) h w ⎡ 2⎤ ⎢1 + 1 − [ L /(2 Re )] ⎥ ( L / H ) ln ⎢ ⎥ + ln[ H /(2πRw )] L /(2 R ) e ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(1.18)
Joshi (1988) developed a model with elliptical flow in the horizontal plane and radial flow in the vertical plane. The model was modified to take into account the influence of the horizontal well eccentricity from the vertical center of reservoir and the anisotropy of horizontal to vertical permeability. but assumed an ellipsoidal drainage area. e
(1. he presented the equation below:
2πK H∆P /( µB ) h w Q = w ln(4 R / L) + ( H / L) ln[ H /( 2πR )] e w
where R is the drainage radius of the horizontal well.horizontal flow was assumed from an equivalent circular drainage area toward a vertical fracture with drainage radius much larger than the vertical fracture length.

a = ( L / 2) 0. 2003) developed steady state productivity equations for horizontal wells. a is the same as state in Equation (1.21)
Renard (1991) modified the steady state equation to include the effective wellbore radius.5 + 0. using three dimensional drainage model.25 + (2 Re / L) 4
and β is the permeability anisotropic factor
(1.20)
β=
K K
h v
(1.) is the inverse hyperbolic cosine function.19).
2πK H∆P /( µB) h w Q = w βH cosh − 1( X ) + ( ) ln[H /(2πR 'w )] L
(1. and effective wellbore radius is
' Rw =(
1+ β ) Rw 2β
(1.22)
where X = 2a / L .23)
Lu (2001. cosh −1 (. Lu also obtained the conclusion that the equipotential
14
. bottom and the lateral sides. The well drainage volume was assumed to be an infinite parallel slab or a circular cylinder with no-flow or constant pressure boundaries at top.

28(a / h) K / K [ 1 − 0 + ( 0 ) 2 ] H z x 3 a a − ln[sin(πz / h)] − 0.5 ln[(a / h) K / K ] − 1. C H is geometric factor defined by
ln C x x = 6.surfaces of a horizontal well uniform line sink in three dimensional space with isotropic permeability are a family of ellipsoids of revolution whose focuses are the two end points of the horizontal well.75 + S ps w
(1.25)
15
. the horizontal well is parallel to the boxshaped reservoir width ( in y direction). S ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. which takes the same form as the well-known productivity equation for a vertical well. Lu’s steady state equations will be introduced in Chapter Six. which is equal to b .088 0 z x
(1. bottom and the sides.24)
where A is drainage area.
Babu and Odeh (1989) constructed a pseudo-steady state productivity model. Their equation is below:
Q
2πb K x K z ( P − P ) /( µB) a w =F w D ln( A1 / 2 / R ) + ln(C H ) − 0. Expressions for shape factor and partial penetration skin were derived by suitably simplifying and reducing their original solution of the boundary value problem with no-flow boundaries at top.

x0 is x coordinate of center of the well.485 − [4.0 ln[sin( h h eq eq
(1. Helmy and Watenburger (1998) proposed pseudo-steady state productivity models in a box-shaped bounded reservoir.5 ln[4 A /(γR 2 )] − 0. z 0 is z coordinate of center of the well.
Using the numerical simulation results.187 − 12. and their applicability is restricted to the ranges of reservoir dimensions and well penetration ratio simulated.27)
K
eq
=3K K K x y z =y K w eq K y
x
weq
=x
K w
eq K x
y
weq
z
weq
=z
K w
(1. Their equation is below:
2πb 3 K K K ( P − P ) /( µB ) eq x y z a w Q =F w D 0.26)
(1.56( ) ]( ) A h a a eq eq eq πz a eq weq )] + ln( ) + 2.56( ) + 12. Correlations for shape factors and partial penetration skins were developed using nonlinear regression.5 ln C + S eq weq A ps
where
a x x weq 2 eq weq ln C = 4.28)
eq K z
16
.where a is the extension of the drainage volume in direction.

horizontal well is parallel to the box-shaped reservoir width ( in y direction). The
and a. Galindo-N. width. which is equal to b . h are reservoir length.a
eq
=a
K
eq K x
b =b eq
K
eq K y
h =h eq
K
eq K z
(1. Marhaendrajana and Blasingame (2001) presented a solution and associated analysis methodology to evaluate single well performance behavior in a multiple wells reservoir system. b.29)
and
r = [( K / K )1 / 4 + ( K / K )1 / 4 ]r / 2 weq x z z x w
(1.4 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Multiple Wells System
The performance of multiple wells system has received attention in the last decade. Ozkan.
1. and Prats (1999) gave a buildup solution in a system with multiple wells producing at constant wellbore pressures. respectively.
17
. Camacho-V.30) thickness. Umnuayponwiwat. and Raghavan (2000) presented equations of pressure transient behavior and inflow performance of multiple vertical and horizontal wells in closed systems.

1 -
Symmetric Two-Well System
18
.31)
Y
Re
Well 2 O R0 R0
Well 1
X
Figure 1. the wellbore radii and flowing bottomhole pressures are identical. The two wells are located at equal distance from the center of the circular system. The steady state productivity for each well is
Q =F w D
2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) e w ln[( R 4 − R 4 ) /(2 R R R 2 )] e w 0 e 0
(1. as shown in Figure 1.Ge (1982) introduced a steady state productivity equation for a symmetric two-well system in a uniform thickness isotropic circular cylinder reservoir. The outer boundary pressure ( P ) is assumed to e be constant during production.1. such that the flow rates are equivalent.

They consider a rectangular homogeneous reservoir of uniform thickness.y
wj
) . and no-flow outer boundaries. y ) = P − ( ) ∑ Q × a( x . the pressure at the point ( x. The four corner points of the rectangle are located at (0. y ) and (0. Figure 1. x . y ) is
µB n P ( x.33)
19
. the wellbore radii. r . Doublet and Blasingame (2000) presented pseudo-steady state productivity index for multiple wells producing from a closed isotropic rectangular reservoir. φ . 0) .Valko. 0) . h . permeability.y . y . y .
( x . their locations ( x
wj
. the number of e e e e
wells. y ) .
By superposition principle. k . for the n-well system. ( x .y ) a( x .2 shows a schematic of the reservoir.32)
. porosity. with n production wells.y ) a D D wDj wDj eD 2πkh j = 1 j
where
(1. n.y . x D D wDj wDj eD (y2 + y2 ) 1 yD D wDj = (2πy )[ − + ] eD 3 y 2 ) ( 2 y eD eD ∞ t m cos(mπx D ) cos(mπx wDj ) + 2π ∑ m m =1
and
(1. are considered wj
constant. In any given time interval.

Figure 1.34)
D
= x / x and y = y / y .Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir (after Valko. 2000)
20
.cosh[mπ ( y − | y − y |)] + cosh{mπ [ y − ( y + y )]} eD D wDj eD D wDj t = m sinh(mπy ) eD
with x
(1. Q j is the flow rate of jth well. Doublet and Blasingame .2 . P is the e D e a
average reservoir pressure in the rectangular drainage domain.

there holds
µB P = P −( ) w.x . or in a circular reservoir under steady state and pseudo-steady state.
The procedure of calculating multiple wells productivity index will be introduced in Chapter 7 and Chapter 8.y .y .For a point located at the circumference of well i and taking into account the drop in pressure due to mechnical skin factor.35)
No productivity equations are available in the literature for multiple wells arbitrarily located in a rectangular reservoir under steady state.y ) j wDi wDi wDi wDj wDj eD j =1 +S Q ] i i
(1.
21
. i a 2πkh n × [ ∑ Q × a( x +r .

2.
2.
22
. gas cap. If i the reservoir has constant pressure boundaries (edge water. the drilled well length is L . and formation volume factor B . and the wellbore radius is R . Every well is taken as a uniform line sink. of small and constant compressibility C . Gravity forces are neglected. pressure is uniformly distributed in the reservoir. A single phase fluid. w
3. the pressure is equal to the initial value at such boundaries during production. For vertical well and horizontal well in any reservoir model. the producing well length is L
pr
. the following assumptions are made:
1. The reservoir is with finite uniform thickness H . At time t = 0. equal to the initial pressure P . flows from the reservoir to the well. RESERVOIR AND WELL MODELS
The primary goal of this chapter is to introduce various reservoir and well models in this study. Fluid properties are independent of pressure. constant f viscosity µ . bottom water).

Edge water. gas cap and bottom water are taken as constant pressure boundaries.2)
Every reservoir is assumed to have finite uniform thickness H .
P =P e i
(2. gas cap are taken as constant pressure outer boundaries. the pressure at these boundaries is assumed to be constant and equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production. edge water.4. we have the following
equations:
23
.
For any type of reservoir . The origin of the downward z direction coordinates is at the top boundary where
z = 0 . then for the upper and lower boundaries. multiphase flow effects are ignored. bottom water.1)
In order to simplify the problem of fluid flow into wellbore. the reservoir pressure is initial constant.
P|
t=0
=P i
(2. There is no water encroachment or water/gas coning.

then
P|
z=0
= P. the reservoir has both gas cap drive and bottom water drive. then
P|
z=0
=P. then
∂P | = 0. ∂z z = 0
∂P | =0 ∂z z = H
(2. then
P|
z=H
=P.5)
If the reservoir is with top and bottom constant pressure boundaries. e. e. P| =P i z=H i
(2.6)
24
..If the reservoir is with top and bottom impermeable boundaries. the boundaries at z = 0 and z = H are both constant pressure boundaries. e. i.3)
If the reservoir is with impermeable boundary at z = H . the boundaries at z = 0 and z = H are both impermeable. the reservoir does not have gas cap drive or bottom water drive.g.e.g. i.4)
If the reservoir is with impermeable boundary at z = 0 ..constant pressure boundary at z = H . e. the reservoir has gas cap drive. i
∂P | =0 ∂z z = 0
(2.g. i
∂P | =0 ∂z z = H
(2.e.g. the reservoir has bottom water drive.constant pressure boundary at z = 0 .

1 .
R0
Re
H
Figure 2. represented in the w model by a uniform line sink located a height Z reservoir.2 is a schematic of a horizontal well which also drains a circular cylinder reservoir with height H and radius R . and the off-center distance is R . and the well is parallel to the z direction with a producing length L
pr
≤H.2.Vertical Well in a Circular Cylinder Reservoir
Figure 2. (the well line is located at R e 0 0 away from the axis of symmetry of the cylindrical body). The production occurs e through a horizontal well of radius R and length L .1 is a schematic of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well with length L .1 Circular Cylinder Reservoir Model
Figure 2.
w
above the bottom of the
25
. which drains a circular cylinder reservoir with height H and radius R .

Z ) . Z ) and ( . and the horizontal well producing length is L . 0) and ( R . the coordinates of the top and bottom points of the well line are ( R . 0 0
26
.Horizontal Well in a Circular Cylinder Reservoir
Assume the middle point of the horizontal well is the center of the drainage circle. 0. Z ) . the coordinate of the midpoint is w w 2 2
(0. L) . 0. the coordinates of the two end points are (−
L L . In this case.Figure 2. 0. 0.7)
For a partially penetrating vertical well. w
The cylindrical drainage volume is
Ω = {( x 2 + y 2 ) < R 2 } × (0. the well is parallel to the x direction. 0. respectively. H ) 1 e
(2.2 .

and the vertical well is fully penetrating. 0. 0. L ) . then the three dimensional circular cylinder reservoir model can reduce to two dimensional circular model. 0. L ) is the beginning point and point ( R . 0. L ) and point ( R .
27
. H ) 1 e
(2. z ) = P = P e i
on cylindrical lateral surface
(2. and producing well length is 0 1 0 2
L
pr
=L −L . L ) is the end 0 1 0 2 point of the producing portion of the well.11)
If both upper and lower boundaries are impermeable.9)
Γ = {( x 2 + y 2 ) = R 2 } × (0.8)
The lateral boundary condition is shown below:
Case 1: Constant pressure lateral boundary
P ( x. L ≤L≤H 2 1 pr
(2. The well is a uniform line sink between ( R .10)
Case 2: Impermeable lateral boundary
∂P | =0 ∂r r = R e
(2. y .Point ( R .

and the jth well is located R away from the j center of the drainage circle.Multiple Wells System in a Circular Reservoir
Figure 2.Well n
3 2 Well 1 Figure 2. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic circular drainage reservoir with height H and radius Re .3 .
28
.3 is a schematic of a multiple wells system.

4 is a schematic of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well with a producing length L with height H . H ) 2 e e
Assuming:
(2.12)
X ≥Y e e
(2.Vertical Well in a Box-Shaped Reservoir
29
.4 is:
Ω = (0.4 . e
e
The box-shaped drainage volume of the partially penetrating vertical well shown in Figure 2.2.13)
H
Ye Xe
Figure 2. length X
pr
.2 Box-Shaped Reservoir Model
Figure 2. which drains a box-shaped drainage volume width Y .
. Y ) × (0. X ) × (0.

15)
Figure 2. We have w w pr 0< X w
< X . respectively.Horizontal Well in a Box-Shaped Reservoir
30
.The coordinates of top and bottom well points are ( X . then
X
w
= X / 2. 0) and w w
( X .14)
If a vertical well is located at the center of the box-shaped drainage body. L ) . 0<Y <Y e w e
(2. Y . Y = Y / 2 e w e
(2.5 . Y .

0. 0. the coordinate of the midpoint is (0. w w 2
The box-shaped drainage domain of the horizontal well shown in Figure 2. and width ( y direction) 2b . the pressure at the outer boundary is always equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production. the lateral boundary condition is shown below:
Case 1: Constant pressure lateral boundary
P|
x=0
= P|
x=X
= P|
e
y=0
= P|
y =Y e
=P =P e i
(2.
31
. b) × (0.5 is
Ω = (−a. Z ) . H ) 3
(2. 0.17)
This case means the reservoir is with a strong edge water drive.5 is a schematic of a horizontal well which drains a box-shaped reservoir with height H . Z ) and w 2
L ( . length ( x direction) 2a . Z ) .16)
For vertical wells.Figure 2. a) × (−b. the coordinates of the two end points of the uniform line sink are (−
L . The well is parallel to the x direction with a length L ≤ 2a .

and the jth well e e is located ( X
wj
.6.Case 2: Impermeable lateral boundary
∂P | = 0 ∂N Γ
∂N
(2.
This case means all the boundaries of the box-shaped drainage volume are sealed. and the vertical well is fully penetrating.
If both upper and lower boundaries are impermeable. wj
32
.7 is a schematic of a multiple wells system.
Figure 2.Y ). length ( x direction) X . width ( y direction ) Y . as shown in Figure 2. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic rectangular reservoir with height H . then the three dimensional box-shaped reservoir model can reduce to two dimensional rectangular model.18)
where ∂P |Γ is the exterior normal derivative of pressure on the surface of box-shaped drainage domain.

Fully Penetrating Vertical Well in a Rectangular Reservoir
Well n
Ye
Well 1
Xe
Figure 2.6 .Figure 2.7 .Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir
33
.

w
A Re
O
Φ
R0 φw
B
Figure 2.8 . a fully penetrating vertical well is in a sector drainage area
Ω = {( R .19)
34
. both upper and lower e boundaries are impermeable. The vertical well is located at R away from 0 the vertex of the angle of the sector.3 Sector Fault Reservoir Model
Figure 2.Vertical Well in a Sector Fault Reservoir
As Figure 2. Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } 4 e
(2.8 shows.8 is a schematic of a fully penetrating vertical well which drains a sector fault reservoir with height H and radius R .2. the wellbore location angle is θ .

∂N OA
∂P | = 0 ∂N OB
(2.20)
where ∂P | are the exterior normal derivatives of pressure on the ∂N OA. The fully
penetrating vertical well is in a channel drainage domain below:
Ω = (−∞.
=P =P P| e i r=R e
(2.21)
2.22)
35
.where τ is an arbitrary real number.
The outer boundary is with edge water. Y ) 5 e
(2. the pressure at outer boundary is always equal to initial reservoir pressure Pi .4 Channel Reservoir Model
Figure 2. ∞) × (0. OB two sides of angle of the sector area. which is greater than or equal to unity.
The two sides of the angle are impermeable.
∂P | = 0.9 is a schematic of a fully penetrating vertical well which drains a channel reservoir with infinite extension in
x
direction. during production.

∂P | = 0.Vertical Well in a Channel Reservoir
Two parallel impermeable lateral boundaries are in y direction.Yw
Ye
Figure 2.9 .23)
The channel reservoir is infinite in x direction. and the pressure remains constant and equal to the initial value at an infinite distance in x direction:
P( x) |
x → ±∞
=P i
(2. ∂y y = 0
∂P | =0 ∂y y = Ye
(2.24)
36
.

then using superposition principle.25)
If in steady state.
Suppose the point ( x . y .26)
37
.2. uniform line sink solutions are obtained. we have to obtain the basic solution of the 0 0 0 diffusivity equation below:
∂2P + K ∂2P + K ∂2P x y z ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂x 2 = φµ C ∂ P + µ qB δ ( x − x ) δ ( y − y ) δ ( z − z ) 0 0 0 t ∂t K
(2. z ) is on the producing portion of 0 0 0
the
wellbore. y . z ) . in order to obtain point convergence at ( x . then
∂P =0 ∂t
(2. and its point convergence intensity is q . point sink solutions are first obtained by the orthogonal decompositions of Dirac δ function under different boundary conditions.5 Mathematical Model
In order to obtain productivity equations under different boundary conditions for various reservoir models.

and r
K = K = K h = K r . the vertical permeability and horizontal permeability are respectively:
K =K v z
K = ( K K )1 / 2 h x y
(2.25) in a dimensionless x y
isotropic drainage domain.29) is dimensionless producing length of the wellbore. which will
prD
be introduced later. define average permeability K
a
as follows: (2.
For circular cylinder reservoirs and sector fault reservoirs.For any reservoir model.30)
K = K 2 / 3K1 / 3 a r v
and define the following dimensionless variables:
38
. in order to solve Equation (2. we assume horizontal permeability K
h
is equal to radial permeability K .27) (2.28)
The relationship between total flow rate Q intensity q is below:
w
and point convergence
Q = qL w prD
where L
(2.

36)
R
R K K K = ( v )1 / 6 [( r )1 / 4 + ( v )1 / 4 ]( w ) wD 2L K K K ref r v r
(2.34)
R
wD
=(
K w )( v )1 / 6 K L r ref R
(2.31)
H
D
=(
H L ref
K ) K
a v
Z
wD
=(
K w ) a L K ref v
Z
(2.
L D =( L L ref K ) K a v
(2.37)
39
.
L D =( L L ref K ) K a r
(2.32)
R
eD
=(
K e ) a L K ref r
R
R
0D
=(
K 0 ) a L K ref r
R
(2.x
D
=(
x L ref
K ) K
a r
y
D
=(
y L ref
K ) K
a r
z
D
=(
z L ref
K ) K
a v
(2.33)
For a vertical well.35)
For a horizontal well.

39)
X
wD
=(
K a w ) K L x ref X
Y
wD
=(
K a w ) K L y ref Y
(2.
in order to solve
Equation (2.For box-shaped reservoirs and channel reservoirs.41)
H
D
=(
L
Z
ref
wD
=(
(2.38)
and define the following dimensionless variables
=( x L ref
X
K ) K
x
a x
D
y
D
=(
y L ref
K ) K
a y
z
D
=(
z L ref
K ) K
a z
(2.44)
40
.43)
K z )1 / 6 R =( wD K K x y y 1 / 4 Rw ) ]( ) × [( x )1 / 4 + ( 2L K K ref x y K K
(2.40)
X
eD
=(
K a e ) K L x ref
H K ) K a z
K Y a Y =( e ) eD K L y ref
K w ) a L K ref z Z
(2. define average permeability K
K = ( K K K )1 / 3 a x y z
a
as follows: (2.25) in a dimensionless isotropic drainage domain.
L D =( L L ref K ) K a z
(2.42)
For a vertical well.

length.For a horizontal well. Brigham (1990).35).46).45)
K z )1 / 6 R =( wD K K x y R y 1/ 4 × [( + ( z )1 / 4 ]( w ) ) K K 2L z y ref K K
(2. etc. L . then
L L ref K ) K a x
L
D
=(
(2. Besson (1990) and Peaceman (1991). wD
The dimensionless time and dimensionless pressure are defined below:
t = K t a φµC L2 t ref
D
(2.(2.47)
P = D
K L ( P − P) a ref i µqB
(2.46)
In the above definitions of dimensionless variables.37). L ref could be H . and L ref pr e
is a reference
Based on the works of Muskat (1949).44) and (2. (2.48)
41
. assume the well length is parallel to x direction. R . we define the dimensionless effective wellbore radius R in Equations (2.

the productivity equations for a uniform link sink in steady state and pseudo-steady state are obtained.Using the above dimensionless variables. then using superposition principle. the behavior during pseudosteady state or steady state flow. steady state flow can occur only if the flow across the drainage boundary is equal to the flow across the wellbore wall at well
42
.
The main steps of derivations of productivity equations for vertical wells are in the appendices of this study.25) could be changed into the following dimensionless form:
∂P ∂2P ∂2P ∂2P D −( D + D + D ) 2 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z D D D D )δ ( y − y )δ ( z − z ) = δ (x − x 0D 0D 0D D D D
(2.49) by the orthogonal decompositions of Dirac function under different boundary conditions. Equation (2. that is.
Strictly speaking.
Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long time performance behavior of a well.49)
Solving Equation (2. point sink solutions are obtained for various reservoir models.

and the wellbore pressure must decline at the same rate as the average reservoir pressure (Tiab and Donaldson. if all the reservoir boundaries are impermeable. in petroleum reservoirs produced by a strong water drive.radius. the pressure change with time is so slight that it is practically undetectable. however. and the fluid properties remain constant throughout the reservoir (Tiab and Donaldson. These conditions may never be met in a reservoir. In such cases. then the pseudo-steady state can be reached. 2004). such as a circular cylinder reservoir. 2004). a box-shaped reservoir.
And it must be pointed out that for a finite size ( finite drainage volume) reservoir. and the the well is produced at a constant flow rate for a long time. the assumption of steady state is acceptable.
43
. whereby the water influx rate at outer boundary is equal to the well producing rate.

1)
44
. An equation is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic circular reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well.3. and has constant pressure lateral boundary. 2008):
Q =F w D
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w 2 2 ln[( R − R ) /( R R )] + S eD 0D eD wD ps
(3. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR
The primary goal of this chapter is to present steady state and pseudosteady state productivity equations for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage reservoir.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State
If an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage volume. This chapter also gives equations for calculating pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. for arbitrary position of the well within the reservoir. This chapter also studies the effects of some critical parameters on well productivity. which has both impermeable top and bottom boundaries.
3. then the productivity equation in steady state is below (Lu and Tiab.

1) reduces to 0
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w Q =F w D ln( R / R )+S eD wD ps
(3.
For a centered well.2)
where S
ps
is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. then Equation (3.
8H 2 N D ) ∑ {( 1 ) K [( nπ ) R ] S =( 0 H wD ps π 2 L2 n2 1 n = D prD nπL nπ ( L + L ) prD 2 1D 2 D ]} ) cos 2 [ × sin ( 2H 2H D D
(3.4)
HD HD HD HD where Int[( 2π RwD ) ln( RwD )] is the integer part of [( 2πRwD ) ln( RwD )] .
45
.As a special case of Equation (3. Equation (1.1). R = 0 .
All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.6) is only applicable to fully penetrating off-center vertical well in an isotropic circular drainage reservoir.3)
and
N = Int[(
H D ) ln( D )] + 1 2πR R wD wD
H
(3.

if the vertical well is fully penetrating.
and
if
the
reservoir
is
an
isotropic
reservoir. a r v
( R = 0 ).5).e. then pr e i
S
ps
=0. and 0 Equation (1.
(3. 2008):
46
. then (Lu and Tiab.Note that P = P .2) reduces to R /R eD wD e w
If the reservoir has an impermeable bottom boundary and a constant pressure top boundary (gas cap). 2008):
Q =F w D
where
π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB)
r pr i w 16 HΘ 1
(3.6)
If the reservoir has an impermeable top boundary and a constant pressure bottom boundary (bottom water). L = L = H .4). then (Lu and Tiab.
i.
K =K =K =K.5)
N (2n − 1)π 1 ]R } K {[ Θ = ∑ 1 wD 2 0 2H n = 1 (2n − 1) D (2n − 1)πL (2n − 1)π ( L + L ) prD 1D 2D ] ] sin 2 [ × sin 2[ 4H 4H D D
and N has the same meaning as in Equation (3.
the well is at the center of the cylindrical body
= R / R . then Equation (3.

5).10)
It is important to emphasize that the dimensionless drainage radius ReD does not show up in Equations (3. then (Lu and Tiab.Q =F w D
where
π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB)
r pr i w 16 HΘ 2
(3. we
47
.7) and (3. (3.9)
N ] Θ = ∑ ( 1 ) K [( nπ ) R 3 wD 2 0 H n n =1 D nπL nπ ( L + L ) prD 1D 2D ] ) sin 2[ × sin 2 ( 2H 2H D D
(3. In order to compare the effects of different drive mechanisms on the well productivity.7)
N (2n − 1)π 1 ]R } K {[ Θ = ∑ 2 0 wD 2 2 H n = 1 (2n − 1) D (2n − 1)πL (2n − 1)π ( L + L ) prD 2 1D 2D ] ] cos 2 [ × sin [ 4H 4H D D
(3.8)
If the reservoir has constant pressure from both top and bottom boundaries (gas cap and bottom water). 2008):
Q =F w D
where
π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB)
r pr i w 4 HΘ 3
(3.9).

11) are applicable to both constant pressure lateral boundary and impermeable lateral boundary.7).
48
.13)
for Equation (3.7) and (3.2).5):
R 32Θ1 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) S =( ps R π 2 L2 wD pr
(3. for Equation (3.5).rearrange Equations (3. (3. (3. we obtain
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w Q =F w D ln( R / R )+S eD wD ps
(3.7):
=( R 32Θ 2 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) R π 2 L2 wD pr
S
ps
(3.5). (3.11)
where.14)
It must be pointed out that Equations (3.12)
for Equation (3.9) after the form of Equation (3.9) and (3.9):
=( R 8Θ 3 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) R π 2 L2 wD pr
S
ps
(3.

isotropic reservoir.1 m 300 m 600 m 60 m 0. respectively. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are 0
given in Table 3.1.5 Rm3/Sm3
And assume the z coordinates of the beginning point and the end point on the producing well length are L = 15 m . L = 55 m .
49
. 1 2
Solution: The calculation results are given in Table 3.2 and Table 3.0 mPa. Lpr Wellbore Radius. K Oil Viscosity. Re Payzone Thickness.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3. ∆P Well Producing Length.1 µm2 2.s 1.Example 3.
R = 300 m . H Permeability.1
Pressure Drop. The well is an off-center well.3. µ Formation Volume Factor.
Table 3.0 MPa 40 m 0. The reservoir is a homogeneous.1 . R0 Drainage Radius. B
5.1: Calculate well flow rates in steady state under different top and bottom boundary conditions in a circular cylinder drainage volume. Rw Well Off-Center Distance.

07 2. Negative values of pseudo skin factors are obtained from Equations (3.
Table 3.14)
Pseudo Skin Factor 1.5). (3. respectively.30 -0.18 -0.13) Equation (3.13) and (3. because all the three equations are for a reservoir with both impermeable top and bottom boundaries.44 Sm3/D 705.3 shows that all the pseudo skin factors calculated by Equations (1. (3.50 Sm3/D 646.13) and (3.9)
Expected Productivity 512.Expected Productivity for Example 3.2 shows that significant differences among the well flow rates calculated by Equations (3.9). which reflect the effects of constant pressure top or bottom boundaries.Table 3.12) Equation (3.75 -1.
50
.13) Equation (3.7) and (3.21 Sm3/D
Table 3. because these equations are applicable to different top and bottom boundaries.9).7) Equation (3.9) Equation (1.1
Method Equation (1.Pseudo Skin Factor for Example 3.14).12).62 Sm3/D 682. (3.3 .1) Equation (3.5) Equation (3. (1.2 .3) Equation (3.3) are positive.1
Method Equation (3.98 2.00
Table 3.1).

9). (3. which are the original forms of productivity equations for a reservoir that has gas cap or bottom water. The performance is the same for a centered well and an off-center well.7) and (3.2). The well is producing as if the reservoir is infinite. but S
ps
in these equations are still taken as
pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.3).9). (3. (3. The effects of drainage radius R and off-center e distance R on productivity are negligible.It must be emphasized that S
ps
in Equation (3. Equations (3. respectively. even for the case of an edge water boundary (constant pressure outer boundary). (3. Therefore.12).7) and (3. thus R and R do not 0 eD 0D show up in Equations (3. are applicable to both constant pressure lateral boundary (edge water) reservoirs and impermeable lateral
51
.
S
ps
in Equations (3.7) and (3.
The pay zone thickness H is very small compared with the circular cylinder drainage radius R .5).5).3) is only applicable to the
case with impermeable top and bottom boundary condition Equation (2. the lateral boundary has little influence on productivity.14) are obtained by rearranging the
original productivity equations (3. ( H << R ) and if the reservoir has gas cap e D eD or bottom water which provides the main drive mechanism.5).9) after the form of Equation (3.13) and (3.

the well productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a sealed circular cylinder drainage volume under pseudo-steady state can be calculated below (Lu and Tiab. (3.
3.15)
R3 eD ] Λ = ln[ 1 (R 2 − R 2 − R R ) R 0D 0 D wD wD eD +R R wD ) 2 − 3 + 1 ( oD 2 R 4 eD
(3.7) and (3. are applicable to both centered and off-center wells.9).5). and Equations (3.3) and (2.boundary reservoirs.2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo .
If both top and bottom boundaries are impermeable. 2008):
Q =F w D
where
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w S +Λ 1 ps
(3.11).16)
52
. then R and R eD 0D play an important role in well productivity.1). as indicated by Equation (3.Steady State
If the boundary conditions are stated as Equations (2.

L (3.15) reduces to
(3.19)
For a centered. 1
If the well is located at the center of drainage volume R = 0 .3). and Equation
Q =F w D
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Λ 1
(3. then Λ 0 1 reduces to
R R 3 Λ = ln( eD ) + 1 ( wD ) 2 − 1 2 R R 4 eD wD
then Equation (3. then S
ps
= 0 . P is the average reservoir pressure a throughout the circular cylinder drainage volume.and S
ps
is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration and it has the
same meaning as in Equation (3.18)
Q =F w D
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w ln( R / R ) + 1 (R / R )2 − 3 / 4 + S eD wD 2 wD eD ps
(3.15) reduces to
pr
= L = H .16).
For a fully penetrating well.17)
where Λ has the same meaning as in Equation (3. fully penetrating well. S
ps
= 0 and note that
53
.

wD eD wD eD
thus
(3.7).
54
.17). K = K = K = K .
Example 3. eD wD e w
Therefore the productivity of a vertical well in pseudo-steady state in a circular cylinder drainage volume can be calculated by Equations (3. then Equation (3. L = 55 m . Reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as in Table 3. ( R / R ) 2 ≈ 0.15). i.2: Calculate well flow rate in pseudo-steady state in a sealed circular
cylinder drainage volume if the pressure drop is 5.e. (3.19) and (3.21)
and if the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir.R << R . 1 2 respectively.21) reduces to Equation (1. (3.0 MPa.20)
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Q =F w D ln( R / R ) −3/ 4 eD wD
(3.21). Assume the z coordinates of the beginning point 0 and the end point on the well producing length are L = 15 m. The off-center distance is R = 300 m .1. and a r v
R /R = R / R .

6667 2 n = 1 n 2 nπ (0.6667. R = R / H = 300 / 60 = 5 eD e 0D 0
H
D
H D ) ln( D ) + 1 2πR R wD wD = Int[( H ) ln( H ) + 1 2πR R w w = Int[( 60 ) ln( 60 )] + 1 2π × 0. then ref
= H / H = 1.6667 nπ ) cos 2 [ ]} 2 ×1 2 ×1 = 2. L = L / H = 55 / 60 = 0. R = R / H = 0. L = L / H = 15 / 60 = 0.18 =( 8 × 12
55
.1 = 611 N = Int[( H
Thus
S 611 ) ∑ {( 1 ) K (0.1 / 60 = 0.00167nπ ) 0 ps π 2 × 0. then
K =K =K a r v
K / K = K / K =1 a v a r
Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.9167) × sin 2 ( 0.9167 1D 1 2D 2 L = L / H = 40 / 60 = 0.Solution: We have
L
pr
= L − L = 40 m 2 1
L + L = 70 m 2 1
Because the reservoir is isotropic. and letting
L = H .25.00167 prD pr wD w R = R / H = 600 / 60 = 10.25 + 0.1 0.

15) and is only applicable to a fully penetrating vertical well.5) = 2.00167 ) 2 − 0.3
Shape Factors Calculation
Equation (3.00167(10 2 − 52 − 5 × 0.90 ( Sm 3 / D) =
3.18 + 8.Λ = ln[ 1
103 ] 0. Equation (3.36
The well flow rate is
Q
542.
Temeng and Horne (1984) provided an equation to calculate the shape factor C
A
in Equation (1.86 KH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w w S +Λ ps 1 542.15) can be used to calculate productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state and located anywhere in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir.75 10 2 = 8.86 × 0.36 = 514.
56
.16) for an off-center fully penetrating vertical
well in an isotropic circular reservoir.00167) + 1 ( 5 + 0.1 × 60 × 5 /( 2 × 1.17) is a special case of Equation (3.

there exist significant differences between the shape factors calculated by
Equation (3.
Table 3.16).4 . and combining with Equation (1.4.17).
From Table 3.24)
where ζ has the same meaning as in Equation (3. for a given ζ .2458π (1 − ζ 2 ) 2 exp(ζ 2 − 3 / 2)
A
(3. a proposed equation is presented below to calculate the shape factor C for an isotropic circular reservoir.
C = A
2.24).22)
then Temeng and Horne’s equation can be expressed as
C = (1 − ζ 2 ) 2 exp(3.Define the off-center ratio below:
ζ = 0
R e
R
(3.
57
.23) and Equation (3.454 − 2ζ 2 ) A
(3.4 is obtained for a well with different off-center ratios in an isotropic circular reservoir.22). it can be found that when ζ ≥ 0.23)
By rearranging Equation (3.

Table 3.4 .3055 3.5078
It must be pointed out that C
A
does not have too much influence on is in the logarithmic function in
productivity index ( PI ). PI is a weak function of C .8 0.
58
.1396 0.4 0.9984 23.0360 5.6200 30. and it is applicable to an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir.2046 10.3 0.6 0.6825 27.9062 21.15) is recommended to calculate productivity index.5 0.1608 0.3835 26.6266 30.0873 1.7902 6.0 0. because it does not require the shape factor.16).9309 19.0385 2.2259
Shape Factor ( This Study ) 31.1 0. because C
A
Equation (1.7 0.0123 13.2 0.8758 16.Shape Factors with Different Off-Center Ratios
Off-Center Ratio
ζ
0. A
Equation (3.9
Shape Factor (Temeng and Horne) 31.8520 9.

well length. µ Formation Volume Factor. B
0. reservoir radius are given in Table 3. (3.4 Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI
In this part. wellbore radius.3
Wellbore Radius.
Table 3.1 m 500 m 5.5).3.7) and (3.5.5 . reservoir size on productivity index
under different
boundary conditions. well producing portion location. we study the effects of some critical parameters on productivity index of a vertical well in a circular cylinder reservoir in steady state.3: Using Equations (3.5 Rm3/Sm3
Solution:
(1) Effect of payzone thickness on PI .2).
Example 3. Rw Reservoir Radius.0 mPa.9) to investigate the effects of payzone thickness. Fluid properties. Re Oil Viscosity.s 1. Assume the reservoir is with edge water. (3.
permeabilities.
59
.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.

Table 3.052 25. because if the locations of L1 and L2 are fixed.830 25.925 25.8) and (3.
For a given H .732 28.744 Eq.897 28.6 and Figure 3.742 24. (3.5) 28.017 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.271 22.7) and (3.649 28.
PI
is a weak function of
H. L = 25 m. (3.5).788 28. (3.1 present the effect of payzone thickness on PI calculated by Equations (3.804 28. for a given well producing length L
pr
.834 28.230 26. The PI values calculated by Equations (3.
60
.697 28.049 26. (3. the PI
calculated by Equation (3.025 µm 2 pr r v 1 2 2 1
Table 3.6 .959 26.9) decreases slowly with increasing H .772
Table 3.9) is for the reservoir with both gas cap drive and bottom water drive. K = 0.1 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations change slowly with the increasing H .694 24.194 24.665 29.778 28. L = L − L = 20 m.740 28.055 28. (3.755 Eq.9) 29.7) 28.520 24.525 28. K = 0.1 µm 2 .Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well
H (m) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Eq.720 28.6 and Figure 3.9) with the following constant parameters:
L = 5 m.049 28.2).2) 21.901 25.497 26. the bottom water boundary is farther away when H increases. because Equation (3.863 23. (3.9) is the biggest among the results calculated by the four equations.

2 present the effect of the location of well producing portion on PI .Figure 3. K = 0.025 µm 2 2 1 r v
61
. with the following constant parameters:
H = 70 m.7 and Figure 3. K = 0.1 µm 2 . L pr = L − L = 30 m.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well
(2) Effect of the location of well producing portion on PI .1 .
Table 3.

113 33.2 show that the location of well producing portion does not have significant effect on PI .985 38. the well should be located at the middle of the pay zone if the reservoir has neither gas cap drive nor bottom water drive.483 37. (3.7 and Figure 3.858 38.535 39.220 39.322 34.536 39.385 34. the stronger the driving force. because the smaller the distance from constant pressure boundary such as gas cap or bottom water.662 34.483 36. if we ignore water
62
.768 Eq. (3. For maximum PI .398 38.536
The values of PI will increase slowly when the distance between the well producing portion and gap cap or bottom water decreases.768 37.5) 40.9) 40.618 39.417 38.900 40.900 39.7) 36.
Table 3.662
PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.618 39.417 37.Table 3.398 40.113 34.858 39.220 Eq.322 34.7 . encroachment or water/gas coning.2) 33. (3.985 37. (3.Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well
L1 (m) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
L2 (m) 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Eq.

3 present the effect of well producing length on
PI .8 and Figure 3.Figure 3. L = L − L . with the following constant parameters:
H = 100 m. L = 10 m.Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well
(3) Effect of well producing length on PI .025 µm 2 pr 2 1 1 r v
63
.1 µm 2 .2 . K = 0.
Table 3. K = 0.

590 82.7) 26. When L is fixed.8 .784 61.412 83.550 50.047 Eq.457 35.384 Eq.3 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations increase rapidly with increasing L thickness H . because Equation (3.9) 28. (3.819 80.307 94.332 76.241 67.Table 3.9) is the biggest among the results calculated by the four equations.313 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.
64
.2) 25.163 39.675 108.340 89. (3. For a given L
pr
calculated by Equation (3. (3.8 and Figure 3.122 61. PI is a strong function of L
pr
.818 70.379 53. 1 the bigger
L
pr
. the smaller the distance between the well producing portion and
bottom water.
for a given reservoir .052 89.Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well
Lpr (m) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Eq.771 47.519 78.634 72.198
Table 3.211 39.164 102.041 57. the PI
pr
.400 60.454 69.705 50.240 36.5) 28.197 44. (3. which introduces stronger driving force.9) is for the reservoir with both gas cap drive and bottom water drive.164 96.

Table 3.3 .025 µm 2 2 1 1 2 v
65
.Figure 3.4 present the effect of radial permeability on PI . K = 0. L pr = L − L = 30 m. with the following constant parameters:
H = 50 m. L = 15 m.9 and Figure 3. L = 45 m.Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well
(4) Effect of radial permeability on PI .

5).300 0.938 31.5) 10.500 0.922 224. the
distance between the well producing portion and bottom water is only
5 m .211 40. (3.4 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations increase rapidly with the increasing K .7).526 377.410 155.600 0.913 77.666 332.811 Eq. (3.800 0.028 192. This is the reason why for a given K .929 79.606 108.535 296.9 .978 15.535 Eq.882 143.622 151.170 19.658 Eq.000
2
PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.677 331.170 130.Table 3.5) is smaller than that calculated by Equation (3.2) 7. but
when we use Equation (3.808 282.9 and Figure 3.922 297.868 178.100 0.
66
.181 163.224 316.389 196.050 0.977 64.295 260.775 20.900 1.664 340.7).700 0.279 263.7) 10.292 247.656 213. r
the PI calculated by
Equation (3. PI is a strong function r of K .071 21.763 230.551 37.459 117. r
Table 3. (3.830 73. the distance between the well producing portion and gas cap is
15 m .554 350.025 0.630 266.382 187.704 303.200 0. (3.703 368.400 0.407 97.303
When we use Equation (3.Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well
Kr (µm ) 0.416 229.9) 11.544 114.666 39.

L pr = L − L = 30 m. L = 45 m.10 and Figure 3.
Table 3.1 µm 2 2 1 1 2 r
67
. with the following constant parameters:
H = 50 m. K = 0.Figure 3. L = 15 m.Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well
(5) Effect of vertical permeability on PI .5 present the effect of vertical permeability on PI .4 .

800 0.7) 39.754 32. the PI values calculated by v v Equations (3.550 52.729 47. When K increases.457 52.101 40.5 show that PI is a weak function of vertical permeability K .991 45.740 51.Table 3.952 46.045 49. if the reservoir has gas cap or bottom water. v (6) Effect of reservoir size on PI .2) 31.851 32.300 0.087 32.7).045 48. (3.11 and Figure 3.600 0.913 41. (3.830 39.500 0.700 0.977 31.834 48.618 49.393 53.5). with the following constant parameters:
68
.940 33.099 45.524 50. (3. (3.421 44.615 48.912 32.058 45.877 31.5) 37.023 Eq.157 53.950 50.254 32.302 46.050 0.285 46.6 present the effect of reservoir size on PI .
Table 3.420 48.238 49.114 52.400 0.331 43.900 1.402 32.2).929 42.9) 40. This is due to the fact that for a partially penetrating vertical well.680 42.637 43.200 0.607 51. so the effect of vertical permeability K on PI is more pronounced.649 32.724 Eq. (3.148 Eq.064 49.9) increase faster than that calculated by Equation (3.025 0.532 32.10 and Figure 3. and (3.000
2
PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.10 .Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well
Kv (µm ) 0. the main
driving force comes from the vertical direction.100 0.859 54.510
Table 3.

L = 15 m 2 1 1 L = 45 m.
69
.025 µm 2 2 r v pr
Figure 3.11 and Figure 3.6 show that reservoir size ( reservoir radius R ) e does not have any effect on PI if the reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water. K = 0.Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well
Table 3. the PI decreases slowly with the increasing R if the reservoir e has neither gas cap nor bottom water.H = 50 m. L
= L − L = 30 m.1 µm 2 . K = 0.5 .

929 40.2) 37.830 37.5) 37.913 39.929 40.488 33.929
Figure 3.11. (3.710 31.830 37.830 Eq.017 32.783 34.830 37.913 Eq.830 37.929 40.Table 3.929 40.620 32.054 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.929 40. (3.7) 39.913 39.929 40.929 40.6 .830 37.470 31.929 40.830 37.830 37.830 37.252 31.913 39.929 40. (3. (3.063 33.929 40.830 37.913 39.913 39.278 35.913 39.830 37.913 39.929 40.Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well
70
.929 40.Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well
Re (m) 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Eq.830 37.830 37.913 39.9) 40.977 31.794 34.913 39.277 31.913 39.913 39.913 39.

Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well
R0 (m) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Eq.684 100.785 130.650 120.650 120.1) 100.650 Eq.853 126.853 126.12 and Figure 3.7 present the effect of off-center distance on PI . but does not have gas cap or bottom water drive.853 Eq.415 108.785 130. L = 25 m.853 126.
71
.224 101. (3.653 106.9) 130.
Table 3.785 130. L
pr
= L − L = 20 m. K = 0. (3.785 130. (3.1 µm 2 .7) 126.12 . 2 1
L = 5 m.025 µm 2 1 2 r v
Table 3.650 120.853 126.882 101. with the following constant parameters:
H = 35 m.785 130.650 120.429 103.785 130.650 120.5) 120.375 104.853 126.785 130.785
Table 3.785 130.650 120.650 120.650 120. and the PI increases slowly with the increasing
R if the reservoir has 0
edge water drive.7 show that the off-center distance R does not 0 have any effect on PI if the reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water.853 126.785 130.619 100.967 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.853 126.12 and Figure 3.853 126. (3. K = 0.(7) Effect of off-center distance on PI .650 120.853 126.729 102.

Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well
72
.7 .Figure 3.

its productivity in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by (Lu and Tiab. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR
The primary goal of this chapter is to present pseudo-steady state and steady state productivity equations for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a box-shaped reservoir. Further. for arbitrary aspect ratio of the rectangle and for arbitrary position of the well within the rectangle. This chapter also gives equations for calculating pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. the proposed equation is not limited to rectangles whose sides are integral ratios. 2008):
73
.Steady State
Assume the well producing length is equal to the drilled well length.
L
pr
= L .4.1 Productivity Equations In Pseudo . An off-center partially penetrating vertical well located inside a
sealed box-shaped drainage volume. An equation is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well.
4.

5)
74
.3)
where
L 2H L L2 D prD 1 prD prD Ψ =( + )( − ) 1 3X Y 2 H 2H 2 eD eD D D
(4.2)
S S
ps ps
is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.
=Ψ +Ψ +Ψ 1 2 3
(4.1)
X X2 eD wD 1 Λ =( + wD ) )( − 2 6 2X 2 Y eD eD 2 X eD π (2Y +R πR ) wD wD ] | sin( wD )} − ( 1 ) ln{4 | sin[ 2π 2Y 2Y eD eD 2X
(4.4)
mπX M wD ) ){ ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( Ψ =( 2 X π 3Y L m = 1 m3 eD eD prD cosh[(mπH / X )(1 − 2 L / H )] mπH D eD prD D D )}} ×{ − coth( sinh(mπH / X ) X D eD eD
X2 eD
(4.( K K )1 / 2 L ( P − P ) /( µB) x y pr a w Q =F w D Λ +S 2 Ps
where
(4.

7)
lm
Y eD
(4.) are hyperbolic sine.
It has been shown that in Equations (4. cosh(.
All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.6). d =1 .Ψ =( 3 π 3X
H3 D Y L eD eD prD
lπY M ){ ∑ cos 2 ( wD ) Y l =1 eD
(4.5) and (4.6)
mπX M wD ) × ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( 3 X m=0 d µ eD m lm cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm prD D ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm
sinh(. respectively.9)
Ψ =Ψ =Ψ =0 1 2 3
75
.) and coth(. we obtain
(4. the integer number
M = 100 is sufficiently large to reach the engineering accuracy for all field
practice.8)
eD
For a fully penetrating vertical well. d =1/ 2 m m
µ
= ( lH D )2 + ( mH X D )2
(4. and
m= 0. L
pr
= H . hyperbolic cosine and
hyperbolic cotangent function. m> 0.) .

1: Using Equation (4.e. we have
X
w
= X / 2.1) to calculate productivity index of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box-
76
. Y = Y / 2. i.2).10)
2
has the same meaning as in Equation (4. L = H .12)
For a given well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box-shaped reservoir.10) reduces to
2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w Q =F w D πX /(6Y ) − ln{4 sin[πR /(2Y )]} e e w e
(4.11)
Then Equation (4. K = K = K = K e w e pr x y z
(4.13)
Example 4. then Equation (4.so S
ps
= 0 .
X
w
= X /2 e
Y =Y /2 w e
(4.
If a fully penetrating vertical well located at the center of a sealed isotropic rectangular reservoir.1) reduces to
( K K )1 / 2 L ( P − P ) /( µB ) x y pr a w Q =F w D Λ 2
where Λ
(4. the productivity reaches maximum value when the well is located at the center.

Lpr Wellbore Radius.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4. Xw Well Location in y Direction. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4. Xe Reservoir Width. Y = 20 m e e
Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2. Rw Well Location in x Direction.1.1 m 50 m 50 m 20 m 0.s 1. Ky Permeability in z Direction.0 mPa.4 × 0. H Permeability in x Direction.1 ( µm 2 ) x y z
X = 200 m.4 µm2 0.
Table 4. and letting
L = L . Kz Oil Viscosity.shaped anisotropic reservoir. we obtain ref pr
L = L = (0.025)1 / 2 = 2 D
prD
77
.1
Reservoir Length.1 µm2 0.025µm2 5.5 Rm3/Sm3
Solution: We have
K a = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0.1 / 0.025)1 / 3 = 0. µ Formation Volume Factor. Kx Permeability in y Direction. B
200 m 200 m 10 m 0. Ye Well Producing Length. Yw Payzone Thickness.1 × 0.1 .

1 / 0. H 3 /( X Y L ) = 4 / 25 D D eD eD D eD eD D
µ
lm
= 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25
)−( 1 ) 2π 2 × 42 1
Λ = (2 × 2)( 1 − 1 + 2 6 2× 4
× ln{4 sin[π × (2 × 2.025)1 / 2 × (20 / 10) = 4
= [0.1 × 0.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 10 eD X wD = (0.1 / 0.4 )]1 / 6 [(0.025)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 2.0075) /( 2 × 10)] sin[π × 0.025 /( 0.1 / 0. Y / L = 5 eD eD D
wD
/X
eD
=Y / Y = 1/ 4 wD eD
H L /( X Y ) = 1 / 25.1 / 0. L / H = 1 / 2.5 wD
H R D = (0.1 /( 2 × 10) = 0.0075 /(2 × 10)]} = 1.0075
wD
Y /X = 1 / 2.1)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 20
Y = (0.1)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 5
Y = (0.4)1 / 4 + (0. H D /Y = 2 / 5.5 + 0.1 / 0. 1 − 2 L / H = 0 eD eD D D D D H X D /X eD = 1 / 5.X
eD
= (0.199
Ψ = ( 2 )( 1 − 1 + 1 ) = 1 / 300 = 0.4 / 0.1 / 0.003 1 3 × 25 2 2 8
78
.1)1 / 4 ] × 0.

003 + (−0. In a
given reservoir.4)(0.092
So
S
ps
= 0.2mπ )]} sinh(0.092) = −0.2mπ ) = −0.32 ( Sm3 / D / MPa) =
It is interesting to find that S
ps
is negative in the above calculation.122 100 100 2 Ψ = ( 4 ) ∑ cos 2 ( lπ ){ ∑ [ ] cos 2 ( mπ ) 3 4 4 2 2 3 / 2 3 π × 25 l = 1 m = 1 (4l / 25 + m / 25) cosh(0) ×[ − coth(π 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25 )] sinh(π 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25 ) cosh(0) + (125 )[ − coth(2πl / 5)]} 3 sinh( 2 l / 5 ) π 8l = −0.1× 0.4)1 / 2 (10) /(5 ×1.25mπ ) 2 3 π3 m =1 m cosh(0) ×[ − coth(0.211) = 23.211
and
PI = Q /(∆P) w (86.5) 1× (1. the denominator of Equation (4.199 − 0.122) + (−0.1) for a partially penetrating well.100 Ψ = ( 20 ) × { ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 (0. is smaller than the denominator for a fully penetrating
79
.

12) which is a special case of Equation (4. the shape factor C A in Equation (1.1) can be used to calculate productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state and located anywhere in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir.2
Shape Factors Calculation
Equation (4. Earlougher et al.16) were provided by Dietz (1965). A successive refinement numerical procedure presented by Peaceman (1990) can calculate the shape factor of a rectangle with arbitrary aspect ratio. is only applicable to a fully penetrating vertical well located at the center of a sealed isotropic box drainage volume.1).
pr
4. Equation (4. The shape factors obtained by Dietz and Earlougher et al.
80
. but productivity of the partially penetrating well still
in the numerator of
decreases due to smaller well producing length L Equation (4.1).
For a rectangular reservoir. (1968) and Peaceman (1990). are only applicable to rectangular shapes whose sides are integral ratios.well ( S
ps
= 0 ).

1 e e
f = X / X = 0.2: Given:
f = X / Y = 3.14)
γ ≈ 1.781.15)
f f2 1 2 f = (8πf )( − + 2) 4 1 6 2 2
(4.
Solution: We have
81
. 2008):
16π 2 f sin 2 (πf ) 88. for any aspect ratio of the rectangle and for any position of the well within the rectangle (Lu and Tiab.A proposed equation is presented below to calculate the shape factor C A of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well. 2 w e
f = Y / Y = 0. 1 e e
f = X /X .16)
Example 4. 2 w e
f = Y /Y 3 w e
(4.
and
f = X /Y .28.47.6657 f sin 2 (πf ) 1 3 = 1 3 C = A exp( f ) γ exp( f ) 4 4
where
(4.83 3 w e
Calculate the shape factor for an isotropic rectangular reservoir.

2 is obtained for different locations of a well in different aspect ratios of the rectangle by four methods.47 0.12) and (4.47 2 ) = (8π × 3.6657 f sin 2 (πf ) 1 3 C = A exp( f ) 4 88.14).
It must be pointed out that even if there exist some differences among the shape factors C
A
calculated by different methods for a given shape.28)( − + 6 2 2 = 3. Compared with Equation (4.14) are derived by solving analytically the involved three-dimensional Laplace equation.f f2 1 2 + 2) f = (8πf )( − 4 1 6 2 2
1 0.83) = exp(3. the numerical method presented by Peaceman requires relatively much computational work.472
So
88.472) = 2. The proposed equations (4. This is the reason there exist differences among the results calculated by the four methods in Table 4.3403
Table 4. C
A
82
. (4.1).28 × sin 2 (π × 0.6657 × 3.2 for some rectangles.

1116 5. A
Table 4.60 10.5813 0. because C
A
is in the logarithmic function in Equation (1.5141 2.5396 2.8369 10.111 5.1573 0.3351 21.1980 0.3591 Shape Factor ( This Study ) 31.16).6896 0.3592
83
.8828 12.6372 0.3783 2.Shape Factors for a Rectangular Reservoir
Drainage Area Shape Shape Factor Shape Factor Shape Factor ( Dietz ) ( Earlougher et al.72 0.1109 5.6892 0.0813 3.9851 4.5224 2.2698 3.1162 2.1778 5.1863 7.13 0.1158 2.3781 2.8374 4.2324 0.2318 0.39 22.2 .07 3.does not have too much influence on productivity index ( PI ).9187 4.86 2.5224 3.8811 12.232 0.3790 2.80 4.1155 2.115 2.8369 4.57 3. ) ( Peaceman ) 30.5132 3.5833 0.8374 10.5566 21.1573 0.8362 10.3606 30.90 4.0769 3.607 0.36 30.90 12.9839 4.0932 4. PI is a weak function of
C .3346 21.1146 14.2324 0.6890 0.38 2.

1) is recommended to calculate productivity index in pseudosteady state. Y ) in an w w isotropic square reservoir. because it does not require the shape factor.Equation (4. and it is applicable to an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir.Xw
Re=Xe/2
Xe=Ye Figure 4. calculate the w shape factors with respect to different values of X
w
/X
e
for the square
84
.3: Figure 4.
Xw Ye Yw
Re. If Y is always equal to Ye / 2 .1 .A Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circle
Example 4.1 shows a fully penetrating vertical is located at ( X .

6657 exp[8π (1 / 6 − ω / 2 + ω 2 / 2)]
(4. then w
f = X / Y = 1. we obtain
ζ = R / R = ( R − X w ) / R = 1 − 2ω
0 e e e
(4. for the square reservoir. and calculate the corresponding shape factors for the inscribed circular reservoir.14) reduces to
C A
= 88.5 3 w e
Define the well location ratio below:
ω=
X X
w e
(4.24) yields:
85
.23) gives:
C A
= [1 − (1 − 2ω ) 2 ]2 exp[3.454 − 2(1 − 2ω ) 2 ]
(4. Equation (4.19) into Equation (3.17)
then for the square reservoir.20)
Substituting Equation (4.22).15).18)
Recalling the off-center ratio defined in Equation (3. 1 e e
f = Y / Y = 0.19)
Substituting Equation (4.19) into Equation (3.reservoir. we use Equation (4.
Solution: If Y = Ye / 2 .

40 . 6200
From the shape factors shown in Table 4. with respect to different values of ω .3. (4. 9309 27.3 .
A
calculated by
the
thus for the circular
86
. If 0.45 0.20 ≤ ω ≤ 0.C
A
=
2. 4514 27.20 0.20 .15 0.10 0.20) and (4. 1396 3.35 0. 1146
Equation (4. 0360 13.21).3. 1523 31. 0123 23. 8757 26. shape factors for the square reservoir and its inscribed circular reservoir can be calculated.
the square reservoir is
seen to resemble the circular reservoir if ω ≥ 0. 7902 16. 4403 30. 8219 23.18) 2.50
Equation (4. 0385 9. 3835 31. 6745 10. 9062 30.20) 0.2259 1. 6825 31. no significant differences between the values of C proposed Equation (4. 1664 6.25 0.21) 0.40 0. 1608 5. 9984 30.30 0.2458π [1 − (1 − 2ω ) 2 ]2 exp[(1 − 2ω ) 2 − 3 / 2]
(4.21)
Using Equations (4. 3055 10.18). 0873 6.
Table 4. 6266
Equation (4.4424 4.Shape Factors of a Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circular Reservoir
ω
0.05 0.18) and Equation (4. 8520 19. 2046 21. The results are shown in Table 4.5078 2. 1863 18. 0413 14.21).

X ) × (0.
4. the reservoir is with a strong edge water drive. both upper and lower e e boundaries are impermeable. Y ) × (0. Equation (4.
The productivity equation in steady state is below :
4π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q =F w D ln[T × T /(T × T )] + S ps 1 2 3 4
where
(4.23).25)
87
. the pressure at the outer boundary is assumed to be constant and equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production.20) which was obtained by rearranging Equation (3.23)
(4.3 Productivity Equations In Steady State
Figure 2.4 shows a partially penetrating vertical well draining a boxshaped drainage domain (0. H ) .24)
(4.reservoir.21) is more reliable than Equation (4.22)
T = sin 2 (πY / Y ) / sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] 1 wD eD wD eD T = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] 2 wD eD eD eD /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} ÷ {sin 2 [πR wD eD eD eD T = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] 3 wD eD wD eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wD eD wD eD
(4.

**T = {sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} 4 wD eD eD eD wD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wD eD eD eD wD
**

8H 4 D lπY M ){ ∑ sin 2 ( wD ) Y L2prD l = 1 eD

(4.26)

S ps = (

π 2X

Y eD eD

mπX M wD ) × ∑ ( 1 ) sin 2 ( X m = 1 µ3 eD lm cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm prD D ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm H + ( D − 1) × L prD ⎧ sin 2 (πYwD / YeD ){sin 2 [πRwD /(2YeD )] + sinh 2 (πX wD / YeD )} ⎫ {ln ⎨ 2 ⎬ 2 2 ⎩ sin [πRwD /(2YeD )]{sin (πYwD / YeD ) + sinh (πX wD / YeD )} ⎭ ⎧ sin 2 [πRwD /(2YeD )] + sinh 2 [π ( X eD − X wD ) / YeD ] ⎫ + ln ⎨ ⎬} 2 2 + − π Y Y π X X Y sin ( / ) sinh [ ( ) / ] wD eD eD wD eD ⎩ ⎭

(4.27)

**and µ lm has the same meaning as in Equation (4.8), the integer number
**

M = 100 is sufficiently large to reach the engineering accuracy for all field

practice.

For a fully penetrating vertical well in a square reservoir ( X = Y ), e e

L

pr

= H and S

ps

= 0 , Equation (4.22) can be approximated by the

following expression:

88

2π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q ≈F w D ln{sin(πY / Y ) / sin[πR /(2Y )]} wD eD wD eD

(4.28)

If the well is at the center of an isotropic square reservoir,

X

w

= X / 2 = Y = Y / 2, K = K = K = K e w e x y z

(4.29)

then Equation (4.28) can be further simplified to

Q ≈F w D

2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w ln[2Y /(πR )] e w

(4.30)

Example 4.4: Calculate a partially penetrating vertical well flow rate in steady state in a box-shaped drainage domain with constant pressure lateral boundaries. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4.4.

Solution: We have

K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0.1 × 0.4 × 0.025)1 / 3 = 0.1 ( µm 2 ) a x y z

Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2, and letting

L = L , we obtain ref pr

89

X X

H

eD wD

D

= (0.1 / 0.1)1 / 2 × (800 / 10) = 80 Y = (0.1 / 0.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 10 eD = (0.1 / 0.1)1 / 2 × (100 / 10) = 10 Y = (0.1 / 0.4)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 2.5 wD

= (0.1 / 0.025)1 / 2 × (20 / 10) = 4.0

R = [0.025 /( 0.1× 0.4 )]1 / 6[(0.1 / 0.4)1 / 4 + (0.4 / 0.1)1 / 4 ] × 0.1 /(2 × 10) wD = 0.0075

Table 4.4 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.4

Reservoir Length, Xe Reservoir Width, Ye Wellbore Radius, Rw Well Location in x Direction, Xw Well Location in y Direction, Yw Well Producing Length, Lpr Payzone Thickness, H Permeability in x Direction, Kx Permeability in y Direction, Ky Permeability in z Direction, Kz Pressure Drop, ∆P Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

800 m 200 m 0.1 m 100 m 50 m 10 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 0.4 µm2 0.025 µm2 2.0 MPa 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

T = sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) / sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) = 360253.26 1 2 × 10.0 10.0

T = [sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 ( π × 80.0 )] 2 10.0 10.0 ÷ [sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 ( π × 80.0 )] 2 ×10.0 10.0 ≈ 1.0000

90

T = [sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 ( π ×10.0 )] 3 10.0 10.0 2 ÷ [sin ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 ( π ×10.0 )] 2 ×10.0 10.0 = 1.0037 π × (80.0 − 10.0) T = {sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 [ ]} 4 10.0 10.0 π × (80.0 − 10.0) ]} ÷ {sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 [ 10.0 2 ×10.0 ≈ 1.0000

Using Equation (4.27), we obtain

S

ps

= 9.86

So, using Equation (4.22), the well flow rate in steady state is

Q

1085.734 × 0.1 × 0.4 × 20 × 2.0 /(5.0 × 1.5) w ln(360253.26 × 1.0000 /(1.0037 × 1.0000)) + 9.86 = 51.13 ( Sm 3 / D) =

In Equation (4.28), when Y = Y / 2 and sin(πY / Y ) = sin(π / 2) = 1.0, it w e wD eD can be shown that in a rectangular reservoir with constant pressure

lateral boundaries, the flow rate of an off-center well is bigger than that of a centered well.

Example 4.5: If the outer boundaries of the isotropic square reservoir and its inscribed circular reservoir in Figure 4.1 are at constant pressures, calculate the

91

productivity indexes of a fully penetrating vertical with respect to different values of

X

w

/ X , ( Y = Ye / 2 ), and calculate the corresponding w e

productivity indexes if the well is located in the inscribed circular reservoir. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4.5.

Table 4.5 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.5

Reservoir Length, Xe Reservoir Width, Ye Wellbore Radius, Rw Payzone Thickness, H Permeability, K Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

200 m 200 m 0.1 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

Solution: Because the outer boundary is at constant pressure during production, Equation (4.22) is used for the square reservoir, and Equation (3.1) is used for the inscribed circular reservoir. The results are shown in Table 4.6. In Table 4.6, ω has the same meaning as in Equation (4.17), when we use Equations (3.1) and (4.22) in this example, S

ps

= 0 , and

R = X e / 2, R = X e / 2 − X w = R − X w . e 0 e

92

Table 4.6 -

Productivity Indexes for Example 4.5

ω

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

PI By Equation (4.22) ( Sm3/D/MPa) 27.372 24.305 22.903 22.086 21.564 21.219 20.991 20.846 20.765 20.740

PI By Equation (3.1) ( Sm3/D/MPa) 27.590 24.594 23.220 22.404 21.868 21.499 21.247 21.081 20.987 20.957

Table 4.6 indicates that in steady state, the production performance of a square reservoir resembles that of a circular reservoir. In both types of reservoir, with constant pressure outer boundary, the off-center well can yield higher

PI than the centered well. There is little difference in the

productivity of a vertical well draining a square reservoir and that of the same well draining a circular reservoir of the same area.

93

R is the sector radius. Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } .1 Productivity Equation For A Sector Fault Reservoir
As Figure 2.2)
and R is the off-vertex distance.8 shows. the productivity equation in e steady state is below (Lu and Tiab.5. 2008):
Q =F w D
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w ln( F ) w
(5. θ is the 0 e w wellbore location angle. a fully penetrating vertical well is located at ( R . PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR
The primary goal of this chapter is to present steady state productivity equations for a fully penetrating vertical well in a sector fault reservoir and a channel reservoir.1)
where F is sector shape function defined below: w
(1 − R 2τ )[1 − 2 R 2τ cos(2τθ ) + R 4τ ]1 / 2 0D 0D 0D w F = w − 2 τ 1 2τR R sin(τθ ) wD 0 D w
(5.
94
.
5.θ ) 0 w in a sector fault reservoir {( R .

4
95
. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5.e.
Example 5.e.2. i.
Solution: We have
τ = π / Φ = π /(5π / 12) = 2. K = K = K = K .3) can be simplified.1: Calculate a fully penetrating vertical well flow rate in steady state in a sector fault reservoir.1 shows the simplified F for w several special angles in an isotropic sector reservoir. isotropic reservoir. The reservoir is a homogeneous.3)
If the well is on the bisector of the sector angle. θ w = Φ / 2 = π /(2τ ) . Table 5. Equation (5.All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.
If the reservoir is an isotropic permeability reservoir. i. a r v then
F = {[1 − ( R / R ) 2τ ][1 − 2( R / R ) 2τ cos(2τθ ) + ( R / R ) 4τ ]1 / 2} 0 e 0 e 0 e w w /[2τ ( R / R )( R / R ) 2τ sin(τθ )] w 0 0 e w
(5.

1.4 3 4 5 6 8 9 10
2 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 6 ] /(3Rw R0 / Re ) 3 4 [1 − ( R0 / Re )8 ] /(4 Rw R0 / Re ) 3.1
Pressure Drop.8 Rw R0 / Re )
5 6 [1 − ( R0 / Re )12 ] /(6 Rw R0 / Re ) 7 8 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 ] /(8 Rw R0 / Re ) 9 10 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 20 ] /(10 Rw R0 / Re ) 11 12 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 24 ] /(12 Rw R0 / Re ) 15 16 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 32 ] /(16 Rw R0 / Re ) 17 18 [1 − ( R0 / Re )36 ] /(18 Rw R0 / Re ) 19 20 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 40 ] /(20 Rw R0 / Re )
Table 5. ∆P Well Off-Vertex Distance.1 m 600 m 60 m 5π/12 π/12 0. µ Formation Volume Factor. R0 Wellbore Radius.8 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 9. B
5. Φ Wellbore Location Angle.5 Rm3/Sm3
96
.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.0 mPa. H Sector Angle. Rw Drainage Radius.Sector Shape Functions for Special Sector Angles and Wellbore Location Angles
Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Φ π 3π/4 2π/3 π/2 5π/12 π/3 π/4 π/5 π/6 π/8 π/9 π/10
τ
θw π/2 3π/8 π/3 π/4 5π/24 π/6 π/8 π/10 π/12 π/16 π/18 π/20
Fw
2 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 4 ] /( 2 Rw R0 / Re )
5/3 8/ 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 / 3 ] /[(8 / 3) Rw R0 / Re ]
1 4/3 3/2 2 2.01 µm2 2.2 .Table 5. φw Permeability.s 1.8 4. Re Payzone Thickness.6 ] /( 4. K Oil Viscosity.0 MPa 400 m 0.

Because the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir, i.e. K = K = K = K , a r v using Equation (5.3), we have

F = Y /Y w 1 2

where

Y = [1 − (400 / 600) 4.8 ] 1 × [1 − 2(400 / 600) 4.8 cos(2 × 2.4 × π / 12) + (400 / 600) 9.6 ]1 / 2 = 0.82759

and

Y = 2 × 2.4 × (0.1 / 400) × (400 / 600) 4.8 × sin( 2.4 × π / 12) 2 = 1.0073 × 10 − 4

So

F = 0.82759 /(1.0073 × 10− 4 ) = 8215.92 w

Using Equation (5.1), the well flow rate is

Q = w

542.867 KH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w ln( F ) w 542.867 × 0.01× 60 × 5 /(2 × 1.5) = ln(8215.92) = 60.23 ( Sm3 / D)

97

Example 5.2: Consider a fully penetrating vertical well located on the bisector of an isotropic sector fault reservoir, i.e. θ w = Φ / 2 = π /( 2n) and assume

mechanical skin factor S = 0 . Calculate productivity index when n = 1, 2, 3, 4,…, 9, 10. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.2

Well Off-Vertex Distance, R0 Wellbore Radius, Rw Drainage Radius, Re Payzone Thickness, H Permeability, K Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

250 m 0.1 m 500 m 25 m 0.1 µm2 2.0 mPa.s 1.25 Rm3/Sm3

Solution:

Table 5.4 indicates that if the sector fault reservoir has a constant pressure outer boundary (edge water), both the sector drainage area and the steady state productivity index decrease with increasing n .

98

Table 5.4 - Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 5.2

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Fw 3750.00 4687.50 6562.50 9960.94 15984.38 26660.16 45711.50 79998.78 142221.68 255999.76

PI (Sm3/D/MPa) 65.966 64.224 61.766 58.966 56.085 53.270 50.593 48.085 45.753 43.594

Example 5.3: Consider a fully penetrating vertical well located on the bisector of an isotropic sector fault reservoir, i.e. θ w = Φ / 2 = π /(2n) and assume mechanical skin factor S = 0 . Investigate the effect of the off-vertex

distance R0 on productivity index when n = 1, 2,…, 9, 10. Permeability, wellbore radius, reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 5.3.

Solution:

The results are shown in Figure 5.1.

99

Figure 5.1 - Effect of Off-Vertex Distance on Productivity Index

From Table 5.4, Figure 5.1, Equations (5.1) and (5.2),

the following

conclusions about productivity index PI for the sector fault drainage area

{( R , Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } can be reached: e

(1) For given values of θ , H , R and R , PI is an increasing function w e 0 with respect to the angle of the sector Φ and a decreasing function with respect to τ , and F is an increasing function with respect to τ . w

100

(2) For given θ , H , R and Φ , PI is an increasing function with respect w e to the off-vertex distance R ; and F is a decreasing function with 0 w respect to R . 0

(3) For given θ , H , R and Φ , PI is a decreasing function with respect w 0 to the sector radius R ; and F is an increasing function with respect to e w

R . e

(4) For given H , R , R and Φ , PI reaches maximum value when 0 e

θ =Φ/2 .

w

**5.2 Productivity Equation For A Channel Reservoir
**

Figure 2.9 shows a channel reservoir with infinite extension in the

x

direction. Assuming a fully penetrating vertical well is located at (0, Y ) in w the drainage domain (−∞, ∞) × (0, Y ) , the steady state productivity equation e is (Lu and Tiab, 2008):

2π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q =F w D Λ 3

(5.4)

101

Ye Wellbore Radius. Kx Permeability in y Direction.5)
If the well is located at the middle of the reservoir width.5. Yw Payzone Thickness.
Example 5.4: Calculate the flow rate of a fully penetrating vertical well in steady state in a channel reservoir. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.5 Rm3/Sm3
102
. Y = Y / 2 .1 m 50 m 20 m 0.0 mPa. ∆P Oil Viscosity.0MPa 5.where
Λ = πR / Y − ln[(2πR / Y ) sin(πY / Y )] 3 wD eD wD eD wD eD
(5.5 .1 µm2 0. B
200 m 0.025µm2 2. µ Formation Volume Factor. Ky Permeability in z Direction.4 µm2 0. i.e.s 1. and PI is a decreasing function of the channel reservoir width Ye . Kz Pressure Drop. Rw Well Location in y Direction.4
Reservoir Width.
Table 5. H Permeability in x Direction. its w e productivity index reaches maximum value.

and letting
L = H .1 / 0.0 /(5. we obtain ref Y = (0.1 / 0.1× 0.00375 / 5.00375 / 5.1 × 0.0) sin(π ×1.025 /( 0.4 × 20 × 2.1 / 0.1)1 / 4 ] × 0.706 = 101.0 ×1.1 / 0.0 = [0.4 × 0.474( Sm3 / D)
103
.0)] = 5.00375
D
wD
Λ = π × 0.0 3 − ln[(2 × π × 0.25 wD
H R = (0.706
The steady state flow rate is
Q = w 542.4 / 0.25 / 5.1 ( µm 2 ) a x y z Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.025)1 / 3 = 0.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 20) = 5 eD Y = (0.Solution: The average permeability is: K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0.4)1 / 2 × (50 / 20) = 1.1 /( 2 × 20) = 0.4)1 / 4 + (0.867 × 0.1 × 0.025)1 / 2 = 2.5) 5.4 )]1 / 6 [(0.

6. vertical and horizontal permeabilities.
If a horizontal well is in a circular cylinder drainage reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries. well length. drainage volume. and with a constant pressure lateral boundary. This chapter also studies the effects on well productivity of payzone thickness. then the steady state productivity is below (Lu. location.1 Steady State Productivity Equation For A Circular Cylinder Reservoir
Figure 2.2 is a schematic of a horizontal well in a circular cylinder reservoir.
6. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE HORIZONTAL WELL
The primary goal of this chapter is to introduce steady state productivity equations and present pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a horizontal well in a circular cylinder reservoir and a box-shaped reservoir. 2003):
104
. the well drilled length L is always equal to the well producing length L
pr
. For every horizontal well in this study.

3π ( K 1 / 6 K 5 / 6 ) H ( P − P ) /( µB) v h i w Q =F w D Λ 4
where
(6. then
K =K =K h v
thus Equation (6.1) reduces to:
(6.3)
3πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w Q =F w D Λ 5
where
(6.1)
eD + 1 Λ = L ln D 4 L D ⎛ 5H D −⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎝
⎡ ⎛
⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
2R
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎤
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎜ πZ ⎟ ⎜ πR ⎟⎥ ⎞ ⎢⎢⎢ ⎟ ln ⎢⎢ 4 sin ⎜⎜⎜ wD ⎟⎟⎟ sin ⎜⎜⎜ wD ⎟⎟⎟ ⎥⎥⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2H ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎢⎢ H ⎜ ⎜ ⎠ ⎣⎢ D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎥⎦⎥ ⎝
⎛ R 2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 R 2 + L2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ D + ⎜ eD ⎟ ln⎜ eD ⎜ LD ⎟ ⎜ 4 R 2 − L2 D ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ eD ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛⎜ ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ D ⎟ ln ⎜⎜⎜ L R ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ D eD ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
⎞ ⎛L ⎟ ⎜ D ⎟+⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
L4 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ln R − D ⎟ eD 16 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
(6.2)
All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.4)
105
.
If the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir.

2003):
Q =F w D ln[4 H
2. then the horizontal well flow rate is (Lu. then (Lu.4π K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v i w
⎟ ] + ln ⎪ ⎨cot[πZ ⎬ / ⎜πR /(2 H )]⎪ ⎪ D ⎜ wD ⎟ wD D ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎛ ⎞ ⎧ ⎫
(6.6)
If the reservoir has an impermeable bottom boundary and a constant pressure top boundary (gas cap).5)
If the circular cylinder drainage reservoir has an impermeable top boundary and a constant pressure bottom boundary (bottom water).7)
106
. 2003):
Q
=F w D ln[ 4 H
2 .4π K K L ( P − P ) /( µB ) h v i w D /⎜ ⎜ πR
⎝ ⎛
wD
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
⎨ tan[ πZ ] + ln ⎪ ⎪ ⎩
⎧
⎬ /( 2 H )]⎪ wD D ⎪ ⎭
⎫
(6.e +1 Λ = ln 5 L
⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
2R
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
w sin w −⎛ ⎜ 5H ⎞ ⎟ ln 4 sin ⎝ 4L ⎠ 2H H
πZ
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
πR
⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦
⎛ R 2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 R 2 + L2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎜ e ⎟ ⎜ e ⎟ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ Re ⎟ 1 − ⎟ +⎜ + ⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ln⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ L2 ⎟ ⎜ 4 R 2 − L2 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎜ L4 16 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ e ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ e 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎜⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟⎟
⎝ ⎠
(6.

7). Gas cap drive or bottom water drive is the main drive mechanism. the fluid from the top or bottom boundary flows into a horizontal well approximately vertically. respectively.
107
.2) and (6. 2001) for an infinite lateral extent reservoir with the same top and bottom boundary conditions.8) are equivalent to the corresponding equations (Lu. the circular cylinder radius plays an important role in well productivity.If the reservoir has constant pressure at both top and bottom boundaries (gas cap and bottom water).
If the drainage volume is a circular cylinder with a gas cap or bottom water. it has little influence on well flow rate.5) show that if the drainage volume is a circular cylinder without a gas cap or bottom water. In the above circumstances. 2003):
2. Even if there is edge water drive.6).8)
Equations (6. and (6. then (Lu. the top and bottom boundaries are impermeable and only edge water drive is available. the lateral boundary effects on productivity are negligible and the radius Re does not show up in productivity equations. so Equations (6.4π K K L( P − P ) /( µB ) h v i w Q =F w D ln{sin(πZ / H ) / sin[πR /( 2 H )]} wD D wD D
(6. (6.

8) are applicable to both cases: constant pressure lateral boundary and impermeable lateral boundary.10)
It must be emphasized that although the top and bottom boundaries are impermeable.7). Lin. its effect on well flow rate can be ignored. its infinite lateral extent model and circular cylinder model are equivalent to each other.Therefore. productivity equations are the same.
If a horizontal well in an infinite lateral extent reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries.9)
Λ = [ L /( β H )][1 + (2 ln 2) / 3 − ln( L )] D 6 − (5 / 6) ln{4 sin(πZ / H ) sin[πR /( 2 H )]} wD D wD D
(6.9) because they are applicable to different drainage
108
. the productivity equation is below (Lu. and (6. for the two cases. So.6). (6. if a reservoir has bottom water or a gas cap. and Rogers. there exists significant difference between Equation (6. Equations (6. Whether the circular cylinder lateral boundary is impermeable or at a constant pressure. 2003):
Q =F w D
where
2π K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v i w Λ 6
(6.1) and Equation (6.

1: Use different productivity equations to calculate the flow rate of a horizontal well in steady state in a circular cylinder reservoir.
Solution: We have
β = K / K = 569 / 280 = 1.
Example 6.399 ( µm 2 ) h v K 1 / 6 K 5 / 6 = (0.volumes. Equation (6.506 ( µm 2 ) v h
The flow rates calculated by different productivity equations are shown in Table 6.1.9) is for an infinite lateral extent reservoir.569 × 0.
109
.280 = 0.4255
h v
K K = 0.1) is for a circular cylinder reservoir with a constant pressure lateral boundary. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are
given in Table 6. The reservoir is a bottom water drive reservoir. and formation near the wellbore is damaged.2. whereas Equation (6.280)1 / 6 × (0.569) 5 / 6 = 0.

µ Formation Volume Factor.18).1
Pressure Drop. Kv Oil Viscosity.280 µm2 65 mPa. (6.7).
Compared with the flow rates obtained from Equations (6.22).Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6. Re Payzone Thickness.e.Table 6. Rw Drainage Radius.7) and Equation (6. H Well Vertical Location.8) gives the biggest flow rate because it is for a reservoir with gas cap drive and bottom water drive.6) are second and third biggest.569 µm2 0.9) are small because these equations are applicable to a reservoir with
110
. Zw Horizontal Permeability.9 MPa 600 m 0. Equation (6.17). (1. Kh Vertical Permeability. The flow rates from Equation (6.s 1.2.1098 m 600 m 63 m 56.86m 0. the flow rates from Equations (1. (1.8).1) and (6.e.19). only one top or bottom boundary is a constant pressure boundary. ∆P Horizontal Well Length. (1. i. i. because they are for a reservoir with either gas cap drive or bottom water drive. respectively. L Wellbore Radius. B Actual Flow Rate
5. and (6. both top and bottom boundaries are constant pressure boundaries.031 Rm3/Sm3 1516 Sm3/D
In Table 6.6).1 . (6.

and it has a positive skin factor.9)
Expected Flow Rate (Sm3/day) 716 764 813 898 851 1568 2775 2788 738
The reservoir is with bottom water drive.
111
.1 .9) is for an infinite lateral extent reservoir.2 . because Equation (6. whereas Equation (6.
Table 6.impermeable top and bottom boundaries.22) Equation (6.19) Equation (1.1) Equation (6.6) is near and a little bigger than the actual flow rate.6) is for bottom water drive reservoir.6) Equation (6.Flow Rates Calculated by Different Productivity Equations
Productivity Equation Equation (1.9).18) Equation (1.
It must be pointed out that there exist differences between the calculation results from Equation (6. because Equation (6.1) and Equation (6. therefore the computational results are expected to be bigger than the actual flow rates in Table 6.17) Equation (1.7) Equation (6. with neither gas cap drive nor bottom water drive. But Table 6.1) is for a circular cylinder reservoir with a constant pressure lateral boundary.2 indicates that only the flow rate calculated by Equation (6.8) Equation (6.

the horizontal well productivity in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by:
Q
=F w D
K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v a w Λ 7
(6.12)
⎥ 2 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎛⎜⎜ 2 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎥ 2 R L L ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ eD D D ( )−( ) ⎟⎟ ln ⎜⎜1 − ( ) ⎟⎟ − L ⎥⎥⎥ − D ⎥⎥ ⎟ ⎜ 3πH 2 L 4 R 2 ⎟⎟⎟ D D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎥ eD ⎠ ⎥ ⎦
Example 6.
112
.11)
where
⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎞⎢ ⎛ ⎞ L ⎟⎟⎟ ⎢⎢⎢ ⎛⎜⎜ 1 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ 2 R ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ L2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎛⎜⎜ 1 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎥⎥⎥ D ⎟−⎜ ⎟⎥ Λ = D ⎟⎟ ⎢⎢ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ln ⎜⎜ eD ⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎥ 7 H ⎟⎟ ⎢⎢ ⎜⎝ 2π ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ 24π ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎟ R 48 π ⎜ ⎟ D ⎟⎠ ⎢⎣⎢ D ⎜ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ eD ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎥ ⎦ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎡ ⎤
− 5 ln 4 sin wD sin wD 12π H 2H D D
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎡⎛ ⎢⎜ ⎞ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎜ ⎢⎝ ⎣
( )
⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
πZ
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝
πR
⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎤
(6.2: Calculate productivity index of a horizontal well located in a sealed circular cylinder reservoir during pseudo-steady state.3.6. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field units are given in Table 6.2 Pseudo-Steady State Productivity Equation For A Circular Cylinder Reservoir
If all the reservoir boundaries of a circular cylinder drainage volume are impermeable.

L Wellbore Radius.19055 eD
113
. Kv Oil Viscosity.3 .7937 D H D = (100 / 1000)(125. H Horizontal Permeability .992 (mD) a r v
Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2. B
1000 ft 0. Zw Reservoir Radius.0 cp 1. Re Payzone Thickness.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.2
Well Length. and letting
L = L.07937
R = (125.992 / 200)1 / 2 = 0. we have ref
L = (125.Table 6. Rw Well Vertical Location.992 / 50)1 / 2 = 0.2 RB/SB
Solution: We have
K K = 200 × 50 = 100 (mD) h v
K = K 2 / 3 K 1 / 3 = 200 2 / 3 × 501 / 3 = 125. Kh Vertical Permeability. µ Formation Volume Factor.25 ft 50 ft 1500 ft 100ft 200 mD 50 mD 2.15874
Z
wD
= (50 / 1000)(125.992 / 50)1 / 2 = 0.992 / 200)1 / 2 × (1500 / 1000) = 1.

R
wD
= (50 / 200)1 / 6 [(200 / 50)1 / 4 + (50 / 200)1 / 4 ] × 0. 2007):
114
. and width ( y direction) 2b .13)
The productivity of a horizontal well in a sealed box-shaped reservoir in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by (Lu and Tiab.001127)( 200 × 50 )(1000) /( 2 × 1.5 is a schematic of a horizontal well which drains a box-shaped reservoir with height H .708 7
Productivity index of this horizontal well in pseudo-steady state is
PI = Q /(∆P) w (0. use Equation (6.3 Pseudo-Steady State Productivity Equation For A BoxShaped Reservoir
Figure 2. length ( x direction) 2a .708 = 27. and obtain
Λ = 1.12).25 /( 2 × 1000) = 0.2) = 1 × 1.493 ( STB / D / psi )
6.00021
Thus.
Let η h be the horizontal well partially penetration factor:
η = L /(2a )
h
(6.

respectively.
All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.) are hyperbolic sine.( K K )1 / 2 L( P − P ) /( µB) y z a w Q =F w D Λ +S 8 ps
(6.15)
ps
due to partial penetration is:
mπ a cosh[(mπ a / b )(1 − L / a )] M D D D D − coth( D )}} × { ∑ ( 1 ){ m a b 3 sinh( π / ) b m =1 m D D D nπ Z a3 M wD ) D + {( ) ∑ cos 2 ( 3 H π b H L n =1 D D D D cosh[( µ π )(1 − L / a )] M mn D D − coth( µ π )}} 1 × ∑ ( ){ mn 3 sinh( µ π ) m=0 d µ mn m mn
L2 b2 D + D )+( D ) a 3 2 π H L D 4a D D D
(6.16)
sinh(.
115
.) . and
πZ πR b Λ = ( D ) − ( 1 ) ln[4 sin( wD ) sin( wD )] 8 2π 6H 2H H D D D
The pseudo skin factor S
a L S = ( D D )(1 − ps 12b H D D L
(6. cosh(.) and coth(. hyperbolic cosine and
hyperbolic cotangent function.14)
where P is average reservoir pressure throughout the box-shaped a drainage volume.

It has been shown that in Equation (6.21)
116
.18)
D
For a fully penetrating horizontal well. the productivity index reaches maximum value when it is located in the middle height of pay zone. d na H
m
= 1/ 2
(6. then
S
ps
=0
(6.
Equation (6. for a given well in a closed box. L = 2a . m > 0.16).20)
where
a L L L2 D D D Ψ =( + D ) )(1 − 4 12b H a 2 D D D 4a D
(6. the integer number M = 100 is sufficiently big enough to reach the engineering accuracy for all practical purpose.19)
It is easy to prove that. and
m = 0.16) can be separated into three parts:
S
ps
=Ψ +Ψ +Ψ 4 5 6
(6.17)
µ
mn
= (
ma
b D
D )2 + (
D )2
(6. d
m
= 1.

99 (mD) a x y z
117
.23)
Example 6. b = 2000 ft
K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (200 × 200 × 50)1 / 3 = 125. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field units are given in Table 6.4.3: Calculate productivity index of a horizontal well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box-shaped reservoir.22)
M ){ ∑ cos 2 (nπ Z /H ) Ψ =( 6 wD D 3 π b H L n =1 D D D cosh[(µ π )(1 − L / a )] M mn D D 1 ){ × ∑ ( 3 sinh( ) µ π m=0 d µ mn m mn − coth( µ π )}} mn
a3 D
(6.) Ψ =( 5 π 3H L D D cosh[(mπ a / b )(1 − L / a )] M D D D D × { ∑ ( 1 ){ sinh( mπ a / b ) m = 1 m3 D D mπ a D )}} − coth( b D
b2 D
(6.
Solution: We have
a = 1000 ft .

99 / 200)1 / 2 × (2000 / 1000) = 1.4 .Table 6.5874 D H D = (125.25 ft 50 ft 4000 ft 2000 ft 100ft 200 mD 200 mD 50 mD 2. H Permeability in x Direction.5
h
Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.99 / 200)1 / 2 × (1000 / 1000) = 0. RESL Reservoir Width.3
Well Length.99 / 200)1 / 2 = 0.0 cp 1. and letting L = L. Kz Oil Viscosity.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6. RESW Payzone Thickness. L Wellbore Radius. Ky Permeability in z Direction. Kx Permeability in y Direction. Zw Reservoir Length.7937 D a D = (125. Rw Well Vertical Location.7937
b = (125.2 RB/SB
β = ( K / K )1 / 2 = (200 / 50)1 / 2 = 2
h v
η = L /(2a ) = 1000 / 2000 = 0.99 / 50)1 / 2 × (100 / 1000) = 0. µ Formation Volume Factor.15874
118
. B
1000 ft 0. we obtain: ref
L = (125.

15874 4
1.15874 = 2.15874 × 0. D
1− L
D
/a
D
=0
/ b = 0.R = [50 /( 200 × 200 )]1 / 6[(200 / 50)1 / 4 + (50 / 200)1 / 4 ] wD × 0.7937 100 cosh(0) × ∑ ( 1 )[ − coth(0.00521 4 12 × 1.5874 × 0.25 /( 2 × 1000) = 0. 5 ) m π m =1 m = −0.5.5874 ) − ( 1 ) 8 6 × 0. Z / H = 0.5874 2 Ψ =( ) 5 π 3 × 0.428
0.5mπ )] 3 sinh( 0 .000211
a a
D D
=L .15874 2π π π × 0.54606
119
.5 D wD D
And we have
µ
mn
= m 2 / 4 + 25n 2
Thus
Λ = ( 1.000211 × ln[4 sin( ) sin( )] 2 2 × 0.7937 2 Ψ =( )(1 − 1 + 1 ) = 0.

7937) n = 1 m = 1 (m / 4 + 25n )
cosh(0) − coth(π m 2 / 4 + 25n 2 )] sinh(π m 2 / 4 + 25n 2 ) cosh(0) + ( 1 )[ − coth(5nπ )]} 125n3 sinh(5nπ )
= −0.Ψ 6 =[ ×[
100 100 0.4 Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI
In this part.00495) = −0. productivity index of this well is
PI = Q /(∆P) w (0.5458) = 24.001127)( 200 × 50 )(1000) /(2 × 1.5458
So.2) = 1 × (2.00521 + (−0.15874)(0. we study the effects of some critical parameters on productivity index of a horizontal well in a closed box-shaped reservoir in pseudo-steady state.00495
Thus
S
ps
= 0.428 − 0.5874)(0.
120
.95 ( STB / D / psi )
6.79373 2 ] ∑ cos 2 ( nπ ){ ∑ [ ] 3 2 2 2 3/ 2 π (1.54606) + (−0.

with the following constant parameters:
L = 1000 ft . RESL Reservoir Width. µ Formation Volume Factor.0 cp 1. and permeability on productivity index.26) (Helmy and Wattenbarger 's equation).Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.14). K = K = 50 mD x y h z v
and the horizontal well is at mid-height of the pay zone. Fluid properties.4
Wellbore Radius. well location.0 RB/SB
Solution: (1) Effect of payzone thickness on PI .6 and Figure 6. Z w = H / 2.25 ft 4000 ft 2000 ft 1. RESW Oil Viscosity. Equation (1. well length.4: Investigate the effects of payzone thickness. reservoir width and length are given in Table 6. Rw Reservoir Length.5. B
0. and Equation (1.5 .1 present the effect of payzone thickness on PI calculated by Equation (6.Example 6.24) (Babu and Odeh’s equation). K = K = K = 200 mD.
121
.
Table 6.
Table 6.

609 17.379 56.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well
PI (STB/D/psi) H=10(ft) H=20(ft) H=30(ft) H=40(ft) H=50(ft) H=60(ft) H=70(ft) H=80(ft) H=90(ft) H=100(ft)
Babu 8.425 16.096 40.1 .Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well
122
.799 25.161 23.Table 6.358 23.538
Helmy 9.958
Figure 6.717 48.165 44.811 52.828
Lu and Tiab 9.911 46.886 29.325 17.155 59.527 34.6 .448 35.546 49.917 42.101 43.880 52.490 38.499 55.156 52.115 38.421 48.156 29.376 32.

PI increases about 4 times.6 and Figure 6. If the payzone thickness H
is not very big ( H < 50 ft ). PI increases slowly with the increasing H . from H = 50 ft to 100 ft . H = 100 ft x y h z v
Table 6. PI increases rapidly with the increasing H .5 times. For maximum PI . the well should be located at the center of the pay zone.7 and Figure 6.7 and Figure 6.2 show that the location of a horizontal well in vertical direction does not have significant effect on PI . From
H = 10 ft to 50 ft . K = K = 50 mD.Table 6. PI
increases about 1. but when H > 50 ft . For this reason. horizontal wells are believed to perform better than their vertical counterparts in thin reservoirs.2 present the effect of well location in vertical direction on PI .
(2) Effect of well location in vertical direction on PI .
123
. with the following constant parameters:
L = 1000 ft .1 show that no significant differences among the
PI values calculated by the three equations.
Table 6. K = K = K = 200 mD.

156 58.453 Helmy 50.910 55.556 51.556 52.Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well
124
.573 59.097 Lu and Tiab 54.962 50.453 57.7 .608 54.2 .308 58.583 51.608 55.962 52.573 57.Table 6.828 55.807 51.308 59.958 52.862 52.583 54.862 52.910 53.156 54.538 59.Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well
PI (STB/D/psi) Zw=10(ft) Zw=20(ft) Zw=30(ft) Zw=40(ft) Zw=50(ft) Zw=60(ft) Zw=70(ft) Zw=80(ft) Zw=90(ft) Babu 51.097 53.807
Figure 6.

η=0.375 L=1000(ft).3 present the effect of well length on PI .278 85.428 94.625 L=1500(ft). η=0.800 52.214 48.306 45.994 88.958 64.538 70.472 41.637
Lu and Tiab 22. For every increase in L of 250 ft . η=0.(3) Effect of well length on PI .608 94. From 250 ft to 1000 ft . η=1.
125
.8 and Figure 6. From 1000 ft
to 2000 ft .8 . PI only increases about
10 STB / D / psi .000
Babu 21. PI only increases about 1.Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well
PI (STB/D/psi) L=250(ft).6 times. η=0.335
Helmy 17.277 59.444 55. PI increases slowly with the
increasing L . PI increases 4 times. with the following constant parameters:
K x = K y = K h = 200 mD.870 75.183 79.222 34.259
Table 6.500 L=1250(ft). Z w = 50 ft
Table 6. η=0.3 show that no significant differences among the
PI values calculated by the three equations. η=0.994 30. K z = K v = 50 mD.342 36. H = 100 ft .250 L=750(ft).337 94.189 75. η=0.8 and Figure 6.125 L=500(ft).875 L=2000(ft).
Table 6.828 65.750 L=1750(ft).710 85.

9 and Figure 6. K = K = K = 100 mD.4 show that PI is a weak function of vertical permeability.3 . K = K H = 100 ft .
Table 6.Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well (4) Effect of vertical permeability on PI .Figure 6. w x y h z v
Table 6. with the following constant parameters:
L = 1000 ft . Z = 50 ft. ( β decreases about
126
.9 and Figure 6.4 present the effect of vertical permeability on PI . vertical permeability increases 10 times.

162 Kv=20(mD). K z = 25 mD .000
Babu 22.897 32.516
Helmy 21.622 33. H = 100 ft .236 Kv=30(mD).124 30.599 34.195 Kv=80(mD). β=1.248
(5) Effect of permeability parallel to horizontal well on PI .385 31.Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well
PI (STB/D/psi) Kv=10(mD).085 34. β=2.420 37. with the following constant parameters:
L = 1000 ft .9 . K y = 50 mD.394 31. β=3.340 33.028 33.826 Kv=40(mD).
Table 6. β=1.
Table 6.489 32.902 30.118 Kv=90(mD).671 34. β=1.581 Kv=50(mD).913 35.666 28. β=1. Z w = 50 ft.890 28.5 present the effect of permeability parallel to horizontal well ( K x ) on PI .361 30.733 36.504
Lu and Tiab 23.276 33.007 37.905 34.6 times.414 Kv=60(mD).10 and Figure 6.412 32.3 times) PI values calculated by the three equations increase about 1.501 29.609 26.
127
. β=3. β=1. β=1.528 25. β=1.291 Kv=70(mD).020 33.162 Kv=100(mD).240 27.

934 Kx=200(mD).795 Kx=15(mD).124 18.Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI
PI (STB/D/psi) Kx=5(mD).009 13. β=1.060 Kx=250(mD).4 .418 Lu and Tiab 11.579 18.744 16.939 14.171 16.256 16.Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well Table 6. β=2.282 18.565 Kx=100(mD).200 15.778 Kx=150(mD).773 14. β=1.861 Kx=175(mD). β=1.674 18.660 15.710 17.531 17.047 Kx=25(mD).937 18. β=1. β=1.10 .320 18.889 18.122 15.641 15.426 17.417
128
.115 Babu 9.606 12.414 Kx=75(mD). β=1.682 Kx=125(mD).463 18. β=0. β=2.193 15.189 Kx=50(mD).374 16.736 16.056 17. β=2.755 Helmy 10.000 Kx=225(mD).542 17.950 17.322 16.136 18. β=1.055 14.057 16.Figure 6.894 16. β=1.

Figure 6.10 and Figure 6.5 show that PI is a weak function of K .Table 6. with the following constant parameters:
129
.6 times.11 and Figure 6.
Table 6.5 .6 present the effect of permeability perpendicular to well in horizontal plane ( K y ) on PI . K x x increases 50 times. ( β increases about 3 times) PI values calculated by the three equations increase about 1.Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI
(6) Effect of permeability perpendicular to horizontal well on PI .

11 and Figure 6.565 Ky=100(mD).966 32.940 32.560 42.420 15.778 Ky=150(mD).035 9.425 6.255 39. β=1.682 Ky=125(mD).518 33. β=1. β=1.047 Ky=25(mD). K = 50 mD.060 Ky=250(mD).193 20.736 48.905 42.868 28.926 40.938 25.687 45. β=2.739 36.322 51. β=2. K = K = 25 mD . and PI
values calculated by the three equations also increase about 5 times.Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI
PI (STB/D/psi) Ky=5(mD).838 Lu and Tiab 2.115 Babu 2.950 22.
K y increases 10 times. but PI values calculated by the three equations
only increase about 5 times.
Table 6.L = 1000 ft . β=1.734 Helmy 2.6 show that PI is a strong function of K when K
y
y
≤ 25 mD . H = 100 ft .614 36.414 Ky=75(mD).339 24.949 45. From 5 mD to 25 mD .316 9. but
PI is a weak function of K y when K y > 25mD .527 6.233 36.662
130
. β=1.021 15.459 29. β=1.000 Ky=225(mD).979 16. x z v
Table 6.678 39.787 27.626 9.189 Ky=50(mD).861 Ky=175(mD). β=1.950 44. β=0. β=1. K
y
increases 5 times. From 25 mD to 250 mD .795 Ky=15(mD).744 20.11 . β=2. Z w = 50 ft.609 6.934 Ky=200(mD).

4.Figure 6. Fluid properties and reservoir parameters are the same as in Table 6.
131
. Solution: (1) Effect of reservoir width on PI .5: Investigate the effects of reservoir size on productivity index.6 .Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI
Example 6.

526 RESW=2200(ft). η=1.646 55. η=0. the size of the top view area of the drainage volume parallel to the horizontal well) on PI .129 50. K = K = K = 200 mD x y h K = K = 50 mD. H = 100 ft .12 .504 51.853 59.707 Helmy 47.168 54.7 present the effect of reservoir width (RESW.00 to 0.926 52.270 RESW=4000(ft).357 RESW=3100(ft). η=0.12 and Figure 6.486 56.576 59. η=0.769 RESW=1600(ft).682 55. Z = 50 ft z v w
And reservoir length (RESL) is a constant.625 RESW=1900(ft). with the following constant parameters:
L = 1000 ft .455.553 53.921 58.842 53.205 54.Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well
PI (STB/D/psi) RESW=1000(ft). 4000 ft .682 55.12 and Figure 6.455 RESW=2500(ft).400 RESW=2800(ft).865 49.596 49. η=0.323 RESW=3400(ft).294 RESW=3700(ft).349 Lu and Tiab 47.099 52. η=0. η=0. η=0.234 57.318 52.913 55.876 52.125
Table 6. η=0.490 58.397 52.7 show that PI is a weak function of reservoir width (RESW).953 51.Table 6. (the partially penetrating factor η drops from 1.
Table 6.246 59. RESW from 1000 ft to 2200 ft .000 RESW=1300(ft). η=0.857 59.250 Babu 47.) PI values calculated by the three
132
.073 57.301 50.190 54. η=0.792 52.

RESW from 2200 ft to 4000 ft .
Figure 6.
133
.) PI values calculated by the three equations decrease slowly.250.equations increase slowly.Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well
(2) Effect of reservoir length on PI .455 to 0.7 . (the partially penetrating factor η drops from 0.

863 55.13 and Figure 6.188 47.Table 6.
Table 6.810 59.8 show that PI is a weak function of reservoir length (RESL).994 59.143 74.288 66.336 66.269 71.13 and Figure 6.625 Helmy 81.958 50.090 50. H = 100 ft .390 68. with the following constant parameters:
L = 1000 ft .423 53.091 52.885 81.608 Lu and Tiab 86.528 56. the size of the top view area of the drainage volume perpendicular to the horizontal well) on PI .Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well
PI (STB/D/psi) RESL=1000(ft) RESL=1500(ft) RESL=2000(ft) RESL=2500(ft) RESL=3000(ft) RESL=3500(ft) RESL=4000(ft) RESL=4500(ft) RESL=5000(ft) Babu 78.720
Table 6.223 70.248 58.828 53.13 .777 76.889 62.8 present the effect of reservoir length (RESL.045 62.011 75.654 63. K = K = K = 200 mD x y h K = K = 50 mD. 2000 ft .671 56. Z = 50 ft z v w
And reservoir width (RESW) is a constant.
134
.

Figure 6.Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well
135
.8 .

θ ). n. j j the wellbore radii.
In any given time interval. Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well due to formation damage or stimulation are also given. and the skin factors. the number of wells.
A number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic circular drainage reservoir with height H and radius Re . the top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable. anisotropic circular reservoir. wj j
136
. S . PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A CIRCULAR RESERVOIR
This chapter presents steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. their locations ( R . The wells are parallel to the z direction with a producing length equal to thickness H . are considered constant. R .7.

the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a circular reservoir during steady state. the pressure at the point ( R . In the polar coordinate system.5)
137
.2)
λ = R 2 [R 2 + R 2 − 2R R
2 eD jD D
D jD
cos(θ − θ )] j
(7. R . for the n-well system. (say. and j j
λ = R 4 + R 2 R 2 − 2R 2 R R
1 eD D jD
eD D jD
cos(θ − θ ) j
(7.4)
G ( R. the jth one).θ )] e 4πK HF j j j j j =1 r D
where
(7. θ ) is
n µB P ( R. θ ).3)
By superposition principle. which is located at
( R .7. with n production wells.1)
j
is the flow rate of the production well.θ . θ ) = P − ( ) × ∑ [Q × G ( R. the pressure at the point ( R . 2007):
µBQ λ j P ( R. θ ) = P − ( ) × ln( 1 ) e 4πK HF λ r D 2
where Q
(7. θ ) is below (Lu and Tiab.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State
If only one well is on production.θ ) = ln( 1 ) j j j λ 2
λ
(7.θ . R .

n ⎦
and the surface production rate vector
(7.
d =(
µB
2πK HF r D
) × ([A] + [DS ]) Q
(7.2) and (7.7)
Applying Equations (7.1 ⎤ ⎢d ⎥ ⎢ P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ d = ⎢ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ e w. the following equation can be obtained for the multiple wells – circular reservoir system.6)
⎡ Q1 ⎤ ⎢Q ⎥ Q = ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Q ⎢ ⎣ n⎥ ⎦
(7.
The two basic vector quantities that we would like to relate are the pressure drawdown vector
⎡ d1 ⎤ ⎡ Pe − Pw. 1 2 respectively.3).
138
. λ have the same meanings as in Equations (7.4) and (7.2 ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ d ⎥ ⎢P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ n ⎦ ⎣ e w. and taking into account the pressure drop due to the mechanical skin factor.5) for a point located at the circumference of wellbore.8)
where the matrix [ A] is the influence matrix.and λ .

9)
with elements a representing the influence of well j on the pressure at ij the circumference of well i .
a(i.15)
λ =R
6
R wDi eD
139
.⎡ a11 a12 L a1n ⎤ ⎢a a L a ⎥ ⎢ 21 22 2n ⎥ [A] = ⎢ M M O M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ a a L a ⎥ ⎢ nn ⎦ ⎣ n1 n2
(7.
a (i.14) (7.12)
If i = j . i ) = ln( 5 ) λ 6
λ
(7.10)
λ = R 4 + R 2 R 2 − 2R 2 R R
3 eD iD jD
eD iD jD
cos(θ − θ ) j i
(7. j ) = ( 1 ) ln( 3 ) 2 λ 4
where
λ
(7.11)
λ = R 2 [R 2 + R 2 − 2R
4 eD jD iD
R cos(θ − θ )] iD jD j i
(7.13)
where
λ = R2 − R2
5 iD
eD
(7.
If i ≠ j .

In matrix notation.16)
Equation (7. we can express the skin factor vector as
⎡ F (2πK r H ) ⎤ S = [ D ]− 1 ⎢ D d − [ A]Q ⎥ q µB ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
where
(7.17)
By rearranging Equation (7.8).All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.18)
[D ]
q
−1
⎡Q − 1 0 ⎢ 1 ⎢ Q−1 =⎢ 0 2 M ⎢ M ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ ⎣
0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ L ⎥ O M ⎥ ⎥ L Q − 1⎥ n ⎦ L
(7.
The diagonal matrix [ D ] is constructed from the vector of skin factors as s
⎡ S1 0 L 0 ⎤ ⎢0 S L 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 [DS ] = ⎢ ⎢M M O M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 L S ⎥ ⎢ n⎦ ⎣
(7. this solution is given as
F (2πK H ) r Q= D ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 d s µB
(7.19)
140
.8) can be solved for the unknown production rates.

flowing bottomhole pressure. calculate the production rate vector Q .13).10) and (7. then using Equation (7. calculate the influence matrix
[ A] .17). the outer boundary pressure. calculate production rate vector. reservoir and fluid properties data. s
Step 3 – Calculate the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 .16) to obtain the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) .
141
.
Case One: Skin factors of each well are known.17). s
Step 4 – Using Equation (7. and the number F (2πK H ) /( µB) in Equation (7. r D
Step 2 – Using Equations (7.Step-by-Step Procedure
Given the locations (polar coordinates) of each well in a circular reservoir.6). we may calculate the production rate or mechanical skin factor of each well.
Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7.

Case Two: Production rates of each well are known, calculate the skin factor vector.

Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7.6), and the number F (2πK H ) /( µB) , then obtain [ F (2πK H ) /( µB)]d in Equation r r D D (7.18).

Step 2 – Using Equations (7.10) and (7.13), calculate the influence matrix

[ A] , then calculate the vector [ A]Q .

Step 3 –Using Equation (7.19), calculate the matrix [ Dq ] −1 .

Step 4 – Using Equation (7.18), calculate the skin factor vector.

Example 7.1: Consider an anisotropic circular reservoir containing eight wells. The polar coordinates of these wells ( R , θ ) are presented in Table 7.1. The outer j j boundary pressure, flowing bottomhole pressure, wellbore radii, reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are also given in Table 7.1.

142

The wellbore radii are identical. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are also identical, calculate surface production rates for the eight-well system when S = 0 and S = 5, 10, 20,−2,−4,−6.

Table 7.1 - Well Locations, Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 7.1

Outer Boundary Pressure, Pe Well 1, Pwf,1 Well 2, Pwf,2 Well 3, Pwf,3 Well 4, Pwf,4 Well 5, Pwf,5 Well 6, Pwf,6 Well 7, Pwf,7 Well 8, Pwf,8 Well 1 ( R1 , θ 1 ) Well 2 ( R 2 , θ 2 ) Well 3 ( R3 , θ 3 ) Well 4 ( R 4 , θ 4 ) Well 5 ( R5 , θ 5 ) Well 6 ( R6 , θ 6 ) Well 7 ( R7 , θ 7 ) Well 8 ( R8 , θ 8 ) Wellbore Radius, Rw Drainage Radius, Re Payzone Thickness, H Radial Permeability, Kr Vertical Permeability, Kv Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

18.0 MPa 5.6 MPa 7.2 MPa 9.4 MPa 10.5 MPa 6.8 MPa 8.7 MPa 9.8 MPa 7.3 MPa (20 m, 00) (400 m, 600) (800 m, 900) (1000 m, 1200) (200 m, 1800) (1500 m, 2250) (600 m, 2700) (2000 m, 3150) 0.1 m 2500 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 0.025 µm2 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

143

Solution: This problem matches Case One. When S = 5 , we have Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d is

d = [12.4 10.8 8.6 7.5 11.2 9.3 8.2 10.7]T

The unit for each element in d is MPa and the superscript T stands for “matrix transpose”.

In field metric units, F = 86.4 , then D

**F (2πK H ) /( µB) = 86.4 × (2π ) × 0.1 × 20 /(5 × 1.5) = 144.7646 r D
**

Step 2: When S = 5 for each well, using Equations (7.10) and (7.13), the matrix [ A] + [ D ] is obtained s

[ A] + [ D ] s ⎛ 14.837 ⎜ ⎜ 1.856 ⎜ 1.139 ⎜ ⎜ 0.908 =⎜ ⎜ 2.431 ⎜ 0.505 ⎜ ⎜ 1.427 ⎜ 0.226 ⎝

1.856 1.139 0.908 14.811 1.573 1.023 1.573 14.729 1.486 1.023 1.486 14.662 1.559 1.109 0.988 0.369 0.289 0.303 0.982 0.654 0.560 0.196 0.128 0.097

2.431 0.505 1.559 0.369 1.109 0.289 0.988 0.303 14.830 0.571 0.571 14.390 1.375 0.670 0.198 0.104

1.427 0.982 0.654 0.560 1.375 0.670 14.777 0.293

0.226 0.196 0.128 0.097 0.198 0.104 0.293 13.815

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

144

Step 3: Calculating the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 , we obtain s ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 s ⎛ 0.071 - 0.007 - 0.003 - 0.003 - 0.010 - 0.002 - 0.005 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.007 0.070 - 0.006 - 0.003 - 0.005 - 0.001 - 0.003 ⎜ - 0.003 - 0.006 0.070 - 0.006 - 0.003 - 0.001 - 0.002 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.003 - 0.003 - 0.006 0.070 - 0.003 - 0.001 - 0.002 =⎜ ⎜ - 0.010 - 0.005 - 0.003 - 0.003 0.071 - 0.002 - 0.005 ⎜ - 0.002 - 0.001 - 0.001 - 0.001 - 0.002 0.070 - 0.003 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.005 - 0.003 - 0.002 - 0.002 - 0.005 - 0.003 0.069 ⎜ - 0.001 - 0.001 0.000 0.000 - 0.001 0.000 - 0.001 ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

- 0.001 - 0.001 0.000 0.000 - 0.001 0.000 - 0.001 0.072

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Step 4: Using Equation (7.17), when S = 5 , the surface production rate vector Q is obtained below:

**Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [83.847 71.485 55.307 49.149 71.431 80.674 50.769 106.178]T
**

The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D.

When S = 5 , the total flow rate of the multiple wells system is

8 Q = ∑ Q = 568.839 ( Sm 3 / D) t w, j j =1

145

The production rates with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.2.

**Table 7.2 - Surface Production Rates for Example 7.1
**

Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 110.010 83.847 67.887 49.223 126.236 149.848 200.263 Well 2 92.449 71.485 58.230 42.454 104.650 120.385 140.017 Well 3 70.380 55.307 45.396 33.340 78.633 88.320 97.534 Flow Rate (Sm /D) Well 4 63.294 49.149 40.129 29.329 71.458 81.988 96.830 Well 5 89.940 71.431 58.834 43.316 99.289 108.086 100.910 Well 6 117.909 80.674 61.639 42.059 145.677 192.712 294.318 Well 7 62.115 50.769 42.252 31.365 66.513 67.138 43.745 Well 8 163.660 106.180 78.775 52.068 209.650 293.105 494.206 Total 769.760 568.839 453.143 323.153 902.107 1101.582 1467.823

3

Example 7.2: Given the following production rate vector:

**Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [89.599 73.591 92.030 46.519 135.325 93.066 43.455 202.898]T
**

The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D. The well locations, outer boundary pressure, flowing bottomhole pressures, wellbore radii, reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.1. Calculate mechanical skin factors for the eight-wells system.

146

64]T
Step 3: Calculating the matrix [ D ]− 1 in Equation (7.07 1548.98]T
Step 2:
The influence matrix [ A] is already obtained in Example 7.87 1114.39 1018.08 1563.0109 0.99 1888.98 1085.0112 0.31 1187.0215 0.65 1963. we have q
[D ] d = [0.0074 0.36 1346. Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector
d
and the value of
F (2πK H ) /( µB) are already obtained in Example 7.19) and assuming q the column vector [ D ] below consists of the diagonal elements of the d matrix [ D ]− 1 .0049]T
147
.0136 0.1.73 1621. then r D ( F (2πK H ) /( µB)) × d D r = [1795.46 1244.41 1413.77 1408.1.
then the vector [ A]Q can be obtained
[ A]Q
= [1648.0023 0.Solution: This problem matches Case Two.76 948.0107 0.

−2. calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. the mechanical skin factor vector is
S = [ S S S S S S S S ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [1.67]T
The flow rates in Example 7. The well locations are given in Table 7. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7. Permeability K is 0.18).3: Eight wells are uniformly distributed along a diameter of an isotropic circular reservoir.63 2. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical. for S = 0 .87 − 1.53 2. 20.1.2 show that the skin factors significantly affect the production performance.1.The non-diagonal elements in [ D ]− 1 are zero.1 and Example 7.95 − 2.11 − 1. q
Step 4: Using Equation (7.
Solution: This problem matches Case One.83 2.3. Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 7. The wellbore radii. we obtain
148
.−4.
Example 7.1 µm2.49 3.−6. 10.

3
Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well
1 ( R1 .1800) (2000 m.628 9. 00) (2000 m. 00) (1500 m.497 13. θ 5 ) 6 ( R6 .3 .1800)
The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.4.1800) (1000 m. θ 8 )
(500 m.751 10.
When S = 0 . θ 2 ) 3 ( R3 . θ 1 ) 2 ( R2 . 00) (1000 m.751 13.PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [9. the total productivity index is
8 PIT = ∑ PI = 86.
It can be shown that the values of productivity indexes are equivalent for the two wells symmetrically located along the line of the eight wells
149
.580 9. θ 4 ) 5 ( R5 .Well Locations for Example 7.912 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1
Table 7.1800) (1500 m.497]T
The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa. θ 7 ) 8 ( R8 . 00) (500 m.580 9. θ 6 ) 7 ( R7 . θ 3 ) 4 ( R4 .628 10.

113 6.971 12.170 4. the bigger the productivity index of the well.3
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 9.170 4. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon inside a homogeneous.478 35. the flow rates for all wells are identical.497 9.661 16.784 15. i.843 6.1 shows.836 4.380 Well 5 10.605 15.239 5.678 14.661 16.497 9.628 7.994 12.
Table 7.e.363 Well 7 13.090 Total 86.751 7.478 35.283 5.167 10.806 22.912 62.580 7.4 .971 12.752 126.325 12.159 18.150 10. S = 0 for each well.806 22.994 12.113 6.150 10.608 102. The smaller the distance from the constant pressure outer boundary.805 4. i. the farther away from the reservoir center.093
3
As Figure 7.090 Well 8 13.20)
is multiple wells system production function and is defined as:
150
.836 4.956 49.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.283 5.784 15.628 7. Assuming there is no pressure drop caused by formation damage or stimulation.605 15.903 4.167 10.380 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 9.751 7.239 5. The off-center distances ( R ) for all wells 0 are identical.429 34.159 18.843 6.903 4.325 12.e.system.678 14.580 7.363 Well 6 10. and can be expressed as:
Q =F w D
where M
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r e w ln(M ) w w
(7.213 Well 2 9.197 166. anisotropic circular reservoir.213 Well 3 9.805 4.

21) is also applicable for n = 1. when n = 1 .
It must be pointed out that Equation (7.21)
and n is the number of wells. Table 7.5 .31).6) and when n = 2 .5 shows M
w
for multiple wells located at
vertexes of several regular polygons in an isotropic circular reservoir.20) reduces to Equation (1.20) reduces to Equation (1. Equation (7.M
w
= [1 − ( R / R ) 2n ] /(nR R n − 1 / R n ) 0 D eD wD 0 D eD
(7. It is easy to prove that for an isotropic reservoir.Production Functions For Multiple Wells in an Isotropic Circular Reservoir
Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Number of Wells n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Production Function Mw
2 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 4 ] /( 2 Rw R0 / Re ) 2 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 6 ] /(3Rw R0 / Re ) 3 4 [1 − ( R0 / Re )8 ] /( 4 Rw R0 / Re ) 4 5 [1 − ( R0 / Re )10 ] /(5Rw R0 / Re ) 5 6 [1 − ( R0 / Re )12 ] /(6 Rw R0 / Re ) 6 7 [1 − ( R0 / Re )14 ] /(7 Rw R0 / Re ) 7 8 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 ] /(8Rw R0 / Re ) 8 9 [1 − ( R0 / Re )18 ] /(9 Rw R0 / Re ) 9 10 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 20 ] /(10 Rw R0 / Re )
151
.
Table 7. Equation (7. 2 .

reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.4: A number of wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon in an isotropic circular reservoir. The off-center distances of all the wells are identical. we obtain:
M
w
= [1 − (1250 / 2500) 4 ] /(2 × 0.867 × 0. and the mechanical skin factor for each well is 0 zero.867 KH /( µB) ln(M ) w 542.…. Solution: Using Equations (7. for n = 2 . 4.1×1250 / 25002 ) = 23437.Example 7.387 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) PI =
The total productivity index for the two wells is
PIT = 2 × 14.1 × 20 /(5 × 1. Calculate productivity index for the multiple wells system when n = 2.5
Then the productivity index for each well is
542. Wellbore radii.1.5) = 14. 10.21). 3. 9. R = 1250 m . Permeability K is 0.20) and (7.774 ( Sm3 / D / MPa)
152
.1 µm2.387 = 28.5) = ln(23437.

Multiple Wells Located at Vertexes of a Regular Polygon
Using the same procedure. We also consider
153
.1 .6. productivity indexes for other cases are obtained.Y
Re
O R0 R0 X
Figure 7. The calculation results are given in Table 7.

607 82. it can be found that well pattern has significant effects on the single and total productivity index.2. 7.713 14.387 13.732 11. to compare with multiple wells cases.945
154
.50 32812.122 89. single well productivity index PI decreases.Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 7. S = 0 for each well. In Table 7.713 28. i.824 12.538 64.40 1279998.e.50 49804.78
PI (Sm3/D/MPa) 14.223 10.4.765 53. PI is the productivity index for single well. PIT is the total productivity index for the multiple wells system.4
n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Mw 18750.268 11.119 73.6.
For the case n = 8 .
Table 7.6 .90 711108.00 23437.78 228557.69 79921. It must be emphasized that when the number of wells n
increases.692 102.774 41.3 and 7.
PIT = n × PI .1.294
PIT (Sm3/D/MPa) 14.922 13. only one well in the reservoir.48 399993. we compare the results in Examples 7.88 133300.384 12.744 10.782 96.the case where n = 1 . 7. and consequently the interference effects become more significant.

Solution: The results are shown in Figure 7.2 . 10. Wellbore radii.Effect of Off-Center Distance on Productivity Index
155
.1 µm2.Example 7.5: A number of wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon in an isotropic circular reservoir.
Figure 7. 2. reservoir and fluid properties data are the
same as given in Table 7.2. Investigate the effect of the off-center distance R0 on productivity index when n = 1.….1. Assume S = 0 for each well and permeability
K
is 0. 9.

22)
156
. single well productivity 0 index PI decreases. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a circular reservoir during pseudo-
steady state.
7. No significant differences in PI for different number of
wells when off-center distance R is nearly equal to the constant pressure 0 outer boundary radius R . when the number of wells n increases. the jth one). more wells mean 0
more serious interference effects. it can be concluded that for a given off-center distance R . This is because at a fixed R . For a given n. In order to obtain higher PI in a multiple wells e system. (say. In the polar coordinate system.2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo-Steady State
If only one well is on production. θ ) is
j P ( R. the wells should be kept at a sufficient distance to prevent water encroachment.From Figure 7. the wells should be located near the constant pressure outer boundary. PI 0 also increases.2. θ ) = P − ( )W a j K HF r D
µBQ
(7. But if the outer boundary is under water drive. when R increases. the pressure at the point ( R .

23)
By superposition principle. (7.16). θ j ).θ . But the pressure drawdown vector d is defined below:
157
.8).θ )] a j j j j K HF j =1 r D
where W j has the same meaning as in Equation (7.7).
(7.24)
Equations (7. for the n-well system. θ ) is
n µB P ( R. the influence matrix [ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector DS are defined in Equations (7.18) are still applicable to a multiple wells – circular reservoir system in pseudo-steady state. the pressure at the point ( R . respectively.17) and (7. with n production wells. the surface production vector Q . (7. and
R 3 1 1 R W = −( ) − ( ) ln( D ) + ( )( D ) 2 j R 8π 2π 4π R eD eD R R R R 1 D jD D jD 2 − ( ) ln{[1 − 2( ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ] j 4π R2 R2 eD eD R R jD jD 2 × [1 − 2( ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ]} j R R D D
(7. R . θ ) = P − ( ) × ∑ [Q × W ( R. which is located at ( R j .23).where Q j is the flow rate of the production well.9) and (7.

2 ⎥ d = ⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢ a ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ d ⎥ ⎢P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ n⎦ ⎣ a w.26)
If i ≠ j . n ⎦
(7. reservoir and fluid properties data are also known.⎡ d1 ⎤ ⎡ Pa − Pw.25)
For the influence matrix [ A] . if i = j . the production rate in pseudo-steady state and mechanical
158
.
3 1 R + RwDi 2 a = −( ) + ( )( iD ) ii R 4 2 eD R R ) (R2 − R2 − R wDi eD iD wDi iD ] − ln[ R3 eD
(7.1 ⎤ ⎢d ⎥ ⎢ P − P ⎥ ⎢ w. and the pressure drop. then
R 1 R + RwDi 2 3 ) a = −( ) − ln( iD ) + ( )( iD ij 2 4 R R eD eD R R R R 1 iD jD iD jD 2 ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ] − ( ) ln{[1 − 2( j i 2 R2 R2 eD eD R R jD 2 jD ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ]} × [1 − 2( j i R R iD iD
(7.27)
Given the locations (polar coordinates) of each well in a closed circular reservoir.

the elements
a in matrix [ A] are defined in Equations (7.27).
As Figure 7. (7. The step-by-step procedure in Section 7. i. and can be expressed as:
Q =F w D
where
2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Π n
(7.19).1 shows. S = 0 for each well. anisotropic circular reservoir.skin factor of each well can be obtained by solving Equation (7.28)
159
. respectively. It must be pointed out that pressure drawdown vector d is defined in Equation (7.17) and Equation (7.25). the matrix [ Dq ] −1 ij
has the same meaning as in Equation (7. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon inside a closed homogeneous.18).1 is also applicable for pseudo-steady state.e. then the flow rates in pseudo-steady state for all wells are identical. Assuming the off-center distances ( R ) for 0 all wells are identical and there is no pressure drop caused by formation damage or stimulation.26).

R9 e Π = ln[ ] 3 2 2 2 3R R ( R − R − R R )( R 4 + R 2 R 2 + R 4 ) w 0 e e 0 0 0 w e 0 R +R w )2 − 9 + 3( o R 2 4 e
(7.
For isotropic circular reservoir.Π
n
R R +R wD ) 2 − 3 + ln( eD )] = n[ 1 ( 0 D R 2 R 4 eD 0D R R2 (7.
160
.29) 0 D eD + ln[ ] R ) (R 2 − R 2 − R R wD eD 0D 0 D wD R R n 2(i − 1)π 2(i − 1)π − ∑ ln{ 1 − 2( 0 D ) 2 cos[ ]} ] + ( 0 D ) 4 × 2 − 2 cos[ R n R n i=2 eD eD
and n is the number of wells.30)
If n = 3 .31)
If n = 4 . then
Π = ln[ 2
R6 e
2 R R0 ( Re2 + R02 )( R 2 − R 2 − R R ) w e 0 0 w R +R w )2 − 3 +( o R 2 e
]
(7. if n = 2 .

31).32)
If n = 6 . wellbore radii.1.
R10 e Π = ln[ ] 6 5 2 2 6 R R ( R + R )( R 2 − R 2 − R R ) w 0 e e 0 0 0 w 8 R e + ln[ ] ( R 4 − R 2 R 2 + R 4 )( R 4 + R 2 R 2 + R 4 ) e e 0 e e 0 0 0 R +R w )2 − 9 + 3( o R 2 e
(7.6: Eight wells are distributed in a closed anisotropic circular reservoir.28) and (7. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each
161
.30).R12 e Π = ln[ ] 4 3 2 2 2 4 R R ( R + R )( R − R 2 − R R )( R 4 + R 4 ) w 0 e 0 e 0 0 w e 0 R +R w )2 − 3 + 2( o R e
(7. as given in Equation (1. pseudo-steady state productivity equation for the two symmetric wells is obtained. The well locations.33)
Combine Equations (7. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.
Example 7.

317 6. 20. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5.619 57.763 14.763 11.248 Well 7 14.278 63.474 13.678 43.6
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 11.217 55.469 4.944 30.659
3
162
.162 23.639 16.513 14.811 18.557 4.331 44.048 8.604 13.687 9.076 5.823 9.232 4.967 38.251 14.963 345.849 4. we obtain
PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [11.619 25.944 20.270 Well 2 13.720 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 16.814 18.009 6.767 Well 3 14.well are identical.084 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1
The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.251 9.198 23.661 Total 118.355 17.727 16.604 8.895 206.236 4.090 10.−6.−2.090 11.832 16.425 21.
Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 7.986 17.144 8.122 61.435 Well 5 11.397 Well 6 17.009 5.539 4.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.246 7.554 149. for S = 0 .478 6.084 77.500 34.7 .674 7.878 34. 10.
The total productivity index when S = 0 is
8 PIT = ∑ PI = 118.605 19.162 Well 8 17.901 26.701 7.853 23.7.1.986 8.687 17.880]T
The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.424 34.
Table 7.−4.880 11.

−2. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.3. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when
S =0
and
S = 5. Permeability K is 0.927 14.1.7: Eight wells are uniformly distributed along a diameter of an isotropic circular reservoir. The wellbore radii.615 15.8. 10.−6.927 14.151 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1
The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.982 15.051]T
The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa. The well locations are the same as given in Table 7. we obtain
PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [15.
163
.
Solution: When S = 0 .051 15. 20.Example 7. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.−4. The total productivity index when S = 0 is
8 PIT = ∑ PI = 121.615 14.1 µm2.982 14.

925 Well 2 15.277 4.601 Well 7 15.925 Well 3 14.296 24.615 9.776 25.358 4.269 Well 5 14.491 28.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.894 7.374
3
Re
Rw R
⎡ ⎛ Re2 − R 2 ⎞ R 2⎤ QR = Q ⎜ ⎟ = Q ⎢1 − ( R ) ⎥ ⎜ R2 ⎟ e e ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝
Figure 7.776 25.433 36.305 7.553 59.371 4.051 9.184 153.615 9.Pseudo-Steady State Flow to a Well in a Circular Reservoir
164
.843 18.257 38.892 Total 121.718 7.880 18.927 9.305 7.843 18.218 39.601 Well 6 14.530 46.718 7.880 18.491 28.296 24.892 Well 8 15.883 19.894 7.277 4.860 7.603 4.530 46.982 10.269 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 14.151 79.188 208.263 325.603 4.986 20.883 19.8 .927 9.031 25.031 25.3 .358 4.986 20.051 9.860 7.Table 7.912 40.912 40.982 10.433 36.371 4.7
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15.257 38.

7 with the corresponding productivity indexes in Example 7. It is because steady state is dominated by a constant pressure outer boundary flow regime. in pseudosteady state the fluid moved through shorter distance than in steady state. under the same pressure drop. there is zero flow rate at the closed outer boundary. and productivity index is higher (Ibragimov and Valko. more fluid is coming from the area farther from the wellbore. which implies that (a) the same volume of fluid is being moved at the wellbore and (b) at the outer boundary. its productivity index in pseudo-steady state is bigger than that in steady state. Thus. the produced fluid is evenly distributed in the reservoir.If we compare the above productivity indexes in Example 7. In pseudo-steady state. and hence more energy is dissipated.3. and maximum flow rate at the wellbore. 2000). as Figure 7.
165
. we may find that
for a given well.3 shows.

are considered constant. K .8. the top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable. n. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A RECTANGULAR RESERVOIR
This chapter presents steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. K permeability. the number of wells.
The wells are parallel to the z direction with a producing length equal to thickness H . we have
166
. their locations ( X
. The reservoir has constant K . and the skin factors.7 shows a number of fully penetrating vertical wells in a rectangular drainage domain. anisotropic rectangular reservoir. Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well due to formation damage or stimulation are also given. S . If a well is located at ( X wj . wj wj
the wellbore radii. Ywj ) . and thickness H .Y ) . wj j
Figure 2. R . In x y z any given time interval.

the outer boundary pressure P is always equal to e initial pressure P during production. e
0<Y <Y wj e
(8. (say. which is located at j
µBQ
(8. Y ) = P − ( ) × ln( 1 e σ ×σ 4π K K HF 3 4 x y D
where Q is the flow rate of the production well.3)
−Y D
) /(2Y )] wDj eD wDj | /(2Y )]} eD
+ sinh 2 [π | X
−X
167
.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State
Recall Equation (2. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a rectangular reservoir during steady state. Y ) .17). Y ) is below (Lu and Tiab.1)
8.2)
(X
.0< X
wj
<X . the jth one). and wj wj
+Y D ) /(2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD
σ = {sin 2 [π (Y
1
D
wDj −X
+ sinh 2 [π | X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y D
wDj
(8. 2008):
σ ×σ j 2) P( X . i
If only one well is on production. The pressure at the point ( X .

1 2 3 4 (8. σ .Y .Y ) = ln( 1 j wDj wDj σ ×σ 3 4
(8. respectively.3).4)
/Y −π | X − X | /(2Y )]} eD D wDj eD
÷ {sin 2[π (Y − Y ) /( 2Y )] D wDj eD + sinh 2[πX /Y −π | X − X | /(2Y )]} eD eD D wDj eD
σ = {sin 2 [π (Y
3
D
+Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD D +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD
(8.6). X .
168
.5) and (8.4). σ have the same meanings as in Equations (8.5)
+ sinh 2 [π ( X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y
−Y ) /(2Y )] D wDj eD D +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD
+ sinh 2 [π ( X
σ = {sin 2 [π (Y
4
D
+Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD /Y − π (X + X ) /( 2Y )]} eD D wDj eD −Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD /Y − π (X + X ) /( 2Y )]} eD D wDj eD
(8. (8.σ = {sin 2[π (Y + Y
2 D + sinh 2[πX eD
wDj
) /( 2Y )] eD
(8.6)
+ sinh 2 [πX
eD D
÷ {sin 2 [π (Y + sinh 2 [πX
eD
Define
σ ×σ 2) G ( X .7)
and σ . σ .

for the n-well system.9)
where the pressure drawdown vector d . the pressure at the point ( X .16). respectively.7). Y ) is
P( X . Y .Y )] × ∑ [Q × G ( X .8)
Using a similar method presented in Chapter 7. (7.
d =(
µB
2π K K HF x y D
) × ([A] + [DS ]) Q
(8. If i ≠ j . (7. the surface production vector Q .6). Y )
µB ) = P −( e 4π K K HF x y D
n .
The elements a of the matrix [ A] represent the influence of well j on the ij pressure at the circumference of well i . the influence matrix [ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector DS are defined in Equations (7. j ) = ( 1 ) ln[ 5 2 σ ×σ 7 8
where
(8.
σ ×σ 6] a (i. the following equation can be obtained for a multiple wells – rectangular reservoir system. X j j D D wDj wDj j =1
(8.Then by superposition principle. with n production wells.10)
169
.9) and (7.

13)
+ sinh 2 [π ( X
wDi
÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /(2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [π ( X +X ) /(2Y )]} wDi wDj eD
σ = {sin 2 [π (Y
8
wDi eD
+Y ) /( 2Y )] wDj eD +X /Y − π (X ) /(2Y )]} eD wDi wDj eD
(8.
170
.12)
σ = {sin 2 [π (Y
7
wDi
+Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD
(8.14)
+ sinh 2 [πX
÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /( 2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [πX +X /Y − π (X ) /(2Y )]} eD eD wDi wDj eD If i = j .11)
wDi
−Y
wDj
) /( 2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD
+ sinh 2 [π | X
wDi
−X
wDj
σ = {sin 2 [π (Y
6
wDi eD
+Y
wDj
) /(2Y )] eD
+ sinh 2 [πX
−X /Y −π | X | /(2Y )]} eD wDi wDj eD
÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /(2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [πX −X /Y −π | X | /(2Y )]} eD eD wDi wDj eD
(8.σ = {sin 2 [π (Y
5
wDi
+Y
wDj
) /( 2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD
+ sinh 2 [π | X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y
wDi
−X
wDj
(8.

j ) = ( 1 ) ln( 9 2 σ ×σ 11 12
where
(8.16)
σ
10
= [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] wDi eD eD eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wDi eD eD eD = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] wDi eD wDi eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wDi eD wDi eD = {sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wDi eD eD eD wDi ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wDi eD eD eD wDi
(8.18)
σ
12
(8. we can express the skin factor vector as
171
.9).19)
All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.20)
By rearranging Equation (8.9) can be solved for the unknown production rates.15)
σ = sin 2 (πY
9
/ Y ) / sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] wDi eD wDi eD
(8.σ ×σ 10 ) a (i.17)
σ
11
(8. In matrix notation. this solution is given as
F (2π K K H ) D x y Q= ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 d s µB
(8.
Equation (8.

flowing bottomhole pressure. and the number F (2π K K H ) /( µB) in Equation (8. q
Step-by-Step Procedure
Given the locations of each well in a rectangular reservoir. s
172
.19). the outer boundary pressure. D x y
Step 2 – Using Equations (8. reservoir and fluid properties data.⎡ F (2π K K H ) ⎤ D x y ⎢ − 1 S = [D ] d − [ A]Q ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ q µB ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(8. calculate production rate vector.
Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7.15).20).21)
where [ D ]− 1 is defined in Equation (7.10) and (8.16) to obtain the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) . then using Equation (7. the production rate or mechanical skin factor of each well can be calculated.
Case One: Skin factors of each well are known.6). calculate the influence matrix
[ A] .

Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7. and the number F (2π K K H ) /( µB) . s
Step 4 – Using Equation (8.19).10) and (8.6). calculate the skin factor vector. calculate the matrix [ D ]− 1 .
Step 2 – Using Equations (8.15). then calculate the vector [ A]Q . calculate the production rate vector Q .20).21).21). calculate the skin factor vector. then obtain [ F (2π K K H ) /( µB)]d in D x y D x y Equation (8. calculate the influence matrix
[ A] .
Step 3 –Using Equation (7.Step 3 – Calculate the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 .
173
.
Case Two: Production rates of each well are known. q
Step 4 – Using Equation (8.

F = 86.3 8.1: Consider an anisotropic rectangular reservoir containing eight wells.−2. Y ) are presented in Table wj wj
8. 10. calculate surface production rates for the eight-well system when S = 0 and S = 5.5 11.4 10.1.−6.728 D x y
174
.8 8.2 10.2 9.−4.2 × 20 /(5 × 1. When S = 5 . Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are also identical.1 × 0.1. reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are also shown in Table 8.4 .
Solution: This problem matches Case One.
In field metric units. The rectangular coordinates of these wells ( X
.6 7. wellbore radii. then D
F (2π K K H ) /( µB) = 86. The wellbore radii are identical.7]T
The unit for each element in d is MPa and the superscript T stands for “matrix transpose”. flowing bottomhole pressure.Example 8.5) = 204. The outer boundary pressure. 20. we have Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d is
d = [12.4 × (2π ) × 0.

B 1.15).16). Yw6 ) (1800 m. Pwf.7 9.2 7. Pwf. 1300 m) Well 6 ( X w6 .2 µm2 Permeability in Y Direction. 800 m) Well 4 ( X w4 .5 Rm3/Sm3
Step 2: Because S = 5 for each well. Ky 0.1
Outer Boundary Pressure. Yw4 ) (2000 m.1 µm2 0. Pwf. Kx 0.Well Locations. µ 5. Yw2 ) (2500 m.6 MPa Well 2.s Formation Volume Factor.8 MPa Well 8.6 8. Yw1 ) (1500 m. 1100 m) Wellbore Radius. Pe 18. 500 m) Well 2 ( X w2 .8 MPa Well 6.7 MPa Well 7.3 9. Pwf.1 5. Kz Oil Viscosity. Rw 0. Yw7 ) (1000 m.5 6. 700 m) Well 7 ( X w7 . 900 m) Well 8 ( X w8 .1 m Reservoir Length. Xe 3000 m Reservoir Width. Yw5 ) (300 m. Pwf. (8. Pwf. Pwf. 1000 m) Well 3 ( X w3 . Pwf.1 .4 10. Ye 1500 m Payzone Thickness.2 MPa Well 3.025 µm2 Vertical Permeability.5 MPa Well 5. Yw3 ) (500 m.10) and (8.Table 8. the matrix [ A] + [ D ] is obtained s
175
. Yw8 ) (2200 m.3 MPa Well 1 ( X w1 .0 mPa. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.0 MPa Well 1.4 MPa Well 4.8 7. 1200 m) Well 5 ( X w5 . using Equations (7. H 20 m Permeability in X Direction.

000 .921 0.260 141.004 .001 .002 ⎟ ⎟ 0.000 ⎟ ⎟ .753 0.000 0.0.009 ⎟ ⎟ 0.147 ⎞ ⎟ 0.000 .001 0.000 0.262 172.000 0.084 0.000 0.001 .072 ⎜ ⎜ .018 0.0.004 0.000 ⎟ 0.203 0.0.176 0.0.003 0.001 0.461 118.189 0.001⎞ ⎟ .0.000 ⎜ 0.000 0.000 ⎝
.003 13.123 149.013 0.013 13.0.0.0.0.087 0.20).0.072 .000 0.016 ⎜ 0.346 ⎜ 0. we obtain s
([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 s ⎛ 0.000 0.000 =⎜ ⎜ 0.0.040 0.001 .147 ⎝
0.441 115.003 ⎟ 0.004 13.443 0.000 .000 .739 ⎜ ⎜ 0.000 .0.346 0.0.831 ⎟ 0.000 0.669 ⎟ ⎠
Step 3: Calculating the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 .0.0.074 ⎟ ⎠
Step 4: Using Equation (8.0.000 0.0.000 .040
0.003 0.001 0.001 0.000 ⎜ ⎜ .653 ⎟ 0.004
0.[ A] + [ D ] s ⎛ 13.0.969 0.868 0.419 0.0.009
0.072 0.000
.077 0.000 0.0.040 0.0.001 0.002 ⎜ .001 0.001 0.832 ⎜ ⎜ 0.002 ⎟ ⎟ 0.072 13.498 0.261 0.087 0.000
.0.315 0.261 0.002 0. the surface production rate vector Q is obtained below:
Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [170.018 0.073 0.189 =⎜ ⎜ 0.0.002
.148 95.002 ⎜ .075 0.002 0.073 0.072 ⎜ 0.000 .016 0.000 0.702 109.000 ⎜ ⎜ 0.000 ⎟ ⎟ .653
0.417 ⎟ ⎟ 0.002 0.008 0.059 0.739 0.831
0.040 ⎟ 13.004 ⎟ 0.0.001 0.417
0.000 .176 13.084 ⎜ ⎜ 0.002
0.541]T
176
.002 0.498 0.001 .002 0.0.000 0.315 0.203 0.004 .002 0.0.059 0.419 0.008 13.

861 Well 3 177.614 Well 8 209.917 221.219
3
Example 8.326 95.Surface Production Rates for Example 8.888]T
177
.803 49.996 Flow Rate (Sm /D) Well 4 137. j j =1
The production rates with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.882 536.071 156.439 293.913 617.542 4204.714 260.319 199.307 84.721 196.148 88.576 Well 7 161.2: Given the following production rate vector:
Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [206.614 74.461 111.449 115.718 339.1
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 256.976 366.702 88.248 495.242 541.799 202.467 438.251 80.899 170.868 258.630 109.128 415.934 388.514 240.100 2018.The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D.703 1056.490 144.203 279.123 127.313 Total 1610.424 170.262 72.448 1071.281 2711.510 58.267 200.038 172.363 118.253 209.091 397.474 Well 6 164.2.2 .738 323.844 700.441 125.541 106.969 71.544 Well 5 277. When S = 5 .956 60.841 Well 2 226.
Table 8.428 166.191 141.937 803. the total flow rate of the eight-wells system is
8 Q = ∑ Q = 1071.552 149.260 82.564 109.052 270.472 55.133 285.937 ( Sm 3 / D) t w.451 367.

46 2292.
Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector
d
and the value of
F (2π K K H ) /( µB) are already obtained in Example 8.95 1903. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.18 2016.81 1647. outer boundary pressure.66 1535. wellbore radii.
The well locations.10 1222.30 1674.1.59]T
Step 2:
The influence matrix [ A] is already obtained in Example 8.
Solution: This problem matches Case Two.89 1663.77 2190.75 2032.1. Calculate mechanical skin factors for the eight-wells system. then D x y
( F (2π K K H ) /( µB )) × d D x y = [2538.06 1760.The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D. flowing bottomhole pressure.
then the vector [ A]Q can be obtained
[ A]Q = [2078.63 2211.1.37 3266.97 1678.45]T
178
.

1 µm2.0025 0.3.3: Eight wells are distributed along a diagonal of an isotropic rectangular reservoir. q
Step 4: Using Equation (8.
Example 8.0050 0.0092 0.14 − 1.2 show that the skin factors significantly affect the production performance. The wellbore radii.34 2.0048 0.19) and assuming q the column vector [ D ] below consists of the diagonal elements of the d matrix [ D ]− 1 .0059 0.23 3. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as
179
. The well locations are given in Table 8.1 and Example 8.0069 0.69 3.Step 3: Calculating the matrix [ D ]− 1 in Equation (7.45 1. Permeability K is 0.87 − 2.0064]T d
The non-diagonal elements in [ D ]− 1 are zero. we have q
[ D ] = [0.36]T
The flow rates in Example 8. the mechanical skin factor vector is
S = [ S S S S S S S S ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [2.0049 0.78 − 1.21).

150 m) (600 m. Y w3 ) ( X w4 .3
Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( X w1 .−6. 1050 m) (2400 m.491 11. Yw2 ) ( X w3 . Yw1 ) ( X w2 .238 14. Yw8 )
(300 m.given in Table 8. 1200 m)
Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8. we obtain
PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [17.144 (Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1
180
. calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when
S = 0 and S = 5.3 .694 14. 10. for S = 0 .−2. 20. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.956]T
The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa. Y w7 ) ( X w8 .Well Locations for Example 8. When S = 0 . Yw4 ) ( X w 5 .225 12. 450 m) (1200 m.1.312 11.1. Y w5 ) ( X w6 .647 12. 600 m) (1500 m. 300 m) (900 m.−4. Y w6 ) ( X w7 .
Table 8. 750 m) (1800 m.581 11. the total productivity index is
8 PIT = ∑ PI = 106. 900 m) (2100 m.

838 5.The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.244 43.805 16.3.627 66.808 7.
Solution: For S = 0 .4.312 8.480 55.Productivity Indexes for Example 8. and w9 w9
wellbore data are the same as given in Table 8.407 Well 3 12.491 8.587 15.764 4. calculate productivity indexes for the nine-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5.466 4.896 24. 10.769 171.484 4.4 .581 8. 1350 m) . fluid properties. other well locations are the same as given in Table 8.156 4.072 19.610 15.308 6.807 Total 106.920 Well 5 11.3
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 17.482 13.751 33.062 18.−2.121 37.845 21.851 19.694 20.231 Well 2 14.404 256. we obtain
181
.080 22.474 13.956 9.4: If ninth well is added in the eight-wells system in Example 8.714 4. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.339 6.767 7.647 8.588 34. Y ) = (2700 m.178 6.314 16.
Table 8.311 4.439 25.439 13.614 Well 8 14.3.390 4.378 19.−4.775
3
Example 8.1.876 Well 6 11.122 Well 7 12. its location is at ( X
.225 9.694 8.748 23. the reservoir.309 130.238 10.707 16.785 17.798
Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 11. 20.003 26.517 7.144 72.−6.737 6.827 6.

Productivity Indexes for Example 8.237 14.231 Well 2 14.3 and
182
.461 4.901 Well 5 11. It can be shown that the values of productivity indexes are equivalent for the two wells symmetrically located along the diagonal of the rectangular reservoir.472 13.269 16.712 4.5.461 4.4
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 17.223 17.734 6.751 33.281 151.155 4.080 22.011 19.690 16.472 13.734 6.486 14.380 4.568 8. the nine wells are uniformly distributed along the diagonal.626 66.690 16.080 22.309 82.280 8. From the numerical results in Example 8.766 7.710 42.746 23.223 12. the total productivity index is
9 PIT = ∑ PI = 122.890 24.794 62.155 4.794 Well 8 14.794 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 11.751 33.PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = [17.406 Well 3 12.309 (Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1
The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.223 9.486 8.057 18.230 Total 122.562 312.785 17.838 5.568 8.901 Well 7 12.757 201.237]T
When S = 0 .746 23.673 20.838 5.766 7.626 66.516 7.785 17.5 .475
3
In Example 8.586 34.300 6.586 15.586 11.237 10.300 6.486 8.712 4.
Table 8.237 10.223 9.4.486 11.809 Well 6 11.406 Well 9 17.673 20.516 7.161 6.890 24.586 34.280 11.057 18.586 12.586 15.434 13.

anisotropic rectangular reservoir.
Example 8.−4.1 µm2. Permeability K is 0. if S = 0 .1.6. The reservoir is split into n equal-area small rectangles. As Figure 8. The well locations are given in Table 8.1 shows.Example 8.1 shows.−6. one well is located at each area center.5: An isotropic rectangular reservoir has the same size as in Example 8. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.1.
As Figure 8. calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. the smaller the distance from the constant pressure outer boundary. it can found that the ninth well does not have significant effects on productivity indexes of other eight wells.1.
Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8. Wellbore radii.4. 20. eight wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles inside a
homogeneous. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical. we obtain
183
. the bigger the productivity index of the well.−2. 10.

Yw2 ) ( X w3 . 1125 m) (2625 m.Well Locations for Example 8.1 . Yw8 )
(375 m.5
Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
( X w1 . 375 m) (2625 m. 1125 m) (1875 m. Y w5 ) ( X w6 . Y w6 ) ( X w7 .6 . 1125 m) (1125 m. 375 m) (1125 m. 375 m) (1875 m. Y w7 ) ( X w8 .Multiple Wells Located at Centers of Equal-Area Small Rectangles
184
.Table 8. Y w3 ) ( X w4 . 375m) (375 m. Yw1 ) ( X w2 . Yw4 ) ( X w 5 . 1125 m)
Ye
Xe
Figure 8.

967 20.976 35.564 4. with the corners of the
small distances from two of the constant
pressure reservoir boundaries.420 47. the total productivity index is
8 PIT = ∑ PI = 121.242 7.680 209.296 Well 7 14.357 28.976 35.357 28.871 10.473 9. 7. 4.7. Well 1.967 20.830 18.830 18. 4. the productivity indexes of Well 1.378 79.296 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 15.967 20.5
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15.473 9.245 4. because their locations are near rectangular reservoir. 6.585 330. 8 are equal and bigger than those of Well 2.420 47.242 7.659 7.186 153.063 23.296 Well 8 15.357 28.473 9. 5.830 18.296 Well 3 14.235 39.063 23.245 4. 5.473 9.564 4.871]T
When S = 0 .357 28.242 7.420 47.063 23.871 14.405 Well 5 15.245 4.830 18.564 4.473 15.7 .871 14.871 10.PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [15. 8 are symmetrically located. 3.976 35. it can be concluded that.659 7.871 10.871 10.420 47.405 Well 2 14.063 23.405 Total 121.473 15.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.967 20.
Table 8.378 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1
The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.473 14.871 15.
185
.245 4.473 14.659 7.804
3
From the above numerical results.242 7.659 7.405 Well 6 14.976 35.606 59.564 4.

375 m) (2250 m. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.6
Well Well Well Well
1 2 3 4
( X w1 .
The same conclusions are
For the eight-wells system.so their productivity indexes are equal. Yw2 ) ( X w3 . reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.1. S = 0 for each well.1 µm2. Yw4 )
(750 m.Well Locations for Example 8. it can be concluded that well pattern has significant effects on the single and total productivity index.−2.−6. 7.1. calculate productivity indexes for the four-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. obtained for Well 2. Wellbore radii. 1125m)
186
.3 and 8.−4.
Example 8. 3. 6. Yw1 ) ( X w2 .5. 1125 m) (2250 m. 375 m) (750 m. The reservoir size is the same as in Example 8.
Table 8. 8.5.6: Four wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles. Permeability K is 0.8. if we compare the results in Examples 8. Y w3 ) ( X w4 .8 . 20. 10. The well locations are given in Table 8.

557 4.557 4.965 20.228 28.226 7.
187
.226 7.81 15.860 80.81 15.859 Well 3 15. their productivity indexes are also identical.903 30. and wells are symmetrically located.6
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15.434
3
From Example 8.073 45.228 28.073 45.557 4.9. we may come to the conclusion that if skin factors are indentical.810 10.238 40.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.810 10.965 20.1.810 10.24 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1
The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.859 Total 63.81]T 1 2 3 4
When S = 0 .81 15.810 10.911 112.557 4.291 183.6.Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as shown in Example 8.9 .228 28.859 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 2 15.226 7. the total productivity index is
4 PIT = ∑ PI = 63.073 45.227 19.228 28.073 45. if S = 0 we obtain
PI = [ PI PI PI PI ]T = [15.
Table 8.226 7.965 20.859 Well 4 15.965 20.

X wDj ) X D + X wDj )[ − ρ1 = ( ] + 2 2 X eD YeD 3 X eD
(8. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a rectangular reservoir during pseudosteady state.23)
ρ 2 = −(
πX | X − X wDj | π (YD + YwDj ) 1 ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− eD D ) cos[ ] 4π YeD YeD
+ exp(− 2πX eD | X D − X wDj | YeD )}
(8. with n production wells. Y ) . (say.22)
where
2 2 X eD 1 max( X D . Y ) is
188
.25)
Q is the flow rate of the production well. j wj wj
By superposition principle. which is located at ( X .8. the jth one). The pressure at the point ( X . Y ) = P − ( ) × ( ρ1 + ρ 2 + ρ 3 ) a K K HF x y D
µBQ
(8.24)
ρ 3 = −(
πX | X − X wDj | π (YD − YwDj ) 1 ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− eD D ) cos[ ] 4π YeD YeD
+ exp(− 2πX eD | X D − X wDj | YeD )}
(8.2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo-Steady State
If only one well is on production. for the n-well system. the pressure at the point ( X . Y ) is
j P( X .

and (7.26)
where ρ1 . (8.P( X . ρ 2 . (7. respectively.16).25). Y ) n µB = P −( ) × ∑ [Q × ( ρ1 + ρ 2 + ρ 3 )] a j K K HF j =1 x y D
(8.9). the influence matrix
[ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector D s are defined in Equations
(7. the surface production vector Q .
189
. if i = j . respectively. (8.
For the influence matrix [ A] .23).9).
Equations (8. ρ 3 have the same meanings as in Equations (8. the pressure drawdown vector d .21) are still applicable to a multiple wells – rectangular reservoir system in pseudo-steady state. (7.7).24) and (8.20) and (8.
aii = (2π )(
2 2 X eD 1 X wDi X wDi )( − ) + 2 YeD 6 2 X eD 2 X eD
− ln{4 sin(
πRwDi
2YeD
) sin[
π (2YwDi + RwDi )
2YeD
(8.25).27)
]}
If i ≠ j .

7: Eight wells are distributed in a closed rectangular reservoir. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.1 is also applicable for pseudo-steady state. But the elements a in matrix [ A] are defined ij in Equations (8. X wDj ) X wDi + X wDj )[ − ] = (2π )( + 2 YeD 3 X eD 2 X eD
πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | π (YwDi + YwDj ) 1 ) cos[ ] − ( ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− YeD YeD 2
+ exp(− 2πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | YeD )}
(8. The step-by-step procedure in Section 8. reservoir and fluid properties data are also known.
Example 8. and the pressure drop.28)
πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | π (YwDi − YwDj ) 1 ) cos[ ] − ( ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− YeD YeD 2
+ exp(− 2πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | YeD )}
Given the locations of each well in a closed rectangular reservoir. The well locations.aij
2 2 X eD 1 max( X wDi .21). the production rate in pseudo-steady state and mechanical skin factor of each well can be obtained by solving Equation (8.27) and (8. respectively.20) and Equation (8. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are
190
.1. wellbore radii.28).

023 7.207 Well 8 23.
Table 8.043 27.623 15. 10.855 14.530 118.660 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 21.071 103.045 15.331 23.711 56.410 77. for S = 0 .042 11.397 75.595 10.855 26.636 42.321 11.754 703.022 Well 7 26.7
Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 24.261 Well 6 22.093 26.890 27.−4.766 57.667 7.084 59.160 31.737 10.
Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8.616 373.531 7.178 14.043 15.−2.
When S = 0 .391 34.identical.428 36.589 43.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.−6.300 16.554 46.178]T
The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.211 53.609 Well 2 27.082 106.514 Well 3 26.056 86.997 11.399 35.119 43. we obtain
PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [24.898 Total 194.045 21.124 76.738 7.075 11.1.815 7.404 6.850 88.563 7.10 .180 30.300 23.025 7.093 16.331 13.469 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1
The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.469 121.10.547 255.739 52.033 29.977 10.623 22.784
3
191
. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eightwells system when S = 0 and S = 5.613 Well 5 23.057 37.106 11. 20. the total productivity index is
8 PIT = ∑ PI = 194.066 30.

Ye 7000 ft Payzone Thickness. µ 0.67 ft. mechanical skin factors. The well locations.8: In this example.
Table 8. 2333. B 1. 5133.Well Locations. Rw 0.8
Well 1 ( X w1 . H 100 ft Permeability.11 . Yw3 ) Well 1. Calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the three-wells system.558 RB/STB
192
. reservoir and fluid properties data were provided by Valko.5. Doublet and Blasingame (2000) and are given in Table 8.Example 8. wellbore radii. Skin Factor 10 Well 2. Xe 14000 ft Reservoir Width.67 ft.33 ft) (10266. Skin Factors.5364 cp Formation Volume Factor.33 ft) Well 3 ( X w3 .67 ft. K 100 mD Oil Viscosity. we compare the proposed productivity equation in this study and the equation presented by Valko. Skin Factor 0 Well 3.33 ft) Well 2 ( X w2 . Yw2 ) (7466.25 ft Reservoir Length. Skin Factor -3 Wellbore Radius. Three fully penetrating vertical wells are distributed in a closed isotropic rectangular reservoir. Doublet and Blasingame in 2000. Yw1 ) (3266. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8. 5133.

193
.928]T 1 2 3
If the elements a in matrix [ A] are obtained by Equations (1.27) and (8.34) which were provided by Valko.948 8.27) and ij (8.887 8. Equations (1.28) are reliable.33) and ij (1. but Equations (8. Doublet and Blasingame (2000).
No significant differences exist between the above results calculated by the two methods. the unit for each element in PI is STB/D/psi.34) are only applicable to isotropic reservoirs.275]T 1 2 3
In the above calculations.562 12.Solution: If the elements a in matrix [ A] are obtained by Equations (8. which indicates that the proposed Equations (8. then the productivity index vector is
PI = [ PI PI PI ]T = [4.28).33) and (1.27) and (8.779 13.28) are applicable to anisotropic reservoirs. the productivity index vector for the three-wells system is below:
PI = [ PI PI PI ]T = [4.

194
. A new expression is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic circular reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state. for arbitrary position of the well within the circle. to calculate pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.
2. SUMMARY
The primary goal of this chapter is to summarize the contributions and the proposed steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations in this study. Productivity equations are given for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in steady state and pseudo-steady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir and circular cylinder reservoir. Equations are given for a vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage volume and a box-shaped drainage volume.1 Contributions
1.
9.
3.9.

2 Productivity Equations
Productivity equations of a vertical well in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir are summarized in Table 9.
5.
9.4. A new expression is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state.
7. Productivity equations are given for a fully penetrating vertical well in steady state in an anisotropic sector fault reservoir and channel reservoir. Steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system within a circular drainage area and a rectangular drainage area are presented.1.
195
.
6. for arbitrary aspect ratio of the rectangle and for arbitrary position of the well within the rectangle. Productivity equations are given for a horizontal well in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir and box-shaped reservoir.

3) Remark
Pseudo-Steady State. (5. (3. (3.3) Remark
Constant pressure.11) Eqs.13) Eq. (3. Constant pressure.1)
N/A
Steady State.2. (3.4)
N/A
Steady State. (3. (4.11) Eqs. sector fault reservoir and channel reservoir are summarized in Table 9. (3. only applicable for fully penetrating wells.5) and (3. (4. Both are impermeable. Outer boundary is at constant pressure. (3. Constant pressure or impermeable.2 .22)
Eq. Steady State.
Box
Eq.Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Box-Shaped Reservoir. Constant pressure or impermeable. (5. only applicable for fully penetrating wells.Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Circular Cylinder Reservoir
Lateral Boundary Top and Bottom Boundaries Both are impermeable.12) Eq.3) Eq.
Steady State Steady State Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State
Productivity equations of a vertical well in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir.11) Eq.7) and (3. Bottom water only. (3.14) Eq. Two sides of the sector angle are impermeable. Gas cap and bottom water.9) and (3. (4. Gas cap only.1) Pseudo Skin Factor Eq. Two parallel boundaries are impermeable. Impermeable. Sector Reservoir and Channel Reservoir
Reservoir Shape Box Lateral Boundary Impermeable.1 .27)
Sector Fault
Eq.15) Pseudo Skin Factor Eq. Productivity Equation Eqs.Table 9.
Channel
Eq. Productivity Equation Eq.1) and (3. (3. (3.
Table 9. (4. Constant pressure or impermeable.2) Eqs.
196
.

11) Eq. both the top and bottom boundaryies are impermeable.Productivity Equations of a Horizontal Well in an Anisotropic Reservoir
Reservoir Shape Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Box Lateral Boundary Constant pressure.7) Eq. Gas cap and bottom water. (6. Impermeable.1) Eq.
Table 9. (6.
Productivity equations of a horizontal well in an anisotropic reservoir are summarized in Table 9. (6. (6.
197
.3 .4. Productivity Equation Eq.8) Eq. Constant pressure or impermeable. Gas cap only.For the three reservoir shapes in Table 9. Bottom water only. For the two reservoir shapes in Table 9.6) Eq. Both are impermeable.14) Remark
Steady State Steady State Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Pseudo-Steady State
Productivity equations of a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in an anisotropic reservoir are summarized in Table 9. Impermeable. Both are impermeable.3. Constant pressure or impermeable. Top and Bottom Boundaries Both are impermeable. Constant pressure or impermeable. (6.2. (6. both the top and bottom boundaryies are impermeable.4.

(8. (7. (8.Table 9. (7.26) and (7.27) and (8. (8. Rectangular Impermeable. Productivity Equation Eq.17) Eq.20) Element of Influence Matrix Eqs.15) Eqs.13) Eqs. (7.17) Eq. (7.10) and (7.4 . Impermeable.10) and (8.Productivity Equations of a Multiple Vertical Wells System in an Anisotropic Reservoir
Reservoir Shape Circular Circular Lateral Boundary Constant pressure. (8.27) Eqs.28) Remark
Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State
Rectangular Constant pressure.
198
.20) Eq.

its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. Different productivity equations should be used under different reservoir boundary conditions. vertical permeability.
199
. If top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable. and a weak function of payzone thickness.
4. For a partially penetrating vertical well. off-center distance and reservoir size. and if the circular cylinder radius is very large compared to the pay zone thickness. the effect of the radius on productivity can be ignored. the off-center well and centered well have the same productivity. location of producing portion. This is true whether the lateral boundary is impermeable or at constant pressure. the radius of the circular cylindrical system and the off-center distance appear in the partially penetrating vertical well productivity equation. horizontal permeability.10.
2. CONCLUSIONS
1. and the effect of the off-center distance on productivity is also negligible.
3. If a circular cylinder reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water.

For a multiple fully penetrating vertical of wells system. productivity index reaches maximum value when the well is located at the bisector of the angle. radial permeability. well pattern and mechanical skin factor have significant effects on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system.
8. For a horizontal well. location of the well in vertical direction in payzone. is a decreasing function with respect to the sector radius. For a vertical well in a channel reservoir. and productivity index reaches maximum value when the well is located at the middle of the reservoir width. reservoir boundary conditions. and for a given off-vertex distance. the permeability perpendicular to the well in horizontal plane.
6.
200
. For a vertical well in a sector fault reservoir. reservoir size. horizontal permeability. its productivity index is an increasing function with respect to the angle of the sector. the permeability parallel to the well in the horizontal plane. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length.
7. and a weak function of payzone thickness. vertical permeability.5. its productivity index is a decreasing function of the channel reservoir width.

3.
A multiple wells system in a sector fault reservoir.
Non-Darcy flow effect in productivity equations. RECOMMENDATIONS
This study can be improved by considering:
1.
2.
A reservoir containing both vertical and horizontal wells.
7.
4.
A multiple wells system in a channel reservoir.
A multiple wells system containing injections wells.11.
5.
6. Multiple wells in a reservoir with gas cap or bottom water.
201
. Productivity index equation of a well produced with constant wellbore pressure.

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Unsolicited Paper SPE 21256. T. Evaluation of Inflow Performance of Multiple Horizontal Wells in Closed Systems. and Blasingame. Prentice Hall Inc.O.. Ozkan. Peacemean. Dallas. 677-684. Pressure Transient Behavior and Inflow Performance of Multiple Wells in Closed Systems. D. Vol. 2000.. No. Journal of Petroleum Technology.P. Development and Application of the Multiwell Productivity Index (MPI). Well Test Analysis..(July). USA. 1991. 21-31.. USA. I. E. D. 1990. Umnuayponwiwat. Elsevier Inc. G. New York City. L.A. Doublet. 2000. Stakgold.
205
... SPE Journal. and Donaldson. 1991... Tiab. Horne. R. 1984. Vol. R. Renard. Paper SPE 62988. USA..W. Formation Damage Effects on Horizontal Well Flow Efficiency. SPE Reservoir Engineering. John Wiley & Sons. Petrophysics. Texas. 786-789.5... Further Discussion of Productivity of a Horizontal Well. (March). Raghavan. SPE Journal . 2004. 8-13. Temeng. Green’s Functions and Boundary Value Problems.Peacemean. Vol. Burlington. and Ozkan.... E.122. Valko. USA. Pressure Distributions in Eccentric Circular Systems.E. 149-150. K. Inc.. (December). S. (March). No.. Recalculation of Dietz Shape Factor for Rectangles. October 1-4.
Umnuayponwiwat.43. and Raghavan.7.1. Journal of Energy Resources Technology. D. P. E. MA. C. 2000. (February).W. S. 1998. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. New York City. R. N. 1993.

etc. second.APPENDIX A : SYSTEMS OF UNITS
A petroleum engineer should have some familiarity with all of the commonly employed units systems. and should be able to convert readily from one system to another. The worldwide conversion to SI units is being supported by many engineering. scientific.1.
Oil field units such as the foot.I.
SI is derived from seven “base quantities” that are regarded as dimensionally independent . The Society of Petroleum Engineers ( SPE ) Board of Directors has adopted voluntary standards for use of SI units by the petroleum industry. The SI base quantities and units are set forth in Table A. SI measurement symbols are identical in all languages.. Oil field units ( English units ) are used almost exclusively for reservoir engineering work in United States. and industry
organizations. units systems ) is increasing.
206
. psi ( pound per square inch ). degree Fahrenheit. are sufficiently familiar to petroleum engineers as to require no discussion. The International System of Units is customarily termed as the SI Units System.
although use of metric systems ( especially the S.

Units conversion factors are presented in
Table A.Field Units System and Field Metric Units System
Dimension
SI
Field
Field Metric
Distance Area Pressure Permeability Oil Viscosity Flow Rate
L L2 mL-1t-2 L2 mL-1t-1 L3t-1
m m2 Pa m2 Pa. Table A.s m3/D
207
.1 .2.2 .s m3s-1
ft ft2 psi mD cp bbl/D
m m2 MPa µm2 mPa.3.Table A.SI Base Quantities
Base Quantity
SI Unit
SI Unit Symbol
SPE Letter Symbol for Math Equations
Length Mass Time Electric Current Thermodynamic Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity
meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela
m kg s A K mol cd
L m t I T n
Field units system and field metric units system in petroleum engineering are introduced in Table A.

Table A.3 .
208
.589873 cp × 1.0 *
ft × 3.Units Conversion Factors
bbl × 1.048* psi × 6.894757
mD × 9.86923
E − 01 = m3 E − 03 = Pa.s E − 01 = m E + 03 = Pa E − 16 = m 2
* Conversion factor is exact.

C. but we drop the subscript D . Every equation is in dimensionless form. H ) . and D. we use dimensionless variables defined in Chapter Two. Equation (2.
In this appendix. the main derivation steps of productivity equations for vertical wells in a circular cylinder drainage domain are presented. e
and
2 ∂2P + ∂2P ∆P = ∂ P + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2
(B-2)
(B-3)
209
.49) reduces to the equation below:
∆ P = − δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 )
in a circular cylinder drainage domain
(B-1)
Ω = {x 2 + y 2 < R 2} × (0.
In steady state.APPENDIX B : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR
For convenience in the following Appendix B. and drainage domain should be also taken as dimensionless domain.

5. y ) | x 2 + y 2 < R 2 } . y 0 . H ) e
(B-5)
Recall
Equation
(2.9). y0 . if n = 0. we have
P=0
(B-4)
on cylindrical lateral surface
Γ = {x 2 + y 2 = R 2} × (0.
if
the
upper
and
lower
boundaries
are
impermeable. if n > 0.3). and e
(B-9)
210
. z 0 ) is below:
P ( x. y ) cos( n π z / H )
(B-8)
where ϕ n ( x. y . there holds
δ (z − z0) =
where
∞ ∑ n=0
cos( n π z / H ) cos( n π z 0 / H ) /( d n H )
(B-6)
⎧ 1. z.And recall Equation (2. y ) satisfies the equation below
nπ 2 ∂ 2ϕ n ∂ 2ϕ n −( ) ϕn + 2 2 ∂y ∂x H = − cos( n π z 0 / H ) δ ( x − x 0 ) δ ( y − y 0 ) /( d n H )
in circular drainage area {( x.
(B-7)
The pressure caused by the point sink at point ( x0 . x0 . d =⎨ n ⎩0. z0 ) =
∞ ∑ n=0
ϕ n ( x .

y ) = (
1 ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re ρ )]. R0 = x0 + y0
And
P ( x. integrating z 0 at both sides of Equation (B-12)
211
. let ρ = Rw .ϕ n ( x. z 0 ) 1 ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re ρ )] 2πH ∞ 1 −( ){ ∑ [ K 0 (λ n Re ) I 0 (λ n ρ ) / I 0 (λ n Re ) − K 0 (λ n ρ )] πH n =1 × cos(nπz / H ) cos(nπz 0 / H )} =(
where (B-12)
λ n = nπ / H . 2πH
(B-11)
2 2 where ρ = ( x − x0 ) 2 + ( y − y 0 ) 2 . y ) | x 2 + y 2 = R 2} . y .
(B-13)
In order to calculate the pressure at the wellbore.
using
superposition principle. e
(B-10)
Using Green’s function of Laplace equation in the circular domain. y ) = 0. we obtain
ϕ 0 ( x. z .
on circumference {( x. y 0 . x 0 .

z. z 0 ) caused by the uniform line sink is
Pw ( Rw . z )dz L pr L1 Lp ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re Rw )]
∞ ∑ n =1
(B-15)
2πH 4H +( 3 π L pr
(
1 ) K 0 (λ n Rw ) sin 2 [nπL pr /( 2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /( 2 H )] 2 n
Recall Equations (2.
212
.from L1 to L2 . Rw . then
Pa . Equation (3. z ) =
L2 ∫ L1
P( Rw . rearrange Equation (B-15). then divided by L pr .29) and (2.48). thus the pressure at wellbore point ( Rw . w =( ≈( 1 L2 ) ∫ P( Rw . z 0 )dz 0 Lp ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re Rw )] 1
(B-14)
≈( +
2πH {(
∞ ∑ n =1
) K 0 (λ n Rw ) cos(nπz / H ) nπ 2 × [sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin(nπL1 / H )]}
The average wellbore pressure along the well length can be obtained by integrating both sides of Equation (B-14) with respect to z from L1 to L2 .1) is obtained.

and there holds
g n (z) =
2 / H sin( λ n z ).5). g n ( z 0 ) =
2 / H sin( λ n z 0 )
(B-22)
in this case. g n ( z 0 ) =
2 / H sin( ω n z 0 )
(B-17)
ω n = (2n − 1)π /(2 H )
in this case. and there holds
gn (z) =
2 / H cos( ω n z ).4). g n ( z 0 ) =
2 / H cos( ω n z 0 )
(B-20)
and ω n has the same meaning as in Equation (B-18). there holds
(B-18)
P ( x. y ) cos( ω n z )
(B-21)
If the reservoir is with both bottom water and gas cap. y. we may let
P ( x. recall Equation (2. y. there holds
δ (z − z0) =
where
∞ ∑ n=0
g n ( z )g n ( z 0 )
(B-16)
g n (z) =
and
2 / H sin( ω n z ). y ) sin( ω n z )
(B-19)
If the reservoir is with bottom water. z ) =
∞ ∑ n =1
ϕ n ( x . z) =
∞ ∑ n =1
ϕ n ( x . recall Equation (2.If the reservoir is with gas cap. we have
213
. recall Equation (2.6).

and by a similar procedure shown in Equations (B-9). pseudo-steady state is reached.9) are obtained. z ) =
∞ ∑ n =1
ϕ n ( x . (3.
(B-25)
The initial condition is
P| =0 t =0
(B-26)
When the producing time is sufficiently long. Equations (3. y. there holds
∂P − ∆ P = δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 ) ∂t
(B-24)
the exterior normal derivative of pressure on the surface of the circular cylinder is
∂P | = 0 ∂N Γ
where Γ has the same meaning as in Equation (B-5). y 0 .P ( x. y. then we may express pressure at point ( x. (B-14) and (B15). y ) sin( λ n z )
(B-23)
Substituting Equations (B-19).7) and (3.(B-21) and (B-23) into Equation (B-1).5). (B-12). z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . z 0 ) below:
214
.
If all boundaries are impermeable.

y . z ) = Fa (r . z. y . y. y. y .
In order to obtain uniform line sink solution. t . z .z . z ) =
L2 ∫ L1
f ( x. y . z ) in the circular cylinder drainage volume is
Fa ( x.
where
(B-27)
η = 1 /(πRe2 H )
and
f ( x. y.θ )rdrdzdθ πHRe2 0 0 0 L pr H )(C + 3 ) 8π
(B-31)
215
. z 0 ) − ηt . z 0 ) ≈ f ( x. z . z0 )dz0 )[C + ( 1 ρ2 ) + ( ) ln( Re / ρ )] 2 4πRe 2π
(B-30)
=( +(
L pr H 1
π
∞ ∑ 2 n =1
)
1 ( )[sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin(nπL1 / H )] cos(nπz / H )K 0 (λn ρ )] n
The average of F ( x. z . z .θ ) =( =( 1 2π H Re ) ∫ ∫ ∫ F (r . z 0 ) =( +( 1 1 ρ2 )[C + ( ) + ( ) ln( Re / ρ )] 2 2π H 4πRe
(B-28)
(B-29)
1 ∞ ) ∑ cos(nπz / H ) cos(nπz 0 / H )K 0 (λ n ρ )] πH n =1
where C is an arbitrary constant. define
F ( x.P ( x .

F ( x.
216
. y. (B-31) and (B-33).19) is obtained.29) and (2. z ) − Fa ( Rw . z ) is
F ( Rw .48). z ) ≈ −( +( 1 R 3 ){ln( Re / Rw ) + ( w ) 2 − 2πH 2 Re 4 L pr
(B-34)
8H 2 ∞ 1 ) ∑ ( 2 ) sin 2 [nπL pr /(2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /(2 H )K 0 (λ n Rw )]} 2 2 π L pr n =1 n
Recall Equations (2. z )dz L pr L1 L pr H )[C + (
2 Rw 1 ) + ( ) ln( Re / Rw )] 2 2π 4πRe
(B-33)
4H ∞ 1 ) ∑ ( ) sin 2 [nπL pr /(2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /( 2 H )K 0 (λ n Rw )] π 3 L pr n =1 n 2
From Equations (B-27). we obtain
Pa − Pw = Fa ( x. Equation (3.At wellbore. z )
2 Rw 1 =( )[C + ( ) + ( ) ln( Re / Rw )] 2 2π H 4πRe
L pr 1
(B-32)
+(
∞ 1 ) ∑ ( )[sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin( nπL1 / H )] cos(nπz / H )K 0 (λ n Rw )] n π =1 n 2
Average value of F ( Rw . z ) =( =( +( 1 L2 ) ∫ F ( Rw . y. and rearrange Equation (B-34). z ) along the wellbore length is
Fa ( Rw .

X ) × (0. the main derivation steps of productivity equations for vertical wells in a box-shaped drainage domain are presented.
The box-shaped drainage domain is
Ω = (0. Dirac function has the following expansion
δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 )
=
∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0
g lmn ( x . y. d have the same meanings as in Equation (B-7).APPENDIX C : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR
In this appendix. Y ) × (0. z 0 )
(C-2)
where
( x. z ) g lmn ( x 0 . z) lmn = 1 /( d d d X Y H ) l m n e e × cos( l π x / X ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) e e
and d . H ) e e
(C-1)
If all boundaries are impermeable. l m n
g
(C-3)
217
. y . d . y 0 .

z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . y. then
e000 (t ) =
t . x0 . x 0 .In pseudo-steady state. z 0 )
λlmn
(C-6)
where
λlmn = (lπ / Ye ) 2 + (mπ / X e ) 2 + (nπ / H ) 2
(C-7)
Thus
P (t . z. z . x . y . y 0 . z 0 ) =
∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0
e lmn ( t ) g lmn ( x . z . z 0 )
(C-9)
λ lmn
218
. y 0 .
(C-4)
and if l = m = n = 0 . x . y 0 . z 0 ) = t + Ψ ( x. y . y0 . z0 ) X eYe H
(C-8)
where
Ψ ( x. y . y 0 . z. y . z 0 ) can be expressed as
P (t . z ) g lmn ( x 0 . y0 . z0 ) =
∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0
g lmn ( x . the pressure at point ( x. X eYe H
(C-5)
and if l + m + n > 0. we have
elmn (t ) = [1 − exp(−λlmn t )]g lmn ( x 0 . x0 . z ) . y . x 0 . y . y 0 .

y . we have 0 w 0 w
Ψw = J z + J yz + J xyz
where
(C-11)
Jz =
∞ ∑ n =1
[1 /( d λ 00 n X Y H )] n e e
L pr ∫ 0
× cos( n π z / H )
cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0
(C-12)
∞ 2H 2 1 = ( 3 ) ∑ ( 3 ) sin( n π L / H ) cos( n π z / H ) π X eY e n =1 n
219
. x0 . y = Y at wellbore. z0 ) [1 /( d d d λ lmn X Y H )] l m n e e × cos( l π x / X ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) e e = × cos( l π x 0 / X ) cos( m π y 0 / Y ) e e
L pr ∫ 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0
(C-10)
cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0
Note that x = X . y0 . integrate
Ψ with respect to z 0 from 0 to L pr . z.In order to obtain uniform line sink solution to pressure equation. we obtain
Ψ ( x.

J yz =
∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ m =1 n = 0
[1 /( d
w
d λ X Y H )] m n 0 mn e e / X e ) cos( n π z / H )
L pr ∫ 0
× cos 2 ( m π X = ( +( × 2 X e L pr Ye H
cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0
(C-13)
2 Xw Xw 1 + )( − ) 6 2Xe 2 X e2
2H 2 ) π 3 X eY e { 2 sin( n π L / H ) cos( n π z / H ) cos 2 ( m π X n [ n 2 + ( mH / X e ) 2 ]
w
∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ m =1 n =1
/ X e)
}
J xyz [1 /( d d d λ lmn X Y H )] l m n e e × cos 2 ( l π Y w / Y ) cos 2 ( m π X w / X ) cos( n π z / H ) e e = ×
L pr ∫ 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l =1 m = 0 n = 0
cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0
∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ l =1 m = 0
(C-14)
= [1 /( X Y H )] cos 2 ( l π Y w / Y ) cos 2 ( m π X w / X ) e e e e ∞ H × { ∑ 4( ) sin( n π L pr / H ) cos( n π z / H ) /( d λ lmn ) m n =1 nπ + 2 L pr /( d λ lm 0 )} m
The average of Ψw along the wellbore length is
Ψa . xyz
where
(C-15)
220
. yz + J a . w = J a . z + J a .

(4. (4. (4.3).48).1).J a. and rearrange Equation (C-15). yz = 1 L pr
L pr ∫ 0
J yz dz
2 Xe 1 Xw Xw = ( )( − + ) 2Ye 6 2 X e 2 X e2
X e2 ∞ +( 3 ) ∑ [cos 2 ( m π X π Y e L pr m = 1 − coth( m π H / X e )}
J a .29) and
(2.4).
221
.
Equations (4.5) and (4. (4.2).z
1 = L pr
L pr ∫ 0
L 2pr 1 L pr )( − + ) J z dz = ( 3 X eY e 2 2H 2 H 2 HL
pr
(C-16)
J a .6) are obtained. xyz = 1 L pr
L pr ∫ 0
(C-17)
w
/ X e)/ m ]
3
× {cosh[( m π H / X e )( 1 − 2 L pr / H )] / sinh( m π H / X e )
J xyz dz
∞ H3 ){ ∑ cos 2 (lπY / Y ) w e π 3X Y L e e pr l = 1 mπX ∞ w) × ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( X 3 m = 0 d m µlm e =( cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm pr ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm πR π (2Yw + Rw ) 1 ]} − ( ) ln{4 sin( w ) sin[ 2Ye 2π 2Ye
(C-18)
Recall Equations (2.

| x − x0 |= Rw . Equations (4. (4.23). there holds
P ( x. z0 ) = × =
∞ ∑ n =1 ∞ ∑ m =1 ∞ ∑ n =1
(
4 nπy0 nπy ) sin( ) sin ( ) X eYe Ye Ye {1 /[( n π / Y e ) 2 + ( m π / X e ) 2 ]} sin( ( m πx0 m πx ) sin( ) Xe Xe
(C-19)
nπy0 nπ | x − x0 | nπy 1 ) sin( ) sin( ){exp[ − ] nπ Ye Ye Ye
+ exp{ − ( − exp{ − (
π | x − x0 | nπ ( x + x0 ) 2n )[ π X e − ]} − exp[ − ] Ye Ye 2 π ( x + x0 ) 2n )[ π X e − ]}} Ye 2
At wellbore. (4. there holds
y = y 0 = Yw . x0 .24).
222
. y0 . for fully penetrating well.25) and (4. y .26) can be obtained. x + x0 = 2 X w
(C-20)
And there holds
∞ ∑ n =1
π cosh[ β (π − x)] cos(nx) 1 =( ) − . 2 2 sinh( βπ ) 2β n +β 2β 2
[
(0 ≤ x ≤ 2π )
(C-21)
∞ ∑ n =1
sin(nx) sin(ny ) 1 sin 2 [( x + y ) / 2] + sinh 2 (t ) ] exp(−2n | t |) = ( ) ln{ 2 } 4 n sin [( x − y ) / 2] + sinh 2 (t )
(C-22)
We use Equations (C-20).In steady state. (C-21) and (C-22) to simplify Equation (C-19). z.

(D-1)
We use the following conformal transformation.APPENDIX D : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR
If a fully penetrating vertical well is located at ( R .
Z * = Z τ = R τ exp(iτθ ).
(D-2)
then the sector domain Ω is changed to the half circle domain below:
Ω * = {( R . in the complex plane. Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } .θ ) in the sector fault 0 w reservoir Ω = {( R . Φ * ) : Φ * = π } e
(D-3)
And the image well with respect to the conformal transformation is located at
τ * Zw = R0 exp(iτθ w )
(D-4)
223
. the well is e represented below:
Z w = R0 exp(iθ w )
where i = − 1 .

(D-4).
We have
* * (Z * − Z w )( Z * − Z w ) 1 P = −( ) ln | | * * * * 2π (1 − Z Z w )(1 − Z Z w )
(D-5)
where
τ * Zw = R0 exp(−iτθ w )
(D-6)
At wellbore. y. z ) g mn ( y 0 . z 0 ) in a channel reservoir can be expressed as
P ( x. z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . Equations (5. z.2) are obtained . z0 ) = |x| + 2Ye H
∞ ∑ m +n>0
[
exp( − λ mn | x |) ] g mn ( y . (D-6) and (D-7) into Equation (D-5). y 0 . x0 .1) and (5. y0 .It must be pointed out that the flow rate of the image well in the half circle domain is equal to the flow rate of the original well in the sector domain. there holds
R = R0 + R w
(D-7)
Substitute Equations (D-2). z 0 ) 2 λ mn
(D-8)
224
. y .
The pressure at point ( x.

integrate
P in Equation (D-8) with respect to z 0 from 0 to H . there holds
y = y 0 = Yw . n 2
(t 2 ≤ 1)
(D-13)
225
. x0 . y0 ) = |x| + 2Ye
∞ ∑ m +n>0
[
exp( − λ mn | x |) m πy nπz ] cos( ) cos( ) 2 Y e Hd m d n λ mn Ye H
(D-11)
× cos( =
m πy0 H nπz0 ) ∫ cos( ) dz 0 0 Ye H
exp[ − ( m π / Y e ) | x |] |x| 1 ∞ ) ∑ { } +( 2Ye 2 π m =1 m m π ( y + y0 ) m π | y − y0 | ] + cos[ ]} Ye Ye
× {cos[
At wellbore.where
2 2 λ2 mn = ( mπ / Ye ) + ( nπ / H )
(D-9)
( y. y . | x |= Rw
(D-12)
And there holds
∞ ∑ n =1
t n cos(nx) −1 = ( ) ln[1 − 2t cos( x) + t 2 ]. z) mn = 1 /( d d Y H ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) m n e e
g
(D-10)
In order to obtain uniform line sink solution to pressure equation. we obtain
P ( x. z.

4) and (5. and rearrange Equation (D-14).29) and (2.Using Equations (D-12) and (D-13).
226
.5) are obtained. Equations (5. Equation (D-11) can be simplified to be the equation below:
1 Pw = R /(2Y ) − ( ) ln[(2πR / Y ) sin(πY / Y )] w e w e w e 2π
(D-14)
Recall Equations (2.48).

L2 L = well length.2).
C = total formation compressibility.
P = pressure. w H = formation thickness. Lt 2 / m t cosh(. L3 / L3 C A
= shape factor. L K = permeability. dimensionless.APPENDIX E : NOMENCLATURE
A = drainage area. F = unit conversion factor. L2 B = formation volume factor. dimensionless. m /( Lt 2 )
PI = single well productivity index .) = hyperbolic cotangent function. L4 t / m Q = single well production rate. coth(. L3 / t w
227
. D F = a function defined by Equation (5. L M w
= a function defined by Equation (7.21).) = hyperbolic cosine function. L4 t / m
PIT = multiple wells total productivity index .

dimensionless. dimensionless. L
R = drainage radius.) = hyperbolic sine function.Q = multiple wells system total production rate. L w Y = width of box-shaped reservoir.
= pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. L e R = off-center distance of j th well. L
Vectors and Matrices
d = pressure drawdown vector. L3 / t t R = off-center distance or off-vertex distance. X = length of box-shaped reservoir. L w S S m ps = mechanical skin factor. L 0
r = radial distance. L e X = well location in x direction in the box-shaped reservoir.
sinh(. L e Y = well location in y direction in the box-shaped reservoir. L j R = wellbore radius. m /( Lt 2 )
228
. L w Z w
= vertical coordinate of center of horizontal well .

L3 / t q
GREEK SYMBOLS
β = permeability anisotropic factor.
5
λ = a function defined by Equation (7.
3
λ = a function defined by Equation (7. dimensionless s [ D ] = diagonal matrix of surface production rates.
4
λ = a function defined by Equation (7.
1
λ = a function defined by Equation (7.
6
229
. dimensionless
[ D ] = diagonal matrix of skin factors.
η = partially penetrating factor.11).Q = production rate vector. ζ = off-center ratio defined by Equation (3. dimensionless
[ A] = influence matrix. dimensionless.12).14).22). L3 / t
S = skin factor vector.15). radians.
θ
w
= wellbore location angle.2). dimensionless.
λ = a function defined by Equation (7.3).
2
λ = a function defined by Equation (7.

19).25).
9
σ σ σ
10 11 12
= a function defined by Equation (8.
230
.13).17).11).14). σ = a function defined by Equation (8.4).
8
σ = a function defined by Equation (8. m /( Lt ) ρ = a function defined by Equation (8. σ
4 5
= a function defined by Equation (8.16).
1
σ
2 3
= a function defined by Equation (8.
1
ρ = a function defined by Equation (8.
σ = a function defined by Equation (8.
2
ρ = a function defined by Equation (8.23).18).5).12).24). = a function defined by Equation (8.3).
3
σ = a function defined by Equation (8. = a function defined by Equation (8.6).µ = fluid viscosity.
σ = a function defined by Equation (8. σ
6 7
= a function defined by Equation (8.
σ = a function defined by Equation (8.

6). 8 Π 2
= a function defined by Equation (7.
ω = well location ratio defined by Equation (4. 7 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6.31).2). 6 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6. 3 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6.16). 3
231
.φ = porosity. ∆ = change.
Λ = a function defined by Equation (3.12).
Π = a function defined by Equation (7. drop. 2 Λ = a function defined by Equation (5.8).2).5). Θ = a function defined by Equation (3.30).17).5).10).15). = a function defined by Equation (3.
Γ = boundary of drainage domain. 4 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6. 5 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6.10). dimensionless. 1 Λ = a function defined by Equation (4. 1 Θ Θ 2 3
= a function defined by Equation (3.

25). 2 T = a function defined by Equation (4. n T = a function defined by Equation (4.26).6).Π = a function defined by Equation (7.32). 1 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4. Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4. 3 T = a function defined by Equation (4. radians. 2 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4. 4 Π = a function defined by Equation (7. 4 Φ = angle of sector reservoir.21).4). 6 Π = a function defined by Equation (7. 5 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6.
232
. 1 T = a function defined by Equation (4.5). 3 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6.23).29).33).22). 6
Ω = drainage domain. 4 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6.24).23).

z = coordinate indicators
233
.SUPERSCRIPTS
T = transposed
SUBSCRIPTS
a = average
D = dimensionless
e = external
h = horizontal
i = initial pr = producing ps = pseudo skin r = radial ref = reference variable t = total
v = vertical
w = wellbore
x. y.