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# UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE

PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR OIL WELLS IN ANISOTROPIC RESERVOIRS

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE FACULTY in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

By

JING LU Norman, Oklahoma 2008

PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR OIL WELLS IN ANISOTROPIC RESERVOIRS

A DISSERTATION APPROVED FOR THE MEWBOURNE SCHOOL OF PETROLEUM AND GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

BY _______________________________ Dr. Djebbar Tiab, Chair

_______________________________ Dr. Roy Knapp

_______________________________ Dr. Faruk Civan

_______________________________ Dr. Samuel Osisanya

_______________________________ Dr. John Pigott

© Copyright by JING LU 2008 All Rights Reserved.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I can not use my words to express my deep gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Djebbar Tiab. Whatever success I have gotten is due to his encouragement. His knowledge, dedication to research and ideas have been invaluable throughout the last three years.

Expressions of sincere appreciations and gratitude go to professors Faruk Civan, Roy Knapp, Samuel Osisanya, and John Pigott for serving as

members of my graduate committee and for academic assistance when I needed.

Special recognitions go to my friends, Bin Qin, Shengli Chen, Heng Li, Yan Chen, Zunyi Xia, Yanfen Zhang, Anh Dinh, Alpheous Igbokoyi, Dora Restrepo and Tomas Restrepo for their continuous support and

encouragement to finish my doctoral studies.

It was a pleasure and a valuable professional experience to associate with all the members of Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, I thank all of them for their corporations, friendship and

iv

kindness which made my study at the University of Oklahoma meaningful and enjoyable.

Deepest appreciations are extended to my wife for her love and many sacrifices she poured to give me the opportunity to pursue higher education.

Finally, I thank my parents for their support and understanding during the years of my academic adventures.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT x xiv xvi 1.5 RESERVOIR AND WELL MODELS Circular Cylinder Reservoir Model Box-Shaped Reservoir Model Sector Fault Reservoir Model Channel Reservoir Model Mathematical Model 22 25 29 34 35 37 vi .1 2. 1.2 2.3 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Horizontal Wells 11 1.1 1.4 2.2 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Productivity Index Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Vertical Wells 1 3 5 1. 2.4 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Multiple Wells System 17 2.3 2.

1 4. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR 73 73 80 87 4.2 3.Steady State Shape Factors Calculation Productivity Equations In Steady State 5. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR 44 44 52 56 59 3.1 3.3.3 3.3 Productivity Equations In Pseudo .Steady State Shape Factors Calculation Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI 4. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR 94 5.1 Productivity Equations for a Sector Fault Reservoir 94 101 5.2 4.2 Productivity Equations for a Channel Reservoir vii .4 Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo .

3 Pseudo .Steady State viii .2 Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo .4 Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI 7. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A CIRCULAR RESERVOIR 136 137 156 7.Steady State Productivity Equation for a Box-Shaped Reservoir 114 120 6.2 Pseudo . PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE HORIZONTAL WELL 104 6.Steady State 8.2 Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo . PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A RECTANGULAR RESERVOIR 166 167 188 8.1 7.1 8.6.Steady State Productivity Equation for a Circular Cylinder Reservoir 112 6.1 Steady State Productivity Equation for a Circular Cylinder Reservoir 104 6.

9. SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES 194 199 201 202 APPENDIX A: SYSTEMS OF UNITS APPENDIX B: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR APPENDIX C: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR APPENDIX D: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR APPENDIX E: NOMENCLATURE 206 209 217 223 227 ix . 10. 11.

LIST OF TABLES Page Table 3.4 Table 4.11 Table 3.4 Table 3.3 Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well 49 50 50 58 59 60 62 Table 3.6 Table 3.2 Table 3.5 Table 3.5 66 68 70 71 77 83 86 90 92 93 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well 64 Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.1 Expected Productivity for Example 3.12 Table 4.1 Table 3.8 Table 3.1 Pseudo Skin Factor for Example 3.10 Table 3.5 Table 4.4 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.3 Table 3.5 Productivity Indexes for Example 4.1 Table 4.7 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.6 x .9 Table 3.1 Shape Factors for a Rectangular Reservoir Shape Factors of a Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circular Reservoir Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.1 Shape Factors with Different Off-Center Ratios Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.

3 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.1 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.6 Table 6.2 Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 5.12 Table 6.4 Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well Well Locations.2 Table 5.2 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.4 Table 6.13 Table 7.Table 5.2 111 113 118 121 122 Table 6.4 Table 5.1 xi .5 Table 6.4 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.5 Table 6.9 Table 6.10 Table 6. Reservoir and Fluid Properties 96 96 98 99 102 110 Table 5.3 Table 5.7 124 125 127 128 Table 6.1 Sector Shape Functions for Special Sector Angles and Wellbore Location Angles Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.11 130 132 134 Table 6.2 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.3 Table 6.8 Table 6.1 Flow Rates Calculated by Different Productivity Equations Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.1 Table 6.

1 Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 7.5 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.5 Surface Production Rates for Example 7.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.4 154 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.10 Table 8.6 Table 7.7 Table 7.4 Well Locations for Example 8.11 192 xii .7 Well Locations.2 Table 8.3 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.4 Table 8.1 Surface Production Rates for Example 8.4 Table 7.7 Well Locations. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.2 Table 7.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.3 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.1 Table 7.1 Well Locations for Example 7.9 Table 8.3 Table 7.6 Table 8.7 Table 8.Data for Example 7.1 Well Locations for Example 8.3 Production Functions for Multiple Wells in an Isotropic Circular Reservoir 143 146 149 150 151 Table 7.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.3 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.3 Table 8.8 162 164 175 177 180 181 182 184 185 186 187 191 Table 8.8 Table 8.5 Table 8.5 Well Locations for Example 8. Skin Factors. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.8 Table 8.

Table 9.1 Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Circular Cylinder Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Box-Shaped Reservoir.3 197 Table 9.1 Table A.2 196 Table 9.2 Table A.3 xiii .4 198 207 207 208 Table A. Sector Reservoir and Channel Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Horizontal Well in an Anisotropic Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Multiple Vertical Wells System in an Anisotropic Reservoir SI Base Quantities Field Units System and Field Metric Units System Units Conversion Factors 196 Table 9.

8 Figure 2.3 Figure 3.1 Figure 2.LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1.5 Figure 3.2 Figure 2.7 xiv .6 Symmetric Two-Well System Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir Vertical Well In a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Horizontal Well In a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Multiple Wells System in a Circular Reservoir Vertical Well In a Box-Shaped Reservoir Horizontal Well In a Box-Shaped Reservoir Fully Penetrating Vertical Well in a Rectangular Reservoir Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir Vertical Well in a Sector Fault Reservoir Vertical Well in a Channel Reservoir Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well 18 20 25 26 28 29 30 33 33 34 36 61 Figure 2.1 Figure 3.5 Figure 2.9 Figure 3.3 Figure 2.6 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.2 Figure 2.1 Figure 1.2 63 65 67 69 70 72 Figure 3.7 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.

3 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.Figure 4.1 Figure 5.1 153 155 Figure 7.6 Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well 128 Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well Multiple Wells Located at Vertexes of a Regular Polygon Effect of Off-Center Distance on Productivity Index Pseudo-Steady State Flow to a Well in a Circular Reservoir Multiple Wells Located at Centers of Equal-Area Small Rectangles 129 131 133 135 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 A Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circle Effect of Off-Vertex Distance on Productivity Index Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well 84 100 122 124 126 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.8 Figure 7.4 Figure 6.3 164 Figure 8.1 184 xv .2 Figure 7.7 Figure 6.

The effects of permeability anisotropy on well performance are discussed. etc.ABSTRACT Well productivity is one of primary concerns in field development and provides the basis for field development strategy. Well responses in a variety of reservoir models (circular. sector. rectangular. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown. a library of new productivity equations is provided. Well productivity is often evaluated using the productivity index. several combinations of closed and/or constant pressure boundary conditions are considered at vertical and lateral reservoir boundaries. This dissertation examines the production performance of oil wells with constant flow rates in different shapes of anisotropic reservoirs. Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long-time performance behavior of a well. channel. Wells may be located arbitrarily in an anisotropic reservoir. Convenient algorithms to calculate shape factor and pseudo skin factor xvi . that is. the behavior during pseudo-steady state or steady state flow.) are investigated.

Comparison of different drive mechanisms is presented. where n is the number of wells. The proposed equations which relate the production rate vector to the pressure drawdown vector provide simple. Steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well are also presented. Multiwell productivity index (MPI) is obtained by solving a square matrix equation of dimension n. The main conclusions of this study are: xvii . anisotropic reservoir are provided. accurate and fast analytical tools to evaluate well performance without dividing the cluster into single well drainage areas. Influence of reservoir boundaries on the well responses is investigated.due to partial penetration are provided. Charts are presented whereby the effects of a variety of reservoir and wellbore parameters on productivity index can be compared. The effects of well pattern and mechanical skin factor on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system are investigated.

(1) Different productivity equations should be used under different reservoir boundary conditions. and a weak function of payzone thickness. reservoir size. location of the well in vertical direction in payzone. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. and if the circular cylinder radius is very large compared to the pay zone thickness. and the effect of the off-center distance on well productivity is also negligible. (3) For a partially penetrating vertical well. the permeability perpendicular to the well in horizontal plane. xviii . vertical permeability. and a weak function of payzone thickness. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. horizontal permeability. (4) For a horizontal well. the effect of the radius on productivity can be ignored. the off-center well and centered well have the same productivity whether the lateral boundary is impermeable or at constant pressure. off-center distance and reservoir size. location of producing portion. vertical permeability. (2) If a circular cylinder reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water. the permeability parallel to the well in the horizontal plane.

(5) For a multiple fully penetrating vertical of wells system. xix . well pattern and mechanical skin factor have significant effects on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system. radial permeability. horizontal permeability. reservoir boundary conditions.

the behavior during pseudo-steady state or steady state flow (Cheng. it has been long ago observed by petroleum engineers that in a bounded reservoir or a reservoir with strong water drive. 2003). To determine the economical feasibility of drilling a well. the ratio of production rate to some pressure difference between the reservoir and the well must depend on the geometry of the reservoir/well system only (Raghavan. Indeed. once the well production is “stabilized”. petroleum engineers need reliable methods to estimate its expected productivity. the productivity index of a well stabilizes in a long time asymptote.1. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Well productivity is one of primary concerns in field development and provides the basis for field development strategy. Well productivity is often evaluated using the productivity index. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown. that is. Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long time performance behavior of a well. 1993). The productivity index expresses an intuitive feeling that. 1 .

2004): (1) The pressure on the well is maintained at a constant level while the rate of flow from the well is decreasing along with the average reservoir pressure. This study examines the production performance of oil wells with constant flow rates in different shapes of anisotropic reservoirs. investigating the factors and parameters that influence or control the productivity index is our major interest. (2) The rate of flow from the well is held constant while the wellbore pressure and the average reservoir pressure decrease. Maximizing well productivity at a minimum cost is our objective. a library of new solutions to productivity equations is provided. well producing length and penetration degree. the effects of parameters on well productivity will be made. etc. drainage dimensions.A hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with a single well can be produced in two substantially different regimes (Khalmanova. Therefore. 2 . Using the assumption of a uniform flux wellbore. and well location. such as horizontal and vertical permeabilities.

1 Productivity Index Productivity index. Chapters Three. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown. P is the w i w flowing bottomhole pressure. presents the basic productivity equations in the literature. Chapters Nine. introduces different reservoir models and well models. the productivity index is defined as (Cheng. P is the initial reservoir pressure. In the last section. The third section. The transient productivity index is calculated before the flow reaches the pseudo-steady state or steady state regime. which is the fifth section of this study.The study has been divided into six sections. The second section. conclusions and recommendations. Ten and Eleven. 3 . Chapters Seven and Eight. PI . 1. Chapter One. Chapter Six. Four and Five. The fourth section. presents summary. The first section. During the transient flow period. presents productivity equations for multiple vertical wells system. presents productivity equations for single horizontal well.1) where Q is well flow rate. Chapter Two. presents productivity equations for single vertical well. 2003): PI = Q w P −P i w (1.

the difference between the average reservoir pressure and pressure in the wellbore approaches a constant with respect to time. the productivity index during steady state flow is a constant. the rate of pressure decline is almost identical at all points in the reservoir and wellbore. flow reaches the steady state regime after the pressure transient reaches the constant pressure boundary. The expression for the productivity index is (Cheng.When a reservoir is bounded with a constant pressure boundary (such as a gas cap or an aquifer).2) where P is the outer boundary pressure. 4 . In the definition of pseudo-steady state productivity index. 2003): PI = w P −P e w Q (1. flow enters the pseudosteady state regime when the pressure transient reaches all boundaries after drawdown for a sufficiently long time. Therefore. e For a bounded reservoir with no-flow boundaries. During this period. the average reservoir pressure is used instead of the initial reservoir pressure and hence the productivity index is basically constant. Therefore. Rate and pressure become constant with time at all points in the reservoir and wellbore once steady state flow is established.

in field metric units.001127 .e.5) where F is the unit conversion factor (Butler.2 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Vertical Wells Substituting Darcy's equation into the equation of continuity. 1994): Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB ) e w ln( R / R ) e w (1. isotropic reservoir is obtained below (Butler. φ is the porosity. P =P − a i 0.4) where V is the reservoir volume.234Q Bt w C Vφ t (1.The pseudo-steady state productivity index is defined as (Cheng.4) is in field units. t is the production time. the productivity equation of a fully penetrating vertical well in a homogeneous. In field units. 1. C is the total compressibility of reservoir. D F = 0. Equation (1..3) where P is the average reservoir pressure. 1994). i.4 D D 5 . which can be obtained from a a material balance for the reservoir. and B is formation t volume factor. F = 86. 2003): PI = w P −P a w Q (1.

5) is only applicable to a vertical well which is located at the center of a circular drainage area. only a portion of the pay zone is perforated. Assuming pseudo-steady state.5) is based on the circular drainage area with constant pressure outer boundary. Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) e w 2 ln[( R − R 2 ) /( R R )] e 0 e w (1. which accounts for asymmetrical positioning of a well within its isotropic circular drainage area. but the most common one is to prevent or delay the unwanted fluids into the wellbore. 1994): Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w ln( R / R ) − 3 / 4 e w (1. 0 Equation (1. that is.Equation (1. This may be done for a variety of reasons.7) where P is the average reservoir pressure in a circular drainage area. 6 . Ge (1982) introduced the following equation.6) where R is the off-center distance from the circular drainage area center. to calculate the productivity for an off-center well in steady state. the flow rate of a fully penetrating vertical well in a closed circular drainage area can be obtained from (Butler. with constant pressure outer boundary. a In many oil and gas reservoirs the producing wells are completed as partially penetrating wells.

Thus. which results in added resistance. The streamlines converge and the area for flow decreases.9) where K h h =( H ) D τRw K v (1. Several authors have developed solutions to the two dimensional diffusivity equation. a pseudo skin. i.If a vertical well partially penetrates the formation. Brons and Marting's pseudo skin factor equation (1961): S ps = ( 1 − 1)[ln(h ) − G (η )] D v η v (1.8) The problem of fluid flow into wells with partial penetration has received much attention in the past.5) may be rewritten to include the pseudo skin factor S ps due to partial penetration as Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB ) e w ln( R / R ) + S e w ps (1. there is an added resistance to flow in the vicinity of the wellbore. Equation (1.10) 7 . They obtained analytical and semi-empirical expressions for pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. which included flow of fluid in the vertical direction.e.

14) and B= H h + 0.15) h is the distance from the top of the reservoir to the top of the open 1 interval. ηv = L pr H pr is the producing well length. 8 . τ = 2 if well only producing from the central section. i.363η v + 11.11) ηv is the partially penetrating factor for vertical well.675η v3 (1.13) where A= H h + 0. and G (η v ) = 2.948 − 7. perforated interval.45η v3 − 4.τ = 1 if well producing from the top (or bottom) of the formation.12) where L Papatzacos's pseudo skin factor equation (1988): S ps = ( 1 − 1) ln( πh ηv D ) + ( 1 ) ln[( η v )( A − 1)1 / 2 ] ηv 2 2 + ηv B − 1 (1.75 L 1 pr (1. (1.25 L 1 pr (1.e. τ = 2n if well with n intervals open to production.

To account for irregular drainage shapes or asymmetrical positioning of a well within its drainage area. (1. and A is drainage area. either because of the presence of natural boundaries or because of lopsided production rates in adjoining wells.16) where C 9 .It must be pointed out that the above pseudo skin factor equations are only applicable to a reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries. a series of shape factors was developed by Dietz (1965). Even if they are assigned regular geographic drainage areas.7) can be generalized for any shape into the equation below: Q w = FD 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w 1 ln[2. The drainage area is then shaped by the assigned production share of a particular well. they become distorted after production commences. Rarely do wells drain ideally shaped drainage areas.2458 A /(C R 2 )] A w 2 A is shape factor. Equation (1.

from the straight line portion of various build-up curves presented by Mattews et al. (1954). He obtained his results graphically. in particular. (1990) presented a successive refinement numerical to calculate the shape factor of a rectangle with arbitrary 10 . but still turned out to be slightly in error. 1990). were then used to obtain shape factors for various rectangles. for rectangles of various aspect ratios with single well in various locations. corresponding to pseudo-steady state. presumably because of truncation of the infinite sums (Peaceman. Their calculations. Earlougher et al. The linear portions of the pressure drop curves so obtained. were far more accurate than those of Dietz. Hence his values of C A are of limited accuracy (Peaceman. Peaceman procedure aspect ratio. and then used superposition of various square shapes to obtain pressure drops for rectangular shapes. (1968) carried out summations of exponential integrals to obtain dimensionless pressure drops at various points within a square drainage area. 1990).Dietz (1965) evaluated shape factor C A for various geometries.

Because of its large flow area. A horizontal well has quite different flow geometry (3D) from that of a vertical well (1D symmetrical radial flow). a horizontal well may be several times more productive than a vertical one draining the same volume. This has led to increased efficiency and economics in oil recovery.3 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Horizontal Wells A worldwide interest exists today in drilling horizontal wells to increase productivity. the engineers need reliable methods to estimate its expected productivity. Recent interest in horizontal wells has been accelerating because of improved drilling and completion technology. Available analytical models usually contain a number of simplifying assumptions. The performance of a horizontal well can be strongly influenced by the partial penetration and the anisotropy of horizontal to vertical permeability. Thus.1. modeling of a horizontal well is much more complex than modeling a vertical well. Therefore. to determine the economical feasibility of drilling a horizontal well. it is more expensive to drill a horizontal well than a vertical one. they are often very complicated and lack flexibility 11 . However. Although some theoretically rigorous semi-analytic models have been developed.

The 12 . many factors. such as horizontal permeability.. It is obvious that such methodology is not rigorous and that the resulting solutions are applicable only as an initial screen and for comparison with vertical well productivity. effective well length etc. These models estimate the productivity under steady state flow. can affect the behavior of a horizontal well. These factors are the basic information needed to model a horizontal well.in dealing with multiple types of boundary conditions. In earlier studies of horizontal wells. vertical permeability. the 3D flow problem of a horizontal well is approximated by two 2D problems. However. As a result. Borisov (1964) developed one of the earliest analytical models for calculating steady state oil production from a horizontal well. fluid flow potential theory was the foundation for developing analytical models for prediction of well productivity. There are basically two categories of methods for calculation of horizontal well productivity: analytical and semi-analytical models. that is. On the other hand. this information usually suffers from incompleteness and large errors. In these models. our estimation or evaluation of productivity in a horizontal well is more difficult. 2D horizontal flow to a vertical fracture and 2D vertical flow to a horizontal well.

horizontal flow was assumed from an equivalent circular drainage area toward a vertical fracture with drainage radius much larger than the vertical fracture length. but assumed an ellipsoidal drainage area.17) Giger (1984) proposed a model similar to Borisov’s. Q = w 2πK L∆P /( µB) h w ⎡ 2⎤ ⎢1 + 1 − [ L /(2 Re )] ⎥ ( L / H ) ln ⎢ ⎥ + ln[ H /(2πRw )] L /(2 R ) e ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (1. 13 .19) where a is the semi-major axis of the drainage ellipse. Q = w 2πK H∆P /( µB) h w ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ βH ⎜ ln ⎜ 2a + 4a − L ⎟ + ( ) ln[βH /(2 R )] ⎟ ⎜ w L L ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ (1. he presented the equation below: 2πK H∆P /( µB ) h w Q = w ln(4 R / L) + ( H / L) ln[ H /( 2πR )] e w where R is the drainage radius of the horizontal well. e (1. The model was modified to take into account the influence of the horizontal well eccentricity from the vertical center of reservoir and the anisotropy of horizontal to vertical permeability.18) Joshi (1988) developed a model with elliptical flow in the horizontal plane and radial flow in the vertical plane.

25 + (2 Re / L) 4 and β is the permeability anisotropic factor (1.) is the inverse hyperbolic cosine function.a = ( L / 2) 0.22) where X = 2a / L .19). using three dimensional drainage model. cosh −1 (.20) β= K K h v (1.23) Lu (2001.5 + 0. Lu also obtained the conclusion that the equipotential 14 .21) Renard (1991) modified the steady state equation to include the effective wellbore radius. a is the same as state in Equation (1. The well drainage volume was assumed to be an infinite parallel slab or a circular cylinder with no-flow or constant pressure boundaries at top. 2003) developed steady state productivity equations for horizontal wells. bottom and the lateral sides. 2πK H∆P /( µB) h w Q = w βH cosh − 1( X ) + ( ) ln[H /(2πR 'w )] L (1. and effective wellbore radius is ' Rw =( 1+ β ) Rw 2β (1.

Babu and Odeh (1989) constructed a pseudo-steady state productivity model. which takes the same form as the well-known productivity equation for a vertical well.28(a / h) K / K [ 1 − 0 + ( 0 ) 2 ] H z x 3 a a − ln[sin(πz / h)] − 0. C H is geometric factor defined by ln C x x = 6.24) where A is drainage area.5 ln[(a / h) K / K ] − 1.75 + S ps w (1. Expressions for shape factor and partial penetration skin were derived by suitably simplifying and reducing their original solution of the boundary value problem with no-flow boundaries at top. which is equal to b . bottom and the sides. Their equation is below: Q 2πb K x K z ( P − P ) /( µB) a w =F w D ln( A1 / 2 / R ) + ln(C H ) − 0.088 0 z x (1. the horizontal well is parallel to the boxshaped reservoir width ( in y direction). S ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.surfaces of a horizontal well uniform line sink in three dimensional space with isotropic permeability are a family of ellipsoids of revolution whose focuses are the two end points of the horizontal well.25) 15 . Lu’s steady state equations will be introduced in Chapter Six.

26) (1.27) K eq =3K K K x y z =y K w eq K y x weq =x K w eq K x y weq z weq =z K w (1.28) eq K z 16 . and their applicability is restricted to the ranges of reservoir dimensions and well penetration ratio simulated. Helmy and Watenburger (1998) proposed pseudo-steady state productivity models in a box-shaped bounded reservoir. Their equation is below: 2πb 3 K K K ( P − P ) /( µB ) eq x y z a w Q =F w D 0.0 ln[sin( h h eq eq (1.56( ) ]( ) A h a a eq eq eq πz a eq weq )] + ln( ) + 2. x0 is x coordinate of center of the well.5 ln C + S eq weq A ps where a x x weq 2 eq weq ln C = 4.187 − 12.485 − [4. Using the numerical simulation results. Correlations for shape factors and partial penetration skins were developed using nonlinear regression. z 0 is z coordinate of center of the well.56( ) + 12.5 ln[4 A /(γR 2 )] − 0.where a is the extension of the drainage volume in direction.

h are reservoir length. and Prats (1999) gave a buildup solution in a system with multiple wells producing at constant wellbore pressures. 1. respectively. The and a. Marhaendrajana and Blasingame (2001) presented a solution and associated analysis methodology to evaluate single well performance behavior in a multiple wells reservoir system.30) thickness.a eq =a K eq K x b =b eq K eq K y h =h eq K eq K z (1. which is equal to b .29) and r = [( K / K )1 / 4 + ( K / K )1 / 4 ]r / 2 weq x z z x w (1. 17 . Ozkan.4 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Multiple Wells System The performance of multiple wells system has received attention in the last decade. width. Camacho-V. horizontal well is parallel to the box-shaped reservoir width ( in y direction). Umnuayponwiwat. b. Galindo-N. and Raghavan (2000) presented equations of pressure transient behavior and inflow performance of multiple vertical and horizontal wells in closed systems.

Ge (1982) introduced a steady state productivity equation for a symmetric two-well system in a uniform thickness isotropic circular cylinder reservoir.1 - Symmetric Two-Well System 18 . such that the flow rates are equivalent. The steady state productivity for each well is Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) e w ln[( R 4 − R 4 ) /(2 R R R 2 )] e w 0 e 0 (1. The outer boundary pressure ( P ) is assumed to e be constant during production. as shown in Figure 1. the wellbore radii and flowing bottomhole pressures are identical. The two wells are located at equal distance from the center of the circular system.31) Y Re Well 2 O R0 R0 Well 1 X Figure 1.1.

y . are considered wj constant. the wellbore radii. porosity. and no-flow outer boundaries. Figure 1. 0) . They consider a rectangular homogeneous reservoir of uniform thickness. x D D wDj wDj eD (y2 + y2 ) 1 yD D wDj = (2πy )[ − + ] eD 3 y 2 ) ( 2 y eD eD ∞ t m cos(mπx D ) cos(mπx wDj ) + 2π ∑ m m =1 and (1. Doublet and Blasingame (2000) presented pseudo-steady state productivity index for multiple wells producing from a closed isotropic rectangular reservoir. y . n. the pressure at the point ( x. ( x .y . their locations ( x wj . y . 0) . In any given time interval. with n production wells. y ) .y ) a( x .y wj ) .2 shows a schematic of the reservoir. k . x . h . y ) is µB n P ( x. y ) and (0.Valko. permeability.33) 19 . φ .y ) a D D wDj wDj eD 2πkh j = 1 j where (1. The four corner points of the rectangle are located at (0. y ) = P − ( ) ∑ Q × a( x . r . By superposition principle.32) . the number of e e e e wells. for the n-well system. ( x .

2 . P is the e D e a average reservoir pressure in the rectangular drainage domain. Doublet and Blasingame .cosh[mπ ( y − | y − y |)] + cosh{mπ [ y − ( y + y )]} eD D wDj eD D wDj t = m sinh(mπy ) eD with x (1. 2000) 20 . Figure 1.34) D = x / x and y = y / y .Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir (after Valko. Q j is the flow rate of jth well.

y ) j wDi wDi wDi wDj wDj eD j =1 +S Q ] i i (1.y .For a point located at the circumference of well i and taking into account the drop in pressure due to mechnical skin factor. or in a circular reservoir under steady state and pseudo-steady state. there holds µB P = P −( ) w.x .35) No productivity equations are available in the literature for multiple wells arbitrarily located in a rectangular reservoir under steady state. The procedure of calculating multiple wells productivity index will be introduced in Chapter 7 and Chapter 8.y . 21 . i a 2πkh n × [ ∑ Q × a( x +r .

The reservoir is with finite uniform thickness H . Fluid properties are independent of pressure. of small and constant compressibility C . If i the reservoir has constant pressure boundaries (edge water. gas cap. Gravity forces are neglected. At time t = 0. RESERVOIR AND WELL MODELS The primary goal of this chapter is to introduce various reservoir and well models in this study. For vertical well and horizontal well in any reservoir model.2. the following assumptions are made: 1. 2. A single phase fluid. and formation volume factor B . the producing well length is L pr . the pressure is equal to the initial value at such boundaries during production. flows from the reservoir to the well. the drilled well length is L . equal to the initial pressure P . 22 . w 3. pressure is uniformly distributed in the reservoir. constant f viscosity µ . bottom water). Every well is taken as a uniform line sink. and the wellbore radius is R .

The origin of the downward z direction coordinates is at the top boundary where z = 0 . Edge water. then for the upper and lower boundaries. gas cap and bottom water are taken as constant pressure boundaries.1) In order to simplify the problem of fluid flow into wellbore.2) Every reservoir is assumed to have finite uniform thickness H . P| t=0 =P i (2. multiphase flow effects are ignored. edge water. the pressure at these boundaries is assumed to be constant and equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production. P =P e i (2. we have the following equations: 23 . bottom water. There is no water encroachment or water/gas coning.4. the reservoir pressure is initial constant. gas cap are taken as constant pressure outer boundaries. For any type of reservoir .

3) If the reservoir is with impermeable boundary at z = H .. the reservoir has bottom water drive. i ∂P | =0 ∂z z = H (2. the reservoir has gas cap drive.e.4) If the reservoir is with impermeable boundary at z = 0 . i. e..constant pressure boundary at z = H . P| =P i z=H i (2. then ∂P | = 0.5) If the reservoir is with top and bottom constant pressure boundaries. the reservoir has both gas cap drive and bottom water drive. the reservoir does not have gas cap drive or bottom water drive.g.g. ∂z z = 0 ∂P | =0 ∂z z = H (2. e.constant pressure boundary at z = 0 .If the reservoir is with top and bottom impermeable boundaries.6) 24 . i ∂P | =0 ∂z z = 0 (2. then P| z=0 =P. i. the boundaries at z = 0 and z = H are both constant pressure boundaries.e. e. e.g. then P| z=0 = P.g. then P| z=H =P. the boundaries at z = 0 and z = H are both impermeable.

which drains a circular cylinder reservoir with height H and radius R .1 is a schematic of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well with length L . and the well is parallel to the z direction with a producing length L pr ≤H. The production occurs e through a horizontal well of radius R and length L . w above the bottom of the 25 .1 Circular Cylinder Reservoir Model Figure 2. represented in the w model by a uniform line sink located a height Z reservoir.2. and the off-center distance is R . R0 Re H Figure 2.Vertical Well in a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Figure 2.2 is a schematic of a horizontal well which also drains a circular cylinder reservoir with height H and radius R .1 . (the well line is located at R e 0 0 away from the axis of symmetry of the cylindrical body).

0. Z ) . and the horizontal well producing length is L . the coordinates of the top and bottom points of the well line are ( R . Z ) . 0 0 26 . 0. H ) 1 e (2. the coordinates of the two end points are (− L L .Figure 2. 0. 0) and ( R .2 . L) .Horizontal Well in a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Assume the middle point of the horizontal well is the center of the drainage circle. 0.7) For a partially penetrating vertical well. Z ) and ( . In this case. 0. the well is parallel to the x direction. the coordinate of the midpoint is w w 2 2 (0. w The cylindrical drainage volume is Ω = {( x 2 + y 2 ) < R 2 } × (0. respectively.

and producing well length is 0 1 0 2 L pr =L −L . y . z ) = P = P e i on cylindrical lateral surface (2. 0. L ) is the beginning point and point ( R . L ≤L≤H 2 1 pr (2. L ) . L ) and point ( R . H ) 1 e (2. then the three dimensional circular cylinder reservoir model can reduce to two dimensional circular model.10) Case 2: Impermeable lateral boundary ∂P | =0 ∂r r = R e (2. 27 . L ) is the end 0 1 0 2 point of the producing portion of the well.11) If both upper and lower boundaries are impermeable. 0. 0.8) The lateral boundary condition is shown below: Case 1: Constant pressure lateral boundary P ( x. and the vertical well is fully penetrating. The well is a uniform line sink between ( R .9) Γ = {( x 2 + y 2 ) = R 2 } × (0.Point ( R . 0.

Multiple Wells System in a Circular Reservoir Figure 2.3 is a schematic of a multiple wells system. 28 .Well n 3 2 Well 1 Figure 2.3 . a number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic circular drainage reservoir with height H and radius Re . and the jth well is located R away from the j center of the drainage circle.

2 Box-Shaped Reservoir Model Figure 2.4 is: Ω = (0. e e The box-shaped drainage volume of the partially penetrating vertical well shown in Figure 2.4 is a schematic of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well with a producing length L with height H .13) H Ye Xe Figure 2. H ) 2 e e Assuming: (2. X ) × (0.2. Y ) × (0.4 .12) X ≥Y e e (2. length X pr . .Vertical Well in a Box-Shaped Reservoir 29 . which drains a box-shaped drainage volume width Y .

L ) . Y .Horizontal Well in a Box-Shaped Reservoir 30 . respectively.14) If a vertical well is located at the center of the box-shaped drainage body. Y = Y / 2 e w e (2. 0) and w w ( X . then X w = X / 2. 0<Y <Y e w e (2.15) Figure 2.The coordinates of top and bottom well points are ( X . Y .5 . We have w w pr 0< X w < X .

b) × (0. the lateral boundary condition is shown below: Case 1: Constant pressure lateral boundary P| x=0 = P| x=X = P| e y=0 = P| y =Y e =P =P e i (2. w w 2 The box-shaped drainage domain of the horizontal well shown in Figure 2. 0.5 is a schematic of a horizontal well which drains a box-shaped reservoir with height H . and width ( y direction) 2b . a) × (−b. Z ) . Z ) .Figure 2. H ) 3 (2. the pressure at the outer boundary is always equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production.17) This case means the reservoir is with a strong edge water drive. 0. 31 .5 is Ω = (−a.16) For vertical wells. length ( x direction) 2a . The well is parallel to the x direction with a length L ≤ 2a . the coordinate of the midpoint is (0. Z ) and w 2 L ( . the coordinates of the two end points of the uniform line sink are (− L . 0.

This case means all the boundaries of the box-shaped drainage volume are sealed. Figure 2. then the three dimensional box-shaped reservoir model can reduce to two dimensional rectangular model.Case 2: Impermeable lateral boundary ∂P | = 0 ∂N Γ ∂N (2. width ( y direction ) Y .Y ).6. and the jth well e e is located ( X wj . a number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic rectangular reservoir with height H .7 is a schematic of a multiple wells system. wj 32 . If both upper and lower boundaries are impermeable. and the vertical well is fully penetrating. length ( x direction) X .18) where ∂P |Γ is the exterior normal derivative of pressure on the surface of box-shaped drainage domain. as shown in Figure 2.

Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir 33 .7 .Figure 2.6 .Fully Penetrating Vertical Well in a Rectangular Reservoir Well n Ye Well 1 Xe Figure 2.

8 shows.3 Sector Fault Reservoir Model Figure 2. the wellbore location angle is θ .2. a fully penetrating vertical well is in a sector drainage area Ω = {( R . Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } 4 e (2.19) 34 .8 is a schematic of a fully penetrating vertical well which drains a sector fault reservoir with height H and radius R . w A Re O Φ R0 φw B Figure 2. The vertical well is located at R away from 0 the vertex of the angle of the sector. both upper and lower e boundaries are impermeable.8 .Vertical Well in a Sector Fault Reservoir As Figure 2.

20) where ∂P | are the exterior normal derivatives of pressure on the ∂N OA. which is greater than or equal to unity. during production. =P =P P| e i r=R e (2.22) 35 . the pressure at outer boundary is always equal to initial reservoir pressure Pi .where τ is an arbitrary real number. The fully penetrating vertical well is in a channel drainage domain below: Ω = (−∞. ∂N OA ∂P | = 0 ∂N OB (2. ∞) × (0.4 Channel Reservoir Model Figure 2. Y ) 5 e (2.21) 2. OB two sides of angle of the sector area. The outer boundary is with edge water.9 is a schematic of a fully penetrating vertical well which drains a channel reservoir with infinite extension in x direction. The two sides of the angle are impermeable. ∂P | = 0.

9 . ∂y y = 0 ∂P | =0 ∂y y = Ye (2.23) The channel reservoir is infinite in x direction.Vertical Well in a Channel Reservoir Two parallel impermeable lateral boundaries are in y direction. and the pressure remains constant and equal to the initial value at an infinite distance in x direction: P( x) | x → ±∞ =P i (2.24) 36 .Yw Ye Figure 2. ∂P | = 0.

in order to obtain point convergence at ( x . we have to obtain the basic solution of the 0 0 0 diffusivity equation below: ∂2P + K ∂2P + K ∂2P x y z ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂x 2 = φµ C ∂ P + µ qB δ ( x − x ) δ ( y − y ) δ ( z − z ) 0 0 0 t ∂t K (2.2. z ) . then ∂P =0 ∂t (2. then using superposition principle.26) 37 . y . z ) is on the producing portion of 0 0 0 the wellbore. y . and its point convergence intensity is q . uniform line sink solutions are obtained. point sink solutions are first obtained by the orthogonal decompositions of Dirac δ function under different boundary conditions. Suppose the point ( x .5 Mathematical Model In order to obtain productivity equations under different boundary conditions for various reservoir models.25) If in steady state.

in order to solve Equation (2. and r K = K = K h = K r .28) The relationship between total flow rate Q intensity q is below: w and point convergence Q = qL w prD where L (2. define average permeability K a as follows: (2. which will prD be introduced later. we assume horizontal permeability K h is equal to radial permeability K .30) K = K 2 / 3K1 / 3 a r v and define the following dimensionless variables: 38 . the vertical permeability and horizontal permeability are respectively: K =K v z K = ( K K )1 / 2 h x y (2.For any reservoir model. For circular cylinder reservoirs and sector fault reservoirs.25) in a dimensionless x y isotropic drainage domain.27) (2.29) is dimensionless producing length of the wellbore.

32) R eD =( K e ) a L K ref r R R 0D =( K 0 ) a L K ref r R (2.34) R wD =( K w )( v )1 / 6 K L r ref R (2. L D =( L L ref K ) K a v (2.37) 39 .33) For a vertical well.36) R R K K K = ( v )1 / 6 [( r )1 / 4 + ( v )1 / 4 ]( w ) wD 2L K K K ref r v r (2.x D =( x L ref K ) K a r y D =( y L ref K ) K a r z D =( z L ref K ) K a v (2.31) H D =( H L ref K ) K a v Z wD =( K w ) a L K ref v Z (2.35) For a horizontal well. L D =( L L ref K ) K a r (2.

25) in a dimensionless isotropic drainage domain.38) and define the following dimensionless variables =( x L ref X K ) K x a x D y D =( y L ref K ) K a y z D =( z L ref K ) K a z (2.44) 40 .40) X eD =( K a e ) K L x ref H K ) K a z K Y a Y =( e ) eD K L y ref K w ) a L K ref z Z (2.For box-shaped reservoirs and channel reservoirs. in order to solve Equation (2.39) X wD =( K a w ) K L x ref X Y wD =( K a w ) K L y ref Y (2.43) K z )1 / 6 R =( wD K K x y y 1 / 4 Rw ) ]( ) × [( x )1 / 4 + ( 2L K K ref x y K K (2. L D =( L L ref K ) K a z (2. define average permeability K K = ( K K K )1 / 3 a x y z a as follows: (2.42) For a vertical well.41) H D =( L Z ref wD =( (2.

length. and L ref pr e is a reference Based on the works of Muskat (1949).(2. then L L ref K ) K a x L D =( (2.45) K z )1 / 6 R =( wD K K x y R y 1/ 4 × [( + ( z )1 / 4 ]( w ) ) K K 2L z y ref K K (2.For a horizontal well.35). L . etc.46) In the above definitions of dimensionless variables.46). Brigham (1990). Besson (1990) and Peaceman (1991). (2.44) and (2.48) 41 . L ref could be H . wD The dimensionless time and dimensionless pressure are defined below: t = K t a φµC L2 t ref D (2.47) P = D K L ( P − P) a ref i µqB (2. R . assume the well length is parallel to x direction.37). we define the dimensionless effective wellbore radius R in Equations (2.

Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long time performance behavior of a well. the productivity equations for a uniform link sink in steady state and pseudo-steady state are obtained. The main steps of derivations of productivity equations for vertical wells are in the appendices of this study. that is. the behavior during pseudosteady state or steady state flow. Equation (2.49) Solving Equation (2. steady state flow can occur only if the flow across the drainage boundary is equal to the flow across the wellbore wall at well 42 . Strictly speaking.25) could be changed into the following dimensionless form: ∂P ∂2P ∂2P ∂2P D −( D + D + D ) 2 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z D D D D )δ ( y − y )δ ( z − z ) = δ (x − x 0D 0D 0D D D D (2. point sink solutions are obtained for various reservoir models.49) by the orthogonal decompositions of Dirac function under different boundary conditions.Using the above dimensionless variables. then using superposition principle.

and the fluid properties remain constant throughout the reservoir (Tiab and Donaldson. 2004). such as a circular cylinder reservoir. a box-shaped reservoir. if all the reservoir boundaries are impermeable. In such cases. in petroleum reservoirs produced by a strong water drive. And it must be pointed out that for a finite size ( finite drainage volume) reservoir. whereby the water influx rate at outer boundary is equal to the well producing rate. the assumption of steady state is acceptable. These conditions may never be met in a reservoir. the pressure change with time is so slight that it is practically undetectable. however. and the wellbore pressure must decline at the same rate as the average reservoir pressure (Tiab and Donaldson. 43 . 2004). then the pseudo-steady state can be reached. and the the well is produced at a constant flow rate for a long time.radius.

and has constant pressure lateral boundary. This chapter also studies the effects of some critical parameters on well productivity. This chapter also gives equations for calculating pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.1) 44 . An equation is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic circular reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well. 3. which has both impermeable top and bottom boundaries. for arbitrary position of the well within the reservoir. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR The primary goal of this chapter is to present steady state and pseudosteady state productivity equations for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage reservoir.3. then the productivity equation in steady state is below (Lu and Tiab.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State If an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage volume. 2008): Q =F w D 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w 2 2 ln[( R − R ) /( R R )] + S eD 0D eD wD ps (3.

All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.3) and N = Int[( H D ) ln( D )] + 1 2πR R wD wD H (3. For a centered well.2) where S ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. 45 . then Equation (3. Equation (1.4) HD HD HD HD where Int[( 2π RwD ) ln( RwD )] is the integer part of [( 2πRwD ) ln( RwD )] .1). 8H 2 N D ) ∑ {( 1 ) K [( nπ ) R ] S =( 0 H wD ps π 2 L2 n2 1 n = D prD nπL nπ ( L + L ) prD 2 1D 2 D ]} ) cos 2 [ × sin ( 2H 2H D D (3. R = 0 .6) is only applicable to fully penetrating off-center vertical well in an isotropic circular drainage reservoir.1) reduces to 0 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w Q =F w D ln( R / R )+S eD wD ps (3.As a special case of Equation (3.

e. and if the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir. and 0 Equation (1.4).5). then (Lu and Tiab. the well is at the center of the cylindrical body = R / R . (3.2) reduces to R /R eD wD e w If the reservoir has an impermeable bottom boundary and a constant pressure top boundary (gas cap).5) N (2n − 1)π 1 ]R } K {[ Θ = ∑ 1 wD 2 0 2H n = 1 (2n − 1) D (2n − 1)πL (2n − 1)π ( L + L ) prD 1D 2D ] ] sin 2 [ × sin 2[ 4H 4H D D and N has the same meaning as in Equation (3.6) If the reservoir has an impermeable top boundary and a constant pressure bottom boundary (bottom water). K =K =K =K. then pr e i S ps =0. a r v ( R = 0 ). 2008): Q =F w D where π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB) r pr i w 16 HΘ 1 (3. if the vertical well is fully penetrating. i. 2008): 46 . then Equation (3.Note that P = P . L = L = H . then (Lu and Tiab.

Q =F w D where π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB) r pr i w 16 HΘ 2 (3. then (Lu and Tiab. (3. we 47 . 2008): Q =F w D where π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB) r pr i w 4 HΘ 3 (3.5).9).10) It is important to emphasize that the dimensionless drainage radius ReD does not show up in Equations (3.7) and (3.7) N (2n − 1)π 1 ]R } K {[ Θ = ∑ 2 0 wD 2 2 H n = 1 (2n − 1) D (2n − 1)πL (2n − 1)π ( L + L ) prD 2 1D 2D ] ] cos 2 [ × sin [ 4H 4H D D (3. In order to compare the effects of different drive mechanisms on the well productivity.9) N ] Θ = ∑ ( 1 ) K [( nπ ) R 3 wD 2 0 H n n =1 D nπL nπ ( L + L ) prD 1D 2D ] ) sin 2[ × sin 2 ( 2H 2H D D (3.8) If the reservoir has constant pressure from both top and bottom boundaries (gas cap and bottom water).

7).7) and (3.2).5).11) where.11) are applicable to both constant pressure lateral boundary and impermeable lateral boundary. for Equation (3. we obtain 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w Q =F w D ln( R / R )+S eD wD ps (3.9): =( R 8Θ 3 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) R π 2 L2 wD pr S ps (3. 48 .5): R 32Θ1 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) S =( ps R π 2 L2 wD pr (3. (3. (3.13) for Equation (3.7): =( R 32Θ 2 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) R π 2 L2 wD pr S ps (3.9) after the form of Equation (3. (3.9) and (3.14) It must be pointed out that Equations (3.12) for Equation (3.rearrange Equations (3.5).

1 2 Solution: The calculation results are given in Table 3. Lpr Wellbore Radius. L = 55 m . R0 Drainage Radius. µ Formation Volume Factor. Re Payzone Thickness. ∆P Well Producing Length. The well is an off-center well.0 mPa. Rw Well Off-Center Distance. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are 0 given in Table 3. respectively.1: Calculate well flow rates in steady state under different top and bottom boundary conditions in a circular cylinder drainage volume. R = 300 m .Example 3. The reservoir is a homogeneous.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3. 49 .0 MPa 40 m 0.1 m 300 m 600 m 60 m 0.1 .1 µm2 2.3. H Permeability.1. K Oil Viscosity.2 and Table 3.5 Rm3/Sm3 And assume the z coordinates of the beginning point and the end point on the producing well length are L = 15 m .s 1. B 5. Table 3.1 Pressure Drop. isotropic reservoir.

respectively.14).13) and (3.13) Equation (3.2 shows that significant differences among the well flow rates calculated by Equations (3.1 Method Equation (3. which reflect the effects of constant pressure top or bottom boundaries.9).30 -0.7) and (3.21 Sm3/D Table 3.1).3 .9) Expected Productivity 512.9) Equation (1.98 2.9). Negative values of pseudo skin factors are obtained from Equations (3.62 Sm3/D 682.00 Table 3.1 Method Equation (1.07 2.Table 3. (1.44 Sm3/D 705.50 Sm3/D 646. because these equations are applicable to different top and bottom boundaries.75 -1.2 .Expected Productivity for Example 3. (3.3 shows that all the pseudo skin factors calculated by Equations (1.5).18 -0.7) Equation (3. (3.Pseudo Skin Factor for Example 3. 50 .13) and (3. because all the three equations are for a reservoir with both impermeable top and bottom boundaries.14) Pseudo Skin Factor 1.12). Table 3.1) Equation (3.5) Equation (3. (3.3) Equation (3.13) Equation (3.12) Equation (3.3) are positive.

It must be emphasized that S ps in Equation (3. (3. are applicable to both constant pressure lateral boundary (edge water) reservoirs and impermeable lateral 51 .13) and (3. the lateral boundary has little influence on productivity.9). thus R and R do not 0 eD 0D show up in Equations (3. respectively. (3.3) is only applicable to the case with impermeable top and bottom boundary condition Equation (2.3). The performance is the same for a centered well and an off-center well.7) and (3.14) are obtained by rearranging the original productivity equations (3.5). (3. (3.5). The effects of drainage radius R and off-center e distance R on productivity are negligible.2). S ps in Equations (3. ( H << R ) and if the reservoir has gas cap e D eD or bottom water which provides the main drive mechanism. which are the original forms of productivity equations for a reservoir that has gas cap or bottom water.9). but S ps in these equations are still taken as pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.9) after the form of Equation (3. The well is producing as if the reservoir is infinite.5). The pay zone thickness H is very small compared with the circular cylinder drainage radius R . Equations (3. even for the case of an edge water boundary (constant pressure outer boundary).12).7) and (3. Therefore.7) and (3.

3) and (2. 3. are applicable to both centered and off-center wells. then R and R eD 0D play an important role in well productivity.boundary reservoirs.16) 52 . (3.9).7) and (3.15) R3 eD ] Λ = ln[ 1 (R 2 − R 2 − R R ) R 0D 0 D wD wD eD +R R wD ) 2 − 3 + 1 ( oD 2 R 4 eD (3. as indicated by Equation (3. 2008): Q =F w D where 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w S +Λ 1 ps (3. If both top and bottom boundaries are impermeable. and Equations (3. the well productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a sealed circular cylinder drainage volume under pseudo-steady state can be calculated below (Lu and Tiab.2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo .Steady State If the boundary conditions are stated as Equations (2.11).1).5).

18) Q =F w D 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w ln( R / R ) + 1 (R / R )2 − 3 / 4 + S eD wD 2 wD eD ps (3.15) reduces to (3.and S ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration and it has the same meaning as in Equation (3.15) reduces to pr = L = H . then S ps = 0 . P is the average reservoir pressure a throughout the circular cylinder drainage volume. 1 If the well is located at the center of drainage volume R = 0 .16).3). fully penetrating well. then Λ 0 1 reduces to R R 3 Λ = ln( eD ) + 1 ( wD ) 2 − 1 2 R R 4 eD wD then Equation (3.19) For a centered. S ps = 0 and note that 53 . L (3. and Equation Q =F w D 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Λ 1 (3.17) where Λ has the same meaning as in Equation (3. For a fully penetrating well.

Example 3. L = 55 m . eD wD e w Therefore the productivity of a vertical well in pseudo-steady state in a circular cylinder drainage volume can be calculated by Equations (3.15). 54 . K = K = K = K .0 MPa. then Equation (3.e. and a r v R /R = R / R .20) 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Q =F w D ln( R / R ) −3/ 4 eD wD (3.21) reduces to Equation (1.21). 1 2 respectively. (3. wD eD wD eD thus (3.R << R .17). i. Reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as in Table 3.19) and (3.1. ( R / R ) 2 ≈ 0. (3. Assume the z coordinates of the beginning point 0 and the end point on the well producing length are L = 15 m.2: Calculate well flow rate in pseudo-steady state in a sealed circular cylinder drainage volume if the pressure drop is 5.7). The off-center distance is R = 300 m .21) and if the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir.

00167nπ ) 0 ps π 2 × 0. and letting L = H .1 = 611 N = Int[( H Thus S 611 ) ∑ {( 1 ) K (0.18 =( 8 × 12 55 .25. then ref = H / H = 1.6667 nπ ) cos 2 [ ]} 2 ×1 2 ×1 = 2.1 0.1 / 60 = 0.9167 1D 1 2D 2 L = L / H = 40 / 60 = 0.9167) × sin 2 ( 0. L = L / H = 55 / 60 = 0. R = R / H = 300 / 60 = 5 eD e 0D 0 H D H D ) ln( D ) + 1 2πR R wD wD = Int[( H ) ln( H ) + 1 2πR R w w = Int[( 60 ) ln( 60 )] + 1 2π × 0. L = L / H = 15 / 60 = 0.6667 2 n = 1 n 2 nπ (0.25 + 0.00167 prD pr wD w R = R / H = 600 / 60 = 10. R = R / H = 0. then K =K =K a r v K / K = K / K =1 a v a r Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.Solution: We have L pr = L − L = 40 m 2 1 L + L = 70 m 2 1 Because the reservoir is isotropic.6667.

00167) + 1 ( 5 + 0.86 × 0.18 + 8.5) = 2.17) is a special case of Equation (3.86 KH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w w S +Λ ps 1 542.90 ( Sm 3 / D) = 3.15) can be used to calculate productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state and located anywhere in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir.1 × 60 × 5 /( 2 × 1.75 10 2 = 8. Equation (3.00167(10 2 − 52 − 5 × 0.Λ = ln[ 1 103 ] 0.15) and is only applicable to a fully penetrating vertical well.16) for an off-center fully penetrating vertical well in an isotropic circular reservoir. 56 .00167 ) 2 − 0.36 = 514. Temeng and Horne (1984) provided an equation to calculate the shape factor C A in Equation (1.36 The well flow rate is Q 542.3 Shape Factors Calculation Equation (3.

17). C = A 2. for a given ζ .22) then Temeng and Horne’s equation can be expressed as C = (1 − ζ 2 ) 2 exp(3.454 − 2ζ 2 ) A (3.4 . Table 3. a proposed equation is presented below to calculate the shape factor C for an isotropic circular reservoir.24).4 is obtained for a well with different off-center ratios in an isotropic circular reservoir. 57 .23) and Equation (3.24) where ζ has the same meaning as in Equation (3. it can be found that when ζ ≥ 0.2458π (1 − ζ 2 ) 2 exp(ζ 2 − 3 / 2) A (3. there exist significant differences between the shape factors calculated by Equation (3. and combining with Equation (1.22). From Table 3.Define the off-center ratio below: ζ = 0 R e R (3.23) By rearranging Equation (3.4.16).

8 0.1608 0.9062 21.3055 3.5078 It must be pointed out that C A does not have too much influence on is in the logarithmic function in productivity index ( PI ). because it does not require the shape factor.6825 27.9984 23.7 0.0360 5. PI is a weak function of C .6266 30.0 0.0873 1.0385 2.5 0.9309 19.7902 6.8758 16.8520 9.16).0123 13. because C A Equation (1.9 Shape Factor (Temeng and Horne) 31.1 0.Shape Factors with Different Off-Center Ratios Off-Center Ratio ζ 0. 58 .2046 10.6200 30.4 .3835 26.Table 3.3 0.4 0.2259 Shape Factor ( This Study ) 31.1396 0. and it is applicable to an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir.2 0.15) is recommended to calculate productivity index.6 0. A Equation (3.

5 . reservoir size on productivity index under different boundary conditions. Example 3.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.5.7) and (3. Fluid properties. 59 . Assume the reservoir is with edge water.5 Rm3/Sm3 Solution: (1) Effect of payzone thickness on PI . well producing portion location. reservoir radius are given in Table 3. permeabilities.5).2).0 mPa.1 m 500 m 5. Re Oil Viscosity.s 1. B 0. µ Formation Volume Factor.4 Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI In this part. Table 3.9) to investigate the effects of payzone thickness. (3. we study the effects of some critical parameters on productivity index of a vertical well in a circular cylinder reservoir in steady state. (3. Rw Reservoir Radius.3. well length. wellbore radius.3 Wellbore Radius.3: Using Equations (3.

1 µm 2 .9) with the following constant parameters: L = 5 m.720 28. K = 0.863 23.7) 28. (3. (3.049 28. For a given H .834 28.5).8) and (3.742 24.788 28. because Equation (3.9) decreases slowly with increasing H .694 24. K = 0. the PI calculated by Equation (3.497 26.025 µm 2 pr r v 1 2 2 1 Table 3.959 26. because if the locations of L1 and L2 are fixed.6 and Figure 3.230 26. (3.194 24.7) and (3.525 28. the bottom water boundary is farther away when H increases.055 28.697 28.520 24.649 28. PI is a weak function of H. L = L − L = 20 m.772 Table 3. for a given well producing length L pr .5) 28.778 28. (3.830 25.665 29.049 26.9) is for the reservoir with both gas cap drive and bottom water drive.1 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations change slowly with the increasing H .9) is the biggest among the results calculated by the four equations.Table 3.1 present the effect of payzone thickness on PI calculated by Equations (3.052 25.804 28.6 and Figure 3.2) 21.744 Eq.755 Eq.9) 29.740 28.901 25.925 25. The PI values calculated by Equations (3. L = 25 m.2).6 . (3. 60 .271 22. (3.897 28.732 28.017 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well H (m) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Eq.

K = 0.025 µm 2 2 1 r v 61 . K = 0. L pr = L − L = 30 m.1 . Table 3.1 µm 2 . with the following constant parameters: H = 70 m.Figure 3.2 present the effect of the location of well producing portion on PI .Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well (2) Effect of the location of well producing portion on PI .7 and Figure 3.

662 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.858 38.398 40.858 39.Table 3.536 The values of PI will increase slowly when the distance between the well producing portion and gap cap or bottom water decreases.618 39.113 33.417 37. if we ignore water 62 . (3. because the smaller the distance from constant pressure boundary such as gas cap or bottom water.9) 40.900 40.385 34.768 Eq.220 Eq. Table 3.Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well L1 (m) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 L2 (m) 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Eq.985 38.398 38. encroachment or water/gas coning. (3.2) 33.417 38.220 39. (3.985 37.7 and Figure 3.618 39.2 show that the location of well producing portion does not have significant effect on PI .322 34.483 37.7 . the well should be located at the middle of the pay zone if the reservoir has neither gas cap drive nor bottom water drive.322 34. (3.768 37.7) 36.662 34.536 39.5) 40.535 39. For maximum PI .900 39.483 36. the stronger the driving force.113 34.

K = 0.8 and Figure 3. Table 3.1 µm 2 .025 µm 2 pr 2 1 1 r v 63 .3 present the effect of well producing length on PI . L = 10 m. K = 0.2 . L = L − L .Figure 3.Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well (3) Effect of well producing length on PI . with the following constant parameters: H = 100 m.

the PI pr . When L is fixed.332 76.771 47.705 50.241 67. because Equation (3. 1 the bigger L pr .047 Eq.198 Table 3.590 82.550 50.052 89.675 108.412 83.384 Eq. 64 .8 and Figure 3.400 60.Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well Lpr (m) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Eq.313 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.9) 28.519 78.164 96.9) is for the reservoir with both gas cap drive and bottom water drive.819 80.8 .240 36.307 94.Table 3.211 39.041 57. (3.457 35. which introduces stronger driving force.164 102.818 70. PI is a strong function of L pr .122 61.2) 25.340 89.379 53.163 39.5) 28. For a given L pr calculated by Equation (3.197 44.9) is the biggest among the results calculated by the four equations. (3.454 69.3 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations increase rapidly with increasing L thickness H . (3.634 72. the smaller the distance between the well producing portion and bottom water.7) 26. (3. for a given reservoir .784 61.

L pr = L − L = 30 m. Table 3.025 µm 2 2 1 1 2 v 65 . L = 15 m. L = 45 m.3 . with the following constant parameters: H = 50 m.4 present the effect of radial permeability on PI .Figure 3.Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well (4) Effect of radial permeability on PI .9 and Figure 3. K = 0.

7) 10.224 316.7).664 340.500 0.303 When we use Equation (3.407 97.200 0.410 155.459 117.526 377.292 247.800 0. This is the reason why for a given K . (3.028 192.811 Eq.658 Eq.535 Eq. (3.656 213.763 230.900 1.050 0.170 130.666 39. (3. 66 .382 187.Table 3.938 31.400 0.775 20.295 260.5). but when we use Equation (3. the distance between the well producing portion and gas cap is 15 m .922 224.279 263.389 196. (3.544 114.7).4 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations increase rapidly with the increasing K .830 73.9 .977 64.071 21.554 350.300 0.100 0.622 151.9 and Figure 3.606 108. r the PI calculated by Equation (3.666 332.630 266.2) 7.929 79.922 297.5) 10.000 2 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq. PI is a strong function r of K .677 331.913 77. the distance between the well producing portion and bottom water is only 5 m .551 37.704 303.9) 11.703 368.416 229.181 163.535 296.211 40.5) is smaller than that calculated by Equation (3.700 0.Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Kr (µm ) 0.025 0.808 282.978 15.868 178.600 0.170 19.882 143. r Table 3.

with the following constant parameters: H = 50 m.Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well (5) Effect of vertical permeability on PI . K = 0. L = 45 m.5 present the effect of vertical permeability on PI .Figure 3.10 and Figure 3.1 µm 2 2 1 1 2 r 67 . L = 15 m.4 . Table 3. L pr = L − L = 30 m.

740 51.877 31.045 49.991 45.607 51.2).950 50.Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Kv (µm ) 0.618 49.754 32.9) increase faster than that calculated by Equation (3.9) 40.238 49. and (3. v (6) Effect of reservoir size on PI . so the effect of vertical permeability K on PI is more pronounced. (3. with the following constant parameters: 68 .023 Eq. if the reservoir has gas cap or bottom water.254 32.7). Table 3.2) 31.550 52.600 0. (3.615 48.952 46.649 32.099 45.6 present the effect of reservoir size on PI .025 0.5).5 show that PI is a weak function of vertical permeability K .729 47.148 Eq.7) 39.680 42.087 32. the PI values calculated by v v Equations (3.10 . (3.912 32. This is due to the fact that for a partially penetrating vertical well.5) 37.724 Eq.800 0. (3.285 46.457 52.100 0.830 39.10 and Figure 3.101 40.421 44.532 32.300 0.510 Table 3.940 33.064 49.393 53.900 1.11 and Figure 3.400 0.200 0.929 42.302 46.331 43.834 48.000 2 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.050 0.500 0.977 31.524 50. (3.114 52.058 45.402 32. the main driving force comes from the vertical direction. When K increases.913 41.859 54.Table 3.637 43.157 53.420 48.851 32.700 0.045 48.

1 µm 2 .11 and Figure 3. L = 15 m 2 1 1 L = 45 m. 69 .025 µm 2 2 r v pr Figure 3.5 . the PI decreases slowly with the increasing R if the reservoir e has neither gas cap nor bottom water. K = 0.Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Table 3. K = 0.H = 50 m. L = L − L = 30 m.6 show that reservoir size ( reservoir radius R ) e does not have any effect on PI if the reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water.

830 37.929 40.252 31. (3.929 40.Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well 70 .6 .Table 3.913 39.830 37.913 39.913 39.913 39.470 31.913 39.017 32.913 39.830 37.710 31.054 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.913 39.783 34.929 40.830 37.830 Eq.913 39.9) 40.977 31.830 37.913 39.830 37.929 Figure 3.620 32.7) 39.830 37. (3.830 37.929 40.830 37.913 39.Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well Re (m) 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Eq.2) 37.929 40.913 39.929 40.5) 37.063 33.277 31.929 40.929 40.11.830 37.488 33.929 40.929 40.794 34.929 40.929 40.278 35. (3.913 Eq.913 39.830 37. (3.830 37.

9) 130.785 130.785 130. L pr = L − L = 20 m. (3.882 101.375 104.7) 126. (3. L = 25 m.Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well R0 (m) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Eq.650 Eq. with the following constant parameters: H = 35 m.684 100.12 and Figure 3.785 130.12 .785 130. 71 .224 101. (3.785 130.650 120. and the PI increases slowly with the increasing R if the reservoir has 0 edge water drive.650 120.785 130.650 120.1 µm 2 . 2 1 L = 5 m. K = 0.650 120.415 108.650 120. (3.785 130.12 and Figure 3.7 present the effect of off-center distance on PI .853 126.967 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.653 106.853 126. Table 3.853 126.785 130.(7) Effect of off-center distance on PI .1) 100.853 126. K = 0.650 120.853 126.025 µm 2 1 2 r v Table 3.650 120.853 126.853 126. but does not have gas cap or bottom water drive.429 103.729 102.853 Eq.5) 120.619 100.785 130.853 126.785 Table 3.7 show that the off-center distance R does not 0 have any effect on PI if the reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water.650 120.853 126.650 120.

Figure 3.Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well 72 .7 .

Steady State Assume the well producing length is equal to the drilled well length. This chapter also gives equations for calculating pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. 2008): 73 . the proposed equation is not limited to rectangles whose sides are integral ratios. L pr = L .1 Productivity Equations In Pseudo . An equation is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well. for arbitrary aspect ratio of the rectangle and for arbitrary position of the well within the rectangle. Further.4. its productivity in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by (Lu and Tiab. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR The primary goal of this chapter is to present pseudo-steady state and steady state productivity equations for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a box-shaped reservoir. 4. An off-center partially penetrating vertical well located inside a sealed box-shaped drainage volume.

3) where L 2H L L2 D prD 1 prD prD Ψ =( + )( − ) 1 3X Y 2 H 2H 2 eD eD D D (4.4) mπX M wD ) ){ ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( Ψ =( 2 X π 3Y L m = 1 m3 eD eD prD cosh[(mπH / X )(1 − 2 L / H )] mπH D eD prD D D )}} ×{ − coth( sinh(mπH / X ) X D eD eD X2 eD (4.5) 74 . =Ψ +Ψ +Ψ 1 2 3 (4.( K K )1 / 2 L ( P − P ) /( µB) x y pr a w Q =F w D Λ +S 2 Ps where (4.1) X X2 eD wD 1 Λ =( + wD ) )( − 2 6 2X 2 Y eD eD 2 X eD π (2Y +R πR ) wD wD ] | sin( wD )} − ( 1 ) ln{4 | sin[ 2π 2Y 2Y eD eD 2X (4.2) S S ps ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.

and m= 0.Ψ =( 3 π 3X H3 D Y L eD eD prD lπY M ){ ∑ cos 2 ( wD ) Y l =1 eD (4.7) lm Y eD (4. m> 0. It has been shown that in Equations (4.) are hyperbolic sine. the integer number M = 100 is sufficiently large to reach the engineering accuracy for all field practice.9) Ψ =Ψ =Ψ =0 1 2 3 75 . respectively. cosh(. All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.5) and (4. L pr = H . d =1 .8) eD For a fully penetrating vertical well.6).6) mπX M wD ) × ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( 3 X m=0 d µ eD m lm cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm prD D ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm sinh(. we obtain (4. d =1/ 2 m m µ = ( lH D )2 + ( mH X D )2 (4. hyperbolic cosine and hyperbolic cotangent function.) and coth(.) .

13) Example 4. the productivity reaches maximum value when the well is located at the center. Y = Y / 2.so S ps = 0 . K = K = K = K e w e pr x y z (4.1) to calculate productivity index of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box- 76 .11) Then Equation (4. If a fully penetrating vertical well located at the center of a sealed isotropic rectangular reservoir.e.10) 2 has the same meaning as in Equation (4. then Equation (4.10) reduces to 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w Q =F w D πX /(6Y ) − ln{4 sin[πR /(2Y )]} e e w e (4. we have X w = X / 2.2).1: Using Equation (4. X w = X /2 e Y =Y /2 w e (4. i.1) reduces to ( K K )1 / 2 L ( P − P ) /( µB ) x y pr a w Q =F w D Λ 2 where Λ (4. L = H .12) For a given well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box-shaped reservoir.

µ Formation Volume Factor.1 . Xw Well Location in y Direction. H Permeability in x Direction.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4. Ky Permeability in z Direction.shaped anisotropic reservoir. Table 4. Lpr Wellbore Radius. Yw Payzone Thickness.025)1 / 3 = 0.1 / 0.1 × 0.1 ( µm 2 ) x y z X = 200 m. Y = 20 m e e Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.0 mPa.1 m 50 m 50 m 20 m 0.025)1 / 2 = 2 D prD 77 .025µm2 5.s 1.1 Reservoir Length.4 µm2 0.1.4 × 0. we obtain ref pr L = L = (0.5 Rm3/Sm3 Solution: We have K a = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0. Kz Oil Viscosity.1 µm2 0. and letting L = L . Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4. Ye Well Producing Length. Xe Reservoir Width. Rw Well Location in x Direction. Kx Permeability in y Direction. B 200 m 200 m 10 m 0.

1 / 0.025)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 2.1 / 0.003 1 3 × 25 2 2 8 78 . 1 − 2 L / H = 0 eD eD D D D D H X D /X eD = 1 / 5. Y / L = 5 eD eD D wD /X eD =Y / Y = 1/ 4 wD eD H L /( X Y ) = 1 / 25.0075 wD Y /X = 1 / 2.1)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 20 Y = (0.1)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 5 Y = (0.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 10 eD X wD = (0.4 / 0.X eD = (0.1 / 0.0075) /( 2 × 10)] sin[π × 0.4)1 / 4 + (0.025)1 / 2 × (20 / 10) = 4 = [0.199 Ψ = ( 2 )( 1 − 1 + 1 ) = 1 / 300 = 0.1)1 / 4 ] × 0. H 3 /( X Y L ) = 4 / 25 D D eD eD D eD eD D µ lm = 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25 )−( 1 ) 2π 2 × 42 1 Λ = (2 × 2)( 1 − 1 + 2 6 2× 4 × ln{4 sin[π × (2 × 2.5 + 0.4 )]1 / 6 [(0.1 / 0.0075 /(2 × 10)]} = 1.1 / 0.1 × 0. H D /Y = 2 / 5.1 / 0.5 wD H R D = (0.025 /( 0. L / H = 1 / 2.1 /( 2 × 10) = 0.

In a given reservoir.003 + (−0.122) + (−0.1× 0. is smaller than the denominator for a fully penetrating 79 .211) = 23.2mπ ) = −0.4)1 / 2 (10) /(5 ×1.32 ( Sm3 / D / MPa) = It is interesting to find that S ps is negative in the above calculation.100 Ψ = ( 20 ) × { ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 (0.2mπ )]} sinh(0.4)(0.199 − 0.122 100 100 2 Ψ = ( 4 ) ∑ cos 2 ( lπ ){ ∑ [ ] cos 2 ( mπ ) 3 4 4 2 2 3 / 2 3 π × 25 l = 1 m = 1 (4l / 25 + m / 25) cosh(0) ×[ − coth(π 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25 )] sinh(π 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25 ) cosh(0) + (125 )[ − coth(2πl / 5)]} 3 sinh( 2 l / 5 ) π 8l = −0.5) 1× (1.25mπ ) 2 3 π3 m =1 m cosh(0) ×[ − coth(0. the denominator of Equation (4.092) = −0.092 So S ps = 0.211 and PI = Q /(∆P) w (86.1) for a partially penetrating well.

16) were provided by Dietz (1965). A successive refinement numerical procedure presented by Peaceman (1990) can calculate the shape factor of a rectangle with arbitrary aspect ratio.12) which is a special case of Equation (4. (1968) and Peaceman (1990). but productivity of the partially penetrating well still in the numerator of decreases due to smaller well producing length L Equation (4.2 Shape Factors Calculation Equation (4. the shape factor C A in Equation (1. is only applicable to a fully penetrating vertical well located at the center of a sealed isotropic box drainage volume.1). pr 4. Equation (4. Earlougher et al. 80 .1). The shape factors obtained by Dietz and Earlougher et al.1) can be used to calculate productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state and located anywhere in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir. are only applicable to rectangular shapes whose sides are integral ratios. For a rectangular reservoir.well ( S ps = 0 ).

A proposed equation is presented below to calculate the shape factor C A of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well. and f = X /Y .781.15) f f2 1 2 f = (8πf )( − + 2) 4 1 6 2 2 (4.6657 f sin 2 (πf ) 1 3 = 1 3 C = A exp( f ) γ exp( f ) 4 4 where (4.14) γ ≈ 1. Solution: We have 81 . 1 e e f = X / X = 0. 2 w e f = Y /Y 3 w e (4. 2008): 16π 2 f sin 2 (πf ) 88.2: Given: f = X / Y = 3.83 3 w e Calculate the shape factor for an isotropic rectangular reservoir. for any aspect ratio of the rectangle and for any position of the well within the rectangle (Lu and Tiab.16) Example 4. 2 w e f = Y / Y = 0. 1 e e f = X /X .47.28.

(4. the numerical method presented by Peaceman requires relatively much computational work.1).83) = exp(3.47 0.28)( − + 6 2 2 = 3.3403 Table 4.6657 × 3.2 is obtained for different locations of a well in different aspect ratios of the rectangle by four methods.14).14) are derived by solving analytically the involved three-dimensional Laplace equation.f f2 1 2 + 2) f = (8πf )( − 4 1 6 2 2 1 0. This is the reason there exist differences among the results calculated by the four methods in Table 4. It must be pointed out that even if there exist some differences among the shape factors C A calculated by different methods for a given shape.472 So 88.2 for some rectangles.12) and (4.472) = 2. The proposed equations (4.47 2 ) = (8π × 3.6657 f sin 2 (πf ) 1 3 C = A exp( f ) 4 88.28 × sin 2 (π × 0. C A 82 . Compared with Equation (4.

8828 12.Shape Factors for a Rectangular Reservoir Drainage Area Shape Shape Factor Shape Factor Shape Factor ( Dietz ) ( Earlougher et al.1116 5.5132 3.6372 0.8362 10.39 22.1146 14.1863 7.232 0.3606 30.does not have too much influence on productivity index ( PI ). because C A is in the logarithmic function in Equation (1.2 .90 4.6896 0.115 2.8374 10.2324 0.2318 0.3592 83 .5833 0.5566 21.36 30.9839 4.6892 0.2324 0.86 2.5396 2.8811 12.1778 5.13 0.16).5224 2.1573 0.6890 0.8369 10.607 0.3781 2.3346 21.111 5.1155 2. A Table 4.5224 3.3591 Shape Factor ( This Study ) 31.8369 4.5813 0.8374 4.60 10.9851 4.57 3.1573 0.3790 2.3351 21.07 3.80 4.5141 2.72 0.9187 4.1109 5.38 2.90 12.0932 4.2698 3.1158 2.0769 3.0813 3.3783 2.1162 2.1980 0. ) ( Peaceman ) 30. PI is a weak function of C .

calculate the w shape factors with respect to different values of X w /X e for the square 84 . because it does not require the shape factor. and it is applicable to an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir. Y ) in an w w isotropic square reservoir.Equation (4. If Y is always equal to Ye / 2 .1 shows a fully penetrating vertical is located at ( X .A Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circle Example 4.1 .Xw Re=Xe/2 Xe=Ye Figure 4. Xw Ye Yw Re.3: Figure 4.1) is recommended to calculate productivity index in pseudosteady state.

24) yields: 85 .17) then for the square reservoir. Solution: If Y = Ye / 2 .6657 exp[8π (1 / 6 − ω / 2 + ω 2 / 2)] (4.19) Substituting Equation (4. we use Equation (4.14) reduces to C A = 88.20) Substituting Equation (4. and calculate the corresponding shape factors for the inscribed circular reservoir.22).15).18) Recalling the off-center ratio defined in Equation (3.19) into Equation (3.23) gives: C A = [1 − (1 − 2ω ) 2 ]2 exp[3.454 − 2(1 − 2ω ) 2 ] (4. then w f = X / Y = 1.19) into Equation (3. we obtain ζ = R / R = ( R − X w ) / R = 1 − 2ω 0 e e e (4. 1 e e f = Y / Y = 0.5 3 w e Define the well location ratio below: ω= X X w e (4. Equation (4.reservoir. for the square reservoir.

05 0. 0123 23.21) 0.3 .40 . 0360 13. Table 4. 8520 19. (4. no significant differences between the values of C proposed Equation (4.3.3. 9062 30.50 Equation (4. 0873 6.20 0. 6745 10. 0385 9. 1146 Equation (4.10 0.18) 2.2259 1. 6825 31.21) Using Equations (4.2458π [1 − (1 − 2ω ) 2 ]2 exp[(1 − 2ω ) 2 − 3 / 2] (4. 1608 5.35 0. 1863 18. shape factors for the square reservoir and its inscribed circular reservoir can be calculated. 1396 3.15 0.C A = 2. The results are shown in Table 4.45 0. 3835 31. with respect to different values of ω . 4403 30.20) and (4. 6266 Equation (4. 8219 23. A calculated by the thus for the circular 86 .21).20 ≤ ω ≤ 0. 0413 14.Shape Factors of a Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circular Reservoir ω 0. 1523 31. If 0. 3055 10.20 .20) 0. 6200 From the shape factors shown in Table 4. 9309 27.5078 2.40 0. 1664 6.30 0.4424 4.18) and Equation (4. 9984 30. the square reservoir is seen to resemble the circular reservoir if ω ≥ 0.25 0. 4514 27.18). 7902 16. 8757 26. 2046 21.21).

H ) .3 Productivity Equations In Steady State Figure 2.4 shows a partially penetrating vertical well draining a boxshaped drainage domain (0. the pressure at the outer boundary is assumed to be constant and equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production. Equation (4. The productivity equation in steady state is below : 4π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q =F w D ln[T × T /(T × T )] + S ps 1 2 3 4 where (4.23).21) is more reliable than Equation (4.20) which was obtained by rearranging Equation (3.24) (4. both upper and lower e e boundaries are impermeable.23) (4.25) 87 .reservoir. Y ) × (0. X ) × (0. 4.22) T = sin 2 (πY / Y ) / sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] 1 wD eD wD eD T = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] 2 wD eD eD eD /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} ÷ {sin 2 [πR wD eD eD eD T = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] 3 wD eD wD eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wD eD wD eD (4. the reservoir is with a strong edge water drive.

**T = {sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} 4 wD eD eD eD wD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wD eD eD eD wD
**

8H 4 D lπY M ){ ∑ sin 2 ( wD ) Y L2prD l = 1 eD

(4.26)

S ps = (

π 2X

Y eD eD

mπX M wD ) × ∑ ( 1 ) sin 2 ( X m = 1 µ3 eD lm cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm prD D ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm H + ( D − 1) × L prD ⎧ sin 2 (πYwD / YeD ){sin 2 [πRwD /(2YeD )] + sinh 2 (πX wD / YeD )} ⎫ {ln ⎨ 2 ⎬ 2 2 ⎩ sin [πRwD /(2YeD )]{sin (πYwD / YeD ) + sinh (πX wD / YeD )} ⎭ ⎧ sin 2 [πRwD /(2YeD )] + sinh 2 [π ( X eD − X wD ) / YeD ] ⎫ + ln ⎨ ⎬} 2 2 + − π Y Y π X X Y sin ( / ) sinh [ ( ) / ] wD eD eD wD eD ⎩ ⎭

(4.27)

**and µ lm has the same meaning as in Equation (4.8), the integer number
**

M = 100 is sufficiently large to reach the engineering accuracy for all field

practice.

For a fully penetrating vertical well in a square reservoir ( X = Y ), e e

L

pr

= H and S

ps

= 0 , Equation (4.22) can be approximated by the

following expression:

88

2π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q ≈F w D ln{sin(πY / Y ) / sin[πR /(2Y )]} wD eD wD eD

(4.28)

If the well is at the center of an isotropic square reservoir,

X

w

= X / 2 = Y = Y / 2, K = K = K = K e w e x y z

(4.29)

then Equation (4.28) can be further simplified to

Q ≈F w D

2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w ln[2Y /(πR )] e w

(4.30)

Example 4.4: Calculate a partially penetrating vertical well flow rate in steady state in a box-shaped drainage domain with constant pressure lateral boundaries. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4.4.

Solution: We have

K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0.1 × 0.4 × 0.025)1 / 3 = 0.1 ( µm 2 ) a x y z

Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2, and letting

L = L , we obtain ref pr

89

X X

H

eD wD

D

= (0.1 / 0.1)1 / 2 × (800 / 10) = 80 Y = (0.1 / 0.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 10 eD = (0.1 / 0.1)1 / 2 × (100 / 10) = 10 Y = (0.1 / 0.4)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 2.5 wD

= (0.1 / 0.025)1 / 2 × (20 / 10) = 4.0

R = [0.025 /( 0.1× 0.4 )]1 / 6[(0.1 / 0.4)1 / 4 + (0.4 / 0.1)1 / 4 ] × 0.1 /(2 × 10) wD = 0.0075

Table 4.4 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.4

Reservoir Length, Xe Reservoir Width, Ye Wellbore Radius, Rw Well Location in x Direction, Xw Well Location in y Direction, Yw Well Producing Length, Lpr Payzone Thickness, H Permeability in x Direction, Kx Permeability in y Direction, Ky Permeability in z Direction, Kz Pressure Drop, ∆P Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

800 m 200 m 0.1 m 100 m 50 m 10 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 0.4 µm2 0.025 µm2 2.0 MPa 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

T = sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) / sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) = 360253.26 1 2 × 10.0 10.0

T = [sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 ( π × 80.0 )] 2 10.0 10.0 ÷ [sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 ( π × 80.0 )] 2 ×10.0 10.0 ≈ 1.0000

90

T = [sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 ( π ×10.0 )] 3 10.0 10.0 2 ÷ [sin ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 ( π ×10.0 )] 2 ×10.0 10.0 = 1.0037 π × (80.0 − 10.0) T = {sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 [ ]} 4 10.0 10.0 π × (80.0 − 10.0) ]} ÷ {sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 [ 10.0 2 ×10.0 ≈ 1.0000

Using Equation (4.27), we obtain

S

ps

= 9.86

So, using Equation (4.22), the well flow rate in steady state is

Q

1085.734 × 0.1 × 0.4 × 20 × 2.0 /(5.0 × 1.5) w ln(360253.26 × 1.0000 /(1.0037 × 1.0000)) + 9.86 = 51.13 ( Sm 3 / D) =

In Equation (4.28), when Y = Y / 2 and sin(πY / Y ) = sin(π / 2) = 1.0, it w e wD eD can be shown that in a rectangular reservoir with constant pressure

lateral boundaries, the flow rate of an off-center well is bigger than that of a centered well.

Example 4.5: If the outer boundaries of the isotropic square reservoir and its inscribed circular reservoir in Figure 4.1 are at constant pressures, calculate the

91

productivity indexes of a fully penetrating vertical with respect to different values of

X

w

/ X , ( Y = Ye / 2 ), and calculate the corresponding w e

productivity indexes if the well is located in the inscribed circular reservoir. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4.5.

Table 4.5 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.5

Reservoir Length, Xe Reservoir Width, Ye Wellbore Radius, Rw Payzone Thickness, H Permeability, K Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

200 m 200 m 0.1 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

Solution: Because the outer boundary is at constant pressure during production, Equation (4.22) is used for the square reservoir, and Equation (3.1) is used for the inscribed circular reservoir. The results are shown in Table 4.6. In Table 4.6, ω has the same meaning as in Equation (4.17), when we use Equations (3.1) and (4.22) in this example, S

ps

= 0 , and

R = X e / 2, R = X e / 2 − X w = R − X w . e 0 e

92

Table 4.6 -

Productivity Indexes for Example 4.5

ω

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

PI By Equation (4.22) ( Sm3/D/MPa) 27.372 24.305 22.903 22.086 21.564 21.219 20.991 20.846 20.765 20.740

PI By Equation (3.1) ( Sm3/D/MPa) 27.590 24.594 23.220 22.404 21.868 21.499 21.247 21.081 20.987 20.957

Table 4.6 indicates that in steady state, the production performance of a square reservoir resembles that of a circular reservoir. In both types of reservoir, with constant pressure outer boundary, the off-center well can yield higher

PI than the centered well. There is little difference in the

productivity of a vertical well draining a square reservoir and that of the same well draining a circular reservoir of the same area.

93

94 .5. 5.1) where F is sector shape function defined below: w (1 − R 2τ )[1 − 2 R 2τ cos(2τθ ) + R 4τ ]1 / 2 0D 0D 0D w F = w − 2 τ 1 2τR R sin(τθ ) wD 0 D w (5. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR The primary goal of this chapter is to present steady state productivity equations for a fully penetrating vertical well in a sector fault reservoir and a channel reservoir.2) and R is the off-vertex distance. 2008): Q =F w D 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w ln( F ) w (5.8 shows.1 Productivity Equation For A Sector Fault Reservoir As Figure 2.θ ) 0 w in a sector fault reservoir {( R . Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } . a fully penetrating vertical well is located at ( R . θ is the 0 e w wellbore location angle. R is the sector radius. the productivity equation in e steady state is below (Lu and Tiab.

θ w = Φ / 2 = π /(2τ ) .3) If the well is on the bisector of the sector angle. Equation (5. Table 5.1: Calculate a fully penetrating vertical well flow rate in steady state in a sector fault reservoir. K = K = K = K . Example 5. i. If the reservoir is an isotropic permeability reservoir.2.1 shows the simplified F for w several special angles in an isotropic sector reservoir. Solution: We have τ = π / Φ = π /(5π / 12) = 2. The reservoir is a homogeneous. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5. a r v then F = {[1 − ( R / R ) 2τ ][1 − 2( R / R ) 2τ cos(2τθ ) + ( R / R ) 4τ ]1 / 2} 0 e 0 e 0 e w w /[2τ ( R / R )( R / R ) 2τ sin(τθ )] w 0 0 e w (5. i.3) can be simplified.e. isotropic reservoir.e.All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.4 95 .

µ Formation Volume Factor.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.8 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 9.6 ] /( 4. φw Permeability. B 5. Φ Wellbore Location Angle.8 4.8 Rw R0 / Re ) 5 6 [1 − ( R0 / Re )12 ] /(6 Rw R0 / Re ) 7 8 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 ] /(8 Rw R0 / Re ) 9 10 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 20 ] /(10 Rw R0 / Re ) 11 12 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 24 ] /(12 Rw R0 / Re ) 15 16 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 32 ] /(16 Rw R0 / Re ) 17 18 [1 − ( R0 / Re )36 ] /(18 Rw R0 / Re ) 19 20 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 40 ] /(20 Rw R0 / Re ) Table 5.0 MPa 400 m 0.1 Pressure Drop. Re Payzone Thickness.Sector Shape Functions for Special Sector Angles and Wellbore Location Angles Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Φ π 3π/4 2π/3 π/2 5π/12 π/3 π/4 π/5 π/6 π/8 π/9 π/10 τ θw π/2 3π/8 π/3 π/4 5π/24 π/6 π/8 π/10 π/12 π/16 π/18 π/20 Fw 2 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 4 ] /( 2 Rw R0 / Re ) 5/3 8/ 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 / 3 ] /[(8 / 3) Rw R0 / Re ] 1 4/3 3/2 2 2.s 1.1 m 600 m 60 m 5π/12 π/12 0. ∆P Well Off-Vertex Distance.01 µm2 2.0 mPa. H Sector Angle.5 Rm3/Sm3 96 . K Oil Viscosity. Rw Drainage Radius.1.4 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 2 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 6 ] /(3Rw R0 / Re ) 3 4 [1 − ( R0 / Re )8 ] /(4 Rw R0 / Re ) 3. R0 Wellbore Radius.Table 5.2 .

Because the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir, i.e. K = K = K = K , a r v using Equation (5.3), we have

F = Y /Y w 1 2

where

Y = [1 − (400 / 600) 4.8 ] 1 × [1 − 2(400 / 600) 4.8 cos(2 × 2.4 × π / 12) + (400 / 600) 9.6 ]1 / 2 = 0.82759

and

Y = 2 × 2.4 × (0.1 / 400) × (400 / 600) 4.8 × sin( 2.4 × π / 12) 2 = 1.0073 × 10 − 4

So

F = 0.82759 /(1.0073 × 10− 4 ) = 8215.92 w

Using Equation (5.1), the well flow rate is

Q = w

542.867 KH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w ln( F ) w 542.867 × 0.01× 60 × 5 /(2 × 1.5) = ln(8215.92) = 60.23 ( Sm3 / D)

97

Example 5.2: Consider a fully penetrating vertical well located on the bisector of an isotropic sector fault reservoir, i.e. θ w = Φ / 2 = π /( 2n) and assume

mechanical skin factor S = 0 . Calculate productivity index when n = 1, 2, 3, 4,…, 9, 10. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.2

Well Off-Vertex Distance, R0 Wellbore Radius, Rw Drainage Radius, Re Payzone Thickness, H Permeability, K Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

250 m 0.1 m 500 m 25 m 0.1 µm2 2.0 mPa.s 1.25 Rm3/Sm3

Solution:

Table 5.4 indicates that if the sector fault reservoir has a constant pressure outer boundary (edge water), both the sector drainage area and the steady state productivity index decrease with increasing n .

98

Table 5.4 - Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 5.2

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Fw 3750.00 4687.50 6562.50 9960.94 15984.38 26660.16 45711.50 79998.78 142221.68 255999.76

PI (Sm3/D/MPa) 65.966 64.224 61.766 58.966 56.085 53.270 50.593 48.085 45.753 43.594

Example 5.3: Consider a fully penetrating vertical well located on the bisector of an isotropic sector fault reservoir, i.e. θ w = Φ / 2 = π /(2n) and assume mechanical skin factor S = 0 . Investigate the effect of the off-vertex

distance R0 on productivity index when n = 1, 2,…, 9, 10. Permeability, wellbore radius, reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 5.3.

Solution:

The results are shown in Figure 5.1.

99

Figure 5.1 - Effect of Off-Vertex Distance on Productivity Index

From Table 5.4, Figure 5.1, Equations (5.1) and (5.2),

the following

conclusions about productivity index PI for the sector fault drainage area

{( R , Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } can be reached: e

(1) For given values of θ , H , R and R , PI is an increasing function w e 0 with respect to the angle of the sector Φ and a decreasing function with respect to τ , and F is an increasing function with respect to τ . w

100

(2) For given θ , H , R and Φ , PI is an increasing function with respect w e to the off-vertex distance R ; and F is a decreasing function with 0 w respect to R . 0

(3) For given θ , H , R and Φ , PI is a decreasing function with respect w 0 to the sector radius R ; and F is an increasing function with respect to e w

R . e

(4) For given H , R , R and Φ , PI reaches maximum value when 0 e

θ =Φ/2 .

w

**5.2 Productivity Equation For A Channel Reservoir
**

Figure 2.9 shows a channel reservoir with infinite extension in the

x

direction. Assuming a fully penetrating vertical well is located at (0, Y ) in w the drainage domain (−∞, ∞) × (0, Y ) , the steady state productivity equation e is (Lu and Tiab, 2008):

2π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q =F w D Λ 3

(5.4)

101

B 200 m 0. and PI is a decreasing function of the channel reservoir width Ye . Yw Payzone Thickness.where Λ = πR / Y − ln[(2πR / Y ) sin(πY / Y )] 3 wD eD wD eD wD eD (5.4: Calculate the flow rate of a fully penetrating vertical well in steady state in a channel reservoir. µ Formation Volume Factor.5 . Y = Y / 2 .e.5.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.4 Reservoir Width.5) If the well is located at the middle of the reservoir width.025µm2 2. Ye Wellbore Radius. Ky Permeability in z Direction. its w e productivity index reaches maximum value. i.1 µm2 0. H Permeability in x Direction.5 Rm3/Sm3 102 . Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5.0MPa 5.0 mPa. Rw Well Location in y Direction. Kx Permeability in y Direction. Example 5.1 m 50 m 20 m 0. ∆P Oil Viscosity.s 1.4 µm2 0. Table 5. Kz Pressure Drop.

4 )]1 / 6 [(0.0 /(5.25 / 5.1 / 0.4 / 0.1 /( 2 × 20) = 0.1 × 0.474( Sm3 / D) 103 .1)1 / 4 ] × 0.0 3 − ln[(2 × π × 0.00375 / 5.0) sin(π ×1.0 = [0.0)] = 5.1× 0.1 × 0.0 ×1.00375 / 5. and letting L = H .5) 5.Solution: The average permeability is: K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0.25 wD H R = (0.025)1 / 3 = 0.1 / 0.4 × 0.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 20) = 5 eD Y = (0.4)1 / 2 × (50 / 20) = 1.4 × 20 × 2.1 / 0.1 ( µm 2 ) a x y z Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.706 = 101. we obtain ref Y = (0.00375 D wD Λ = π × 0.025 /( 0.706 The steady state flow rate is Q = w 542.867 × 0.4)1 / 4 + (0.1 / 0.025)1 / 2 = 2.

If a horizontal well is in a circular cylinder drainage reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries. For every horizontal well in this study. drainage volume.2 is a schematic of a horizontal well in a circular cylinder reservoir. well length. location. the well drilled length L is always equal to the well producing length L pr . vertical and horizontal permeabilities.1 Steady State Productivity Equation For A Circular Cylinder Reservoir Figure 2. and with a constant pressure lateral boundary. 6. then the steady state productivity is below (Lu.6. 2003): 104 . PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE HORIZONTAL WELL The primary goal of this chapter is to introduce steady state productivity equations and present pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a horizontal well in a circular cylinder reservoir and a box-shaped reservoir. This chapter also studies the effects on well productivity of payzone thickness.

4) 105 . If the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir.3) 3πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w Q =F w D Λ 5 where (6.1) reduces to: (6. then K =K =K h v thus Equation (6.1) eD + 1 Λ = L ln D 4 L D ⎛ 5H D −⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2R ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎜ πZ ⎟ ⎜ πR ⎟⎥ ⎞ ⎢⎢⎢ ⎟ ln ⎢⎢ 4 sin ⎜⎜⎜ wD ⎟⎟⎟ sin ⎜⎜⎜ wD ⎟⎟⎟ ⎥⎥⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2H ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎢⎢ H ⎜ ⎜ ⎠ ⎣⎢ D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎥⎦⎥ ⎝ ⎛ R 2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 R 2 + L2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ D + ⎜ eD ⎟ ln⎜ eD ⎜ LD ⎟ ⎜ 4 R 2 − L2 D ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ eD ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛⎜ ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ D ⎟ ln ⎜⎜⎜ L R ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ D eD ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎛L ⎟ ⎜ D ⎟+⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ L4 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ln R − D ⎟ eD 16 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (6.3π ( K 1 / 6 K 5 / 6 ) H ( P − P ) /( µB) v h i w Q =F w D Λ 4 where (6.2) All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.

e +1 Λ = ln 5 L ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2R ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ w sin w −⎛ ⎜ 5H ⎞ ⎟ ln 4 sin ⎝ 4L ⎠ 2H H πZ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ πR ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎛ R 2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 R 2 + L2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎜ e ⎟ ⎜ e ⎟ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ Re ⎟ 1 − ⎟ +⎜ + ⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ln⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ L2 ⎟ ⎜ 4 R 2 − L2 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎜ L4 16 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ e ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ e 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎜⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (6. 2003): Q =F w D ln[4 H 2. then the horizontal well flow rate is (Lu.6) If the reservoir has an impermeable bottom boundary and a constant pressure top boundary (gas cap).4π K K L ( P − P ) /( µB ) h v i w D /⎜ ⎜ πR ⎝ ⎛ wD ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎨ tan[ πZ ] + ln ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎬ /( 2 H )]⎪ wD D ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ (6.7) 106 . 2003): Q =F w D ln[ 4 H 2 . then (Lu.5) If the circular cylinder drainage reservoir has an impermeable top boundary and a constant pressure bottom boundary (bottom water).4π K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v i w ⎟ ] + ln ⎪ ⎨cot[πZ ⎬ / ⎜πR /(2 H )]⎪ ⎪ D ⎜ wD ⎟ wD D ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎛ ⎞ ⎧ ⎫ (6.

it has little influence on well flow rate.6). the lateral boundary effects on productivity are negligible and the radius Re does not show up in productivity equations.5) show that if the drainage volume is a circular cylinder without a gas cap or bottom water. Gas cap drive or bottom water drive is the main drive mechanism. the top and bottom boundaries are impermeable and only edge water drive is available. 2001) for an infinite lateral extent reservoir with the same top and bottom boundary conditions. 107 .8) are equivalent to the corresponding equations (Lu. respectively.2) and (6.If the reservoir has constant pressure at both top and bottom boundaries (gas cap and bottom water). then (Lu. (6. Even if there is edge water drive. the fluid from the top or bottom boundary flows into a horizontal well approximately vertically. so Equations (6. 2003): 2.4π K K L( P − P ) /( µB ) h v i w Q =F w D ln{sin(πZ / H ) / sin[πR /( 2 H )]} wD D wD D (6.7). and (6. the circular cylinder radius plays an important role in well productivity. In the above circumstances. If the drainage volume is a circular cylinder with a gas cap or bottom water.8) Equations (6.

for the two cases.7). So. Lin.6).9) Λ = [ L /( β H )][1 + (2 ln 2) / 3 − ln( L )] D 6 − (5 / 6) ln{4 sin(πZ / H ) sin[πR /( 2 H )]} wD D wD D (6.10) It must be emphasized that although the top and bottom boundaries are impermeable. and Rogers. 2003): Q =F w D where 2π K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v i w Λ 6 (6. its effect on well flow rate can be ignored. productivity equations are the same. there exists significant difference between Equation (6.1) and Equation (6. (6. Whether the circular cylinder lateral boundary is impermeable or at a constant pressure. If a horizontal well in an infinite lateral extent reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries. the productivity equation is below (Lu. if a reservoir has bottom water or a gas cap. Equations (6. and (6. its infinite lateral extent model and circular cylinder model are equivalent to each other.8) are applicable to both cases: constant pressure lateral boundary and impermeable lateral boundary.Therefore.9) because they are applicable to different drainage 108 .

569 × 0. 109 . Example 6. and formation near the wellbore is damaged. Equation (6.506 ( µm 2 ) v h The flow rates calculated by different productivity equations are shown in Table 6. whereas Equation (6.1) is for a circular cylinder reservoir with a constant pressure lateral boundary. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 6. The reservoir is a bottom water drive reservoir.280 = 0.9) is for an infinite lateral extent reservoir.2.399 ( µm 2 ) h v K 1 / 6 K 5 / 6 = (0.4255 h v K K = 0.569) 5 / 6 = 0.1: Use different productivity equations to calculate the flow rate of a horizontal well in steady state in a circular cylinder reservoir.1.volumes. Solution: We have β = K / K = 569 / 280 = 1.280)1 / 6 × (0.

Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6. B Actual Flow Rate 5. both top and bottom boundaries are constant pressure boundaries. Re Payzone Thickness.18).2. Zw Horizontal Permeability. µ Formation Volume Factor. Kv Oil Viscosity. Equation (6. L Wellbore Radius.7) and Equation (6. (1.8) gives the biggest flow rate because it is for a reservoir with gas cap drive and bottom water drive.17).1 .569 µm2 0. and (6. the flow rates from Equations (1.1) and (6.9 MPa 600 m 0.9) are small because these equations are applicable to a reservoir with 110 .22). (1. i. ∆P Horizontal Well Length. respectively. only one top or bottom boundary is a constant pressure boundary.031 Rm3/Sm3 1516 Sm3/D In Table 6.Table 6.8).1 Pressure Drop. (6. The flow rates from Equation (6. Rw Drainage Radius. H Well Vertical Location.6).280 µm2 65 mPa.6) are second and third biggest. Compared with the flow rates obtained from Equations (6.7). (6.s 1. because they are for a reservoir with either gas cap drive or bottom water drive. i.e.86m 0. Kh Vertical Permeability. (1.1098 m 600 m 63 m 56.e.19).

1 .18) Equation (1. therefore the computational results are expected to be bigger than the actual flow rates in Table 6.6) Equation (6.6) is near and a little bigger than the actual flow rate. and it has a positive skin factor. But Table 6.2 .1) is for a circular cylinder reservoir with a constant pressure lateral boundary.6) is for bottom water drive reservoir.9) is for an infinite lateral extent reservoir. 111 .17) Equation (1.2 indicates that only the flow rate calculated by Equation (6.8) Equation (6.Flow Rates Calculated by Different Productivity Equations Productivity Equation Equation (1.1) Equation (6. with neither gas cap drive nor bottom water drive. because Equation (6.19) Equation (1.1) and Equation (6. Table 6. because Equation (6.7) Equation (6.22) Equation (6.9).9) Expected Flow Rate (Sm3/day) 716 764 813 898 851 1568 2775 2788 738 The reservoir is with bottom water drive.impermeable top and bottom boundaries. It must be pointed out that there exist differences between the calculation results from Equation (6. whereas Equation (6.

12) ⎥ 2 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎛⎜⎜ 2 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎥ 2 R L L ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ eD D D ( )−( ) ⎟⎟ ln ⎜⎜1 − ( ) ⎟⎟ − L ⎥⎥⎥ − D ⎥⎥ ⎟ ⎜ 3πH 2 L 4 R 2 ⎟⎟⎟ D D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎥ eD ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ Example 6.2 Pseudo-Steady State Productivity Equation For A Circular Cylinder Reservoir If all the reservoir boundaries of a circular cylinder drainage volume are impermeable. the horizontal well productivity in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by: Q =F w D K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v a w Λ 7 (6. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field units are given in Table 6.11) where ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎞⎢ ⎛ ⎞ L ⎟⎟⎟ ⎢⎢⎢ ⎛⎜⎜ 1 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ 2 R ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ L2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎛⎜⎜ 1 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎥⎥⎥ D ⎟−⎜ ⎟⎥ Λ = D ⎟⎟ ⎢⎢ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ln ⎜⎜ eD ⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎥ 7 H ⎟⎟ ⎢⎢ ⎜⎝ 2π ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ 24π ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎟ R 48 π ⎜ ⎟ D ⎟⎠ ⎢⎣⎢ D ⎜ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ eD ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎥ ⎦ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎡ ⎤ − 5 ln 4 sin wD sin wD 12π H 2H D D ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎡⎛ ⎢⎜ ⎞ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎜ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ( ) ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ πZ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ πR ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎤ (6.2: Calculate productivity index of a horizontal well located in a sealed circular cylinder reservoir during pseudo-steady state. 112 .3.6.

992 / 200)1 / 2 = 0.15874 Z wD = (50 / 1000)(125.992 / 50)1 / 2 = 0.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6. Re Payzone Thickness.Table 6. Rw Well Vertical Location. B 1000 ft 0.992 (mD) a r v Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.07937 R = (125. we have ref L = (125.25 ft 50 ft 1500 ft 100ft 200 mD 50 mD 2. Kh Vertical Permeability.3 . Kv Oil Viscosity.19055 eD 113 .992 / 200)1 / 2 × (1500 / 1000) = 1.2 Well Length. Zw Reservoir Radius. H Horizontal Permeability .2 RB/SB Solution: We have K K = 200 × 50 = 100 (mD) h v K = K 2 / 3 K 1 / 3 = 200 2 / 3 × 501 / 3 = 125. µ Formation Volume Factor. and letting L = L.7937 D H D = (100 / 1000)(125.992 / 50)1 / 2 = 0. L Wellbore Radius.0 cp 1.

and obtain Λ = 1. and width ( y direction) 2b .00021 Thus. Let η h be the horizontal well partially penetration factor: η = L /(2a ) h (6.25 /( 2 × 1000) = 0.708 = 27.13) The productivity of a horizontal well in a sealed box-shaped reservoir in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by (Lu and Tiab.708 7 Productivity index of this horizontal well in pseudo-steady state is PI = Q /(∆P) w (0.5 is a schematic of a horizontal well which drains a box-shaped reservoir with height H .3 Pseudo-Steady State Productivity Equation For A BoxShaped Reservoir Figure 2.R wD = (50 / 200)1 / 6 [(200 / 50)1 / 4 + (50 / 200)1 / 4 ] × 0.2) = 1 × 1. length ( x direction) 2a .493 ( STB / D / psi ) 6. use Equation (6.12). 2007): 114 .001127)( 200 × 50 )(1000) /( 2 × 1.

and πZ πR b Λ = ( D ) − ( 1 ) ln[4 sin( wD ) sin( wD )] 8 2π 6H 2H H D D D The pseudo skin factor S a L S = ( D D )(1 − ps 12b H D D L (6.( K K )1 / 2 L( P − P ) /( µB) y z a w Q =F w D Λ +S 8 ps (6.14) where P is average reservoir pressure throughout the box-shaped a drainage volume.16) sinh(.15) ps due to partial penetration is: mπ a cosh[(mπ a / b )(1 − L / a )] M D D D D − coth( D )}} × { ∑ ( 1 ){ m a b 3 sinh( π / ) b m =1 m D D D nπ Z a3 M wD ) D + {( ) ∑ cos 2 ( 3 H π b H L n =1 D D D D cosh[( µ π )(1 − L / a )] M mn D D − coth( µ π )}} 1 × ∑ ( ){ mn 3 sinh( µ π ) m=0 d µ mn m mn L2 b2 D + D )+( D ) a 3 2 π H L D 4a D D D (6. cosh(. 115 . hyperbolic cosine and hyperbolic cotangent function. All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.) and coth(.) . respectively.) are hyperbolic sine.

16) can be separated into three parts: S ps =Ψ +Ψ +Ψ 4 5 6 (6. the integer number M = 100 is sufficiently big enough to reach the engineering accuracy for all practical purpose. and m = 0. Equation (6. d na H m = 1/ 2 (6.17) µ mn = ( ma b D D )2 + ( D )2 (6.19) It is easy to prove that. the productivity index reaches maximum value when it is located in the middle height of pay zone. d m = 1.21) 116 . for a given well in a closed box. m > 0.18) D For a fully penetrating horizontal well. L = 2a .It has been shown that in Equation (6.16).20) where a L L L2 D D D Ψ =( + D ) )(1 − 4 12b H a 2 D D D 4a D (6. then S ps =0 (6.

Solution: We have a = 1000 ft .22) M ){ ∑ cos 2 (nπ Z /H ) Ψ =( 6 wD D 3 π b H L n =1 D D D cosh[(µ π )(1 − L / a )] M mn D D 1 ){ × ∑ ( 3 sinh( ) µ π m=0 d µ mn m mn − coth( µ π )}} mn a3 D (6.4.99 (mD) a x y z 117 .23) Example 6. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field units are given in Table 6. b = 2000 ft K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (200 × 200 × 50)1 / 3 = 125.) Ψ =( 5 π 3H L D D cosh[(mπ a / b )(1 − L / a )] M D D D D × { ∑ ( 1 ){ sinh( mπ a / b ) m = 1 m3 D D mπ a D )}} − coth( b D b2 D (6.3: Calculate productivity index of a horizontal well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box-shaped reservoir.

7937 D a D = (125.99 / 200)1 / 2 = 0. Kx Permeability in y Direction. RESW Payzone Thickness.4 .5 h Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.5874 D H D = (125. Zw Reservoir Length.3 Well Length.25 ft 50 ft 4000 ft 2000 ft 100ft 200 mD 200 mD 50 mD 2. L Wellbore Radius. B 1000 ft 0.Table 6. and letting L = L. Rw Well Vertical Location. Ky Permeability in z Direction.0 cp 1. µ Formation Volume Factor.7937 b = (125.99 / 200)1 / 2 × (1000 / 1000) = 0.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6. Kz Oil Viscosity.15874 118 .99 / 50)1 / 2 × (100 / 1000) = 0. we obtain: ref L = (125. H Permeability in x Direction. RESL Reservoir Width.2 RB/SB β = ( K / K )1 / 2 = (200 / 50)1 / 2 = 2 h v η = L /(2a ) = 1000 / 2000 = 0.99 / 200)1 / 2 × (2000 / 1000) = 1.

000211 × ln[4 sin( ) sin( )] 2 2 × 0.5.00521 4 12 × 1.5mπ )] 3 sinh( 0 . Z / H = 0.15874 = 2.5874 2 Ψ =( ) 5 π 3 × 0.15874 4 1.54606 119 .428 0.7937 2 Ψ =( )(1 − 1 + 1 ) = 0.25 /( 2 × 1000) = 0.000211 a a D D =L . D 1− L D /a D =0 / b = 0.5 D wD D And we have µ mn = m 2 / 4 + 25n 2 Thus Λ = ( 1.15874 2π π π × 0.15874 × 0.R = [50 /( 200 × 200 )]1 / 6[(200 / 50)1 / 4 + (50 / 200)1 / 4 ] wD × 0.7937 100 cosh(0) × ∑ ( 1 )[ − coth(0.5874 × 0. 5 ) m π m =1 m = −0.5874 ) − ( 1 ) 8 6 × 0.

5458) = 24.54606) + (−0.5874)(0. we study the effects of some critical parameters on productivity index of a horizontal well in a closed box-shaped reservoir in pseudo-steady state.428 − 0.00495 Thus S ps = 0.00495) = −0.2) = 1 × (2. 120 .001127)( 200 × 50 )(1000) /(2 × 1. productivity index of this well is PI = Q /(∆P) w (0.79373 2 ] ∑ cos 2 ( nπ ){ ∑ [ ] 3 2 2 2 3/ 2 π (1.15874)(0.7937) n = 1 m = 1 (m / 4 + 25n ) cosh(0) − coth(π m 2 / 4 + 25n 2 )] sinh(π m 2 / 4 + 25n 2 ) cosh(0) + ( 1 )[ − coth(5nπ )]} 125n3 sinh(5nπ ) = −0.Ψ 6 =[ ×[ 100 100 0.95 ( STB / D / psi ) 6.4 Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI In this part.00521 + (−0.5458 So.

and Equation (1.5. well length. Equation (1. K = K = 50 mD x y h z v and the horizontal well is at mid-height of the pay zone. and permeability on productivity index. Rw Reservoir Length.0 RB/SB Solution: (1) Effect of payzone thickness on PI . Table 6. RESL Reservoir Width.0 cp 1. Fluid properties. B 0.1 present the effect of payzone thickness on PI calculated by Equation (6. with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft .6 and Figure 6. reservoir width and length are given in Table 6. Table 6.25 ft 4000 ft 2000 ft 1.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.26) (Helmy and Wattenbarger 's equation).5 .4: Investigate the effects of payzone thickness.14). 121 . µ Formation Volume Factor.24) (Babu and Odeh’s equation). K = K = K = 200 mD. Z w = H / 2. RESW Oil Viscosity. well location.4 Wellbore Radius.Example 6.

Table 6.6 .917 42.425 16.811 52.165 44.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) H=10(ft) H=20(ft) H=30(ft) H=40(ft) H=50(ft) H=60(ft) H=70(ft) H=80(ft) H=90(ft) H=100(ft) Babu 8.609 17.325 17.958 Figure 6.527 34.911 46.376 32.096 40.828 Lu and Tiab 9.156 29.101 43.156 52.379 56.490 38.448 35.358 23.421 48.1 .161 23.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well 122 .799 25.880 52.115 38.886 29.538 Helmy 9.155 59.546 49.717 48.499 55.

If the payzone thickness H is not very big ( H < 50 ft ). PI increases about 4 times. but when H > 50 ft . 123 . For maximum PI . From H = 10 ft to 50 ft . the well should be located at the center of the pay zone. K = K = 50 mD. PI increases rapidly with the increasing H . PI increases slowly with the increasing H .7 and Figure 6. Table 6.1 show that no significant differences among the PI values calculated by the three equations. with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft . horizontal wells are believed to perform better than their vertical counterparts in thin reservoirs.2 present the effect of well location in vertical direction on PI .7 and Figure 6.5 times. H = 100 ft x y h z v Table 6. PI increases about 1. from H = 50 ft to 100 ft . (2) Effect of well location in vertical direction on PI .Table 6. K = K = K = 200 mD.2 show that the location of a horizontal well in vertical direction does not have significant effect on PI .6 and Figure 6. For this reason.

Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) Zw=10(ft) Zw=20(ft) Zw=30(ft) Zw=40(ft) Zw=50(ft) Zw=60(ft) Zw=70(ft) Zw=80(ft) Zw=90(ft) Babu 51.538 59.2 .583 54.556 52.862 52.910 53.453 Helmy 50.7 .156 58.308 59.583 51.573 59.573 57.962 50.807 51.308 58.962 52.156 54.608 54.097 53.862 52.958 52.Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well 124 .097 Lu and Tiab 54.807 Figure 6.Table 6.608 55.453 57.556 51.910 55.828 55.

Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) L=250(ft). PI only increases about 1.277 59. H = 100 ft .608 94.335 Helmy 17.8 .994 30.994 88.625 L=1500(ft). PI increases slowly with the increasing L .8 and Figure 6.637 Lu and Tiab 22.000 Babu 21.189 75.306 45. From 1000 ft to 2000 ft . η=0. η=0.214 48.278 85.444 55.342 36.6 times.800 52.472 41. Z w = 50 ft Table 6.3 present the effect of well length on PI . Table 6.250 L=750(ft).710 85.428 94.750 L=1750(ft).125 L=500(ft).3 show that no significant differences among the PI values calculated by the three equations. η=0. η=1. 125 . η=0.(3) Effect of well length on PI . η=0. For every increase in L of 250 ft .337 94.958 64. From 250 ft to 1000 ft . K z = K v = 50 mD. with the following constant parameters: K x = K y = K h = 200 mD.870 75. η=0.259 Table 6.500 L=1250(ft).222 34. η=0.375 L=1000(ft). PI only increases about 10 STB / D / psi .8 and Figure 6.828 65.183 79. PI increases 4 times.875 L=2000(ft).538 70.

with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft .Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well (4) Effect of vertical permeability on PI . K = K = K = 100 mD. vertical permeability increases 10 times.Figure 6. Table 6. Z = 50 ft.9 and Figure 6. w x y h z v Table 6.9 and Figure 6.4 present the effect of vertical permeability on PI . ( β decreases about 126 .4 show that PI is a weak function of vertical permeability. K = K H = 100 ft .3 .

890 28.361 30. with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft .528 25.340 33.236 Kv=30(mD).162 Kv=20(mD). β=1.291 Kv=70(mD).6 times. β=3. β=1.504 Lu and Tiab 23.905 34.826 Kv=40(mD). Z w = 50 ft.420 37.195 Kv=80(mD).414 Kv=60(mD). Table 6.248 (5) Effect of permeability parallel to horizontal well on PI .Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) Kv=10(mD).276 33. β=1.385 31.118 Kv=90(mD).124 30.622 33.671 34. β=3.412 32.3 times) PI values calculated by the three equations increase about 1.666 28.10 and Figure 6. β=1.489 32.162 Kv=100(mD).020 33. Table 6.028 33.9 .501 29.240 27.897 32.599 34. β=1. β=2.516 Helmy 21.085 34. β=1.733 36. H = 100 ft .902 30.007 37.609 26. 127 .394 31.581 Kv=50(mD).913 35.5 present the effect of permeability parallel to horizontal well ( K x ) on PI . K z = 25 mD . K y = 50 mD.000 Babu 22. β=1.

β=1.660 15.861 Kx=175(mD). β=1.579 18. β=2.Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI PI (STB/D/psi) Kx=5(mD).171 16.136 18.950 17.320 18.674 18.542 17. β=2.795 Kx=15(mD).047 Kx=25(mD).10 .374 16.463 18.322 16.736 16.Figure 6.189 Kx=50(mD).Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well Table 6.641 15.755 Helmy 10.124 18.939 14.682 Kx=125(mD). β=1. β=0.417 128 .778 Kx=150(mD). β=2.055 14. β=1.606 12.256 16.057 16.744 16. β=1.414 Kx=75(mD).4 . β=1.531 17.894 16.193 15.426 17.060 Kx=250(mD).200 15. β=1.418 Lu and Tiab 11.115 Babu 9.773 14.565 Kx=100(mD). β=1.889 18.934 Kx=200(mD).056 17.122 15.009 13.937 18.710 17.282 18.000 Kx=225(mD).

6 present the effect of permeability perpendicular to well in horizontal plane ( K y ) on PI . Figure 6. K x x increases 50 times.Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI (6) Effect of permeability perpendicular to horizontal well on PI .5 .11 and Figure 6. Table 6.Table 6.10 and Figure 6.6 times. with the following constant parameters: 129 .5 show that PI is a weak function of K . ( β increases about 3 times) PI values calculated by the three equations increase about 1.

000 Ky=225(mD).787 27. β=1.979 16. but PI values calculated by the three equations only increase about 5 times.662 130 .950 44.739 36. x z v Table 6. K y increases 10 times. β=1.255 39. From 25 mD to 250 mD .560 42.11 and Figure 6.527 6.339 24. β=1.934 Ky=200(mD). β=1.414 Ky=75(mD).736 48.950 22.838 Lu and Tiab 2. β=1.518 33.614 36. K = 50 mD. β=1.420 15. From 5 mD to 25 mD .035 9.Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI PI (STB/D/psi) Ky=5(mD).322 51.926 40.L = 1000 ft .060 Ky=250(mD).778 Ky=150(mD).861 Ky=175(mD).115 Babu 2.687 45. β=2.734 Helmy 2. β=2.682 Ky=125(mD). K y increases 5 times.609 6.949 45.233 36. Z w = 50 ft.425 6. β=2.11 .047 Ky=25(mD).744 20. K = K = 25 mD . β=1.565 Ky=100(mD).626 9. Table 6. β=0.868 28.678 39. but PI is a weak function of K y when K y > 25mD .189 Ky=50(mD).459 29.966 32. β=1.193 20. H = 100 ft . and PI values calculated by the three equations also increase about 5 times.905 42.316 9.795 Ky=15(mD).6 show that PI is a strong function of K when K y y ≤ 25 mD .021 15.938 25.940 32.

131 . Fluid properties and reservoir parameters are the same as in Table 6.5: Investigate the effects of reservoir size on productivity index.Figure 6.4.Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI Example 6.6 . Solution: (1) Effect of reservoir width on PI .

318 52.234 57. η=0.455. K = K = K = 200 mD x y h K = K = 50 mD.682 55. η=1. η=0.397 52.12 and Figure 6. η=0.486 56.205 54.7 show that PI is a weak function of reservoir width (RESW).246 59. η=0.926 52.707 Helmy 47.553 53.792 52.769 RESW=1600(ft).526 RESW=2200(ft).000 RESW=1300(ft).Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) RESW=1000(ft).596 49.853 59.12 .250 Babu 47.646 55.504 51. (the partially penetrating factor η drops from 1.349 Lu and Tiab 47.323 RESW=3400(ft).400 RESW=2800(ft). the size of the top view area of the drainage volume parallel to the horizontal well) on PI . η=0.301 50.913 55.490 58.294 RESW=3700(ft).857 59.682 55.) PI values calculated by the three 132 .576 59.842 53. RESW from 1000 ft to 2200 ft .00 to 0. Z = 50 ft z v w And reservoir length (RESL) is a constant.7 present the effect of reservoir width (RESW.876 52.073 57.099 52.357 RESW=3100(ft). η=0.865 49. 4000 ft .168 54. η=0. H = 100 ft . η=0.921 58.125 Table 6.12 and Figure 6. η=0.190 54.625 RESW=1900(ft).129 50. Table 6.953 51.455 RESW=2500(ft).270 RESW=4000(ft). with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft . η=0.Table 6.

) PI values calculated by the three equations decrease slowly.250.455 to 0.equations increase slowly.7 . (the partially penetrating factor η drops from 0. RESW from 2200 ft to 4000 ft .Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well (2) Effect of reservoir length on PI . Figure 6. 133 .

the size of the top view area of the drainage volume perpendicular to the horizontal well) on PI .143 74.8 present the effect of reservoir length (RESL.13 and Figure 6.248 58.720 Table 6.625 Helmy 81.810 59. Table 6.13 and Figure 6.654 63. 2000 ft .045 62.390 68.958 50.Table 6.885 81.828 53.188 47.528 56.091 52. H = 100 ft . 134 . with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft .13 .777 76.011 75.223 70.671 56.8 show that PI is a weak function of reservoir length (RESL).090 50.336 66. Z = 50 ft z v w And reservoir width (RESW) is a constant.269 71. K = K = K = 200 mD x y h K = K = 50 mD.608 Lu and Tiab 86.889 62.288 66.Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) RESL=1000(ft) RESL=1500(ft) RESL=2000(ft) RESL=2500(ft) RESL=3000(ft) RESL=3500(ft) RESL=4000(ft) RESL=4500(ft) RESL=5000(ft) Babu 78.423 53.863 55.994 59.

Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well 135 .8 .Figure 6.

n. j j the wellbore radii. are considered constant. The wells are parallel to the z direction with a producing length equal to thickness H . anisotropic circular reservoir. S . and the skin factors. Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well due to formation damage or stimulation are also given. their locations ( R . A number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic circular drainage reservoir with height H and radius Re . R . the top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A CIRCULAR RESERVOIR This chapter presents steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. θ ). In any given time interval. the number of wells. wj j 136 .7.

R . the pressure at the point ( R . for the n-well system. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a circular reservoir during steady state.1) j is the flow rate of the production well. In the polar coordinate system.5) 137 . θ ). θ ) = P − ( ) × ∑ [Q × G ( R.θ ) = ln( 1 ) j j j λ 2 λ (7.θ . the pressure at the point ( R .7. θ ) is n µB P ( R.θ )] e 4πK HF j j j j j =1 r D where (7.4) G ( R. and j j λ = R 4 + R 2 R 2 − 2R 2 R R 1 eD D jD eD D jD cos(θ − θ ) j (7. which is located at ( R . (say. θ ) is below (Lu and Tiab. θ ) = P − ( ) × ln( 1 ) e 4πK HF λ r D 2 where Q (7.2) λ = R 2 [R 2 + R 2 − 2R R 2 eD jD D D jD cos(θ − θ )] j (7. R . 2007): µBQ λ j P ( R.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State If only one well is on production.θ . the jth one).3) By superposition principle. with n production wells.

5) for a point located at the circumference of wellbore.8) where the matrix [ A] is the influence matrix.1 ⎤ ⎢d ⎥ ⎢ P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ d = ⎢ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ e w.3). λ have the same meanings as in Equations (7.7) Applying Equations (7.6) ⎡ Q1 ⎤ ⎢Q ⎥ Q = ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Q ⎢ ⎣ n⎥ ⎦ (7. n ⎦ and the surface production rate vector (7. The two basic vector quantities that we would like to relate are the pressure drawdown vector ⎡ d1 ⎤ ⎡ Pe − Pw.2 ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ d ⎥ ⎢P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ n ⎦ ⎣ e w.2) and (7. 1 2 respectively.and λ .4) and (7. d =( µB 2πK HF r D ) × ([A] + [DS ]) Q (7. and taking into account the pressure drop due to the mechanical skin factor. 138 . the following equation can be obtained for the multiple wells – circular reservoir system.

9) with elements a representing the influence of well j on the pressure at ij the circumference of well i .14) (7.13) where λ = R2 − R2 5 iD eD (7.10) λ = R 4 + R 2 R 2 − 2R 2 R R 3 eD iD jD eD iD jD cos(θ − θ ) j i (7. a(i. a (i.15) λ =R 6 R wDi eD 139 .12) If i = j .⎡ a11 a12 L a1n ⎤ ⎢a a L a ⎥ ⎢ 21 22 2n ⎥ [A] = ⎢ M M O M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ a a L a ⎥ ⎢ nn ⎦ ⎣ n1 n2 (7.11) λ = R 2 [R 2 + R 2 − 2R 4 eD jD iD R cos(θ − θ )] iD jD j i (7. j ) = ( 1 ) ln( 3 ) 2 λ 4 where λ (7. If i ≠ j . i ) = ln( 5 ) λ 6 λ (7.

The diagonal matrix [ D ] is constructed from the vector of skin factors as s ⎡ S1 0 L 0 ⎤ ⎢0 S L 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 [DS ] = ⎢ ⎢M M O M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 L S ⎥ ⎢ n⎦ ⎣ (7.All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2. we can express the skin factor vector as ⎡ F (2πK r H ) ⎤ S = [ D ]− 1 ⎢ D d − [ A]Q ⎥ q µB ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where (7.16) Equation (7.18) [D ] q −1 ⎡Q − 1 0 ⎢ 1 ⎢ Q−1 =⎢ 0 2 M ⎢ M ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ L ⎥ O M ⎥ ⎥ L Q − 1⎥ n ⎦ L (7. this solution is given as F (2πK H ) r Q= D ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 d s µB (7.19) 140 . In matrix notation.8) can be solved for the unknown production rates.17) By rearranging Equation (7.8).

calculate the production rate vector Q . calculate production rate vector.Step-by-Step Procedure Given the locations (polar coordinates) of each well in a circular reservoir. 141 . and the number F (2πK H ) /( µB) in Equation (7.6). s Step 3 – Calculate the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 . Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7. then using Equation (7. the outer boundary pressure. reservoir and fluid properties data. r D Step 2 – Using Equations (7. s Step 4 – Using Equation (7. calculate the influence matrix [ A] .17).16) to obtain the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) . flowing bottomhole pressure.13).10) and (7.17). we may calculate the production rate or mechanical skin factor of each well. Case One: Skin factors of each well are known.

Case Two: Production rates of each well are known, calculate the skin factor vector.

Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7.6), and the number F (2πK H ) /( µB) , then obtain [ F (2πK H ) /( µB)]d in Equation r r D D (7.18).

Step 2 – Using Equations (7.10) and (7.13), calculate the influence matrix

[ A] , then calculate the vector [ A]Q .

Step 3 –Using Equation (7.19), calculate the matrix [ Dq ] −1 .

Step 4 – Using Equation (7.18), calculate the skin factor vector.

Example 7.1: Consider an anisotropic circular reservoir containing eight wells. The polar coordinates of these wells ( R , θ ) are presented in Table 7.1. The outer j j boundary pressure, flowing bottomhole pressure, wellbore radii, reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are also given in Table 7.1.

142

The wellbore radii are identical. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are also identical, calculate surface production rates for the eight-well system when S = 0 and S = 5, 10, 20,−2,−4,−6.

Table 7.1 - Well Locations, Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 7.1

Outer Boundary Pressure, Pe Well 1, Pwf,1 Well 2, Pwf,2 Well 3, Pwf,3 Well 4, Pwf,4 Well 5, Pwf,5 Well 6, Pwf,6 Well 7, Pwf,7 Well 8, Pwf,8 Well 1 ( R1 , θ 1 ) Well 2 ( R 2 , θ 2 ) Well 3 ( R3 , θ 3 ) Well 4 ( R 4 , θ 4 ) Well 5 ( R5 , θ 5 ) Well 6 ( R6 , θ 6 ) Well 7 ( R7 , θ 7 ) Well 8 ( R8 , θ 8 ) Wellbore Radius, Rw Drainage Radius, Re Payzone Thickness, H Radial Permeability, Kr Vertical Permeability, Kv Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

18.0 MPa 5.6 MPa 7.2 MPa 9.4 MPa 10.5 MPa 6.8 MPa 8.7 MPa 9.8 MPa 7.3 MPa (20 m, 00) (400 m, 600) (800 m, 900) (1000 m, 1200) (200 m, 1800) (1500 m, 2250) (600 m, 2700) (2000 m, 3150) 0.1 m 2500 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 0.025 µm2 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

143

Solution: This problem matches Case One. When S = 5 , we have Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d is

d = [12.4 10.8 8.6 7.5 11.2 9.3 8.2 10.7]T

The unit for each element in d is MPa and the superscript T stands for “matrix transpose”.

In field metric units, F = 86.4 , then D

**F (2πK H ) /( µB) = 86.4 × (2π ) × 0.1 × 20 /(5 × 1.5) = 144.7646 r D
**

Step 2: When S = 5 for each well, using Equations (7.10) and (7.13), the matrix [ A] + [ D ] is obtained s

[ A] + [ D ] s ⎛ 14.837 ⎜ ⎜ 1.856 ⎜ 1.139 ⎜ ⎜ 0.908 =⎜ ⎜ 2.431 ⎜ 0.505 ⎜ ⎜ 1.427 ⎜ 0.226 ⎝

1.856 1.139 0.908 14.811 1.573 1.023 1.573 14.729 1.486 1.023 1.486 14.662 1.559 1.109 0.988 0.369 0.289 0.303 0.982 0.654 0.560 0.196 0.128 0.097

2.431 0.505 1.559 0.369 1.109 0.289 0.988 0.303 14.830 0.571 0.571 14.390 1.375 0.670 0.198 0.104

1.427 0.982 0.654 0.560 1.375 0.670 14.777 0.293

0.226 0.196 0.128 0.097 0.198 0.104 0.293 13.815

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

144

Step 3: Calculating the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 , we obtain s ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 s ⎛ 0.071 - 0.007 - 0.003 - 0.003 - 0.010 - 0.002 - 0.005 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.007 0.070 - 0.006 - 0.003 - 0.005 - 0.001 - 0.003 ⎜ - 0.003 - 0.006 0.070 - 0.006 - 0.003 - 0.001 - 0.002 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.003 - 0.003 - 0.006 0.070 - 0.003 - 0.001 - 0.002 =⎜ ⎜ - 0.010 - 0.005 - 0.003 - 0.003 0.071 - 0.002 - 0.005 ⎜ - 0.002 - 0.001 - 0.001 - 0.001 - 0.002 0.070 - 0.003 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.005 - 0.003 - 0.002 - 0.002 - 0.005 - 0.003 0.069 ⎜ - 0.001 - 0.001 0.000 0.000 - 0.001 0.000 - 0.001 ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

- 0.001 - 0.001 0.000 0.000 - 0.001 0.000 - 0.001 0.072

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Step 4: Using Equation (7.17), when S = 5 , the surface production rate vector Q is obtained below:

**Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [83.847 71.485 55.307 49.149 71.431 80.674 50.769 106.178]T
**

The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D.

When S = 5 , the total flow rate of the multiple wells system is

8 Q = ∑ Q = 568.839 ( Sm 3 / D) t w, j j =1

145

The production rates with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.2.

**Table 7.2 - Surface Production Rates for Example 7.1
**

Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 110.010 83.847 67.887 49.223 126.236 149.848 200.263 Well 2 92.449 71.485 58.230 42.454 104.650 120.385 140.017 Well 3 70.380 55.307 45.396 33.340 78.633 88.320 97.534 Flow Rate (Sm /D) Well 4 63.294 49.149 40.129 29.329 71.458 81.988 96.830 Well 5 89.940 71.431 58.834 43.316 99.289 108.086 100.910 Well 6 117.909 80.674 61.639 42.059 145.677 192.712 294.318 Well 7 62.115 50.769 42.252 31.365 66.513 67.138 43.745 Well 8 163.660 106.180 78.775 52.068 209.650 293.105 494.206 Total 769.760 568.839 453.143 323.153 902.107 1101.582 1467.823

3

Example 7.2: Given the following production rate vector:

**Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [89.599 73.591 92.030 46.519 135.325 93.066 43.455 202.898]T
**

The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D. The well locations, outer boundary pressure, flowing bottomhole pressures, wellbore radii, reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.1. Calculate mechanical skin factors for the eight-wells system.

146

we have q [D ] d = [0.1.65 1963. then r D ( F (2πK H ) /( µB)) × d D r = [1795.0049]T 147 .77 1408.41 1413.0023 0.19) and assuming q the column vector [ D ] below consists of the diagonal elements of the d matrix [ D ]− 1 .08 1563.73 1621.07 1548.64]T Step 3: Calculating the matrix [ D ]− 1 in Equation (7.39 1018.0215 0.87 1114.98 1085.0109 0.98]T Step 2: The influence matrix [ A] is already obtained in Example 7.Solution: This problem matches Case Two.0112 0.0136 0. then the vector [ A]Q can be obtained [ A]Q = [1648.46 1244.0107 0.36 1346. Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d and the value of F (2πK H ) /( µB) are already obtained in Example 7.76 948.99 1888.31 1187.1.0074 0.

the mechanical skin factor vector is S = [ S S S S S S S S ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [1. Permeability K is 0.49 3.−4. Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 7.−2. Solution: This problem matches Case One.1 µm2. calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. Example 7.1 and Example 7. we obtain 148 .−6. for S = 0 . reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.87 − 1.53 2. 10. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.3: Eight wells are uniformly distributed along a diameter of an isotropic circular reservoir.63 2.11 − 1.2 show that the skin factors significantly affect the production performance. q Step 4: Using Equation (7. 20.95 − 2.3. The well locations are given in Table 7.The non-diagonal elements in [ D ]− 1 are zero.1. The wellbore radii.1.18).67]T The flow rates in Example 7.83 2.

1800) (2000 m.497 13.1800) (1000 m.3 .628 10.3 Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well 1 ( R1 . It can be shown that the values of productivity indexes are equivalent for the two wells symmetrically located along the line of the eight wells 149 . θ 4 ) 5 ( R5 .580 9. θ 1 ) 2 ( R2 . θ 7 ) 8 ( R8 .PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [9.751 10. 00) (500 m. 00) (1500 m. θ 3 ) 4 ( R4 . θ 2 ) 3 ( R3 .751 13.1800) (1500 m.Well Locations for Example 7.497]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.912 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 Table 7.1800) The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.580 9. θ 8 ) (500 m. θ 6 ) 7 ( R7 . When S = 0 . 00) (1000 m.628 9. θ 5 ) 6 ( R6 . 00) (2000 m.4. the total productivity index is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 86.

805 4.478 35.912 62. the bigger the productivity index of the well.380 Well 5 10.093 3 As Figure 7.661 16.956 49.3 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 9. The smaller the distance from the constant pressure outer boundary.784 15.20) is multiple wells system production function and is defined as: 150 . Assuming there is no pressure drop caused by formation damage or stimulation. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon inside a homogeneous.090 Total 86.363 Well 6 10. the flow rates for all wells are identical. i.e.170 4.605 15.994 12.806 22.380 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 9.113 6.605 15.580 7.213 Well 2 9.213 Well 3 9.283 5.170 4.836 4.159 18.150 10.478 35.090 Well 8 13.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.283 5.661 16.497 9.239 5.751 7.971 12.167 10.system.843 6.197 166. Table 7. and can be expressed as: Q =F w D where M 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r e w ln(M ) w w (7.805 4.903 4.e.994 12. anisotropic circular reservoir.608 102.628 7.751 7.678 14.580 7.497 9.836 4.363 Well 7 13.429 34.806 22.903 4.1 shows.113 6. The off-center distances ( R ) for all wells 0 are identical. the farther away from the reservoir center.971 12.628 7. i.843 6.325 12.752 126.784 15.4 .678 14.167 10.325 12. S = 0 for each well.159 18.150 10.239 5.

Production Functions For Multiple Wells in an Isotropic Circular Reservoir Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Number of Wells n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Production Function Mw 2 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 4 ] /( 2 Rw R0 / Re ) 2 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 6 ] /(3Rw R0 / Re ) 3 4 [1 − ( R0 / Re )8 ] /( 4 Rw R0 / Re ) 4 5 [1 − ( R0 / Re )10 ] /(5Rw R0 / Re ) 5 6 [1 − ( R0 / Re )12 ] /(6 Rw R0 / Re ) 6 7 [1 − ( R0 / Re )14 ] /(7 Rw R0 / Re ) 7 8 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 ] /(8Rw R0 / Re ) 8 9 [1 − ( R0 / Re )18 ] /(9 Rw R0 / Re ) 9 10 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 20 ] /(10 Rw R0 / Re ) 151 .6) and when n = 2 .20) reduces to Equation (1.M w = [1 − ( R / R ) 2n ] /(nR R n − 1 / R n ) 0 D eD wD 0 D eD (7.31).20) reduces to Equation (1. Table 7. Table 7. Equation (7.21) and n is the number of wells. Equation (7.5 shows M w for multiple wells located at vertexes of several regular polygons in an isotropic circular reservoir.21) is also applicable for n = 1. 2 . It is easy to prove that for an isotropic reservoir.5 . It must be pointed out that Equation (7. when n = 1 .

1. 3. 9. Calculate productivity index for the multiple wells system when n = 2. Solution: Using Equations (7.4: A number of wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon in an isotropic circular reservoir.387 = 28.1 µm2.774 ( Sm3 / D / MPa) 152 .5 Then the productivity index for each well is 542.1×1250 / 25002 ) = 23437.5) = ln(23437.Example 7.21). for n = 2 . reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.…. Wellbore radii. we obtain: M w = [1 − (1250 / 2500) 4 ] /(2 × 0.867 KH /( µB) ln(M ) w 542. Permeability K is 0. R = 1250 m . The off-center distances of all the wells are identical.387 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) PI = The total productivity index for the two wells is PIT = 2 × 14.1 × 20 /(5 × 1.867 × 0. and the mechanical skin factor for each well is 0 zero.5) = 14. 4. 10.20) and (7.

We also consider 153 . productivity indexes for other cases are obtained.6.Multiple Wells Located at Vertexes of a Regular Polygon Using the same procedure. The calculation results are given in Table 7.1 .Y Re O R0 R0 X Figure 7.

3 and 7.69 79921. it can be found that well pattern has significant effects on the single and total productivity index.the case where n = 1 . we compare the results in Examples 7.268 11.744 10.922 13.00 23437.50 32812.294 PIT (Sm3/D/MPa) 14. and consequently the interference effects become more significant. i.2. In Table 7.607 82.119 73.78 PI (Sm3/D/MPa) 14.538 64.88 133300.Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 7.782 96.1. PI is the productivity index for single well.692 102.713 14.223 10. For the case n = 8 .765 53.90 711108.732 11. to compare with multiple wells cases. only one well in the reservoir.e.40 1279998.6 .824 12.6.387 13.713 28. single well productivity index PI decreases.384 12.122 89. PIT = n × PI . 7. It must be emphasized that when the number of wells n increases. S = 0 for each well. PIT is the total productivity index for the multiple wells system.48 399993. Table 7.78 228557. 7.774 41.4.945 154 .4 n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mw 18750.50 49804.

2. 9. 10.5: A number of wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon in an isotropic circular reservoir.1.…. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.2.2 . Investigate the effect of the off-center distance R0 on productivity index when n = 1.Effect of Off-Center Distance on Productivity Index 155 . Wellbore radii.Example 7.1 µm2. Assume S = 0 for each well and permeability K is 0. Solution: The results are shown in Figure 7. Figure 7.

From Figure 7. single well productivity 0 index PI decreases. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a circular reservoir during pseudo- steady state.2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo-Steady State If only one well is on production. No significant differences in PI for different number of wells when off-center distance R is nearly equal to the constant pressure 0 outer boundary radius R . when the number of wells n increases. when R increases. the wells should be kept at a sufficient distance to prevent water encroachment. the wells should be located near the constant pressure outer boundary. In order to obtain higher PI in a multiple wells e system. θ ) = P − ( )W a j K HF r D µBQ (7. PI 0 also increases. This is because at a fixed R . (say. For a given n. 7. But if the outer boundary is under water drive.2. the jth one). θ ) is j P ( R.22) 156 . it can be concluded that for a given off-center distance R . the pressure at the point ( R . In the polar coordinate system. more wells mean 0 more serious interference effects.

with n production wells. R . (7. and R 3 1 1 R W = −( ) − ( ) ln( D ) + ( )( D ) 2 j R 8π 2π 4π R eD eD R R R R 1 D jD D jD 2 − ( ) ln{[1 − 2( ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ] j 4π R2 R2 eD eD R R jD jD 2 × [1 − 2( ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ]} j R R D D (7.18) are still applicable to a multiple wells – circular reservoir system in pseudo-steady state. for the n-well system.9) and (7. (7. θ ) = P − ( ) × ∑ [Q × W ( R. the surface production vector Q .24) Equations (7.8).θ )] a j j j j K HF j =1 r D where W j has the same meaning as in Equation (7. the pressure at the point ( R .θ . (7. θ ) is n µB P ( R.7).23) By superposition principle.17) and (7. which is located at ( R j . θ j ).23).16). the influence matrix [ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector DS are defined in Equations (7. respectively.where Q j is the flow rate of the production well. But the pressure drawdown vector d is defined below: 157 .

the production rate in pseudo-steady state and mechanical 158 .2 ⎥ d = ⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢ a ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ d ⎥ ⎢P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ n⎦ ⎣ a w. 3 1 R + RwDi 2 a = −( ) + ( )( iD ) ii R 4 2 eD R R ) (R2 − R2 − R wDi eD iD wDi iD ] − ln[ R3 eD (7. n ⎦ (7. if i = j .27) Given the locations (polar coordinates) of each well in a closed circular reservoir. reservoir and fluid properties data are also known.25) For the influence matrix [ A] . and the pressure drop.⎡ d1 ⎤ ⎡ Pa − Pw.26) If i ≠ j . then R 1 R + RwDi 2 3 ) a = −( ) − ln( iD ) + ( )( iD ij 2 4 R R eD eD R R R R 1 iD jD iD jD 2 ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ] − ( ) ln{[1 − 2( j i 2 R2 R2 eD eD R R jD 2 jD ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ]} × [1 − 2( j i R R iD iD (7.1 ⎤ ⎢d ⎥ ⎢ P − P ⎥ ⎢ w.

e.17) and Equation (7. respectively.1 is also applicable for pseudo-steady state. As Figure 7.26). and can be expressed as: Q =F w D where 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Π n (7. The step-by-step procedure in Section 7.27). anisotropic circular reservoir.19). Assuming the off-center distances ( R ) for 0 all wells are identical and there is no pressure drop caused by formation damage or stimulation. i. the elements a in matrix [ A] are defined in Equations (7.1 shows.28) 159 . then the flow rates in pseudo-steady state for all wells are identical.18).skin factor of each well can be obtained by solving Equation (7. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon inside a closed homogeneous. the matrix [ Dq ] −1 ij has the same meaning as in Equation (7.25). (7. S = 0 for each well. It must be pointed out that pressure drawdown vector d is defined in Equation (7.

31) If n = 4 .Π n R R +R wD ) 2 − 3 + ln( eD )] = n[ 1 ( 0 D R 2 R 4 eD 0D R R2 (7. then Π = ln[ 2 R6 e 2 R R0 ( Re2 + R02 )( R 2 − R 2 − R R ) w e 0 0 w R +R w )2 − 3 +( o R 2 e ] (7. For isotropic circular reservoir. if n = 2 . R9 e Π = ln[ ] 3 2 2 2 3R R ( R − R − R R )( R 4 + R 2 R 2 + R 4 ) w 0 e e 0 0 0 w e 0 R +R w )2 − 9 + 3( o R 2 4 e (7.29) 0 D eD + ln[ ] R ) (R 2 − R 2 − R R wD eD 0D 0 D wD R R n 2(i − 1)π 2(i − 1)π − ∑ ln{ 1 − 2( 0 D ) 2 cos[ ]} ] + ( 0 D ) 4 × 2 − 2 cos[ R n R n i=2 eD eD and n is the number of wells. 160 .30) If n = 3 .

28) and (7. R10 e Π = ln[ ] 6 5 2 2 6 R R ( R + R )( R 2 − R 2 − R R ) w 0 e e 0 0 0 w 8 R e + ln[ ] ( R 4 − R 2 R 2 + R 4 )( R 4 + R 2 R 2 + R 4 ) e e 0 e e 0 0 0 R +R w )2 − 9 + 3( o R 2 e (7. The well locations. pseudo-steady state productivity equation for the two symmetric wells is obtained.33) Combine Equations (7. wellbore radii. Example 7.31).30). as given in Equation (1.R12 e Π = ln[ ] 4 3 2 2 2 4 R R ( R + R )( R − R 2 − R R )( R 4 + R 4 ) w 0 e 0 e 0 0 w e 0 R +R w )2 − 3 + 2( o R e (7. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each 161 .6: Eight wells are distributed in a closed anisotropic circular reservoir. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.32) If n = 6 .1.

7.048 8.661 Total 118. for S = 0 .880]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.1.880 11.248 Well 7 14.009 6.986 8.823 9.967 38.009 5.832 16.084 77.6 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 11.198 23. The total productivity index when S = 0 is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 118.278 63.well are identical.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.144 8.763 11.878 34.122 61.944 20.557 4.513 14.355 17.090 10.814 18.−4.986 17.701 7.674 7.474 13.639 16.317 6.853 23.963 345.435 Well 5 11.076 5.084 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5.619 57.232 4.687 9.478 6.217 55.469 4.895 206.849 4.7 .687 17. 10.811 18. Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 7.944 30.539 4. we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [11.246 7.604 8.767 Well 3 14.619 25.251 9.659 3 162 .397 Well 6 17.270 Well 2 13.605 19.604 13.763 14.901 26.678 43.424 34. 20. Table 7.500 34.−2.162 Well 8 17.425 21.090 11.251 14.727 16.236 4.331 44.554 149.720 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 16.162 23.−6.

982 15.−2. 10.Example 7.927 14.927 14.982 14.−4.7: Eight wells are uniformly distributed along a diameter of an isotropic circular reservoir.615 14. Permeability K is 0.1.−6. The well locations are the same as given in Table 7. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical. The total productivity index when S = 0 is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 121. we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [15.615 15.8.1 µm2.151 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.3. 163 . reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7. The wellbore radii.051 15. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S =0 and S = 5.051]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa. Solution: When S = 0 . 20.

927 9.374 3 Re Rw R ⎡ ⎛ Re2 − R 2 ⎞ R 2⎤ QR = Q ⎜ ⎟ = Q ⎢1 − ( R ) ⎥ ⎜ R2 ⎟ e e ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝ Figure 7.912 40.912 40.615 9.894 7.843 18.603 4.892 Total 121.Table 7.Pseudo-Steady State Flow to a Well in a Circular Reservoir 164 .982 10.530 46.188 208.530 46.925 Well 2 15.031 25.925 Well 3 14.257 38.894 7.718 7.371 4.277 4.358 4.601 Well 6 14.843 18.860 7.269 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 14.433 36.371 4.305 7.8 .3 .277 4.615 9.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.883 19.051 9.880 18.151 79.305 7.7 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15.263 325.880 18.257 38.860 7.269 Well 5 14.718 7.031 25.603 4.986 20.776 25.776 25.927 9.491 28.218 39.986 20.883 19.184 153.982 10.553 59.892 Well 8 15.433 36.296 24.296 24.491 28.601 Well 7 15.051 9.358 4.

and maximum flow rate at the wellbore.If we compare the above productivity indexes in Example 7. more fluid is coming from the area farther from the wellbore. we may find that for a given well.3 shows.3. under the same pressure drop. as Figure 7. Thus.7 with the corresponding productivity indexes in Example 7. there is zero flow rate at the closed outer boundary. and hence more energy is dissipated. It is because steady state is dominated by a constant pressure outer boundary flow regime. in pseudosteady state the fluid moved through shorter distance than in steady state. which implies that (a) the same volume of fluid is being moved at the wellbore and (b) at the outer boundary. its productivity index in pseudo-steady state is bigger than that in steady state. In pseudo-steady state. and productivity index is higher (Ibragimov and Valko. 2000). 165 . the produced fluid is evenly distributed in the reservoir.

If a well is located at ( X wj . K permeability. Ywj ) . Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well due to formation damage or stimulation are also given. In x y z any given time interval. anisotropic rectangular reservoir. The reservoir has constant K . S . the top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable. wj wj the wellbore radii. the number of wells.Y ) . PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A RECTANGULAR RESERVOIR This chapter presents steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. The wells are parallel to the z direction with a producing length equal to thickness H .8. K . we have 166 . their locations ( X . and the skin factors. are considered constant. n.7 shows a number of fully penetrating vertical wells in a rectangular drainage domain. and thickness H . R . wj j Figure 2.

0< X wj <X .17).2) (X . The pressure at the point ( X . the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a rectangular reservoir during steady state. Y ) = P − ( ) × ln( 1 e σ ×σ 4π K K HF 3 4 x y D where Q is the flow rate of the production well. which is located at j µBQ (8.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State Recall Equation (2. (say. Y ) .3) −Y D ) /(2Y )] wDj eD wDj | /(2Y )]} eD + sinh 2 [π | X −X 167 . the outer boundary pressure P is always equal to e initial pressure P during production. i If only one well is on production. e 0<Y <Y wj e (8. Y ) is below (Lu and Tiab. and wj wj +Y D ) /(2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 1 D wDj −X + sinh 2 [π | X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y D wDj (8. the jth one). 2008): σ ×σ j 2) P( X .1) 8.

168 .Y .7) and σ .5) + sinh 2 [π ( X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /(2Y )] D wDj eD D +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD + sinh 2 [π ( X σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 4 D +Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD /Y − π (X + X ) /( 2Y )]} eD D wDj eD −Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD /Y − π (X + X ) /( 2Y )]} eD D wDj eD (8. (8. X . 1 2 3 4 (8.4) /Y −π | X − X | /(2Y )]} eD D wDj eD ÷ {sin 2[π (Y − Y ) /( 2Y )] D wDj eD + sinh 2[πX /Y −π | X − X | /(2Y )]} eD eD D wDj eD σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 3 D +Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD D +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD (8.4). respectively. σ . σ have the same meanings as in Equations (8.σ = {sin 2[π (Y + Y 2 D + sinh 2[πX eD wDj ) /( 2Y )] eD (8.Y ) = ln( 1 j wDj wDj σ ×σ 3 4 (8.6) + sinh 2 [πX eD D ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y + sinh 2 [πX eD Define σ ×σ 2) G ( X .5) and (8.6).3). σ .

respectively.6). j ) = ( 1 ) ln[ 5 2 σ ×σ 7 8 where (8.10) 169 . (7. σ ×σ 6] a (i. Y . the pressure at the point ( X . (7. X j j D D wDj wDj j =1 (8.9) where the pressure drawdown vector d .9) and (7.Then by superposition principle.8) Using a similar method presented in Chapter 7. the surface production vector Q .Y )] × ∑ [Q × G ( X . the following equation can be obtained for a multiple wells – rectangular reservoir system. for the n-well system.16). Y ) is P( X . with n production wells. the influence matrix [ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector DS are defined in Equations (7.7). The elements a of the matrix [ A] represent the influence of well j on the ij pressure at the circumference of well i . d =( µB 2π K K HF x y D ) × ([A] + [DS ]) Q (8. Y ) µB ) = P −( e 4π K K HF x y D n . If i ≠ j .

14) + sinh 2 [πX ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /( 2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [πX +X /Y − π (X ) /(2Y )]} eD eD wDi wDj eD If i = j .σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 5 wDi +Y wDj ) /( 2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD + sinh 2 [π | X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y wDi −X wDj (8.13) + sinh 2 [π ( X wDi ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /(2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [π ( X +X ) /(2Y )]} wDi wDj eD σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 8 wDi eD +Y ) /( 2Y )] wDj eD +X /Y − π (X ) /(2Y )]} eD wDi wDj eD (8.11) wDi −Y wDj ) /( 2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD + sinh 2 [π | X wDi −X wDj σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 6 wDi eD +Y wDj ) /(2Y )] eD + sinh 2 [πX −X /Y −π | X | /(2Y )]} eD wDi wDj eD ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /(2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [πX −X /Y −π | X | /(2Y )]} eD eD wDi wDj eD (8.12) σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 7 wDi +Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD (8. 170 .

15) σ = sin 2 (πY 9 / Y ) / sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] wDi eD wDi eD (8. j ) = ( 1 ) ln( 9 2 σ ×σ 11 12 where (8.σ ×σ 10 ) a (i. In matrix notation.9) can be solved for the unknown production rates.19) All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.20) By rearranging Equation (8.17) σ 11 (8. we can express the skin factor vector as 171 .18) σ 12 (8. this solution is given as F (2π K K H ) D x y Q= ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 d s µB (8. Equation (8.9).16) σ 10 = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] wDi eD eD eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wDi eD eD eD = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] wDi eD wDi eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wDi eD wDi eD = {sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wDi eD eD eD wDi ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wDi eD eD eD wDi (8.

and the number F (2π K K H ) /( µB) in Equation (8.19). the outer boundary pressure. s 172 .20). D x y Step 2 – Using Equations (8. calculate the influence matrix [ A] . Case One: Skin factors of each well are known. reservoir and fluid properties data. then using Equation (7. the production rate or mechanical skin factor of each well can be calculated.⎡ F (2π K K H ) ⎤ D x y ⎢ − 1 S = [D ] d − [ A]Q ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ q µB ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (8. q Step-by-Step Procedure Given the locations of each well in a rectangular reservoir. calculate production rate vector.6).15).10) and (8.21) where [ D ]− 1 is defined in Equation (7. Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7. flowing bottomhole pressure.16) to obtain the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) .

then obtain [ F (2π K K H ) /( µB)]d in D x y D x y Equation (8. q Step 4 – Using Equation (8. calculate the matrix [ D ]− 1 . and the number F (2π K K H ) /( µB) . calculate the production rate vector Q . calculate the influence matrix [ A] .21). Step 2 – Using Equations (8.21).Step 3 – Calculate the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 .19).15). Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7. Step 3 –Using Equation (7.10) and (8.20). calculate the skin factor vector. then calculate the vector [ A]Q . calculate the skin factor vector. Case Two: Production rates of each well are known. 173 . s Step 4 – Using Equation (8.6).

calculate surface production rates for the eight-well system when S = 0 and S = 5.1 × 0. The rectangular coordinates of these wells ( X .−6. In field metric units.7]T The unit for each element in d is MPa and the superscript T stands for “matrix transpose”.6 7. we have Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d is d = [12. then D F (2π K K H ) /( µB) = 86.−2. flowing bottomhole pressure.4 .5) = 204.2 × 20 /(5 × 1. 20.5 11. The wellbore radii are identical.3 8. Y ) are presented in Table wj wj 8. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are also identical. Solution: This problem matches Case One. wellbore radii. F = 86.8 8. 10. The outer boundary pressure.728 D x y 174 .1: Consider an anisotropic rectangular reservoir containing eight wells. When S = 5 .2 9.1. reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are also shown in Table 8.−4.4 10.2 10.1.4 × (2π ) × 0.Example 8.

H 20 m Permeability in X Direction. Pwf. Pwf.1 µm2 0. Pwf. Ky 0.2 µm2 Permeability in Y Direction. 1200 m) Well 5 ( X w5 . Yw3 ) (500 m. Pwf. the matrix [ A] + [ D ] is obtained s 175 .0 MPa Well 1. (8. Rw 0. 1100 m) Wellbore Radius.4 10.5 6. Yw5 ) (300 m. B 1.2 MPa Well 3.15).1 5.8 7. Yw2 ) (2500 m.025 µm2 Vertical Permeability. 800 m) Well 4 ( X w4 . using Equations (7. Pwf. 500 m) Well 2 ( X w2 . Kz Oil Viscosity. 700 m) Well 7 ( X w7 . Yw6 ) (1800 m.8 MPa Well 8. 1300 m) Well 6 ( X w6 .0 mPa. 1000 m) Well 3 ( X w3 . 900 m) Well 8 ( X w8 .5 Rm3/Sm3 Step 2: Because S = 5 for each well. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.s Formation Volume Factor.6 MPa Well 2.10) and (8.5 MPa Well 5.6 8. Yw7 ) (1000 m. Yw4 ) (2000 m. Pwf.7 MPa Well 7.8 MPa Well 6.3 9.7 9.3 MPa Well 1 ( X w1 . Pe 18. Xe 3000 m Reservoir Width.2 7. Ye 1500 m Payzone Thickness. µ 5.Well Locations.1 Outer Boundary Pressure.1 m Reservoir Length.16). Yw1 ) (1500 m. Pwf.1 . Yw8 ) (2200 m. Pwf.Table 8.4 MPa Well 4. Kx 0.

087 0.009 ⎟ ⎟ 0.084 0.003 0.000 0.001 .002 ⎜ .072 13. we obtain s ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 s ⎛ 0.001 .000 ⎟ ⎟ .0.000 .004 13.072 0.[ A] + [ D ] s ⎛ 13.000 .000 0.315 0.000 0.0.0.000 0.20).002 0.001 0.346 0.008 0.921 0.753 0.001 0.003 ⎟ 0.073 0.000 =⎜ ⎜ 0.040 0.018 0.077 0.0.002 0.040 0.001 0.0.002 0.739 ⎜ ⎜ 0.0.001⎞ ⎟ .084 ⎜ ⎜ 0. the surface production rate vector Q is obtained below: Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [170.0.000 .001 0.260 141.0.0.739 0.000 .0.000 ⎟ ⎟ .0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 ⎜ .262 172.0.346 ⎜ 0.000 .002 ⎟ ⎟ 0.315 0.148 95.123 149.0.498 0.653 0.016 0.040 ⎟ 13.001 0.702 109.417 0.176 0.002 0.0.013 0.004 0.203 0.261 0.074 ⎟ ⎠ Step 4: Using Equation (8.0.002 0.261 0.072 ⎜ ⎜ .000 0.000 .059 0.000 ⎜ ⎜ 0.0.016 ⎜ 0.000 0.072 ⎜ 0.004 ⎟ 0.008 13.002 0.669 ⎟ ⎠ Step 3: Calculating the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 .000 ⎜ 0.419 0.0.000 0.075 0.831 0.0.498 0.018 0.189 0.000 0.831 ⎟ 0.832 ⎜ ⎜ 0.147 ⎝ 0.419 0.417 ⎟ ⎟ 0.000 .461 118.087 0.004 .0.969 0.868 0.001 .000 ⎟ 0.441 115.003 13.000 0.059 0.000 .0.001 0.002 ⎟ ⎟ 0.443 0.001 0.072 .653 ⎟ 0.002 .000 .0.541]T 176 .003 0.0.203 0.000 ⎝ .0.189 =⎜ ⎜ 0.147 ⎞ ⎟ 0.0.001 .009 0.073 0.004 .0.000 .176 13.004 0.002 0.000 0.040 0.0.000 ⎜ ⎜ .013 13.

552 149.091 397.260 82.888]T 177 .1 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 256.191 141.2 .128 415.100 2018.803 49.448 1071.2: Given the following production rate vector: Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [206.576 Well 7 161.071 156.461 111.467 438.439 293.861 Well 3 177.281 2711.038 172.424 170.542 4204.451 367.326 95.253 209.363 118.251 80.913 617.718 339.714 260.449 115.937 ( Sm 3 / D) t w.969 71.267 200.630 109. Table 8.956 60.The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D.514 240.262 72.313 Total 1610.472 55.148 88.738 323.474 Well 6 164. the total flow rate of the eight-wells system is 8 Q = ∑ Q = 1071. j j =1 The production rates with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.564 109.868 258.976 366.248 495.319 199.996 Flow Rate (Sm /D) Well 4 137.Surface Production Rates for Example 8.934 388.721 196.490 144.541 106.052 270. When S = 5 .614 74.703 1056.614 Well 8 209.544 Well 5 277.123 127.242 541.441 125.937 803.2.133 285.219 3 Example 8.510 58.702 88.844 700.899 170.917 221.841 Well 2 226.882 536.799 202.203 279.307 84.428 166.

30 1674.77 2190. flowing bottomhole pressure. Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d and the value of F (2π K K H ) /( µB) are already obtained in Example 8.89 1663. then the vector [ A]Q can be obtained [ A]Q = [2078. wellbore radii. Solution: This problem matches Case Two. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.37 3266.10 1222.59]T Step 2: The influence matrix [ A] is already obtained in Example 8.66 1535.97 1678.46 2292.1.1.18 2016.06 1760.63 2211.95 1903.75 2032.1. outer boundary pressure. Calculate mechanical skin factors for the eight-wells system.81 1647.The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D.45]T 178 . The well locations. then D x y ( F (2π K K H ) /( µB )) × d D x y = [2538.

87 − 2.0092 0. Permeability K is 0.3.0050 0. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as 179 .0059 0.36]T The flow rates in Example 8. we have q [ D ] = [0.69 3.1 µm2.21).34 2. The well locations are given in Table 8. q Step 4: Using Equation (8. the mechanical skin factor vector is S = [ S S S S S S S S ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [2.0025 0.0048 0.45 1.0049 0.Step 3: Calculating the matrix [ D ]− 1 in Equation (7.1 and Example 8.19) and assuming q the column vector [ D ] below consists of the diagonal elements of the d matrix [ D ]− 1 .0069 0.3: Eight wells are distributed along a diagonal of an isotropic rectangular reservoir.23 3.0064]T d The non-diagonal elements in [ D ]− 1 are zero.2 show that the skin factors significantly affect the production performance.78 − 1.14 − 1. The wellbore radii. Example 8.

581 11.given in Table 8. 600 m) (1500 m. When S = 0 .3 Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ( X w1 . Y w5 ) ( X w6 . 450 m) (1200 m.144 (Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 180 . 750 m) (1800 m.238 14. calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5.312 11. Yw2 ) ( X w3 . Yw4 ) ( X w 5 .956]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa. 1050 m) (2400 m. 20.225 12.647 12. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.694 14. 1200 m) Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8.3 .−4. 300 m) (900 m.1.−6. for S = 0 . we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [17. Yw1 ) ( X w2 . Table 8. 10. 900 m) (2100 m. the total productivity index is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 106. Y w7 ) ( X w8 .491 11.−2. Yw8 ) (300 m.1. Y w3 ) ( X w4 . 150 m) (600 m.Well Locations for Example 8. Y w6 ) ( X w7 .

484 4.956 9.3.080 22.439 25.3 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 17.805 16.339 6.737 6.4 .Productivity Indexes for Example 8.122 Well 7 12.156 4.764 4.4: If ninth well is added in the eight-wells system in Example 8.404 256.474 13.798 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 11.694 8. Table 8.−2.714 4.072 19.647 8. 1350 m) .3. the reservoir.627 66.876 Well 6 11. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.767 7.808 7.−4.225 9.694 20.144 72.231 Well 2 14.407 Well 3 12.378 19. calculate productivity indexes for the nine-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5.920 Well 5 11. 10.748 23.244 43.581 8.707 16.439 13.312 8.480 55.314 16.062 18.311 4.491 8. we obtain 181 .896 24.845 21.769 171.588 34.827 6.751 33.807 Total 106.178 6. 20.238 10.308 6.1.775 3 Example 8.The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.851 19. other well locations are the same as given in Table 8. Solution: For S = 0 .614 Well 8 14. and w9 w9 wellbore data are the same as given in Table 8.785 17. its location is at ( X .121 37.466 4.309 130.610 15.4.482 13.587 15. fluid properties.−6.517 7. Y ) = (2700 m.838 5.003 26.390 4.

223 12.PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = [17.237 10.155 4.690 16.586 34.568 8.475 3 In Example 8.901 Well 7 12.472 13.766 7.300 6.586 11.673 20. It can be shown that the values of productivity indexes are equivalent for the two wells symmetrically located along the diagonal of the rectangular reservoir.434 13.809 Well 6 11.757 201.461 4.586 12.280 11. the total productivity index is 9 PIT = ∑ PI = 122.237 14.746 23. From the numerical results in Example 8. the nine wells are uniformly distributed along the diagonal.5.785 17.3 and 182 .751 33.472 13. Table 8.223 9.562 312.281 151.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.890 24.309 82.223 17.300 6.734 6.516 7.486 14.155 4.710 42.734 6.890 24.5 .269 16.080 22.690 16.838 5.746 23.011 19.406 Well 3 12.586 15.057 18.794 62.586 34.161 6.486 8.712 4.516 7.461 4.309 (Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.712 4.486 8.4 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 17.406 Well 9 17.838 5.626 66.586 15.751 33.080 22.4.380 4.230 Total 122.901 Well 5 11.794 Well 8 14.626 66.486 11.568 8.057 18.237]T When S = 0 .231 Well 2 14.794 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 11.237 10.785 17.766 7.673 20.280 8.223 9.

reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8. it can found that the ninth well does not have significant effects on productivity indexes of other eight wells.−2. Example 8. The well locations are given in Table 8. anisotropic rectangular reservoir.4. Permeability K is 0. 10.1 µm2. Wellbore radii.−6. the bigger the productivity index of the well. calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical. eight wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles.1 shows. if S = 0 .−4.1.5: An isotropic rectangular reservoir has the same size as in Example 8. the smaller the distance from the constant pressure outer boundary.1. we obtain 183 .Example 8. As Figure 8. 20.1 shows. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles inside a homogeneous.1. The reservoir is split into n equal-area small rectangles. As Figure 8. one well is located at each area center.6. Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8.

Multiple Wells Located at Centers of Equal-Area Small Rectangles 184 . Y w7 ) ( X w8 . Y w6 ) ( X w7 . Yw1 ) ( X w2 . Y w5 ) ( X w6 . 1125 m) (2625 m. Yw2 ) ( X w3 . 375 m) (1125 m.1 . 375 m) (1875 m. 375 m) (2625 m. Yw8 ) (375 m. 1125 m) (1125 m. Y w3 ) ( X w4 .5 Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ( X w1 . 1125 m) Ye Xe Figure 8. Yw4 ) ( X w 5 .Well Locations for Example 8. 1125 m) (1875 m.6 .Table 8. 375m) (375 m.

473 9. 8 are symmetrically located.296 Well 3 14.235 39. 185 .976 35.659 7.296 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 15.967 20.473 15.804 3 From the above numerical results.830 18.871 10.976 35.606 59. 5.564 4.659 7. Table 8. it can be concluded that.7 .7.564 4.357 28.063 23.871 15.PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [15.420 47. 3.473 9.967 20.871 14. with the corners of the small distances from two of the constant pressure reservoir boundaries. 4.585 330.680 209.405 Well 6 14.357 28.473 14.830 18. 5. the total productivity index is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 121.871 10.871 10.871 10.420 47.967 20.245 4.967 20.5 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15. the productivity indexes of Well 1.871 14.405 Well 2 14.063 23.242 7.378 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.245 4.473 15.976 35.473 14.976 35.357 28.245 4.242 7.063 23.296 Well 8 15.830 18. 7.659 7.473 9.871]T When S = 0 .378 79.564 4.357 28. 6.405 Well 5 15.296 Well 7 14.659 7. 4. Well 1.186 153.405 Total 121. because their locations are near rectangular reservoir.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.420 47.242 7.420 47.245 4. 8 are equal and bigger than those of Well 2.830 18.473 9.242 7.564 4.063 23.

3. if we compare the results in Examples 8. 1125m) 186 .1.6 Well Well Well Well 1 2 3 4 ( X w1 .8 .−2. Yw4 ) (750 m. Permeability K is 0.Well Locations for Example 8. Example 8. Yw1 ) ( X w2 . Y w3 ) ( X w4 . calculate productivity indexes for the four-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. 375 m) (750 m. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8. The reservoir size is the same as in Example 8. The well locations are given in Table 8. 1125 m) (2250 m.−6. 375 m) (2250 m. it can be concluded that well pattern has significant effects on the single and total productivity index.1 µm2. 8. 20. 6. 7.3 and 8.5. The same conclusions are For the eight-wells system. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.5.−4.8. 10. Wellbore radii. Table 8.so their productivity indexes are equal. S = 0 for each well. Yw2 ) ( X w3 . obtained for Well 2.1.6: Four wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles.

965 20.810 10.6 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15.6.810 10.291 183. 187 .434 3 From Example 8.965 20.228 28.226 7.557 4.1.073 45. Table 8.226 7.859 Total 63.228 28.81 15.228 28.24 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.9 .860 80.228 28.859 Well 4 15.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as shown in Example 8.226 7. if S = 0 we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI ]T = [15.965 20.238 40.810 10. and wells are symmetrically located.073 45. the total productivity index is 4 PIT = ∑ PI = 63.557 4. we may come to the conclusion that if skin factors are indentical.903 30.81]T 1 2 3 4 When S = 0 .227 19.81 15. their productivity indexes are also identical.810 10.859 Well 3 15.226 7.911 112.9.557 4.81 15.073 45.859 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 2 15.965 20.073 45.557 4.

Y ) .24) ρ 3 = −( πX | X − X wDj | π (YD − YwDj ) 1 ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− eD D ) cos[ ] 4π YeD YeD + exp(− 2πX eD | X D − X wDj | YeD )} (8. Y ) is j P( X . (say.23) ρ 2 = −( πX | X − X wDj | π (YD + YwDj ) 1 ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− eD D ) cos[ ] 4π YeD YeD + exp(− 2πX eD | X D − X wDj | YeD )} (8. Y ) = P − ( ) × ( ρ1 + ρ 2 + ρ 3 ) a K K HF x y D µBQ (8. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a rectangular reservoir during pseudosteady state.2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo-Steady State If only one well is on production. with n production wells. Y ) is 188 .8. the jth one). The pressure at the point ( X . the pressure at the point ( X .25) Q is the flow rate of the production well. which is located at ( X .22) where 2 2 X eD 1 max( X D . X wDj ) X D + X wDj )[ − ρ1 = ( ] + 2 2 X eD YeD 3 X eD (8. for the n-well system. j wj wj By superposition principle.

the surface production vector Q . respectively.23). 189 .26) where ρ1 . (7. and (7. Y ) n µB = P −( ) × ∑ [Q × ( ρ1 + ρ 2 + ρ 3 )] a j K K HF j =1 x y D (8.25). For the influence matrix [ A] .25).27) ]} If i ≠ j .20) and (8.24) and (8. ρ 3 have the same meanings as in Equations (8.16). Equations (8. the influence matrix [ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector D s are defined in Equations (7. the pressure drawdown vector d . if i = j .21) are still applicable to a multiple wells – rectangular reservoir system in pseudo-steady state. ρ 2 . aii = (2π )( 2 2 X eD 1 X wDi X wDi )( − ) + 2 YeD 6 2 X eD 2 X eD − ln{4 sin( πRwDi 2YeD ) sin[ π (2YwDi + RwDi ) 2YeD (8.9).9). (8.7). (8. (7. respectively.P( X .

the production rate in pseudo-steady state and mechanical skin factor of each well can be obtained by solving Equation (8. reservoir and fluid properties data are also known.21).27) and (8. The well locations.7: Eight wells are distributed in a closed rectangular reservoir.28).28) πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | π (YwDi − YwDj ) 1 ) cos[ ] − ( ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− YeD YeD 2 + exp(− 2πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | YeD )} Given the locations of each well in a closed rectangular reservoir.1. and the pressure drop. The step-by-step procedure in Section 8.20) and Equation (8. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are 190 . Example 8. But the elements a in matrix [ A] are defined ij in Equations (8.1 is also applicable for pseudo-steady state. wellbore radii. respectively. X wDj ) X wDi + X wDj )[ − ] = (2π )( + 2 YeD 3 X eD 2 X eD πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | π (YwDi + YwDj ) 1 ) cos[ ] − ( ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− YeD YeD 2 + exp(− 2πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | YeD )} (8.aij 2 2 X eD 1 max( X wDi . reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.

025 7.023 7.−2.660 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 21.10 .815 7.616 373.977 10. Table 8.106 11.300 16.−6.738 7.554 46.082 106.609 Well 2 27.300 23.890 27.321 11.1.784 3 191 .739 52.563 7.469 121.066 30.211 53.045 21.514 Well 3 26.530 118.623 22.613 Well 5 23.397 75.10.056 86.124 76. 10.042 11.623 15.075 11.071 103.589 43. 20.754 703.093 16.399 35.850 88.identical.531 7. Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8.178]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.547 255. When S = 0 .997 11.636 42.331 13.428 36.595 10.207 Well 8 23.160 31.043 15.766 57.855 14.022 Well 7 26.331 23.737 10.119 43.057 37.084 59. we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [24.391 34.404 6.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.667 7.045 15.261 Well 6 22.033 29.469 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8. for S = 0 .898 Total 194.180 30.7 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 24.855 26.043 27.410 77.093 26. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eightwells system when S = 0 and S = 5.178 14. the total productivity index is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 194.−4.711 56.

Skin Factor 0 Well 3.25 ft Reservoir Length.33 ft) Well 3 ( X w3 .558 RB/STB 192 .67 ft.8 Well 1 ( X w1 . Doublet and Blasingame in 2000. Yw1 ) (3266. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8. H 100 ft Permeability. 5133. Skin Factors.67 ft. mechanical skin factors. K 100 mD Oil Viscosity.5.Example 8. wellbore radii. we compare the proposed productivity equation in this study and the equation presented by Valko.Well Locations.8: In this example. B 1. Xe 14000 ft Reservoir Width. Calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the three-wells system. reservoir and fluid properties data were provided by Valko. Table 8.11 . Ye 7000 ft Payzone Thickness. µ 0. The well locations. 2333. Three fully penetrating vertical wells are distributed in a closed isotropic rectangular reservoir.67 ft. 5133. Yw3 ) Well 1. Rw 0. Doublet and Blasingame (2000) and are given in Table 8.33 ft) (10266. Skin Factor 10 Well 2.5364 cp Formation Volume Factor. Yw2 ) (7466.33 ft) Well 2 ( X w2 . Skin Factor -3 Wellbore Radius.

which indicates that the proposed Equations (8. then the productivity index vector is PI = [ PI PI PI ]T = [4. Equations (1. the productivity index vector for the three-wells system is below: PI = [ PI PI PI ]T = [4.33) and (1.275]T 1 2 3 In the above calculations.28) are reliable.948 8.27) and (8.34) which were provided by Valko.Solution: If the elements a in matrix [ A] are obtained by Equations (8.928]T 1 2 3 If the elements a in matrix [ A] are obtained by Equations (1.779 13. but Equations (8.27) and ij (8.27) and (8.28) are applicable to anisotropic reservoirs.28).562 12. the unit for each element in PI is STB/D/psi.34) are only applicable to isotropic reservoirs.33) and ij (1. No significant differences exist between the above results calculated by the two methods.887 8. 193 . Doublet and Blasingame (2000).

to calculate pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. 9.1 Contributions 1.9. 3. Productivity equations are given for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in steady state and pseudo-steady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir and circular cylinder reservoir. for arbitrary position of the well within the circle. A new expression is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic circular reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state. SUMMARY The primary goal of this chapter is to summarize the contributions and the proposed steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations in this study. 2. Equations are given for a vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage volume and a box-shaped drainage volume. 194 .

Steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system within a circular drainage area and a rectangular drainage area are presented. 6. 5.4. for arbitrary aspect ratio of the rectangle and for arbitrary position of the well within the rectangle. 7. 195 . Productivity equations are given for a fully penetrating vertical well in steady state in an anisotropic sector fault reservoir and channel reservoir.1. Productivity equations are given for a horizontal well in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir and box-shaped reservoir. A new expression is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state. 9.2 Productivity Equations Productivity equations of a vertical well in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir are summarized in Table 9.

Both are impermeable. Sector Reservoir and Channel Reservoir Reservoir Shape Box Lateral Boundary Impermeable.27) Sector Fault Eq. Box Eq. Two parallel boundaries are impermeable. Constant pressure or impermeable. (3.2.15) Pseudo Skin Factor Eq.5) and (3. sector fault reservoir and channel reservoir are summarized in Table 9. only applicable for fully penetrating wells.Table 9.9) and (3. (3. (3.1) and (3.11) Eqs. Constant pressure.12) Eq.7) and (3.Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Circular Cylinder Reservoir Lateral Boundary Top and Bottom Boundaries Both are impermeable.1) Pseudo Skin Factor Eq. (3. (3.Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Box-Shaped Reservoir. Impermeable. (4. Gas cap and bottom water.13) Eq. 196 . (5. (4. Constant pressure or impermeable. Productivity Equation Eqs. (3.2 .3) Remark Constant pressure.11) Eq. Constant pressure or impermeable. (3. Outer boundary is at constant pressure. Channel Eq. (4.1) N/A Steady State.11) Eqs.14) Eq. Bottom water only.4) N/A Steady State. only applicable for fully penetrating wells. (4. Steady State. Steady State Steady State Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Productivity equations of a vertical well in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir. (3. (3. Two sides of the sector angle are impermeable. Productivity Equation Eq.3) Remark Pseudo-Steady State.22) Eq. Table 9. (5.3) Eq.2) Eqs.1 . Gas cap only. (3.

both the top and bottom boundaryies are impermeable. Both are impermeable. Bottom water only.6) Eq.3. (6. (6. Gas cap and bottom water. Gas cap only.1) Eq. Both are impermeable. Productivity Equation Eq. both the top and bottom boundaryies are impermeable.11) Eq.4.8) Eq. (6.7) Eq. Table 9. (6. Impermeable. Constant pressure or impermeable.3 . Constant pressure or impermeable.14) Remark Steady State Steady State Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Productivity equations of a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in an anisotropic reservoir are summarized in Table 9. Productivity equations of a horizontal well in an anisotropic reservoir are summarized in Table 9. For the two reservoir shapes in Table 9.For the three reservoir shapes in Table 9. Top and Bottom Boundaries Both are impermeable.Productivity Equations of a Horizontal Well in an Anisotropic Reservoir Reservoir Shape Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Box Lateral Boundary Constant pressure.2. (6. Constant pressure or impermeable. (6. 197 . Impermeable.4.

(8.27) Eqs.17) Eq. (8.10) and (7. Impermeable.27) and (8. (7.Productivity Equations of a Multiple Vertical Wells System in an Anisotropic Reservoir Reservoir Shape Circular Circular Lateral Boundary Constant pressure.15) Eqs. (8. Rectangular Impermeable.Table 9.26) and (7.10) and (8. (7. (7. 198 . (8.20) Element of Influence Matrix Eqs.13) Eqs.4 .20) Eq.28) Remark Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Rectangular Constant pressure. (7. Productivity Equation Eq.17) Eq.

location of producing portion.10. Different productivity equations should be used under different reservoir boundary conditions. off-center distance and reservoir size. 2. and the effect of the off-center distance on productivity is also negligible. vertical permeability. and a weak function of payzone thickness. 199 . the radius of the circular cylindrical system and the off-center distance appear in the partially penetrating vertical well productivity equation. CONCLUSIONS 1. If a circular cylinder reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water. If top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable. horizontal permeability. For a partially penetrating vertical well. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. the effect of the radius on productivity can be ignored. 4. This is true whether the lateral boundary is impermeable or at constant pressure. the off-center well and centered well have the same productivity. 3. and if the circular cylinder radius is very large compared to the pay zone thickness.

For a vertical well in a channel reservoir. vertical permeability. and productivity index reaches maximum value when the well is located at the middle of the reservoir width. 7. horizontal permeability. For a horizontal well. For a vertical well in a sector fault reservoir. reservoir boundary conditions. its productivity index is a decreasing function of the channel reservoir width. and a weak function of payzone thickness. reservoir size. location of the well in vertical direction in payzone. the permeability parallel to the well in the horizontal plane. the permeability perpendicular to the well in horizontal plane. is a decreasing function with respect to the sector radius. 200 . 6. radial permeability. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. productivity index reaches maximum value when the well is located at the bisector of the angle. its productivity index is an increasing function with respect to the angle of the sector.5. 8. well pattern and mechanical skin factor have significant effects on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system. For a multiple fully penetrating vertical of wells system. and for a given off-vertex distance.

A reservoir containing both vertical and horizontal wells. 201 . RECOMMENDATIONS This study can be improved by considering: 1. Non-Darcy flow effect in productivity equations. A multiple wells system in a channel reservoir. A multiple wells system containing injections wells. 4. 5. 6. 3. 7. A multiple wells system in a sector fault reservoir. Multiple wells in a reservoir with gas cap or bottom water. Productivity index equation of a well produced with constant wellbore pressure. 2.11.

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Productivity Equations for an Off – Center Partially Penetrating Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Reservoir. Lu. and Rectangular Reservoirs. J. and Blasingame.. and Tiab. Steady State Productivity Equation for Multiple Wells in a Rectangular Reservoir. C. (January). (submitted). 2007. SPE Production and Operations Symposium held in Oklahoma City. 1954. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering..Lu. Marhaendrajana. McGraw-Hill Book Co. T. F. The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous Media. M. March 31–April 3. September 30. D. J.. (May).. ( accepted). (submitted). Brons. AIME. and Tiab. D. Muskat. (October)... USA. 204 . Lu. and Rogers. and Tiab. 1949.60. Paper SPE 71517. J.. Vol. 2008. 2007. J. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology. D. Trans. 182-191. J. 2008.10. Steady State Productivity Equations for a Vertical Well in Anisotropic Sector Fault. 2008. 3. A. New York City. Lu. D.. 2003. S. T. Papatzacos. Lu. J.. New Orleans. Paper SPE 106970.42. Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Decline Curve Analysis Using Type Curves – Evaluate of Well Performance Behavior in a Multiwell Reservoir System. Channel. T. R.. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering.October 4.. P. Lin. 23–27. Inc. and Hazebroek. SPE Reservoir Engineering.. USA.. and Tiab. and Tiab. 18-30. Steady State Multiple Wells Productivity Equation for a Circular Cylinder Drainage Volume.. Vol. Vol.. Lu. Matthews. USA. Louisiana. 227-234. Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Oklahoma. A Supplemental Discussion of Productivity Formulae of Horizontal Wells. A Method for Determination of Average Pressure in a Bounded Reservoir. D. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. P. Approximate Partial Penetration Pseudo Skin for Infinite Conductivity Wells. A Simple Productivity Equation for a Horizontal Well in Pseudo-Steady State in a Closed Anisotropic Box-Shaped Reservoir. 2001. No. 1988.

Recalculation of Dietz Shape Factor for Rectangles. MA. Pressure Transient Behavior and Inflow Performance of Multiple Wells in Closed Systems.. Umnuayponwiwat. 1991.. 677-684. Doublet. Texas. 786-789.A. E. D. Pressure Distributions in Eccentric Circular Systems. Inc. Vol. 21-31. Prentice Hall Inc. R.. Well Test Analysis. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Temeng. 8-13.. R. New York City. Green’s Functions and Boundary Value Problems. Vol. Peacemean.7. and Raghavan.. and Ozkan. S. D. 2000. John Wiley & Sons. 1990.122.5. USA.E. Further Discussion of Productivity of a Horizontal Well. and Donaldson. No. 2000. SPE Journal. 2000.P. D. 1991. Umnuayponwiwat... S. 1984. USA. Tiab. E. Horne. Ozkan. and Blasingame..Peacemean. 149-150. USA. 1998. (March). C. P. (December)...43.1. USA.. Development and Application of the Multiwell Productivity Index (MPI).. K..(July). Stakgold. New York City. Unsolicited Paper SPE 21256. (March). L. T. E. No. Petrophysics.O. 2004. Journal of Petroleum Technology. 205 .W... I. R. October 1-4. SPE Reservoir Engineering. Dallas. Journal of Energy Resources Technology.. Raghavan. Paper SPE 62988. SPE Journal . Elsevier Inc. Burlington. Formation Damage Effects on Horizontal Well Flow Efficiency. N. (February). Valko.W. 1993. Vol. G. Evaluation of Inflow Performance of Multiple Horizontal Wells in Closed Systems. Renard.

I. Oil field units ( English units ) are used almost exclusively for reservoir engineering work in United States.. 206 . units systems ) is increasing. The SI base quantities and units are set forth in Table A. etc. although use of metric systems ( especially the S.1.APPENDIX A : SYSTEMS OF UNITS A petroleum engineer should have some familiarity with all of the commonly employed units systems. scientific. The Society of Petroleum Engineers ( SPE ) Board of Directors has adopted voluntary standards for use of SI units by the petroleum industry. and industry organizations. are sufficiently familiar to petroleum engineers as to require no discussion. SI measurement symbols are identical in all languages. The International System of Units is customarily termed as the SI Units System. Oil field units such as the foot. degree Fahrenheit. and should be able to convert readily from one system to another. second. psi ( pound per square inch ). SI is derived from seven “base quantities” that are regarded as dimensionally independent . The worldwide conversion to SI units is being supported by many engineering.

SI Base Quantities Base Quantity SI Unit SI Unit Symbol SPE Letter Symbol for Math Equations Length Mass Time Electric Current Thermodynamic Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela m kg s A K mol cd L m t I T n Field units system and field metric units system in petroleum engineering are introduced in Table A.s m3s-1 ft ft2 psi mD cp bbl/D m m2 MPa µm2 mPa.Field Units System and Field Metric Units System Dimension SI Field Field Metric Distance Area Pressure Permeability Oil Viscosity Flow Rate L L2 mL-1t-2 L2 mL-1t-1 L3t-1 m m2 Pa m2 Pa.s m3/D 207 .3. Units conversion factors are presented in Table A.1 .2 .2. Table A.Table A.

Table A.0 * ft × 3.s E − 01 = m E + 03 = Pa E − 16 = m 2 * Conversion factor is exact.Units Conversion Factors bbl × 1. 208 .3 .589873 cp × 1.048* psi × 6.86923 E − 01 = m3 E − 03 = Pa.894757 mD × 9.

but we drop the subscript D .APPENDIX B : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR For convenience in the following Appendix B.49) reduces to the equation below: ∆ P = − δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 ) in a circular cylinder drainage domain (B-1) Ω = {x 2 + y 2 < R 2} × (0. In this appendix. the main derivation steps of productivity equations for vertical wells in a circular cylinder drainage domain are presented. and drainage domain should be also taken as dimensionless domain. Every equation is in dimensionless form. C. H ) . we use dimensionless variables defined in Chapter Two. In steady state. e and 2 ∂2P + ∂2P ∆P = ∂ P + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2 (B-2) (B-3) 209 . and D. Equation (2.

And recall Equation (2.3). y . x0 . y ) satisfies the equation below nπ 2 ∂ 2ϕ n ∂ 2ϕ n −( ) ϕn + 2 2 ∂y ∂x H = − cos( n π z 0 / H ) δ ( x − x 0 ) δ ( y − y 0 ) /( d n H ) in circular drainage area {( x. z 0 ) is below: P ( x.5. if n > 0. if the upper and lower boundaries are impermeable. z. y0 . if n = 0. H ) e (B-5) Recall Equation (2. (B-7) The pressure caused by the point sink at point ( x0 . and e (B-9) 210 . we have P=0 (B-4) on cylindrical lateral surface Γ = {x 2 + y 2 = R 2} × (0. y 0 . there holds δ (z − z0) = where ∞ ∑ n=0 cos( n π z / H ) cos( n π z 0 / H ) /( d n H ) (B-6) ⎧ 1.9). y ) | x 2 + y 2 < R 2 } . d =⎨ n ⎩0. y ) cos( n π z / H ) (B-8) where ϕ n ( x. z0 ) = ∞ ∑ n=0 ϕ n ( x .

using superposition principle. z . R0 = x0 + y0 And P ( x. on circumference {( x. z 0 ) 1 ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re ρ )] 2πH ∞ 1 −( ){ ∑ [ K 0 (λ n Re ) I 0 (λ n ρ ) / I 0 (λ n Re ) − K 0 (λ n ρ )] πH n =1 × cos(nπz / H ) cos(nπz 0 / H )} =( where (B-12) λ n = nπ / H . integrating z 0 at both sides of Equation (B-12) 211 .ϕ n ( x. x 0 . 2πH (B-11) 2 2 where ρ = ( x − x0 ) 2 + ( y − y 0 ) 2 . y ) = 0. y ) | x 2 + y 2 = R 2} . y ) = ( 1 ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re ρ )]. (B-13) In order to calculate the pressure at the wellbore. y 0 . y . we obtain ϕ 0 ( x. let ρ = Rw . e (B-10) Using Green’s function of Laplace equation in the circular domain.

thus the pressure at wellbore point ( Rw . z.29) and (2. z ) = L2 ∫ L1 P( Rw . then divided by L pr . rearrange Equation (B-15).from L1 to L2 . then Pa . w =( ≈( 1 L2 ) ∫ P( Rw . z )dz L pr L1 Lp ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re Rw )] ∞ ∑ n =1 (B-15) 2πH 4H +( 3 π L pr ( 1 ) K 0 (λ n Rw ) sin 2 [nπL pr /( 2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /( 2 H )] 2 n Recall Equations (2. z 0 )dz 0 Lp ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re Rw )] 1 (B-14) ≈( + 2πH {( ∞ ∑ n =1 ) K 0 (λ n Rw ) cos(nπz / H ) nπ 2 × [sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin(nπL1 / H )]} The average wellbore pressure along the well length can be obtained by integrating both sides of Equation (B-14) with respect to z from L1 to L2 . 212 . Rw .48). z 0 ) caused by the uniform line sink is Pw ( Rw .1) is obtained. Equation (3.

g n ( z 0 ) = 2 / H sin( ω n z 0 ) (B-17) ω n = (2n − 1)π /(2 H ) in this case. and there holds g n (z) = 2 / H sin( λ n z ). recall Equation (2.If the reservoir is with gas cap. y.4). we may let P ( x. z) = ∞ ∑ n =1 ϕ n ( x . y. and there holds gn (z) = 2 / H cos( ω n z ). we have 213 . recall Equation (2. z ) = ∞ ∑ n =1 ϕ n ( x .6). there holds (B-18) P ( x.5). g n ( z 0 ) = 2 / H cos( ω n z 0 ) (B-20) and ω n has the same meaning as in Equation (B-18). recall Equation (2. y ) sin( ω n z ) (B-19) If the reservoir is with bottom water. there holds δ (z − z0) = where ∞ ∑ n=0 g n ( z )g n ( z 0 ) (B-16) g n (z) = and 2 / H sin( ω n z ). g n ( z 0 ) = 2 / H sin( λ n z 0 ) (B-22) in this case. y ) cos( ω n z ) (B-21) If the reservoir is with both bottom water and gas cap.

(3. (B-25) The initial condition is P| =0 t =0 (B-26) When the producing time is sufficiently long. there holds ∂P − ∆ P = δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 ) ∂t (B-24) the exterior normal derivative of pressure on the surface of the circular cylinder is ∂P | = 0 ∂N Γ where Γ has the same meaning as in Equation (B-5).7) and (3. (B-14) and (B15). z 0 ) below: 214 . pseudo-steady state is reached.(B-21) and (B-23) into Equation (B-1).P ( x. y 0 . If all boundaries are impermeable. z ) = ∞ ∑ n =1 ϕ n ( x . y.9) are obtained. y. then we may express pressure at point ( x. Equations (3.5). z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . y ) sin( λ n z ) (B-23) Substituting Equations (B-19). and by a similar procedure shown in Equations (B-9). (B-12).

z. z 0 ) − ηt . z 0 ) ≈ f ( x. where (B-27) η = 1 /(πRe2 H ) and f ( x. define F ( x.P ( x . z ) = Fa (r . In order to obtain uniform line sink solution. z ) = L2 ∫ L1 f ( x. y. z0 )dz0 )[C + ( 1 ρ2 ) + ( ) ln( Re / ρ )] 2 4πRe 2π (B-30) =( +( L pr H 1 π ∞ ∑ 2 n =1 ) 1 ( )[sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin(nπL1 / H )] cos(nπz / H )K 0 (λn ρ )] n The average of F ( x.θ )rdrdzdθ πHRe2 0 0 0 L pr H )(C + 3 ) 8π (B-31) 215 . z . t .z . y . y.θ ) =( =( 1 2π H Re ) ∫ ∫ ∫ F (r . z . y . y . y. z . z 0 ) =( +( 1 1 ρ2 )[C + ( ) + ( ) ln( Re / ρ )] 2 2π H 4πRe (B-28) (B-29) 1 ∞ ) ∑ cos(nπz / H ) cos(nπz 0 / H )K 0 (λ n ρ )] πH n =1 where C is an arbitrary constant. z . z ) in the circular cylinder drainage volume is Fa ( x. y .

(B-31) and (B-33). z ) − Fa ( Rw . y. z ) 2 Rw 1 =( )[C + ( ) + ( ) ln( Re / Rw )] 2 2π H 4πRe L pr 1 (B-32) +( ∞ 1 ) ∑ ( )[sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin( nπL1 / H )] cos(nπz / H )K 0 (λ n Rw )] n π =1 n 2 Average value of F ( Rw . F ( x. z ) is F ( Rw . z ) ≈ −( +( 1 R 3 ){ln( Re / Rw ) + ( w ) 2 − 2πH 2 Re 4 L pr (B-34) 8H 2 ∞ 1 ) ∑ ( 2 ) sin 2 [nπL pr /(2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /(2 H )K 0 (λ n Rw )]} 2 2 π L pr n =1 n Recall Equations (2. Equation (3.29) and (2.At wellbore. 216 . we obtain Pa − Pw = Fa ( x. z )dz L pr L1 L pr H )[C + ( 2 Rw 1 ) + ( ) ln( Re / Rw )] 2 2π 4πRe (B-33) 4H ∞ 1 ) ∑ ( ) sin 2 [nπL pr /(2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /( 2 H )K 0 (λ n Rw )] π 3 L pr n =1 n 2 From Equations (B-27).48).19) is obtained. z ) =( =( +( 1 L2 ) ∫ F ( Rw . z ) along the wellbore length is Fa ( Rw . and rearrange Equation (B-34). y.

H ) e e (C-1) If all boundaries are impermeable. d have the same meanings as in Equation (B-7). Dirac function has the following expansion δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 ) = ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0 g lmn ( x . Y ) × (0. X ) × (0.APPENDIX C : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR In this appendix. The box-shaped drainage domain is Ω = (0. the main derivation steps of productivity equations for vertical wells in a box-shaped drainage domain are presented. z ) g lmn ( x 0 . y 0 . l m n g (C-3) 217 . y . d . z) lmn = 1 /( d d d X Y H ) l m n e e × cos( l π x / X ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) e e and d . z 0 ) (C-2) where ( x. y.

x . (C-4) and if l = m = n = 0 . z0 ) X eYe H (C-8) where Ψ ( x. y . x 0 . y . y . x0 . y 0 . z 0 ) (C-9) λ lmn 218 . z 0 ) λlmn (C-6) where λlmn = (lπ / Ye ) 2 + (mπ / X e ) 2 + (nπ / H ) 2 (C-7) Thus P (t .In pseudo-steady state. y . y 0 . we have elmn (t ) = [1 − exp(−λlmn t )]g lmn ( x 0 . X eYe H (C-5) and if l + m + n > 0. y0 . x0 . y . y 0 . z 0 ) can be expressed as P (t . z 0 ) = ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0 e lmn ( t ) g lmn ( x . z. x . z0 ) = ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0 g lmn ( x . z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . then e000 (t ) = t . z . y 0 . z ) g lmn ( x 0 . z ) . y . y. the pressure at point ( x. x 0 . z 0 ) = t + Ψ ( x. z . y0 . y 0 . z.

y = Y at wellbore.In order to obtain uniform line sink solution to pressure equation. z0 ) [1 /( d d d λ lmn X Y H )] l m n e e × cos( l π x / X ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) e e = × cos( l π x 0 / X ) cos( m π y 0 / Y ) e e L pr ∫ 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0 (C-10) cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0 Note that x = X . we obtain Ψ ( x. z. y0 . we have 0 w 0 w Ψw = J z + J yz + J xyz where (C-11) Jz = ∞ ∑ n =1 [1 /( d λ 00 n X Y H )] n e e L pr ∫ 0 × cos( n π z / H ) cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0 (C-12) ∞ 2H 2 1 = ( 3 ) ∑ ( 3 ) sin( n π L / H ) cos( n π z / H ) π X eY e n =1 n 219 . integrate Ψ with respect to z 0 from 0 to L pr . y . x0 .

w = J a .J yz = ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ m =1 n = 0 [1 /( d w d λ X Y H )] m n 0 mn e e / X e ) cos( n π z / H ) L pr ∫ 0 × cos 2 ( m π X = ( +( × 2 X e L pr Ye H cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0 (C-13) 2 Xw Xw 1 + )( − ) 6 2Xe 2 X e2 2H 2 ) π 3 X eY e { 2 sin( n π L / H ) cos( n π z / H ) cos 2 ( m π X n [ n 2 + ( mH / X e ) 2 ] w ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ m =1 n =1 / X e) } J xyz [1 /( d d d λ lmn X Y H )] l m n e e × cos 2 ( l π Y w / Y ) cos 2 ( m π X w / X ) cos( n π z / H ) e e = × L pr ∫ 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l =1 m = 0 n = 0 cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0 ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ l =1 m = 0 (C-14) = [1 /( X Y H )] cos 2 ( l π Y w / Y ) cos 2 ( m π X w / X ) e e e e ∞ H × { ∑ 4( ) sin( n π L pr / H ) cos( n π z / H ) /( d λ lmn ) m n =1 nπ + 2 L pr /( d λ lm 0 )} m The average of Ψw along the wellbore length is Ψa . z + J a . xyz where (C-15) 220 . yz + J a .

z 1 = L pr L pr ∫ 0 L 2pr 1 L pr )( − + ) J z dz = ( 3 X eY e 2 2H 2 H 2 HL pr (C-16) J a .3).5) and (4.6) are obtained.29) and (2. xyz = 1 L pr L pr ∫ 0 (C-17) w / X e)/ m ] 3 × {cosh[( m π H / X e )( 1 − 2 L pr / H )] / sinh( m π H / X e ) J xyz dz ∞ H3 ){ ∑ cos 2 (lπY / Y ) w e π 3X Y L e e pr l = 1 mπX ∞ w) × ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( X 3 m = 0 d m µlm e =( cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm pr ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm πR π (2Yw + Rw ) 1 ]} − ( ) ln{4 sin( w ) sin[ 2Ye 2π 2Ye (C-18) Recall Equations (2. (4. Equations (4. yz = 1 L pr L pr ∫ 0 J yz dz 2 Xe 1 Xw Xw = ( )( − + ) 2Ye 6 2 X e 2 X e2 X e2 ∞ +( 3 ) ∑ [cos 2 ( m π X π Y e L pr m = 1 − coth( m π H / X e )} J a .J a.1). 221 .2). (4.4). (4. and rearrange Equation (C-15). (4.48).

26) can be obtained. 222 . (C-21) and (C-22) to simplify Equation (C-19).In steady state. y0 . z. x0 . y . z0 ) = × = ∞ ∑ n =1 ∞ ∑ m =1 ∞ ∑ n =1 ( 4 nπy0 nπy ) sin( ) sin ( ) X eYe Ye Ye {1 /[( n π / Y e ) 2 + ( m π / X e ) 2 ]} sin( ( m πx0 m πx ) sin( ) Xe Xe (C-19) nπy0 nπ | x − x0 | nπy 1 ) sin( ) sin( ){exp[ − ] nπ Ye Ye Ye + exp{ − ( − exp{ − ( π | x − x0 | nπ ( x + x0 ) 2n )[ π X e − ]} − exp[ − ] Ye Ye 2 π ( x + x0 ) 2n )[ π X e − ]}} Ye 2 At wellbore. there holds P ( x. x + x0 = 2 X w (C-20) And there holds ∞ ∑ n =1 π cosh[ β (π − x)] cos(nx) 1 =( ) − .24). | x − x0 |= Rw . Equations (4. there holds y = y 0 = Yw . (4.25) and (4.23). (4. for fully penetrating well. 2 2 sinh( βπ ) 2β n +β 2β 2 [ (0 ≤ x ≤ 2π ) (C-21) ∞ ∑ n =1 sin(nx) sin(ny ) 1 sin 2 [( x + y ) / 2] + sinh 2 (t ) ] exp(−2n | t |) = ( ) ln{ 2 } 4 n sin [( x − y ) / 2] + sinh 2 (t ) (C-22) We use Equations (C-20).

(D-2) then the sector domain Ω is changed to the half circle domain below: Ω * = {( R . Φ * ) : Φ * = π } e (D-3) And the image well with respect to the conformal transformation is located at τ * Zw = R0 exp(iτθ w ) (D-4) 223 .APPENDIX D : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR If a fully penetrating vertical well is located at ( R . (D-1) We use the following conformal transformation.θ ) in the sector fault 0 w reservoir Ω = {( R . the well is e represented below: Z w = R0 exp(iθ w ) where i = − 1 . Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } . in the complex plane. Z * = Z τ = R τ exp(iτθ ).

The pressure at point ( x. (D-4). y 0 . y. z ) g mn ( y 0 . z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . z. y .1) and (5. y0 . We have * * (Z * − Z w )( Z * − Z w ) 1 P = −( ) ln | | * * * * 2π (1 − Z Z w )(1 − Z Z w ) (D-5) where τ * Zw = R0 exp(−iτθ w ) (D-6) At wellbore. z0 ) = |x| + 2Ye H ∞ ∑ m +n>0 [ exp( − λ mn | x |) ] g mn ( y . x0 . there holds R = R0 + R w (D-7) Substitute Equations (D-2).It must be pointed out that the flow rate of the image well in the half circle domain is equal to the flow rate of the original well in the sector domain. z 0 ) 2 λ mn (D-8) 224 . (D-6) and (D-7) into Equation (D-5). z 0 ) in a channel reservoir can be expressed as P ( x. Equations (5.2) are obtained .

z. | x |= Rw (D-12) And there holds ∞ ∑ n =1 t n cos(nx) −1 = ( ) ln[1 − 2t cos( x) + t 2 ]. integrate P in Equation (D-8) with respect to z 0 from 0 to H . y . n 2 (t 2 ≤ 1) (D-13) 225 . we obtain P ( x. x0 . y0 ) = |x| + 2Ye ∞ ∑ m +n>0 [ exp( − λ mn | x |) m πy nπz ] cos( ) cos( ) 2 Y e Hd m d n λ mn Ye H (D-11) × cos( = m πy0 H nπz0 ) ∫ cos( ) dz 0 0 Ye H exp[ − ( m π / Y e ) | x |] |x| 1 ∞ ) ∑ { } +( 2Ye 2 π m =1 m m π ( y + y0 ) m π | y − y0 | ] + cos[ ]} Ye Ye × {cos[ At wellbore. z) mn = 1 /( d d Y H ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) m n e e g (D-10) In order to obtain uniform line sink solution to pressure equation. there holds y = y 0 = Yw .where 2 2 λ2 mn = ( mπ / Ye ) + ( nπ / H ) (D-9) ( y.

and rearrange Equation (D-14). 226 .4) and (5.29) and (2.Using Equations (D-12) and (D-13).5) are obtained. Equation (D-11) can be simplified to be the equation below: 1 Pw = R /(2Y ) − ( ) ln[(2πR / Y ) sin(πY / Y )] w e w e w e 2π (D-14) Recall Equations (2.48). Equations (5.

coth(. L2 B = formation volume factor. L3 / L3 C A = shape factor. C = total formation compressibility. L K = permeability. L M w = a function defined by Equation (7. w H = formation thickness. L3 / t w 227 .21). Lt 2 / m t cosh(. m /( Lt 2 ) PI = single well productivity index . F = unit conversion factor. D F = a function defined by Equation (5. L2 L = well length.) = hyperbolic cosine function.APPENDIX E : NOMENCLATURE A = drainage area. dimensionless. L4 t / m Q = single well production rate. L4 t / m PIT = multiple wells total productivity index .2). dimensionless.) = hyperbolic cotangent function. P = pressure.

Q = multiple wells system total production rate. L e R = off-center distance of j th well. L w Z w = vertical coordinate of center of horizontal well . L j R = wellbore radius. L3 / t t R = off-center distance or off-vertex distance. X = length of box-shaped reservoir. L 0 r = radial distance. L w S S m ps = mechanical skin factor. sinh(.) = hyperbolic sine function. L Vectors and Matrices d = pressure drawdown vector. = pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. L e Y = well location in y direction in the box-shaped reservoir. L R = drainage radius. dimensionless. m /( Lt 2 ) 228 . dimensionless. L e X = well location in x direction in the box-shaped reservoir. L w Y = width of box-shaped reservoir.

11). radians. dimensionless s [ D ] = diagonal matrix of surface production rates. λ = a function defined by Equation (7. ζ = off-center ratio defined by Equation (3. 3 λ = a function defined by Equation (7.2). L3 / t q GREEK SYMBOLS β = permeability anisotropic factor.15). η = partially penetrating factor. dimensionless.Q = production rate vector. L3 / t S = skin factor vector. 2 λ = a function defined by Equation (7. 6 229 .14). dimensionless. 5 λ = a function defined by Equation (7.22). dimensionless [ A] = influence matrix. dimensionless [ D ] = diagonal matrix of skin factors. 4 λ = a function defined by Equation (7.3). 1 λ = a function defined by Equation (7. θ w = wellbore location angle.12).

= a function defined by Equation (8.16).23).24). 2 ρ = a function defined by Equation (8.25).µ = fluid viscosity. σ = a function defined by Equation (8. 1 ρ = a function defined by Equation (8. σ = a function defined by Equation (8.5).3).17).19).13). 230 . m /( Lt ) ρ = a function defined by Equation (8.4). σ = a function defined by Equation (8. 8 σ = a function defined by Equation (8. 3 σ = a function defined by Equation (8.11).14). σ 6 7 = a function defined by Equation (8. = a function defined by Equation (8. σ = a function defined by Equation (8.12).6). 9 σ σ σ 10 11 12 = a function defined by Equation (8. σ 4 5 = a function defined by Equation (8.18). 1 σ 2 3 = a function defined by Equation (8.

4 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6.8). Θ = a function defined by Equation (3. = a function defined by Equation (3. 1 Θ Θ 2 3 = a function defined by Equation (3.10).2). Λ = a function defined by Equation (3.10). 5 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6.16).12). dimensionless. 7 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6. Γ = boundary of drainage domain. Π = a function defined by Equation (7.17). ∆ = change.5). 3 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6. 6 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6.31).5).30).6).2). drop.15). 3 231 . ω = well location ratio defined by Equation (4. 8 Π 2 = a function defined by Equation (7. 1 Λ = a function defined by Equation (4.φ = porosity. 2 Λ = a function defined by Equation (5.

26). 2 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4. 4 Φ = angle of sector reservoir. 4 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6. 3 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6. 5 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6. Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4. 2 T = a function defined by Equation (4. 6 Π = a function defined by Equation (7.25).33).29). radians.Π = a function defined by Equation (7.23). n T = a function defined by Equation (4. 3 T = a function defined by Equation (4.32). 1 T = a function defined by Equation (4. 232 .6).24).22).4). 1 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4. 6 Ω = drainage domain.21).23). 4 Π = a function defined by Equation (7.5).

y.SUPERSCRIPTS T = transposed SUBSCRIPTS a = average D = dimensionless e = external h = horizontal i = initial pr = producing ps = pseudo skin r = radial ref = reference variable t = total v = vertical w = wellbore x. z = coordinate indicators 233 .