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# UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA GRADUATE COLLEGE

PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR OIL WELLS IN ANISOTROPIC RESERVOIRS

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE FACULTY in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

By

JING LU Norman, Oklahoma 2008

PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR OIL WELLS IN ANISOTROPIC RESERVOIRS

A DISSERTATION APPROVED FOR THE MEWBOURNE SCHOOL OF PETROLEUM AND GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

BY _______________________________ Dr. Djebbar Tiab, Chair

_______________________________ Dr. Roy Knapp

_______________________________ Dr. Faruk Civan

_______________________________ Dr. Samuel Osisanya

_______________________________ Dr. John Pigott

© Copyright by JING LU 2008 All Rights Reserved.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I can not use my words to express my deep gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Djebbar Tiab. Whatever success I have gotten is due to his encouragement. His knowledge, dedication to research and ideas have been invaluable throughout the last three years.

Expressions of sincere appreciations and gratitude go to professors Faruk Civan, Roy Knapp, Samuel Osisanya, and John Pigott for serving as

members of my graduate committee and for academic assistance when I needed.

Special recognitions go to my friends, Bin Qin, Shengli Chen, Heng Li, Yan Chen, Zunyi Xia, Yanfen Zhang, Anh Dinh, Alpheous Igbokoyi, Dora Restrepo and Tomas Restrepo for their continuous support and

encouragement to finish my doctoral studies.

It was a pleasure and a valuable professional experience to associate with all the members of Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, I thank all of them for their corporations, friendship and

iv

kindness which made my study at the University of Oklahoma meaningful and enjoyable.

Deepest appreciations are extended to my wife for her love and many sacrifices she poured to give me the opportunity to pursue higher education.

Finally, I thank my parents for their support and understanding during the years of my academic adventures.

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4 2.1 1. 2.2 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Productivity Index Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Vertical Wells 1 3 5 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT x xiv xvi 1.3 2.4 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Multiple Wells System 17 2.2 2.5 RESERVOIR AND WELL MODELS Circular Cylinder Reservoir Model Box-Shaped Reservoir Model Sector Fault Reservoir Model Channel Reservoir Model Mathematical Model 22 25 29 34 35 37 vi .3 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Horizontal Wells 11 1.1 2. 1.

3 3. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR 44 44 52 56 59 3.1 Productivity Equations for a Sector Fault Reservoir 94 101 5.1 4.Steady State Shape Factors Calculation Productivity Equations In Steady State 5.3 Productivity Equations In Pseudo .4 Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo .Steady State Shape Factors Calculation Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI 4.2 3.1 3. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR 94 5.2 4.2 Productivity Equations for a Channel Reservoir vii .3. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR 73 73 80 87 4.

4 Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI 7.Steady State viii . PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A CIRCULAR RESERVOIR 136 137 156 7.3 Pseudo .2 Pseudo .2 Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo .1 7.Steady State Productivity Equation for a Box-Shaped Reservoir 114 120 6.1 8.2 Productivity Equations In Steady State Productivity Equations In Pseudo . PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE HORIZONTAL WELL 104 6.6.Steady State 8. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A RECTANGULAR RESERVOIR 166 167 188 8.1 Steady State Productivity Equation for a Circular Cylinder Reservoir 104 6.Steady State Productivity Equation for a Circular Cylinder Reservoir 112 6.

9. SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES 194 199 201 202 APPENDIX A: SYSTEMS OF UNITS APPENDIX B: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR APPENDIX C: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR APPENDIX D: DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR APPENDIX E: NOMENCLATURE 206 209 217 223 227 ix . 11. 10.

3 Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well 49 50 50 58 59 60 62 Table 3.1 Pseudo Skin Factor for Example 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.4 Table 3.8 Table 3.7 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.12 Table 4.5 66 68 70 71 77 83 86 90 92 93 Table 4.4 Table 4.1 Shape Factors for a Rectangular Reservoir Shape Factors of a Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circular Reservoir Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.1 Expected Productivity for Example 3.1 Shape Factors with Different Off-Center Ratios Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.5 Productivity Indexes for Example 4.3 Table 3.2 Table 3.9 Table 3.LIST OF TABLES Page Table 3.4 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.10 Table 3.1 Table 4.1 Table 3.5 Table 4.6 x .11 Table 3.3 Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well 64 Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.2 Table 4.

4 Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well Well Locations.1 Flow Rates Calculated by Different Productivity Equations Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.Table 5.10 Table 6.4 Table 5.4 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.5 Table 6.2 111 113 118 121 122 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 124 125 127 128 Table 6.4 Table 6.1 xi .2 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.3 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.3 Table 6.2 Table 5.8 Table 6.11 130 132 134 Table 6.12 Table 6.3 Table 5.1 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.1 Table 6.1 Sector Shape Functions for Special Sector Angles and Wellbore Location Angles Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.2 Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.9 Table 6.5 Table 6.13 Table 7. Reservoir and Fluid Properties 96 96 98 99 102 110 Table 5.2 Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 5.

4 Table 7.3 Table 8.8 162 164 175 177 180 181 182 184 185 186 187 191 Table 8.3 Production Functions for Multiple Wells in an Isotropic Circular Reservoir 143 146 149 150 151 Table 7.7 Well Locations.3 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.5 Surface Production Rates for Example 7.Data for Example 7.8 Table 8.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.5 Table 8.7 Well Locations.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.1 Well Locations for Example 8.5 Well Locations for Example 8.10 Table 8.3 Productivity Indexes for Example 8. Skin Factors.1 Table 7.4 Well Locations for Example 8. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.2 Table 8.7 Table 8.3 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.11 192 xii .1 Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 7.4 154 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 7.6 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.1 Surface Production Rates for Example 8.7 Table 7.4 Table 8.6 Table 8. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.5 Productivity Indexes for Example 8.9 Table 8.6 Table 7.1 Well Locations for Example 7.8 Table 8.

1 Table A.Table 9.4 198 207 207 208 Table A.3 xiii .3 197 Table 9. Sector Reservoir and Channel Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Horizontal Well in an Anisotropic Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Multiple Vertical Wells System in an Anisotropic Reservoir SI Base Quantities Field Units System and Field Metric Units System Units Conversion Factors 196 Table 9.2 Table A.1 Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Circular Cylinder Reservoir Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Box-Shaped Reservoir.2 196 Table 9.

6 Symmetric Two-Well System Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir Vertical Well In a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Horizontal Well In a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Multiple Wells System in a Circular Reservoir Vertical Well In a Box-Shaped Reservoir Horizontal Well In a Box-Shaped Reservoir Fully Penetrating Vertical Well in a Rectangular Reservoir Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir Vertical Well in a Sector Fault Reservoir Vertical Well in a Channel Reservoir Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well 18 20 25 26 28 29 30 33 33 34 36 61 Figure 2.LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1.7 xiv .7 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.6 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.8 Figure 2.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.1 Figure 1.2 63 65 67 69 70 72 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.1 Figure 2.4 Figure 3.

3 164 Figure 8.1 Figure 6.4 Figure 6.1 Figure 5.3 Figure 6.8 Figure 7.1 184 xv .1 153 155 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.6 Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well 128 Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well Multiple Wells Located at Vertexes of a Regular Polygon Effect of Off-Center Distance on Productivity Index Pseudo-Steady State Flow to a Well in a Circular Reservoir Multiple Wells Located at Centers of Equal-Area Small Rectangles 129 131 133 135 Figure 6.7 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.Figure 4.2 A Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circle Effect of Off-Vertex Distance on Productivity Index Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well 84 100 122 124 126 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.

rectangular. the behavior during pseudo-steady state or steady state flow. that is. Well productivity is often evaluated using the productivity index. Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long-time performance behavior of a well. sector.) are investigated. This dissertation examines the production performance of oil wells with constant flow rates in different shapes of anisotropic reservoirs. channel. Wells may be located arbitrarily in an anisotropic reservoir. The effects of permeability anisotropy on well performance are discussed. Well responses in a variety of reservoir models (circular. a library of new productivity equations is provided. several combinations of closed and/or constant pressure boundary conditions are considered at vertical and lateral reservoir boundaries.ABSTRACT Well productivity is one of primary concerns in field development and provides the basis for field development strategy. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown. Convenient algorithms to calculate shape factor and pseudo skin factor xvi . etc.

Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well are also presented. Charts are presented whereby the effects of a variety of reservoir and wellbore parameters on productivity index can be compared.due to partial penetration are provided. Steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. The main conclusions of this study are: xvii . The proposed equations which relate the production rate vector to the pressure drawdown vector provide simple. where n is the number of wells. Multiwell productivity index (MPI) is obtained by solving a square matrix equation of dimension n. The effects of well pattern and mechanical skin factor on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system are investigated. anisotropic reservoir are provided. Comparison of different drive mechanisms is presented. accurate and fast analytical tools to evaluate well performance without dividing the cluster into single well drainage areas. Influence of reservoir boundaries on the well responses is investigated.

its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. (2) If a circular cylinder reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water. vertical permeability. location of the well in vertical direction in payzone.(1) Different productivity equations should be used under different reservoir boundary conditions. (3) For a partially penetrating vertical well. the effect of the radius on productivity can be ignored. location of producing portion. reservoir size. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. and if the circular cylinder radius is very large compared to the pay zone thickness. off-center distance and reservoir size. (4) For a horizontal well. the off-center well and centered well have the same productivity whether the lateral boundary is impermeable or at constant pressure. the permeability parallel to the well in the horizontal plane. and the effect of the off-center distance on well productivity is also negligible. horizontal permeability. xviii . the permeability perpendicular to the well in horizontal plane. and a weak function of payzone thickness. vertical permeability. and a weak function of payzone thickness.

well pattern and mechanical skin factor have significant effects on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system. xix .(5) For a multiple fully penetrating vertical of wells system. reservoir boundary conditions. horizontal permeability. radial permeability.

To determine the economical feasibility of drilling a well. The productivity index expresses an intuitive feeling that. it has been long ago observed by petroleum engineers that in a bounded reservoir or a reservoir with strong water drive. 1 . the productivity index of a well stabilizes in a long time asymptote. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Well productivity is one of primary concerns in field development and provides the basis for field development strategy. 1993). the behavior during pseudo-steady state or steady state flow (Cheng. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown. once the well production is “stabilized”. Indeed. petroleum engineers need reliable methods to estimate its expected productivity. Well productivity is often evaluated using the productivity index.1. Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long time performance behavior of a well. that is. 2003). the ratio of production rate to some pressure difference between the reservoir and the well must depend on the geometry of the reservoir/well system only (Raghavan.

Maximizing well productivity at a minimum cost is our objective. 2 . This study examines the production performance of oil wells with constant flow rates in different shapes of anisotropic reservoirs. (2) The rate of flow from the well is held constant while the wellbore pressure and the average reservoir pressure decrease. Therefore. a library of new solutions to productivity equations is provided. investigating the factors and parameters that influence or control the productivity index is our major interest. well producing length and penetration degree. drainage dimensions. Using the assumption of a uniform flux wellbore. the effects of parameters on well productivity will be made. such as horizontal and vertical permeabilities. etc. and well location.A hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir with a single well can be produced in two substantially different regimes (Khalmanova. 2004): (1) The pressure on the well is maintained at a constant level while the rate of flow from the well is decreasing along with the average reservoir pressure.

Four and Five. Chapters Nine. presents productivity equations for single vertical well. 3 . The transient productivity index is calculated before the flow reaches the pseudo-steady state or steady state regime. presents productivity equations for single horizontal well. Chapter Six. In the last section. 2003): PI = Q w P −P i w (1. Ten and Eleven. introduces different reservoir models and well models. P is the w i w flowing bottomhole pressure.1 Productivity Index Productivity index. presents productivity equations for multiple vertical wells system. Chapter Two. presents the basic productivity equations in the literature. which is defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown.1) where Q is well flow rate. The first section. During the transient flow period. the productivity index is defined as (Cheng. Chapter One. The third section. which is the fifth section of this study. P is the initial reservoir pressure. Chapters Three. conclusions and recommendations. 1. The fourth section.The study has been divided into six sections. Chapters Seven and Eight. The second section. PI . presents summary.

2) where P is the outer boundary pressure. Rate and pressure become constant with time at all points in the reservoir and wellbore once steady state flow is established. 4 . flow reaches the steady state regime after the pressure transient reaches the constant pressure boundary. Therefore. During this period. Therefore.When a reservoir is bounded with a constant pressure boundary (such as a gas cap or an aquifer). The expression for the productivity index is (Cheng. the productivity index during steady state flow is a constant. the average reservoir pressure is used instead of the initial reservoir pressure and hence the productivity index is basically constant. the rate of pressure decline is almost identical at all points in the reservoir and wellbore. 2003): PI = w P −P e w Q (1. e For a bounded reservoir with no-flow boundaries. the difference between the average reservoir pressure and pressure in the wellbore approaches a constant with respect to time. flow enters the pseudosteady state regime when the pressure transient reaches all boundaries after drawdown for a sufficiently long time. In the definition of pseudo-steady state productivity index.

4 D D 5 . in field metric units. D F = 0.4) where V is the reservoir volume.2 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Vertical Wells Substituting Darcy's equation into the equation of continuity. Equation (1. t is the production time. which can be obtained from a a material balance for the reservoir. 1994): Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB ) e w ln( R / R ) e w (1.5) where F is the unit conversion factor (Butler. 1.001127 . φ is the porosity. the productivity equation of a fully penetrating vertical well in a homogeneous. i. 2003): PI = w P −P a w Q (1. F = 86.. C is the total compressibility of reservoir. and B is formation t volume factor.4) is in field units. In field units.e. P =P − a i 0. 1994).The pseudo-steady state productivity index is defined as (Cheng. isotropic reservoir is obtained below (Butler.234Q Bt w C Vφ t (1.3) where P is the average reservoir pressure.

1994): Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w ln( R / R ) − 3 / 4 e w (1. but the most common one is to prevent or delay the unwanted fluids into the wellbore. 6 . with constant pressure outer boundary. Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) e w 2 ln[( R − R 2 ) /( R R )] e 0 e w (1.6) where R is the off-center distance from the circular drainage area center. only a portion of the pay zone is perforated. to calculate the productivity for an off-center well in steady state.5) is only applicable to a vertical well which is located at the center of a circular drainage area. 0 Equation (1. the flow rate of a fully penetrating vertical well in a closed circular drainage area can be obtained from (Butler.5) is based on the circular drainage area with constant pressure outer boundary. a In many oil and gas reservoirs the producing wells are completed as partially penetrating wells. This may be done for a variety of reasons. Assuming pseudo-steady state.7) where P is the average reservoir pressure in a circular drainage area. which accounts for asymmetrical positioning of a well within its isotropic circular drainage area.Equation (1. Ge (1982) introduced the following equation. that is.

10) 7 . Thus. which included flow of fluid in the vertical direction. Several authors have developed solutions to the two dimensional diffusivity equation.8) The problem of fluid flow into wells with partial penetration has received much attention in the past.9) where K h h =( H ) D τRw K v (1. Brons and Marting's pseudo skin factor equation (1961): S ps = ( 1 − 1)[ln(h ) − G (η )] D v η v (1. i. which results in added resistance. The streamlines converge and the area for flow decreases. Equation (1. They obtained analytical and semi-empirical expressions for pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. there is an added resistance to flow in the vicinity of the wellbore. a pseudo skin.If a vertical well partially penetrates the formation.e.5) may be rewritten to include the pseudo skin factor S ps due to partial penetration as Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB ) e w ln( R / R ) + S e w ps (1.

τ = 2n if well with n intervals open to production. τ = 2 if well only producing from the central section. perforated interval.25 L 1 pr (1.11) ηv is the partially penetrating factor for vertical well. i. ηv = L pr H pr is the producing well length.948 − 7. 8 .e.45η v3 − 4.15) h is the distance from the top of the reservoir to the top of the open 1 interval. and G (η v ) = 2.14) and B= H h + 0.12) where L Papatzacos's pseudo skin factor equation (1988): S ps = ( 1 − 1) ln( πh ηv D ) + ( 1 ) ln[( η v )( A − 1)1 / 2 ] ηv 2 2 + ηv B − 1 (1.τ = 1 if well producing from the top (or bottom) of the formation.13) where A= H h + 0. (1.75 L 1 pr (1.675η v3 (1.363η v + 11.

2458 A /(C R 2 )] A w 2 A is shape factor. Rarely do wells drain ideally shaped drainage areas. Equation (1. a series of shape factors was developed by Dietz (1965). they become distorted after production commences.7) can be generalized for any shape into the equation below: Q w = FD 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w 1 ln[2. and A is drainage area. The drainage area is then shaped by the assigned production share of a particular well. To account for irregular drainage shapes or asymmetrical positioning of a well within its drainage area. (1.16) where C 9 . Even if they are assigned regular geographic drainage areas.It must be pointed out that the above pseudo skin factor equations are only applicable to a reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries. either because of the presence of natural boundaries or because of lopsided production rates in adjoining wells.

but still turned out to be slightly in error. 1990). were far more accurate than those of Dietz. (1968) carried out summations of exponential integrals to obtain dimensionless pressure drops at various points within a square drainage area. Hence his values of C A are of limited accuracy (Peaceman. Peaceman procedure aspect ratio. Their calculations. 1990). in particular. for rectangles of various aspect ratios with single well in various locations. (1990) presented a successive refinement numerical to calculate the shape factor of a rectangle with arbitrary 10 . He obtained his results graphically. corresponding to pseudo-steady state. and then used superposition of various square shapes to obtain pressure drops for rectangular shapes. Earlougher et al. presumably because of truncation of the infinite sums (Peaceman. The linear portions of the pressure drop curves so obtained. were then used to obtain shape factors for various rectangles. (1954). from the straight line portion of various build-up curves presented by Mattews et al.Dietz (1965) evaluated shape factor C A for various geometries.

This has led to increased efficiency and economics in oil recovery. the engineers need reliable methods to estimate its expected productivity. Although some theoretically rigorous semi-analytic models have been developed. Available analytical models usually contain a number of simplifying assumptions. Thus. However. modeling of a horizontal well is much more complex than modeling a vertical well. The performance of a horizontal well can be strongly influenced by the partial penetration and the anisotropy of horizontal to vertical permeability.1. Therefore. it is more expensive to drill a horizontal well than a vertical one. to determine the economical feasibility of drilling a horizontal well. A horizontal well has quite different flow geometry (3D) from that of a vertical well (1D symmetrical radial flow). Recent interest in horizontal wells has been accelerating because of improved drilling and completion technology.3 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Horizontal Wells A worldwide interest exists today in drilling horizontal wells to increase productivity. they are often very complicated and lack flexibility 11 . a horizontal well may be several times more productive than a vertical one draining the same volume. Because of its large flow area.

These factors are the basic information needed to model a horizontal well. our estimation or evaluation of productivity in a horizontal well is more difficult. that is. can affect the behavior of a horizontal well. this information usually suffers from incompleteness and large errors. As a result. effective well length etc.. such as horizontal permeability. On the other hand. Borisov (1964) developed one of the earliest analytical models for calculating steady state oil production from a horizontal well. the 3D flow problem of a horizontal well is approximated by two 2D problems. In these models.in dealing with multiple types of boundary conditions. These models estimate the productivity under steady state flow. many factors. However. 2D horizontal flow to a vertical fracture and 2D vertical flow to a horizontal well. fluid flow potential theory was the foundation for developing analytical models for prediction of well productivity. In earlier studies of horizontal wells. There are basically two categories of methods for calculation of horizontal well productivity: analytical and semi-analytical models. vertical permeability. It is obvious that such methodology is not rigorous and that the resulting solutions are applicable only as an initial screen and for comparison with vertical well productivity. The 12 .

13 . e (1. The model was modified to take into account the influence of the horizontal well eccentricity from the vertical center of reservoir and the anisotropy of horizontal to vertical permeability.18) Joshi (1988) developed a model with elliptical flow in the horizontal plane and radial flow in the vertical plane. he presented the equation below: 2πK H∆P /( µB ) h w Q = w ln(4 R / L) + ( H / L) ln[ H /( 2πR )] e w where R is the drainage radius of the horizontal well. Q = w 2πK L∆P /( µB) h w ⎡ 2⎤ ⎢1 + 1 − [ L /(2 Re )] ⎥ ( L / H ) ln ⎢ ⎥ + ln[ H /(2πRw )] L /(2 R ) e ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (1.horizontal flow was assumed from an equivalent circular drainage area toward a vertical fracture with drainage radius much larger than the vertical fracture length.19) where a is the semi-major axis of the drainage ellipse. Q = w 2πK H∆P /( µB) h w ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ βH ⎜ ln ⎜ 2a + 4a − L ⎟ + ( ) ln[βH /(2 R )] ⎟ ⎜ w L L ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ (1.17) Giger (1984) proposed a model similar to Borisov’s. but assumed an ellipsoidal drainage area.

a = ( L / 2) 0. using three dimensional drainage model. 2πK H∆P /( µB) h w Q = w βH cosh − 1( X ) + ( ) ln[H /(2πR 'w )] L (1. and effective wellbore radius is ' Rw =( 1+ β ) Rw 2β (1. bottom and the lateral sides. The well drainage volume was assumed to be an infinite parallel slab or a circular cylinder with no-flow or constant pressure boundaries at top.25 + (2 Re / L) 4 and β is the permeability anisotropic factor (1. cosh −1 (.23) Lu (2001.20) β= K K h v (1.) is the inverse hyperbolic cosine function. Lu also obtained the conclusion that the equipotential 14 .19).5 + 0.21) Renard (1991) modified the steady state equation to include the effective wellbore radius. a is the same as state in Equation (1.22) where X = 2a / L . 2003) developed steady state productivity equations for horizontal wells.

75 + S ps w (1.surfaces of a horizontal well uniform line sink in three dimensional space with isotropic permeability are a family of ellipsoids of revolution whose focuses are the two end points of the horizontal well.5 ln[(a / h) K / K ] − 1.088 0 z x (1. Babu and Odeh (1989) constructed a pseudo-steady state productivity model.24) where A is drainage area. Expressions for shape factor and partial penetration skin were derived by suitably simplifying and reducing their original solution of the boundary value problem with no-flow boundaries at top. Their equation is below: Q 2πb K x K z ( P − P ) /( µB) a w =F w D ln( A1 / 2 / R ) + ln(C H ) − 0. the horizontal well is parallel to the boxshaped reservoir width ( in y direction). bottom and the sides. which is equal to b . which takes the same form as the well-known productivity equation for a vertical well. C H is geometric factor defined by ln C x x = 6. S ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.25) 15 .28(a / h) K / K [ 1 − 0 + ( 0 ) 2 ] H z x 3 a a − ln[sin(πz / h)] − 0. Lu’s steady state equations will be introduced in Chapter Six.

187 − 12. Using the numerical simulation results.27) K eq =3K K K x y z =y K w eq K y x weq =x K w eq K x y weq z weq =z K w (1.5 ln C + S eq weq A ps where a x x weq 2 eq weq ln C = 4. and their applicability is restricted to the ranges of reservoir dimensions and well penetration ratio simulated. Helmy and Watenburger (1998) proposed pseudo-steady state productivity models in a box-shaped bounded reservoir.485 − [4.56( ) ]( ) A h a a eq eq eq πz a eq weq )] + ln( ) + 2.5 ln[4 A /(γR 2 )] − 0.26) (1.56( ) + 12.0 ln[sin( h h eq eq (1. Correlations for shape factors and partial penetration skins were developed using nonlinear regression.where a is the extension of the drainage volume in direction. x0 is x coordinate of center of the well. z 0 is z coordinate of center of the well. Their equation is below: 2πb 3 K K K ( P − P ) /( µB ) eq x y z a w Q =F w D 0.28) eq K z 16 .

Umnuayponwiwat. Marhaendrajana and Blasingame (2001) presented a solution and associated analysis methodology to evaluate single well performance behavior in a multiple wells reservoir system. The and a. Galindo-N. Ozkan. width. respectively.a eq =a K eq K x b =b eq K eq K y h =h eq K eq K z (1. and Prats (1999) gave a buildup solution in a system with multiple wells producing at constant wellbore pressures. Camacho-V. b. 1.4 Literature Review on Productivity Equations for Multiple Wells System The performance of multiple wells system has received attention in the last decade. and Raghavan (2000) presented equations of pressure transient behavior and inflow performance of multiple vertical and horizontal wells in closed systems. h are reservoir length.29) and r = [( K / K )1 / 4 + ( K / K )1 / 4 ]r / 2 weq x z z x w (1. which is equal to b .30) thickness. 17 . horizontal well is parallel to the box-shaped reservoir width ( in y direction).

The two wells are located at equal distance from the center of the circular system. as shown in Figure 1.31) Y Re Well 2 O R0 R0 Well 1 X Figure 1.Ge (1982) introduced a steady state productivity equation for a symmetric two-well system in a uniform thickness isotropic circular cylinder reservoir. such that the flow rates are equivalent.1 - Symmetric Two-Well System 18 . the wellbore radii and flowing bottomhole pressures are identical.1. The outer boundary pressure ( P ) is assumed to e be constant during production. The steady state productivity for each well is Q =F w D 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) e w ln[( R 4 − R 4 ) /(2 R R R 2 )] e w 0 e 0 (1.

permeability. ( x . φ . for the n-well system. porosity. and no-flow outer boundaries.y ) a( x . They consider a rectangular homogeneous reservoir of uniform thickness. are considered wj constant. the number of e e e e wells.y ) a D D wDj wDj eD 2πkh j = 1 j where (1. the wellbore radii. their locations ( x wj . By superposition principle.2 shows a schematic of the reservoir. In any given time interval. with n production wells. y ) and (0. 0) . x D D wDj wDj eD (y2 + y2 ) 1 yD D wDj = (2πy )[ − + ] eD 3 y 2 ) ( 2 y eD eD ∞ t m cos(mπx D ) cos(mπx wDj ) + 2π ∑ m m =1 and (1.Valko. y ) is µB n P ( x.32) . Figure 1. h . The four corner points of the rectangle are located at (0. y . y . ( x .33) 19 . n. 0) . x . r . y ) .y . the pressure at the point ( x. k . Doublet and Blasingame (2000) presented pseudo-steady state productivity index for multiple wells producing from a closed isotropic rectangular reservoir. y ) = P − ( ) ∑ Q × a( x .y .y wj ) .

Q j is the flow rate of jth well.2 .34) D = x / x and y = y / y . 2000) 20 . P is the e D e a average reservoir pressure in the rectangular drainage domain. Doublet and Blasingame . Figure 1.cosh[mπ ( y − | y − y |)] + cosh{mπ [ y − ( y + y )]} eD D wDj eD D wDj t = m sinh(mπy ) eD with x (1.Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir (after Valko.

there holds µB P = P −( ) w.y . or in a circular reservoir under steady state and pseudo-steady state.For a point located at the circumference of well i and taking into account the drop in pressure due to mechnical skin factor. 21 .35) No productivity equations are available in the literature for multiple wells arbitrarily located in a rectangular reservoir under steady state.y . i a 2πkh n × [ ∑ Q × a( x +r .x .y ) j wDi wDi wDi wDj wDj eD j =1 +S Q ] i i (1. The procedure of calculating multiple wells productivity index will be introduced in Chapter 7 and Chapter 8.

Fluid properties are independent of pressure. and the wellbore radius is R . gas cap. Gravity forces are neglected. the pressure is equal to the initial value at such boundaries during production. and formation volume factor B . If i the reservoir has constant pressure boundaries (edge water. 2. For vertical well and horizontal well in any reservoir model. 22 . the producing well length is L pr . of small and constant compressibility C . the following assumptions are made: 1. constant f viscosity µ .2. the drilled well length is L . Every well is taken as a uniform line sink. flows from the reservoir to the well. bottom water). A single phase fluid. equal to the initial pressure P . The reservoir is with finite uniform thickness H . At time t = 0. RESERVOIR AND WELL MODELS The primary goal of this chapter is to introduce various reservoir and well models in this study. w 3. pressure is uniformly distributed in the reservoir.

Edge water. gas cap and bottom water are taken as constant pressure boundaries.2) Every reservoir is assumed to have finite uniform thickness H . There is no water encroachment or water/gas coning. The origin of the downward z direction coordinates is at the top boundary where z = 0 . bottom water. P| t=0 =P i (2. edge water. P =P e i (2. the reservoir pressure is initial constant. multiphase flow effects are ignored. we have the following equations: 23 .1) In order to simplify the problem of fluid flow into wellbore. then for the upper and lower boundaries. For any type of reservoir . gas cap are taken as constant pressure outer boundaries.4. the pressure at these boundaries is assumed to be constant and equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production.

g. then P| z=H =P. ∂z z = 0 ∂P | =0 ∂z z = H (2. P| =P i z=H i (2. then ∂P | = 0. e. i ∂P | =0 ∂z z = 0 (2. then P| z=0 = P. the boundaries at z = 0 and z = H are both impermeable.5) If the reservoir is with top and bottom constant pressure boundaries. the boundaries at z = 0 and z = H are both constant pressure boundaries. e..4) If the reservoir is with impermeable boundary at z = 0 . the reservoir does not have gas cap drive or bottom water drive. e. then P| z=0 =P. the reservoir has bottom water drive..3) If the reservoir is with impermeable boundary at z = H .If the reservoir is with top and bottom impermeable boundaries.g.e.6) 24 . i ∂P | =0 ∂z z = H (2.constant pressure boundary at z = 0 .g. i.constant pressure boundary at z = H .g.e. i. e. the reservoir has both gas cap drive and bottom water drive. the reservoir has gas cap drive.

2. and the off-center distance is R . R0 Re H Figure 2. The production occurs e through a horizontal well of radius R and length L .Vertical Well in a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Figure 2. w above the bottom of the 25 . and the well is parallel to the z direction with a producing length L pr ≤H. (the well line is located at R e 0 0 away from the axis of symmetry of the cylindrical body). which drains a circular cylinder reservoir with height H and radius R .1 Circular Cylinder Reservoir Model Figure 2.1 is a schematic of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well with length L .1 . represented in the w model by a uniform line sink located a height Z reservoir.2 is a schematic of a horizontal well which also drains a circular cylinder reservoir with height H and radius R .

0. 0. In this case. w The cylindrical drainage volume is Ω = {( x 2 + y 2 ) < R 2 } × (0. the coordinates of the two end points are (− L L . 0. 0 0 26 . 0) and ( R .2 . Z ) . L) . Z ) and ( . the well is parallel to the x direction.Horizontal Well in a Circular Cylinder Reservoir Assume the middle point of the horizontal well is the center of the drainage circle. H ) 1 e (2.7) For a partially penetrating vertical well. 0. respectively. Z ) .Figure 2. 0. the coordinate of the midpoint is w w 2 2 (0. and the horizontal well producing length is L . the coordinates of the top and bottom points of the well line are ( R .

z ) = P = P e i on cylindrical lateral surface (2.11) If both upper and lower boundaries are impermeable. and the vertical well is fully penetrating. L ) is the end 0 1 0 2 point of the producing portion of the well. then the three dimensional circular cylinder reservoir model can reduce to two dimensional circular model. L ) . L ) is the beginning point and point ( R . y . and producing well length is 0 1 0 2 L pr =L −L . L ) and point ( R . 0.8) The lateral boundary condition is shown below: Case 1: Constant pressure lateral boundary P ( x.10) Case 2: Impermeable lateral boundary ∂P | =0 ∂r r = R e (2.9) Γ = {( x 2 + y 2 ) = R 2 } × (0. L ≤L≤H 2 1 pr (2. 27 . The well is a uniform line sink between ( R . 0. H ) 1 e (2. 0. 0.Point ( R .

and the jth well is located R away from the j center of the drainage circle.Multiple Wells System in a Circular Reservoir Figure 2. 28 .3 is a schematic of a multiple wells system. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic circular drainage reservoir with height H and radius Re .3 .Well n 3 2 Well 1 Figure 2.

4 is a schematic of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well with a producing length L with height H . e e The box-shaped drainage volume of the partially penetrating vertical well shown in Figure 2. length X pr . H ) 2 e e Assuming: (2.2 Box-Shaped Reservoir Model Figure 2.4 .13) H Ye Xe Figure 2.Vertical Well in a Box-Shaped Reservoir 29 . .2. Y ) × (0.4 is: Ω = (0.12) X ≥Y e e (2. X ) × (0. which drains a box-shaped drainage volume width Y .

Horizontal Well in a Box-Shaped Reservoir 30 . then X w = X / 2. 0<Y <Y e w e (2. Y . 0) and w w ( X . We have w w pr 0< X w < X . respectively. Y = Y / 2 e w e (2.15) Figure 2. L ) .The coordinates of top and bottom well points are ( X .14) If a vertical well is located at the center of the box-shaped drainage body. Y .5 .

17) This case means the reservoir is with a strong edge water drive. The well is parallel to the x direction with a length L ≤ 2a . the coordinate of the midpoint is (0. and width ( y direction) 2b . Z ) .5 is Ω = (−a. 0. length ( x direction) 2a . 0. 31 . 0. Z ) . the pressure at the outer boundary is always equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production. H ) 3 (2. the coordinates of the two end points of the uniform line sink are (− L .16) For vertical wells. w w 2 The box-shaped drainage domain of the horizontal well shown in Figure 2. Z ) and w 2 L ( .Figure 2. the lateral boundary condition is shown below: Case 1: Constant pressure lateral boundary P| x=0 = P| x=X = P| e y=0 = P| y =Y e =P =P e i (2. b) × (0. a) × (−b.5 is a schematic of a horizontal well which drains a box-shaped reservoir with height H .

Case 2: Impermeable lateral boundary ∂P | = 0 ∂N Γ ∂N (2. width ( y direction ) Y .Y ).6. wj 32 . and the jth well e e is located ( X wj .18) where ∂P |Γ is the exterior normal derivative of pressure on the surface of box-shaped drainage domain. If both upper and lower boundaries are impermeable. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic rectangular reservoir with height H . length ( x direction) X .7 is a schematic of a multiple wells system. Figure 2. and the vertical well is fully penetrating. as shown in Figure 2. This case means all the boundaries of the box-shaped drainage volume are sealed. then the three dimensional box-shaped reservoir model can reduce to two dimensional rectangular model.

Fully Penetrating Vertical Well in a Rectangular Reservoir Well n Ye Well 1 Xe Figure 2.7 .Figure 2.Multiple Wells System in a Rectangular Reservoir 33 .6 .

Vertical Well in a Sector Fault Reservoir As Figure 2.19) 34 .8 shows.8 is a schematic of a fully penetrating vertical well which drains a sector fault reservoir with height H and radius R . a fully penetrating vertical well is in a sector drainage area Ω = {( R . w A Re O Φ R0 φw B Figure 2. both upper and lower e boundaries are impermeable.8 .2. the wellbore location angle is θ . The vertical well is located at R away from 0 the vertex of the angle of the sector.3 Sector Fault Reservoir Model Figure 2. Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } 4 e (2.

=P =P P| e i r=R e (2. OB two sides of angle of the sector area.where τ is an arbitrary real number. ∂N OA ∂P | = 0 ∂N OB (2. during production. The outer boundary is with edge water. The two sides of the angle are impermeable.20) where ∂P | are the exterior normal derivatives of pressure on the ∂N OA. which is greater than or equal to unity.21) 2. The fully penetrating vertical well is in a channel drainage domain below: Ω = (−∞. ∞) × (0. the pressure at outer boundary is always equal to initial reservoir pressure Pi . Y ) 5 e (2.4 Channel Reservoir Model Figure 2.9 is a schematic of a fully penetrating vertical well which drains a channel reservoir with infinite extension in x direction.22) 35 . ∂P | = 0.

9 . and the pressure remains constant and equal to the initial value at an infinite distance in x direction: P( x) | x → ±∞ =P i (2.24) 36 . ∂y y = 0 ∂P | =0 ∂y y = Ye (2.Vertical Well in a Channel Reservoir Two parallel impermeable lateral boundaries are in y direction.23) The channel reservoir is infinite in x direction.Yw Ye Figure 2. ∂P | = 0.

26) 37 . y . z ) . y . point sink solutions are first obtained by the orthogonal decompositions of Dirac δ function under different boundary conditions. then ∂P =0 ∂t (2. in order to obtain point convergence at ( x . z ) is on the producing portion of 0 0 0 the wellbore.2. and its point convergence intensity is q . uniform line sink solutions are obtained.25) If in steady state.5 Mathematical Model In order to obtain productivity equations under different boundary conditions for various reservoir models. Suppose the point ( x . we have to obtain the basic solution of the 0 0 0 diffusivity equation below: ∂2P + K ∂2P + K ∂2P x y z ∂y 2 ∂z 2 ∂x 2 = φµ C ∂ P + µ qB δ ( x − x ) δ ( y − y ) δ ( z − z ) 0 0 0 t ∂t K (2. then using superposition principle.

For circular cylinder reservoirs and sector fault reservoirs. the vertical permeability and horizontal permeability are respectively: K =K v z K = ( K K )1 / 2 h x y (2. define average permeability K a as follows: (2. and r K = K = K h = K r .30) K = K 2 / 3K1 / 3 a r v and define the following dimensionless variables: 38 . in order to solve Equation (2.27) (2. we assume horizontal permeability K h is equal to radial permeability K .For any reservoir model.29) is dimensionless producing length of the wellbore.25) in a dimensionless x y isotropic drainage domain. which will prD be introduced later.28) The relationship between total flow rate Q intensity q is below: w and point convergence Q = qL w prD where L (2.

32) R eD =( K e ) a L K ref r R R 0D =( K 0 ) a L K ref r R (2. L D =( L L ref K ) K a r (2.35) For a horizontal well.34) R wD =( K w )( v )1 / 6 K L r ref R (2.31) H D =( H L ref K ) K a v Z wD =( K w ) a L K ref v Z (2.x D =( x L ref K ) K a r y D =( y L ref K ) K a r z D =( z L ref K ) K a v (2.33) For a vertical well.36) R R K K K = ( v )1 / 6 [( r )1 / 4 + ( v )1 / 4 ]( w ) wD 2L K K K ref r v r (2. L D =( L L ref K ) K a v (2.37) 39 .

42) For a vertical well.39) X wD =( K a w ) K L x ref X Y wD =( K a w ) K L y ref Y (2. L D =( L L ref K ) K a z (2.40) X eD =( K a e ) K L x ref H K ) K a z K Y a Y =( e ) eD K L y ref K w ) a L K ref z Z (2.44) 40 .38) and define the following dimensionless variables =( x L ref X K ) K x a x D y D =( y L ref K ) K a y z D =( z L ref K ) K a z (2. in order to solve Equation (2.41) H D =( L Z ref wD =( (2. define average permeability K K = ( K K K )1 / 3 a x y z a as follows: (2.For box-shaped reservoirs and channel reservoirs.43) K z )1 / 6 R =( wD K K x y y 1 / 4 Rw ) ]( ) × [( x )1 / 4 + ( 2L K K ref x y K K (2.25) in a dimensionless isotropic drainage domain.

assume the well length is parallel to x direction. Besson (1990) and Peaceman (1991). R . length. (2.46) In the above definitions of dimensionless variables. we define the dimensionless effective wellbore radius R in Equations (2.46). L ref could be H .(2.44) and (2.48) 41 .47) P = D K L ( P − P) a ref i µqB (2. then L L ref K ) K a x L D =( (2.35). wD The dimensionless time and dimensionless pressure are defined below: t = K t a φµC L2 t ref D (2.37). Brigham (1990).45) K z )1 / 6 R =( wD K K x y R y 1/ 4 × [( + ( z )1 / 4 ]( w ) ) K K 2L z y ref K K (2.For a horizontal well. and L ref pr e is a reference Based on the works of Muskat (1949). L . etc.

Strictly speaking. the behavior during pseudosteady state or steady state flow. then using superposition principle.25) could be changed into the following dimensionless form: ∂P ∂2P ∂2P ∂2P D −( D + D + D ) 2 2 2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z D D D D )δ ( y − y )δ ( z − z ) = δ (x − x 0D 0D 0D D D D (2. point sink solutions are obtained for various reservoir models. steady state flow can occur only if the flow across the drainage boundary is equal to the flow across the wellbore wall at well 42 .49) by the orthogonal decompositions of Dirac function under different boundary conditions.49) Solving Equation (2. The main steps of derivations of productivity equations for vertical wells are in the appendices of this study. that is. the productivity equations for a uniform link sink in steady state and pseudo-steady state are obtained. Petroleum engineers often relate the productivity evaluation to the long time performance behavior of a well. Equation (2.Using the above dimensionless variables.

then the pseudo-steady state can be reached. 43 . 2004). 2004). whereby the water influx rate at outer boundary is equal to the well producing rate. These conditions may never be met in a reservoir.radius. and the the well is produced at a constant flow rate for a long time. in petroleum reservoirs produced by a strong water drive. and the fluid properties remain constant throughout the reservoir (Tiab and Donaldson. the assumption of steady state is acceptable. if all the reservoir boundaries are impermeable. such as a circular cylinder reservoir. In such cases. the pressure change with time is so slight that it is practically undetectable. however. And it must be pointed out that for a finite size ( finite drainage volume) reservoir. and the wellbore pressure must decline at the same rate as the average reservoir pressure (Tiab and Donaldson. a box-shaped reservoir.

3. An equation is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic circular reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well. which has both impermeable top and bottom boundaries.1) 44 . 2008): Q =F w D 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w 2 2 ln[( R − R ) /( R R )] + S eD 0D eD wD ps (3. for arbitrary position of the well within the reservoir. and has constant pressure lateral boundary. This chapter also studies the effects of some critical parameters on well productivity. then the productivity equation in steady state is below (Lu and Tiab. 3. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR The primary goal of this chapter is to present steady state and pseudosteady state productivity equations for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage reservoir.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State If an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage volume. This chapter also gives equations for calculating pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.

45 . then Equation (3.As a special case of Equation (3. Equation (1. R = 0 .3) and N = Int[( H D ) ln( D )] + 1 2πR R wD wD H (3. All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.1) reduces to 0 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w Q =F w D ln( R / R )+S eD wD ps (3.1). For a centered well. 8H 2 N D ) ∑ {( 1 ) K [( nπ ) R ] S =( 0 H wD ps π 2 L2 n2 1 n = D prD nπL nπ ( L + L ) prD 2 1D 2 D ]} ) cos 2 [ × sin ( 2H 2H D D (3.6) is only applicable to fully penetrating off-center vertical well in an isotropic circular drainage reservoir.4) HD HD HD HD where Int[( 2π RwD ) ln( RwD )] is the integer part of [( 2πRwD ) ln( RwD )] .2) where S ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.

K =K =K =K.5) N (2n − 1)π 1 ]R } K {[ Θ = ∑ 1 wD 2 0 2H n = 1 (2n − 1) D (2n − 1)πL (2n − 1)π ( L + L ) prD 1D 2D ] ] sin 2 [ × sin 2[ 4H 4H D D and N has the same meaning as in Equation (3. L = L = H . (3.2) reduces to R /R eD wD e w If the reservoir has an impermeable bottom boundary and a constant pressure top boundary (gas cap). the well is at the center of the cylindrical body = R / R .4). then (Lu and Tiab. a r v ( R = 0 ). 2008): 46 .e. and if the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir. and 0 Equation (1. if the vertical well is fully penetrating. i. then (Lu and Tiab. then pr e i S ps =0.5).Note that P = P . 2008): Q =F w D where π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB) r pr i w 16 HΘ 1 (3. then Equation (3.6) If the reservoir has an impermeable top boundary and a constant pressure bottom boundary (bottom water).

9).5).9) N ] Θ = ∑ ( 1 ) K [( nπ ) R 3 wD 2 0 H n n =1 D nπL nπ ( L + L ) prD 1D 2D ] ) sin 2[ × sin 2 ( 2H 2H D D (3. (3. we 47 .8) If the reservoir has constant pressure from both top and bottom boundaries (gas cap and bottom water).Q =F w D where π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB) r pr i w 16 HΘ 2 (3. 2008): Q =F w D where π 3K L2 ( P − P ) /( µB) r pr i w 4 HΘ 3 (3.7) N (2n − 1)π 1 ]R } K {[ Θ = ∑ 2 0 wD 2 2 H n = 1 (2n − 1) D (2n − 1)πL (2n − 1)π ( L + L ) prD 2 1D 2D ] ] cos 2 [ × sin [ 4H 4H D D (3.7) and (3. then (Lu and Tiab.10) It is important to emphasize that the dimensionless drainage radius ReD does not show up in Equations (3. In order to compare the effects of different drive mechanisms on the well productivity.

rearrange Equations (3.7). 48 . (3.7): =( R 32Θ 2 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) R π 2 L2 wD pr S ps (3.9) after the form of Equation (3.5). (3.9) and (3.5).7) and (3.11) where.2). (3.11) are applicable to both constant pressure lateral boundary and impermeable lateral boundary. we obtain 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w Q =F w D ln( R / R )+S eD wD ps (3. for Equation (3.5): R 32Θ1 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) S =( ps R π 2 L2 wD pr (3.9): =( R 8Θ 3 H 2 ) − ln( eD ) R π 2 L2 wD pr S ps (3.12) for Equation (3.14) It must be pointed out that Equations (3.13) for Equation (3.

R0 Drainage Radius. ∆P Well Producing Length. The well is an off-center well. isotropic reservoir. Table 3. Rw Well Off-Center Distance. K Oil Viscosity.0 MPa 40 m 0.1 µm2 2. 1 2 Solution: The calculation results are given in Table 3. R = 300 m . The reservoir is a homogeneous.3.1 Pressure Drop.s 1. 49 .1 .Example 3.0 mPa.1 m 300 m 600 m 60 m 0. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are 0 given in Table 3.2 and Table 3.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3. L = 55 m .5 Rm3/Sm3 And assume the z coordinates of the beginning point and the end point on the producing well length are L = 15 m . µ Formation Volume Factor.1: Calculate well flow rates in steady state under different top and bottom boundary conditions in a circular cylinder drainage volume. Lpr Wellbore Radius.1. H Permeability. Re Payzone Thickness. respectively. B 5.

2 shows that significant differences among the well flow rates calculated by Equations (3.9) Expected Productivity 512.07 2. because all the three equations are for a reservoir with both impermeable top and bottom boundaries.5) Equation (3.9).18 -0. Table 3.1 Method Equation (3.7) and (3.12).30 -0.14).5).7) Equation (3. (1.13) and (3.13) Equation (3. Negative values of pseudo skin factors are obtained from Equations (3. which reflect the effects of constant pressure top or bottom boundaries.1). (3.14) Pseudo Skin Factor 1.13) and (3.Table 3.62 Sm3/D 682. (3.12) Equation (3.75 -1. respectively.44 Sm3/D 705.98 2. because these equations are applicable to different top and bottom boundaries.1 Method Equation (1. 50 .00 Table 3.13) Equation (3.9).3) are positive.3) Equation (3.3 . (3.Expected Productivity for Example 3.3 shows that all the pseudo skin factors calculated by Equations (1.Pseudo Skin Factor for Example 3.2 .1) Equation (3.9) Equation (1.21 Sm3/D Table 3.50 Sm3/D 646.

The effects of drainage radius R and off-center e distance R on productivity are negligible. even for the case of an edge water boundary (constant pressure outer boundary).It must be emphasized that S ps in Equation (3. Equations (3. The well is producing as if the reservoir is infinite. S ps in Equations (3.9). The performance is the same for a centered well and an off-center well. ( H << R ) and if the reservoir has gas cap e D eD or bottom water which provides the main drive mechanism.14) are obtained by rearranging the original productivity equations (3.7) and (3.9).7) and (3. (3. (3.5).7) and (3. (3.5). which are the original forms of productivity equations for a reservoir that has gas cap or bottom water.12).3). but S ps in these equations are still taken as pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. thus R and R do not 0 eD 0D show up in Equations (3. The pay zone thickness H is very small compared with the circular cylinder drainage radius R .5). Therefore.9) after the form of Equation (3. (3.13) and (3. the lateral boundary has little influence on productivity.3) is only applicable to the case with impermeable top and bottom boundary condition Equation (2. are applicable to both constant pressure lateral boundary (edge water) reservoirs and impermeable lateral 51 . respectively.2).

and Equations (3.7) and (3. 3. If both top and bottom boundaries are impermeable.5).3) and (2. (3.16) 52 . the well productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a sealed circular cylinder drainage volume under pseudo-steady state can be calculated below (Lu and Tiab. then R and R eD 0D play an important role in well productivity.1).boundary reservoirs.11).Steady State If the boundary conditions are stated as Equations (2. 2008): Q =F w D where 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w S +Λ 1 ps (3.2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo .9). are applicable to both centered and off-center wells.15) R3 eD ] Λ = ln[ 1 (R 2 − R 2 − R R ) R 0D 0 D wD wD eD +R R wD ) 2 − 3 + 1 ( oD 2 R 4 eD (3. as indicated by Equation (3.

18) Q =F w D 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w ln( R / R ) + 1 (R / R )2 − 3 / 4 + S eD wD 2 wD eD ps (3.15) reduces to (3.15) reduces to pr = L = H . fully penetrating well. then S ps = 0 .17) where Λ has the same meaning as in Equation (3.3).16).19) For a centered. and Equation Q =F w D 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Λ 1 (3. S ps = 0 and note that 53 . L (3. P is the average reservoir pressure a throughout the circular cylinder drainage volume. then Λ 0 1 reduces to R R 3 Λ = ln( eD ) + 1 ( wD ) 2 − 1 2 R R 4 eD wD then Equation (3. For a fully penetrating well. 1 If the well is located at the center of drainage volume R = 0 .and S ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration and it has the same meaning as in Equation (3.

Assume the z coordinates of the beginning point 0 and the end point on the well producing length are L = 15 m. L = 55 m . 1 2 respectively. (3. The off-center distance is R = 300 m . (3.20) 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Q =F w D ln( R / R ) −3/ 4 eD wD (3. 54 .7).2: Calculate well flow rate in pseudo-steady state in a sealed circular cylinder drainage volume if the pressure drop is 5. Example 3.19) and (3.17). and a r v R /R = R / R .21) reduces to Equation (1. eD wD e w Therefore the productivity of a vertical well in pseudo-steady state in a circular cylinder drainage volume can be calculated by Equations (3.0 MPa. i. Reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as in Table 3.21).R << R .e. K = K = K = K .21) and if the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir. then Equation (3.1. ( R / R ) 2 ≈ 0. wD eD wD eD thus (3.15).

00167 prD pr wD w R = R / H = 600 / 60 = 10. L = L / H = 15 / 60 = 0. then ref = H / H = 1.18 =( 8 × 12 55 .1 = 611 N = Int[( H Thus S 611 ) ∑ {( 1 ) K (0.00167nπ ) 0 ps π 2 × 0.6667 nπ ) cos 2 [ ]} 2 ×1 2 ×1 = 2.6667.Solution: We have L pr = L − L = 40 m 2 1 L + L = 70 m 2 1 Because the reservoir is isotropic. R = R / H = 0.9167 1D 1 2D 2 L = L / H = 40 / 60 = 0. R = R / H = 300 / 60 = 5 eD e 0D 0 H D H D ) ln( D ) + 1 2πR R wD wD = Int[( H ) ln( H ) + 1 2πR R w w = Int[( 60 ) ln( 60 )] + 1 2π × 0.9167) × sin 2 ( 0.25.6667 2 n = 1 n 2 nπ (0.1 / 60 = 0. and letting L = H .25 + 0.1 0. then K =K =K a r v K / K = K / K =1 a v a r Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2. L = L / H = 55 / 60 = 0.

15) and is only applicable to a fully penetrating vertical well.00167(10 2 − 52 − 5 × 0. Equation (3.1 × 60 × 5 /( 2 × 1.00167) + 1 ( 5 + 0.17) is a special case of Equation (3.90 ( Sm 3 / D) = 3. Temeng and Horne (1984) provided an equation to calculate the shape factor C A in Equation (1.Λ = ln[ 1 103 ] 0.5) = 2.00167 ) 2 − 0.18 + 8.3 Shape Factors Calculation Equation (3. 56 .36 The well flow rate is Q 542.36 = 514.15) can be used to calculate productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state and located anywhere in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir.16) for an off-center fully penetrating vertical well in an isotropic circular reservoir.75 10 2 = 8.86 KH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w w S +Λ ps 1 542.86 × 0.

a proposed equation is presented below to calculate the shape factor C for an isotropic circular reservoir.454 − 2ζ 2 ) A (3. Table 3.17).22) then Temeng and Horne’s equation can be expressed as C = (1 − ζ 2 ) 2 exp(3. C = A 2.16).22).24).4 is obtained for a well with different off-center ratios in an isotropic circular reservoir. it can be found that when ζ ≥ 0. there exist significant differences between the shape factors calculated by Equation (3. From Table 3.23) By rearranging Equation (3.4 .Define the off-center ratio below: ζ = 0 R e R (3.4. and combining with Equation (1. for a given ζ . 57 .2458π (1 − ζ 2 ) 2 exp(ζ 2 − 3 / 2) A (3.24) where ζ has the same meaning as in Equation (3.23) and Equation (3.

and it is applicable to an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir.9309 19.9 Shape Factor (Temeng and Horne) 31.15) is recommended to calculate productivity index.9062 21. A Equation (3.7 0.2046 10.4 0.Shape Factors with Different Off-Center Ratios Off-Center Ratio ζ 0.6200 30. 58 .6825 27.0385 2.0360 5.3 0.6266 30.8 0.2259 Shape Factor ( This Study ) 31.0873 1.2 0.9984 23.5 0.3055 3. because C A Equation (1.1 0.Table 3.6 0.8758 16.7902 6.1396 0.5078 It must be pointed out that C A does not have too much influence on is in the logarithmic function in productivity index ( PI ).3835 26. PI is a weak function of C .16).0 0.8520 9.4 .1608 0. because it does not require the shape factor.0123 13.

5). we study the effects of some critical parameters on productivity index of a vertical well in a circular cylinder reservoir in steady state. reservoir size on productivity index under different boundary conditions.5 Rm3/Sm3 Solution: (1) Effect of payzone thickness on PI . permeabilities. µ Formation Volume Factor. (3. B 0. Re Oil Viscosity. Assume the reservoir is with edge water. reservoir radius are given in Table 3. well producing portion location.3: Using Equations (3.5. Rw Reservoir Radius.5 .3 Wellbore Radius.0 mPa.9) to investigate the effects of payzone thickness. Table 3. (3.4 Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI In this part.2). wellbore radius. Example 3.7) and (3. Fluid properties.1 m 500 m 5.s 1.3. 59 . well length.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 3.

8) and (3.755 Eq.049 26.6 and Figure 3.788 28. (3.6 and Figure 3.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well H (m) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Eq.804 28.7) 28. (3.194 24. the PI calculated by Equation (3. for a given well producing length L pr . because if the locations of L1 and L2 are fixed. PI is a weak function of H.1 present the effect of payzone thickness on PI calculated by Equations (3.649 28.901 25.720 28.778 28.1 µm 2 .9) 29.9) decreases slowly with increasing H . because Equation (3.520 24. (3.497 26. K = 0.697 28.740 28.742 24.732 28.230 26.049 28.863 23.5). 60 .897 28. (3.2). For a given H .025 µm 2 pr r v 1 2 2 1 Table 3. the bottom water boundary is farther away when H increases. L = L − L = 20 m.7) and (3.9) is for the reservoir with both gas cap drive and bottom water drive.525 28.2) 21. K = 0.5) 28.052 25.1 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations change slowly with the increasing H .925 25. L = 25 m. The PI values calculated by Equations (3.Table 3.959 26. (3.055 28.017 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.830 25.9) with the following constant parameters: L = 5 m.772 Table 3.834 28.271 22.6 .694 24. (3.665 29.744 Eq.9) is the biggest among the results calculated by the four equations.

L pr = L − L = 30 m.025 µm 2 2 1 r v 61 .7 and Figure 3.1 . with the following constant parameters: H = 70 m. K = 0.Figure 3.2 present the effect of the location of well producing portion on PI . K = 0.1 µm 2 . Table 3.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Vertical Well (2) Effect of the location of well producing portion on PI .

662 34.385 34.5) 40.7 and Figure 3.398 40.483 37. (3.Table 3.7) 36. (3.220 Eq.858 38. the stronger the driving force.220 39. because the smaller the distance from constant pressure boundary such as gas cap or bottom water.768 37.662 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq. (3. the well should be located at the middle of the pay zone if the reservoir has neither gas cap drive nor bottom water drive.7 .618 39.417 37.985 38. Table 3.417 38.858 39.Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well L1 (m) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 L2 (m) 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Eq.9) 40.985 37. (3. if we ignore water 62 .398 38.2 show that the location of well producing portion does not have significant effect on PI .768 Eq.113 33. encroachment or water/gas coning.2) 33.322 34.483 36.322 34.618 39.113 34.536 The values of PI will increase slowly when the distance between the well producing portion and gap cap or bottom water decreases.900 39.535 39. For maximum PI .900 40.536 39.

1 µm 2 . with the following constant parameters: H = 100 m.3 present the effect of well producing length on PI . Table 3.Figure 3.8 and Figure 3.025 µm 2 pr 2 1 1 r v 63 . L = 10 m. K = 0.Effect of Location of Producing Portion on PI of Vertical Well (3) Effect of well producing length on PI .2 . K = 0. L = L − L .

784 61.675 108.241 67. (3.197 44.163 39. which introduces stronger driving force.307 94.340 89. (3. When L is fixed.384 Eq. for a given reservoir .705 50.211 39.818 70. the smaller the distance between the well producing portion and bottom water.412 83.9) is the biggest among the results calculated by the four equations. 64 .313 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.047 Eq.Table 3.8 .9) is for the reservoir with both gas cap drive and bottom water drive.400 60.332 76.9) 28.550 50.454 69.8 and Figure 3.198 Table 3. because Equation (3.819 80. (3.Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well Lpr (m) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Eq.2) 25.3 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations increase rapidly with increasing L thickness H .5) 28.052 89. For a given L pr calculated by Equation (3.240 36.457 35.634 72.519 78.771 47.379 53. (3. PI is a strong function of L pr . 1 the bigger L pr .590 82. the PI pr .164 96.7) 26.164 102.122 61.041 57.

with the following constant parameters: H = 50 m. L = 45 m.3 . L pr = L − L = 30 m.4 present the effect of radial permeability on PI . Table 3. L = 15 m.Figure 3.025 µm 2 2 1 1 2 v 65 . K = 0.9 and Figure 3.Effect of Well Producing Length on PI of Vertical Well (4) Effect of radial permeability on PI .

292 247. 66 .500 0.658 Eq.5).295 260.200 0.606 108.000 2 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.7).929 79.9 and Figure 3.5) is smaller than that calculated by Equation (3.900 1.535 Eq. r the PI calculated by Equation (3.938 31. PI is a strong function r of K . (3.554 350.811 Eq.028 192.9) 11. r Table 3.7) 10.922 224.800 0.526 377.407 97.170 130.882 143.2) 7. the distance between the well producing portion and gas cap is 15 m .4 show that the PI values calculated by the four equations increase rapidly with the increasing K .071 21. the distance between the well producing portion and bottom water is only 5 m .600 0.664 340.622 151.544 114. (3.656 213. This is the reason why for a given K .700 0.913 77.303 When we use Equation (3.977 64.211 40.279 263.389 196.224 316.382 187.830 73.170 19.551 37.666 332.808 282.400 0.025 0.703 368.300 0.677 331.459 117.Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Kr (µm ) 0.100 0.868 178.050 0.763 230.9 .Table 3.704 303. (3.410 155.7). (3.5) 10.922 297.978 15.416 229. but when we use Equation (3.666 39.775 20.535 296.630 266.181 163.

1 µm 2 2 1 1 2 r 67 . L = 45 m.5 present the effect of vertical permeability on PI .Effect of Radial Permeability on PI of Vertical Well (5) Effect of vertical permeability on PI . L pr = L − L = 30 m. with the following constant parameters: H = 50 m. L = 15 m.10 and Figure 3. Table 3. K = 0.4 .Figure 3.

050 0. if the reservoir has gas cap or bottom water.729 47.100 0.045 49.331 43.421 44.830 39.Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Kv (µm ) 0.5 show that PI is a weak function of vertical permeability K . (3.700 0.7).402 32.637 43.157 53.600 0. (3. (3. the PI values calculated by v v Equations (3.058 45.148 Eq.457 52.2) 31.510 Table 3.10 .087 32.101 40.754 32.550 52.285 46. v (6) Effect of reservoir size on PI .045 48.877 31.114 52.420 48. the main driving force comes from the vertical direction. When K increases.302 46.064 49.2).200 0. This is due to the fact that for a partially penetrating vertical well.7) 39.912 32. (3.859 54.238 49.800 0.607 51.6 present the effect of reservoir size on PI .524 50.929 42.Table 3. with the following constant parameters: 68 .099 45.11 and Figure 3.649 32.023 Eq.400 0.10 and Figure 3.615 48.254 32.393 53. and (3.5).940 33.952 46.500 0.724 Eq.000 2 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq. Table 3.9) 40.900 1.977 31.991 45.740 51.5) 37.532 32.680 42.025 0. so the effect of vertical permeability K on PI is more pronounced.851 32.913 41.9) increase faster than that calculated by Equation (3.834 48.300 0. (3.618 49.950 50.

69 .H = 50 m. L = L − L = 30 m.Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Vertical Well Table 3.1 µm 2 .025 µm 2 2 r v pr Figure 3. K = 0.5 .6 show that reservoir size ( reservoir radius R ) e does not have any effect on PI if the reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water. L = 15 m 2 1 1 L = 45 m.11 and Figure 3. the PI decreases slowly with the increasing R if the reservoir e has neither gas cap nor bottom water. K = 0.

830 37.929 40.929 40. (3.913 39.830 37.830 37.783 34.929 40.5) 37.830 37.929 40.Table 3.929 40.913 39.830 37.7) 39.913 39.913 39.913 39.252 31.9) 40.929 40.Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well Re (m) 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Eq.913 39.830 37.913 Eq.913 39.277 31.830 Eq.063 33.913 39. (3.913 39.278 35.913 39.620 32.929 Figure 3.830 37.470 31.913 39.929 40.977 31.710 31.913 39.Effect of Reservoir Size on PI of Vertical Well 70 .929 40.11.929 40.830 37.017 32.830 37. (3.929 40.929 40.054 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.830 37.794 34. (3.6 .488 33.2) 37.830 37.830 37.929 40.

(3.785 130.785 130. K = 0.650 120.653 106.375 104.650 120.650 120.785 Table 3. 71 .650 120.785 130.853 126.224 101.12 and Figure 3.(7) Effect of off-center distance on PI .853 126. but does not have gas cap or bottom water drive.650 120.025 µm 2 1 2 r v Table 3.429 103. and the PI increases slowly with the increasing R if the reservoir has 0 edge water drive. (3.1) 100.882 101.12 .785 130.7) 126.853 126. with the following constant parameters: H = 35 m.853 126.Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well R0 (m) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Eq.684 100.650 Eq.415 108.853 126. (3. (3.9) 130.12 and Figure 3.785 130.619 100.785 130.785 130.1 µm 2 .7 present the effect of off-center distance on PI .853 126.785 130.729 102. L pr = L − L = 20 m.5) 120.967 PI ( Sm3/D/MPa) Eq.853 126.853 126. 2 1 L = 5 m.785 130.650 120.650 120.650 120. L = 25 m.853 126. Table 3.7 show that the off-center distance R does not 0 have any effect on PI if the reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water.650 120. K = 0.853 Eq.

7 .Figure 3.Effect of Off-Center Distance on PI of Vertical Well 72 .

4. for arbitrary aspect ratio of the rectangle and for arbitrary position of the well within the rectangle. An off-center partially penetrating vertical well located inside a sealed box-shaped drainage volume. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR The primary goal of this chapter is to present pseudo-steady state and steady state productivity equations for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in a box-shaped reservoir.1 Productivity Equations In Pseudo .Steady State Assume the well producing length is equal to the drilled well length. L pr = L . its productivity in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by (Lu and Tiab. Further. 2008): 73 . This chapter also gives equations for calculating pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.4. An equation is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well. the proposed equation is not limited to rectangles whose sides are integral ratios.

3) where L 2H L L2 D prD 1 prD prD Ψ =( + )( − ) 1 3X Y 2 H 2H 2 eD eD D D (4.4) mπX M wD ) ){ ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( Ψ =( 2 X π 3Y L m = 1 m3 eD eD prD cosh[(mπH / X )(1 − 2 L / H )] mπH D eD prD D D )}} ×{ − coth( sinh(mπH / X ) X D eD eD X2 eD (4.( K K )1 / 2 L ( P − P ) /( µB) x y pr a w Q =F w D Λ +S 2 Ps where (4.1) X X2 eD wD 1 Λ =( + wD ) )( − 2 6 2X 2 Y eD eD 2 X eD π (2Y +R πR ) wD wD ] | sin( wD )} − ( 1 ) ln{4 | sin[ 2π 2Y 2Y eD eD 2X (4.2) S S ps ps is pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration.5) 74 . =Ψ +Ψ +Ψ 1 2 3 (4.

) and coth(.6). and m= 0.7) lm Y eD (4. cosh(. we obtain (4. All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2. It has been shown that in Equations (4. d =1 .9) Ψ =Ψ =Ψ =0 1 2 3 75 . m> 0.) are hyperbolic sine.6) mπX M wD ) × ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( 3 X m=0 d µ eD m lm cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm prD D ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm sinh(. d =1/ 2 m m µ = ( lH D )2 + ( mH X D )2 (4.8) eD For a fully penetrating vertical well. L pr = H . hyperbolic cosine and hyperbolic cotangent function. respectively. the integer number M = 100 is sufficiently large to reach the engineering accuracy for all field practice.Ψ =( 3 π 3X H3 D Y L eD eD prD lπY M ){ ∑ cos 2 ( wD ) Y l =1 eD (4.5) and (4.) .

Y = Y / 2.10) 2 has the same meaning as in Equation (4. we have X w = X / 2. then Equation (4.1) to calculate productivity index of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box- 76 .13) Example 4. If a fully penetrating vertical well located at the center of a sealed isotropic rectangular reservoir.1) reduces to ( K K )1 / 2 L ( P − P ) /( µB ) x y pr a w Q =F w D Λ 2 where Λ (4.12) For a given well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box-shaped reservoir.e.2). K = K = K = K e w e pr x y z (4.11) Then Equation (4.so S ps = 0 .10) reduces to 2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) a w Q =F w D πX /(6Y ) − ln{4 sin[πR /(2Y )]} e e w e (4. X w = X /2 e Y =Y /2 w e (4. i. the productivity reaches maximum value when the well is located at the center.1: Using Equation (4. L = H .

025µm2 5.1 m 50 m 50 m 20 m 0. Xw Well Location in y Direction. Ye Well Producing Length.0 mPa. Kx Permeability in y Direction.1 Reservoir Length. Xe Reservoir Width.shaped anisotropic reservoir. and letting L = L .1 × 0. B 200 m 200 m 10 m 0.s 1.1 µm2 0.1.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4. Kz Oil Viscosity.4 × 0.1 / 0. Y = 20 m e e Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2. we obtain ref pr L = L = (0.025)1 / 2 = 2 D prD 77 .1 ( µm 2 ) x y z X = 200 m. Lpr Wellbore Radius.5 Rm3/Sm3 Solution: We have K a = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0. Ky Permeability in z Direction. Rw Well Location in x Direction.1 .4 µm2 0. µ Formation Volume Factor.025)1 / 3 = 0. Table 4. Yw Payzone Thickness. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4. H Permeability in x Direction.

0075 wD Y /X = 1 / 2.025)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 2.1)1 / 4 ] × 0.1 / 0. H D /Y = 2 / 5.4 )]1 / 6 [(0. Y / L = 5 eD eD D wD /X eD =Y / Y = 1/ 4 wD eD H L /( X Y ) = 1 / 25.0075) /( 2 × 10)] sin[π × 0.1 / 0.1 / 0. L / H = 1 / 2. H 3 /( X Y L ) = 4 / 25 D D eD eD D eD eD D µ lm = 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25 )−( 1 ) 2π 2 × 42 1 Λ = (2 × 2)( 1 − 1 + 2 6 2× 4 × ln{4 sin[π × (2 × 2.1 × 0. 1 − 2 L / H = 0 eD eD D D D D H X D /X eD = 1 / 5.4)1 / 4 + (0.1 / 0.1)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 20 Y = (0.5 + 0.1)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 5 Y = (0.X eD = (0.5 wD H R D = (0.003 1 3 × 25 2 2 8 78 .4 / 0.1 /( 2 × 10) = 0.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 10 eD X wD = (0.025)1 / 2 × (20 / 10) = 4 = [0.1 / 0.0075 /(2 × 10)]} = 1.1 / 0.199 Ψ = ( 2 )( 1 − 1 + 1 ) = 1 / 300 = 0.025 /( 0.

32 ( Sm3 / D / MPa) = It is interesting to find that S ps is negative in the above calculation.4)(0.2mπ ) = −0.4)1 / 2 (10) /(5 ×1.5) 1× (1.2mπ )]} sinh(0.092 So S ps = 0.199 − 0.122) + (−0. is smaller than the denominator for a fully penetrating 79 .003 + (−0.092) = −0.100 Ψ = ( 20 ) × { ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 (0.122 100 100 2 Ψ = ( 4 ) ∑ cos 2 ( lπ ){ ∑ [ ] cos 2 ( mπ ) 3 4 4 2 2 3 / 2 3 π × 25 l = 1 m = 1 (4l / 25 + m / 25) cosh(0) ×[ − coth(π 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25 )] sinh(π 4l 2 / 25 + m 2 / 25 ) cosh(0) + (125 )[ − coth(2πl / 5)]} 3 sinh( 2 l / 5 ) π 8l = −0.25mπ ) 2 3 π3 m =1 m cosh(0) ×[ − coth(0. In a given reservoir.1) for a partially penetrating well.1× 0. the denominator of Equation (4.211 and PI = Q /(∆P) w (86.211) = 23.

but productivity of the partially penetrating well still in the numerator of decreases due to smaller well producing length L Equation (4. are only applicable to rectangular shapes whose sides are integral ratios.well ( S ps = 0 ).1). The shape factors obtained by Dietz and Earlougher et al.1) can be used to calculate productivity of an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudo-steady state and located anywhere in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir. pr 4.16) were provided by Dietz (1965).12) which is a special case of Equation (4. Equation (4. A successive refinement numerical procedure presented by Peaceman (1990) can calculate the shape factor of a rectangle with arbitrary aspect ratio. (1968) and Peaceman (1990). 80 . Earlougher et al.2 Shape Factors Calculation Equation (4. is only applicable to a fully penetrating vertical well located at the center of a sealed isotropic box drainage volume. the shape factor C A in Equation (1. For a rectangular reservoir.1).

for any aspect ratio of the rectangle and for any position of the well within the rectangle (Lu and Tiab. 2008): 16π 2 f sin 2 (πf ) 88.16) Example 4. 1 e e f = X /X .47. 2 w e f = Y /Y 3 w e (4.6657 f sin 2 (πf ) 1 3 = 1 3 C = A exp( f ) γ exp( f ) 4 4 where (4. and f = X /Y .14) γ ≈ 1.28.781. Solution: We have 81 .2: Given: f = X / Y = 3. 2 w e f = Y / Y = 0. 1 e e f = X / X = 0.A proposed equation is presented below to calculate the shape factor C A of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well.83 3 w e Calculate the shape factor for an isotropic rectangular reservoir.15) f f2 1 2 f = (8πf )( − + 2) 4 1 6 2 2 (4.

f f2 1 2 + 2) f = (8πf )( − 4 1 6 2 2 1 0.47 2 ) = (8π × 3.2 for some rectangles.28)( − + 6 2 2 = 3.83) = exp(3. The proposed equations (4.6657 f sin 2 (πf ) 1 3 C = A exp( f ) 4 88. C A 82 .47 0.6657 × 3.28 × sin 2 (π × 0. This is the reason there exist differences among the results calculated by the four methods in Table 4.472) = 2. (4. the numerical method presented by Peaceman requires relatively much computational work.1).2 is obtained for different locations of a well in different aspect ratios of the rectangle by four methods.14).472 So 88.3403 Table 4. It must be pointed out that even if there exist some differences among the shape factors C A calculated by different methods for a given shape.12) and (4.14) are derived by solving analytically the involved three-dimensional Laplace equation. Compared with Equation (4.

16).1146 14.1162 2.1573 0.3351 21. because C A is in the logarithmic function in Equation (1.2698 3.90 12.8811 12.5566 21.2324 0. A Table 4.6896 0.13 0.3783 2.607 0.2 .07 3.60 10.1573 0.5833 0.232 0.38 2.86 2.5224 3.1116 5.3606 30.8828 12.9851 4.8369 4.3790 2.2324 0.6372 0.9839 4.5813 0.1980 0.8362 10.5141 2.80 4.3591 Shape Factor ( This Study ) 31.5132 3.36 30.8374 10.3346 21.3592 83 .1155 2.72 0.8374 4. ) ( Peaceman ) 30.3781 2.Shape Factors for a Rectangular Reservoir Drainage Area Shape Shape Factor Shape Factor Shape Factor ( Dietz ) ( Earlougher et al.5224 2.1158 2.2318 0.0769 3.0932 4.1778 5.6892 0.90 4.39 22.115 2.111 5.8369 10.0813 3.1863 7.57 3.does not have too much influence on productivity index ( PI ).1109 5. PI is a weak function of C .5396 2.9187 4.6890 0.

1 .Equation (4. and it is applicable to an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir. calculate the w shape factors with respect to different values of X w /X e for the square 84 .3: Figure 4.Xw Re=Xe/2 Xe=Ye Figure 4.1 shows a fully penetrating vertical is located at ( X .A Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circle Example 4.1) is recommended to calculate productivity index in pseudosteady state. Y ) in an w w isotropic square reservoir. If Y is always equal to Ye / 2 . Xw Ye Yw Re. because it does not require the shape factor.

19) into Equation (3.23) gives: C A = [1 − (1 − 2ω ) 2 ]2 exp[3.5 3 w e Define the well location ratio below: ω= X X w e (4. for the square reservoir. Solution: If Y = Ye / 2 .17) then for the square reservoir.15).22).14) reduces to C A = 88. 1 e e f = Y / Y = 0. then w f = X / Y = 1. and calculate the corresponding shape factors for the inscribed circular reservoir.19) into Equation (3. Equation (4.20) Substituting Equation (4.reservoir.19) Substituting Equation (4. we obtain ζ = R / R = ( R − X w ) / R = 1 − 2ω 0 e e e (4.454 − 2(1 − 2ω ) 2 ] (4.24) yields: 85 . we use Equation (4.18) Recalling the off-center ratio defined in Equation (3.6657 exp[8π (1 / 6 − ω / 2 + ω 2 / 2)] (4.

The results are shown in Table 4.50 Equation (4. 6266 Equation (4.4424 4. 0123 23. 1146 Equation (4. Table 4. 6745 10.Shape Factors of a Square Reservoir and Its Inscribed Circular Reservoir ω 0.40 0.40 .45 0.20) and (4.3 . no significant differences between the values of C proposed Equation (4.5078 2. 3055 10.15 0. A calculated by the thus for the circular 86 . 9984 30. 8520 19. 1396 3. shape factors for the square reservoir and its inscribed circular reservoir can be calculated. If 0. 6200 From the shape factors shown in Table 4.C A = 2.30 0. 8757 26.20) 0.21) 0.3.35 0.2259 1. 1523 31.20 ≤ ω ≤ 0.25 0. 7902 16. 1664 6.05 0. 1863 18. 0360 13.10 0. the square reservoir is seen to resemble the circular reservoir if ω ≥ 0. 4403 30. with respect to different values of ω .18) 2. 2046 21. 3835 31. 8219 23. 0413 14.2458π [1 − (1 − 2ω ) 2 ]2 exp[(1 − 2ω ) 2 − 3 / 2] (4. 9062 30. 4514 27.20 .21). 6825 31. 1608 5.3. 9309 27.18). 0873 6.20 0. (4.18) and Equation (4.21) Using Equations (4.21). 0385 9.

4 shows a partially penetrating vertical well draining a boxshaped drainage domain (0. H ) . the reservoir is with a strong edge water drive. the pressure at the outer boundary is assumed to be constant and equal to the reservoir initial pressure during production.20) which was obtained by rearranging Equation (3. The productivity equation in steady state is below : 4π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q =F w D ln[T × T /(T × T )] + S ps 1 2 3 4 where (4.3 Productivity Equations In Steady State Figure 2. Y ) × (0. both upper and lower e e boundaries are impermeable.25) 87 .22) T = sin 2 (πY / Y ) / sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] 1 wD eD wD eD T = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] 2 wD eD eD eD /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} ÷ {sin 2 [πR wD eD eD eD T = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] 3 wD eD wD eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wD eD wD eD (4.24) (4.23) (4.23). Equation (4.21) is more reliable than Equation (4. 4.reservoir. X ) × (0.

**T = {sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} 4 wD eD eD eD wD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wD eD eD eD wD
**

8H 4 D lπY M ){ ∑ sin 2 ( wD ) Y L2prD l = 1 eD

(4.26)

S ps = (

π 2X

Y eD eD

mπX M wD ) × ∑ ( 1 ) sin 2 ( X m = 1 µ3 eD lm cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm prD D ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm H + ( D − 1) × L prD ⎧ sin 2 (πYwD / YeD ){sin 2 [πRwD /(2YeD )] + sinh 2 (πX wD / YeD )} ⎫ {ln ⎨ 2 ⎬ 2 2 ⎩ sin [πRwD /(2YeD )]{sin (πYwD / YeD ) + sinh (πX wD / YeD )} ⎭ ⎧ sin 2 [πRwD /(2YeD )] + sinh 2 [π ( X eD − X wD ) / YeD ] ⎫ + ln ⎨ ⎬} 2 2 + − π Y Y π X X Y sin ( / ) sinh [ ( ) / ] wD eD eD wD eD ⎩ ⎭

(4.27)

**and µ lm has the same meaning as in Equation (4.8), the integer number
**

M = 100 is sufficiently large to reach the engineering accuracy for all field

practice.

For a fully penetrating vertical well in a square reservoir ( X = Y ), e e

L

pr

= H and S

ps

= 0 , Equation (4.22) can be approximated by the

following expression:

88

2π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q ≈F w D ln{sin(πY / Y ) / sin[πR /(2Y )]} wD eD wD eD

(4.28)

If the well is at the center of an isotropic square reservoir,

X

w

= X / 2 = Y = Y / 2, K = K = K = K e w e x y z

(4.29)

then Equation (4.28) can be further simplified to

Q ≈F w D

2πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w ln[2Y /(πR )] e w

(4.30)

Example 4.4: Calculate a partially penetrating vertical well flow rate in steady state in a box-shaped drainage domain with constant pressure lateral boundaries. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4.4.

Solution: We have

K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0.1 × 0.4 × 0.025)1 / 3 = 0.1 ( µm 2 ) a x y z

Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2, and letting

L = L , we obtain ref pr

89

X X

H

eD wD

D

= (0.1 / 0.1)1 / 2 × (800 / 10) = 80 Y = (0.1 / 0.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 10) = 10 eD = (0.1 / 0.1)1 / 2 × (100 / 10) = 10 Y = (0.1 / 0.4)1 / 2 × (50 / 10) = 2.5 wD

= (0.1 / 0.025)1 / 2 × (20 / 10) = 4.0

R = [0.025 /( 0.1× 0.4 )]1 / 6[(0.1 / 0.4)1 / 4 + (0.4 / 0.1)1 / 4 ] × 0.1 /(2 × 10) wD = 0.0075

Table 4.4 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.4

Reservoir Length, Xe Reservoir Width, Ye Wellbore Radius, Rw Well Location in x Direction, Xw Well Location in y Direction, Yw Well Producing Length, Lpr Payzone Thickness, H Permeability in x Direction, Kx Permeability in y Direction, Ky Permeability in z Direction, Kz Pressure Drop, ∆P Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

800 m 200 m 0.1 m 100 m 50 m 10 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 0.4 µm2 0.025 µm2 2.0 MPa 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

T = sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) / sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) = 360253.26 1 2 × 10.0 10.0

T = [sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 ( π × 80.0 )] 2 10.0 10.0 ÷ [sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 ( π × 80.0 )] 2 ×10.0 10.0 ≈ 1.0000

90

T = [sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 ( π ×10.0 )] 3 10.0 10.0 2 ÷ [sin ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 ( π ×10.0 )] 2 ×10.0 10.0 = 1.0037 π × (80.0 − 10.0) T = {sin 2 ( π × 2.5 ) + sinh 2 [ ]} 4 10.0 10.0 π × (80.0 − 10.0) ]} ÷ {sin 2 ( π × 0.0075 ) + sinh 2 [ 10.0 2 ×10.0 ≈ 1.0000

Using Equation (4.27), we obtain

S

ps

= 9.86

So, using Equation (4.22), the well flow rate in steady state is

Q

1085.734 × 0.1 × 0.4 × 20 × 2.0 /(5.0 × 1.5) w ln(360253.26 × 1.0000 /(1.0037 × 1.0000)) + 9.86 = 51.13 ( Sm 3 / D) =

In Equation (4.28), when Y = Y / 2 and sin(πY / Y ) = sin(π / 2) = 1.0, it w e wD eD can be shown that in a rectangular reservoir with constant pressure

lateral boundaries, the flow rate of an off-center well is bigger than that of a centered well.

Example 4.5: If the outer boundaries of the isotropic square reservoir and its inscribed circular reservoir in Figure 4.1 are at constant pressures, calculate the

91

productivity indexes of a fully penetrating vertical with respect to different values of

X

w

/ X , ( Y = Ye / 2 ), and calculate the corresponding w e

productivity indexes if the well is located in the inscribed circular reservoir. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 4.5.

Table 4.5 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 4.5

Reservoir Length, Xe Reservoir Width, Ye Wellbore Radius, Rw Payzone Thickness, H Permeability, K Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

200 m 200 m 0.1 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

Solution: Because the outer boundary is at constant pressure during production, Equation (4.22) is used for the square reservoir, and Equation (3.1) is used for the inscribed circular reservoir. The results are shown in Table 4.6. In Table 4.6, ω has the same meaning as in Equation (4.17), when we use Equations (3.1) and (4.22) in this example, S

ps

= 0 , and

R = X e / 2, R = X e / 2 − X w = R − X w . e 0 e

92

Table 4.6 -

Productivity Indexes for Example 4.5

ω

0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50

PI By Equation (4.22) ( Sm3/D/MPa) 27.372 24.305 22.903 22.086 21.564 21.219 20.991 20.846 20.765 20.740

PI By Equation (3.1) ( Sm3/D/MPa) 27.590 24.594 23.220 22.404 21.868 21.499 21.247 21.081 20.987 20.957

Table 4.6 indicates that in steady state, the production performance of a square reservoir resembles that of a circular reservoir. In both types of reservoir, with constant pressure outer boundary, the off-center well can yield higher

PI than the centered well. There is little difference in the

productivity of a vertical well draining a square reservoir and that of the same well draining a circular reservoir of the same area.

93

PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE VERTICAL WELL IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR The primary goal of this chapter is to present steady state productivity equations for a fully penetrating vertical well in a sector fault reservoir and a channel reservoir.1 Productivity Equation For A Sector Fault Reservoir As Figure 2. R is the sector radius.2) and R is the off-vertex distance. 5. 2008): Q =F w D 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r i w ln( F ) w (5.θ ) 0 w in a sector fault reservoir {( R . 94 . θ is the 0 e w wellbore location angle. a fully penetrating vertical well is located at ( R . the productivity equation in e steady state is below (Lu and Tiab.1) where F is sector shape function defined below: w (1 − R 2τ )[1 − 2 R 2τ cos(2τθ ) + R 4τ ]1 / 2 0D 0D 0D w F = w − 2 τ 1 2τR R sin(τθ ) wD 0 D w (5. Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } .8 shows.5.

θ w = Φ / 2 = π /(2τ ) .3) can be simplified.1: Calculate a fully penetrating vertical well flow rate in steady state in a sector fault reservoir. Solution: We have τ = π / Φ = π /(5π / 12) = 2. Table 5. If the reservoir is an isotropic permeability reservoir.All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.e. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5. i.2. K = K = K = K .e.4 95 . The reservoir is a homogeneous. a r v then F = {[1 − ( R / R ) 2τ ][1 − 2( R / R ) 2τ cos(2τθ ) + ( R / R ) 4τ ]1 / 2} 0 e 0 e 0 e w w /[2τ ( R / R )( R / R ) 2τ sin(τθ )] w 0 0 e w (5. i. Equation (5.1 shows the simplified F for w several special angles in an isotropic sector reservoir.3) If the well is on the bisector of the sector angle. Example 5. isotropic reservoir.

H Sector Angle. ∆P Well Off-Vertex Distance.s 1. µ Formation Volume Factor.8 4.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.1 m 600 m 60 m 5π/12 π/12 0. φw Permeability.0 MPa 400 m 0.0 mPa. R0 Wellbore Radius.2 . K Oil Viscosity.01 µm2 2.8 Rw R0 / Re ) 5 6 [1 − ( R0 / Re )12 ] /(6 Rw R0 / Re ) 7 8 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 ] /(8 Rw R0 / Re ) 9 10 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 20 ] /(10 Rw R0 / Re ) 11 12 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 24 ] /(12 Rw R0 / Re ) 15 16 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 32 ] /(16 Rw R0 / Re ) 17 18 [1 − ( R0 / Re )36 ] /(18 Rw R0 / Re ) 19 20 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 40 ] /(20 Rw R0 / Re ) Table 5.1 Pressure Drop. Φ Wellbore Location Angle.8 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 9.5 Rm3/Sm3 96 .Table 5.4 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 2 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 6 ] /(3Rw R0 / Re ) 3 4 [1 − ( R0 / Re )8 ] /(4 Rw R0 / Re ) 3.6 ] /( 4.Sector Shape Functions for Special Sector Angles and Wellbore Location Angles Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Φ π 3π/4 2π/3 π/2 5π/12 π/3 π/4 π/5 π/6 π/8 π/9 π/10 τ θw π/2 3π/8 π/3 π/4 5π/24 π/6 π/8 π/10 π/12 π/16 π/18 π/20 Fw 2 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 4 ] /( 2 Rw R0 / Re ) 5/3 8/ 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 / 3 ] /[(8 / 3) Rw R0 / Re ] 1 4/3 3/2 2 2. Rw Drainage Radius.1. Re Payzone Thickness. B 5.

Because the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir, i.e. K = K = K = K , a r v using Equation (5.3), we have

F = Y /Y w 1 2

where

Y = [1 − (400 / 600) 4.8 ] 1 × [1 − 2(400 / 600) 4.8 cos(2 × 2.4 × π / 12) + (400 / 600) 9.6 ]1 / 2 = 0.82759

and

Y = 2 × 2.4 × (0.1 / 400) × (400 / 600) 4.8 × sin( 2.4 × π / 12) 2 = 1.0073 × 10 − 4

So

F = 0.82759 /(1.0073 × 10− 4 ) = 8215.92 w

Using Equation (5.1), the well flow rate is

Q = w

542.867 KH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w ln( F ) w 542.867 × 0.01× 60 × 5 /(2 × 1.5) = ln(8215.92) = 60.23 ( Sm3 / D)

97

Example 5.2: Consider a fully penetrating vertical well located on the bisector of an isotropic sector fault reservoir, i.e. θ w = Φ / 2 = π /( 2n) and assume

mechanical skin factor S = 0 . Calculate productivity index when n = 1, 2, 3, 4,…, 9, 10. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 - Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5.2

Well Off-Vertex Distance, R0 Wellbore Radius, Rw Drainage Radius, Re Payzone Thickness, H Permeability, K Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

250 m 0.1 m 500 m 25 m 0.1 µm2 2.0 mPa.s 1.25 Rm3/Sm3

Solution:

Table 5.4 indicates that if the sector fault reservoir has a constant pressure outer boundary (edge water), both the sector drainage area and the steady state productivity index decrease with increasing n .

98

Table 5.4 - Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 5.2

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Fw 3750.00 4687.50 6562.50 9960.94 15984.38 26660.16 45711.50 79998.78 142221.68 255999.76

PI (Sm3/D/MPa) 65.966 64.224 61.766 58.966 56.085 53.270 50.593 48.085 45.753 43.594

Example 5.3: Consider a fully penetrating vertical well located on the bisector of an isotropic sector fault reservoir, i.e. θ w = Φ / 2 = π /(2n) and assume mechanical skin factor S = 0 . Investigate the effect of the off-vertex

distance R0 on productivity index when n = 1, 2,…, 9, 10. Permeability, wellbore radius, reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 5.3.

Solution:

The results are shown in Figure 5.1.

99

Figure 5.1 - Effect of Off-Vertex Distance on Productivity Index

From Table 5.4, Figure 5.1, Equations (5.1) and (5.2),

the following

conclusions about productivity index PI for the sector fault drainage area

{( R , Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } can be reached: e

(1) For given values of θ , H , R and R , PI is an increasing function w e 0 with respect to the angle of the sector Φ and a decreasing function with respect to τ , and F is an increasing function with respect to τ . w

100

(2) For given θ , H , R and Φ , PI is an increasing function with respect w e to the off-vertex distance R ; and F is a decreasing function with 0 w respect to R . 0

(3) For given θ , H , R and Φ , PI is a decreasing function with respect w 0 to the sector radius R ; and F is an increasing function with respect to e w

R . e

(4) For given H , R , R and Φ , PI reaches maximum value when 0 e

θ =Φ/2 .

w

**5.2 Productivity Equation For A Channel Reservoir
**

Figure 2.9 shows a channel reservoir with infinite extension in the

x

direction. Assuming a fully penetrating vertical well is located at (0, Y ) in w the drainage domain (−∞, ∞) × (0, Y ) , the steady state productivity equation e is (Lu and Tiab, 2008):

2π K K H ( P − P ) /( µB) x y i w Q =F w D Λ 3

(5.4)

101

Kz Pressure Drop. H Permeability in x Direction.s 1.5 .0 mPa.4: Calculate the flow rate of a fully penetrating vertical well in steady state in a channel reservoir. Kx Permeability in y Direction.where Λ = πR / Y − ln[(2πR / Y ) sin(πY / Y )] 3 wD eD wD eD wD eD (5. ∆P Oil Viscosity.4 Reservoir Width. Yw Payzone Thickness.025µm2 2.5) If the well is located at the middle of the reservoir width. Ye Wellbore Radius. Table 5.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 5. and PI is a decreasing function of the channel reservoir width Ye . µ Formation Volume Factor.4 µm2 0. B 200 m 0.0MPa 5.5. Ky Permeability in z Direction. Rw Well Location in y Direction. i. its w e productivity index reaches maximum value. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 5.e.1 µm2 0.1 m 50 m 20 m 0. Y = Y / 2 .5 Rm3/Sm3 102 . Example 5.

4)1 / 2 × (50 / 20) = 1.00375 / 5.1 / 0.0 = [0.4 × 0.25 wD H R = (0.474( Sm3 / D) 103 .706 The steady state flow rate is Q = w 542.1× 0.025)1 / 2 = 2.1)1 / 4 ] × 0.0) sin(π ×1.0 ×1.1 × 0.00375 / 5.1 /( 2 × 20) = 0.0)] = 5.Solution: The average permeability is: K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (0. and letting L = H .867 × 0.1 / 0. we obtain ref Y = (0.1 / 0.25 / 5.5) 5.1 / 0.4)1 / 4 + (0.00375 D wD Λ = π × 0.706 = 101.025)1 / 3 = 0.025 /( 0.1 × 0.0 /(5.4 )]1 / 6 [(0.0 3 − ln[(2 × π × 0.4 / 0.1 ( µm 2 ) a x y z Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.4)1 / 2 × (200 / 20) = 5 eD Y = (0.4 × 20 × 2.

For every horizontal well in this study. then the steady state productivity is below (Lu. This chapter also studies the effects on well productivity of payzone thickness. drainage volume. well length.1 Steady State Productivity Equation For A Circular Cylinder Reservoir Figure 2. vertical and horizontal permeabilities. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A SINGLE HORIZONTAL WELL The primary goal of this chapter is to introduce steady state productivity equations and present pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a horizontal well in a circular cylinder reservoir and a box-shaped reservoir. and with a constant pressure lateral boundary.2 is a schematic of a horizontal well in a circular cylinder reservoir. the well drilled length L is always equal to the well producing length L pr . location.6. 6. If a horizontal well is in a circular cylinder drainage reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries. 2003): 104 .

If the reservoir is an isotropic reservoir.3) 3πKH ( P − P ) /( µB) i w Q =F w D Λ 5 where (6. then K =K =K h v thus Equation (6.3π ( K 1 / 6 K 5 / 6 ) H ( P − P ) /( µB) v h i w Q =F w D Λ 4 where (6.2) All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.1) eD + 1 Λ = L ln D 4 L D ⎛ 5H D −⎜ ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2R ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎜ πZ ⎟ ⎜ πR ⎟⎥ ⎞ ⎢⎢⎢ ⎟ ln ⎢⎢ 4 sin ⎜⎜⎜ wD ⎟⎟⎟ sin ⎜⎜⎜ wD ⎟⎟⎟ ⎥⎥⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2H ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎢⎢ H ⎜ ⎜ ⎠ ⎣⎢ D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎥⎦⎥ ⎝ ⎛ R 2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 R 2 + L2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ D + ⎜ eD ⎟ ln⎜ eD ⎜ LD ⎟ ⎜ 4 R 2 − L2 D ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ eD ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛⎜ ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ D ⎟ ln ⎜⎜⎜ L R ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ D eD ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎛L ⎟ ⎜ D ⎟+⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ L4 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ln R − D ⎟ eD 16 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ (6.4) 105 .1) reduces to: (6.

5) If the circular cylinder drainage reservoir has an impermeable top boundary and a constant pressure bottom boundary (bottom water). then (Lu. 2003): Q =F w D ln[4 H 2.4π K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v i w ⎟ ] + ln ⎪ ⎨cot[πZ ⎬ / ⎜πR /(2 H )]⎪ ⎪ D ⎜ wD ⎟ wD D ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ ⎛ ⎞ ⎧ ⎫ (6.7) 106 .6) If the reservoir has an impermeable bottom boundary and a constant pressure top boundary (gas cap).4π K K L ( P − P ) /( µB ) h v i w D /⎜ ⎜ πR ⎝ ⎛ wD ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎨ tan[ πZ ] + ln ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎬ /( 2 H )]⎪ wD D ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ (6.e +1 Λ = ln 5 L ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2R ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ w sin w −⎛ ⎜ 5H ⎞ ⎟ ln 4 sin ⎝ 4L ⎠ 2H H πZ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ πR ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎛ R 2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 R 2 + L2 ⎞ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎜ e ⎟ ⎜ e ⎟ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ Re ⎟ 1 − ⎟ +⎜ + ⎜ ⎟ ln⎜ ln⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ L2 ⎟ ⎜ 4 R 2 − L2 ⎟ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎜ L4 16 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ e ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ e 1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎜⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (6. 2003): Q =F w D ln[ 4 H 2 . then the horizontal well flow rate is (Lu.

so Equations (6.6).4π K K L( P − P ) /( µB ) h v i w Q =F w D ln{sin(πZ / H ) / sin[πR /( 2 H )]} wD D wD D (6. then (Lu. 2003): 2.8) are equivalent to the corresponding equations (Lu.5) show that if the drainage volume is a circular cylinder without a gas cap or bottom water. If the drainage volume is a circular cylinder with a gas cap or bottom water. (6. respectively.If the reservoir has constant pressure at both top and bottom boundaries (gas cap and bottom water). 107 .8) Equations (6. the fluid from the top or bottom boundary flows into a horizontal well approximately vertically. and (6. 2001) for an infinite lateral extent reservoir with the same top and bottom boundary conditions.2) and (6. In the above circumstances.7). the top and bottom boundaries are impermeable and only edge water drive is available. Gas cap drive or bottom water drive is the main drive mechanism. the lateral boundary effects on productivity are negligible and the radius Re does not show up in productivity equations. the circular cylinder radius plays an important role in well productivity. Even if there is edge water drive. it has little influence on well flow rate.

6). and (6. productivity equations are the same.Therefore.9) Λ = [ L /( β H )][1 + (2 ln 2) / 3 − ln( L )] D 6 − (5 / 6) ln{4 sin(πZ / H ) sin[πR /( 2 H )]} wD D wD D (6.8) are applicable to both cases: constant pressure lateral boundary and impermeable lateral boundary. its infinite lateral extent model and circular cylinder model are equivalent to each other. and Rogers. its effect on well flow rate can be ignored.1) and Equation (6. 2003): Q =F w D where 2π K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v i w Λ 6 (6. If a horizontal well in an infinite lateral extent reservoir with impermeable top and bottom boundaries. Whether the circular cylinder lateral boundary is impermeable or at a constant pressure. So. the productivity equation is below (Lu. Lin.9) because they are applicable to different drainage 108 .10) It must be emphasized that although the top and bottom boundaries are impermeable.7). there exists significant difference between Equation (6. if a reservoir has bottom water or a gas cap. (6. Equations (6. for the two cases.

volumes. and formation near the wellbore is damaged. Solution: We have β = K / K = 569 / 280 = 1. Equation (6.506 ( µm 2 ) v h The flow rates calculated by different productivity equations are shown in Table 6. Example 6. whereas Equation (6.1.399 ( µm 2 ) h v K 1 / 6 K 5 / 6 = (0.1) is for a circular cylinder reservoir with a constant pressure lateral boundary.569 × 0.2.9) is for an infinite lateral extent reservoir.280)1 / 6 × (0.280 = 0.4255 h v K K = 0. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are given in Table 6. 109 .569) 5 / 6 = 0.1: Use different productivity equations to calculate the flow rate of a horizontal well in steady state in a circular cylinder reservoir. The reservoir is a bottom water drive reservoir.

9) are small because these equations are applicable to a reservoir with 110 .1 . (6. Kh Vertical Permeability.22).7) and Equation (6.19). µ Formation Volume Factor.s 1. Equation (6.8). both top and bottom boundaries are constant pressure boundaries. L Wellbore Radius. H Well Vertical Location.86m 0.569 µm2 0.18).e.1098 m 600 m 63 m 56.1) and (6.Table 6. (6.e.17). (1. B Actual Flow Rate 5. Rw Drainage Radius. Zw Horizontal Permeability. Kv Oil Viscosity. i.8) gives the biggest flow rate because it is for a reservoir with gas cap drive and bottom water drive. (1.031 Rm3/Sm3 1516 Sm3/D In Table 6.2. because they are for a reservoir with either gas cap drive or bottom water drive.6) are second and third biggest. ∆P Horizontal Well Length.6). the flow rates from Equations (1.280 µm2 65 mPa. i. Re Payzone Thickness. (1. and (6. respectively.9 MPa 600 m 0. The flow rates from Equation (6.7).Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6. only one top or bottom boundary is a constant pressure boundary.1 Pressure Drop. Compared with the flow rates obtained from Equations (6.

with neither gas cap drive nor bottom water drive. because Equation (6.18) Equation (1. and it has a positive skin factor. It must be pointed out that there exist differences between the calculation results from Equation (6.8) Equation (6.22) Equation (6.impermeable top and bottom boundaries.7) Equation (6. 111 .1) and Equation (6.9) Expected Flow Rate (Sm3/day) 716 764 813 898 851 1568 2775 2788 738 The reservoir is with bottom water drive.6) is near and a little bigger than the actual flow rate.6) is for bottom water drive reservoir.17) Equation (1.9).1) Equation (6.6) Equation (6. But Table 6. therefore the computational results are expected to be bigger than the actual flow rates in Table 6.1 .1) is for a circular cylinder reservoir with a constant pressure lateral boundary. whereas Equation (6.Flow Rates Calculated by Different Productivity Equations Productivity Equation Equation (1.2 indicates that only the flow rate calculated by Equation (6. Table 6.2 .9) is for an infinite lateral extent reservoir.19) Equation (1. because Equation (6.

3.2 Pseudo-Steady State Productivity Equation For A Circular Cylinder Reservoir If all the reservoir boundaries of a circular cylinder drainage volume are impermeable.11) where ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎞⎢ ⎛ ⎞ L ⎟⎟⎟ ⎢⎢⎢ ⎛⎜⎜ 1 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ 2 R ⎟⎟⎟ ⎜⎜⎜ L2 ⎟⎟⎟ ⎛⎜⎜ 1 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎥⎥⎥ D ⎟−⎜ ⎟⎥ Λ = D ⎟⎟ ⎢⎢ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ln ⎜⎜ eD ⎟⎟ + ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎥ 7 H ⎟⎟ ⎢⎢ ⎜⎝ 2π ⎟⎠ ⎜⎜ L ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ 24π ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎟ R 48 π ⎜ ⎟ D ⎟⎠ ⎢⎣⎢ D ⎜ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ eD ⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎥ ⎦ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎡ ⎤ − 5 ln 4 sin wD sin wD 12π H 2H D D ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎡⎛ ⎢⎜ ⎞ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎜ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ( ) ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ πZ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ πR ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎤ (6.6.2: Calculate productivity index of a horizontal well located in a sealed circular cylinder reservoir during pseudo-steady state.12) ⎥ 2 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎛⎜⎜ 2 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎥ 2 R L L ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ eD D D ( )−( ) ⎟⎟ ln ⎜⎜1 − ( ) ⎟⎟ − L ⎥⎥⎥ − D ⎥⎥ ⎟ ⎜ 3πH 2 L 4 R 2 ⎟⎟⎟ D D ⎟⎟⎠ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎥ eD ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ Example 6. 112 . the horizontal well productivity in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by: Q =F w D K K L( P − P ) /( µB) h v a w Λ 7 (6. Reservoir and fluid properties data in field units are given in Table 6.

Zw Reservoir Radius. B 1000 ft 0. we have ref L = (125.7937 D H D = (100 / 1000)(125. µ Formation Volume Factor. Re Payzone Thickness.3 .0 cp 1.2 RB/SB Solution: We have K K = 200 × 50 = 100 (mD) h v K = K 2 / 3 K 1 / 3 = 200 2 / 3 × 501 / 3 = 125.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.19055 eD 113 .2 Well Length.15874 Z wD = (50 / 1000)(125. L Wellbore Radius. and letting L = L.25 ft 50 ft 1500 ft 100ft 200 mD 50 mD 2.992 / 50)1 / 2 = 0. Kv Oil Viscosity.992 / 200)1 / 2 × (1500 / 1000) = 1.Table 6.992 / 50)1 / 2 = 0.992 / 200)1 / 2 = 0. H Horizontal Permeability . Rw Well Vertical Location. Kh Vertical Permeability.07937 R = (125.992 (mD) a r v Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.

2) = 1 × 1. use Equation (6.001127)( 200 × 50 )(1000) /( 2 × 1.00021 Thus. length ( x direction) 2a .708 = 27.5 is a schematic of a horizontal well which drains a box-shaped reservoir with height H . 2007): 114 .708 7 Productivity index of this horizontal well in pseudo-steady state is PI = Q /(∆P) w (0.3 Pseudo-Steady State Productivity Equation For A BoxShaped Reservoir Figure 2.13) The productivity of a horizontal well in a sealed box-shaped reservoir in pseudo-steady state can be calculated by (Lu and Tiab.25 /( 2 × 1000) = 0. and width ( y direction) 2b . Let η h be the horizontal well partially penetration factor: η = L /(2a ) h (6.493 ( STB / D / psi ) 6. and obtain Λ = 1.12).R wD = (50 / 200)1 / 6 [(200 / 50)1 / 4 + (50 / 200)1 / 4 ] × 0.

All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.16) sinh(. respectively.) and coth(. 115 . and πZ πR b Λ = ( D ) − ( 1 ) ln[4 sin( wD ) sin( wD )] 8 2π 6H 2H H D D D The pseudo skin factor S a L S = ( D D )(1 − ps 12b H D D L (6.( K K )1 / 2 L( P − P ) /( µB) y z a w Q =F w D Λ +S 8 ps (6.14) where P is average reservoir pressure throughout the box-shaped a drainage volume.) are hyperbolic sine. hyperbolic cosine and hyperbolic cotangent function.) . cosh(.15) ps due to partial penetration is: mπ a cosh[(mπ a / b )(1 − L / a )] M D D D D − coth( D )}} × { ∑ ( 1 ){ m a b 3 sinh( π / ) b m =1 m D D D nπ Z a3 M wD ) D + {( ) ∑ cos 2 ( 3 H π b H L n =1 D D D D cosh[( µ π )(1 − L / a )] M mn D D − coth( µ π )}} 1 × ∑ ( ){ mn 3 sinh( µ π ) m=0 d µ mn m mn L2 b2 D + D )+( D ) a 3 2 π H L D 4a D D D (6.

16).17) µ mn = ( ma b D D )2 + ( D )2 (6. the integer number M = 100 is sufficiently big enough to reach the engineering accuracy for all practical purpose. d m = 1. L = 2a . Equation (6. then S ps =0 (6. d na H m = 1/ 2 (6.It has been shown that in Equation (6. m > 0. and m = 0.18) D For a fully penetrating horizontal well.20) where a L L L2 D D D Ψ =( + D ) )(1 − 4 12b H a 2 D D D 4a D (6.19) It is easy to prove that. the productivity index reaches maximum value when it is located in the middle height of pay zone.21) 116 .16) can be separated into three parts: S ps =Ψ +Ψ +Ψ 4 5 6 (6. for a given well in a closed box.

b = 2000 ft K = ( K K K )1 / 3 = (200 × 200 × 50)1 / 3 = 125.99 (mD) a x y z 117 . Reservoir and fluid properties data in field units are given in Table 6.) Ψ =( 5 π 3H L D D cosh[(mπ a / b )(1 − L / a )] M D D D D × { ∑ ( 1 ){ sinh( mπ a / b ) m = 1 m3 D D mπ a D )}} − coth( b D b2 D (6. Solution: We have a = 1000 ft .23) Example 6.4.22) M ){ ∑ cos 2 (nπ Z /H ) Ψ =( 6 wD D 3 π b H L n =1 D D D cosh[(µ π )(1 − L / a )] M mn D D 1 ){ × ∑ ( 3 sinh( ) µ π m=0 d µ mn m mn − coth( µ π )}} mn a3 D (6.3: Calculate productivity index of a horizontal well in pseudo-steady state in a sealed box-shaped reservoir.

99 / 200)1 / 2 = 0. we obtain: ref L = (125.99 / 200)1 / 2 × (2000 / 1000) = 1. L Wellbore Radius. Rw Well Vertical Location. and letting L = L. RESL Reservoir Width.0 cp 1.15874 118 .99 / 200)1 / 2 × (1000 / 1000) = 0.7937 b = (125.Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6.25 ft 50 ft 4000 ft 2000 ft 100ft 200 mD 200 mD 50 mD 2.5 h Using the definitions of dimensionless variables in Chapter 2.4 . Ky Permeability in z Direction.99 / 50)1 / 2 × (100 / 1000) = 0. H Permeability in x Direction. Zw Reservoir Length.7937 D a D = (125. µ Formation Volume Factor. B 1000 ft 0. Kx Permeability in y Direction.3 Well Length.Table 6. RESW Payzone Thickness.2 RB/SB β = ( K / K )1 / 2 = (200 / 50)1 / 2 = 2 h v η = L /(2a ) = 1000 / 2000 = 0.5874 D H D = (125. Kz Oil Viscosity.

000211 × ln[4 sin( ) sin( )] 2 2 × 0.5874 2 Ψ =( ) 5 π 3 × 0.7937 2 Ψ =( )(1 − 1 + 1 ) = 0.R = [50 /( 200 × 200 )]1 / 6[(200 / 50)1 / 4 + (50 / 200)1 / 4 ] wD × 0.7937 100 cosh(0) × ∑ ( 1 )[ − coth(0. D 1− L D /a D =0 / b = 0.5 D wD D And we have µ mn = m 2 / 4 + 25n 2 Thus Λ = ( 1.5874 ) − ( 1 ) 8 6 × 0.00521 4 12 × 1. 5 ) m π m =1 m = −0.15874 4 1.54606 119 .5.5mπ )] 3 sinh( 0 .428 0.25 /( 2 × 1000) = 0.15874 = 2.000211 a a D D =L .15874 × 0.5874 × 0.15874 2π π π × 0. Z / H = 0.

54606) + (−0.95 ( STB / D / psi ) 6.79373 2 ] ∑ cos 2 ( nπ ){ ∑ [ ] 3 2 2 2 3/ 2 π (1. 120 .Ψ 6 =[ ×[ 100 100 0.5874)(0.00495 Thus S ps = 0.4 Effects of Some Critical Parameters on PI In this part.5458 So.00521 + (−0.428 − 0.001127)( 200 × 50 )(1000) /(2 × 1.15874)(0.7937) n = 1 m = 1 (m / 4 + 25n ) cosh(0) − coth(π m 2 / 4 + 25n 2 )] sinh(π m 2 / 4 + 25n 2 ) cosh(0) + ( 1 )[ − coth(5nπ )]} 125n3 sinh(5nπ ) = −0.5458) = 24.00495) = −0.2) = 1 × (2. we study the effects of some critical parameters on productivity index of a horizontal well in a closed box-shaped reservoir in pseudo-steady state. productivity index of this well is PI = Q /(∆P) w (0.

Table 6. K = K = 50 mD x y h z v and the horizontal well is at mid-height of the pay zone. Z w = H / 2.25 ft 4000 ft 2000 ft 1. µ Formation Volume Factor.0 cp 1. K = K = K = 200 mD.Example 6. and Equation (1. with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft .14). well length.26) (Helmy and Wattenbarger 's equation).5 .0 RB/SB Solution: (1) Effect of payzone thickness on PI .Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 6. RESW Oil Viscosity. B 0. Equation (1.6 and Figure 6. and permeability on productivity index. Table 6.5. 121 . Fluid properties.4 Wellbore Radius. well location.4: Investigate the effects of payzone thickness. Rw Reservoir Length.1 present the effect of payzone thickness on PI calculated by Equation (6.24) (Babu and Odeh’s equation). reservoir width and length are given in Table 6. RESL Reservoir Width.

546 49.538 Helmy 9.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) H=10(ft) H=20(ft) H=30(ft) H=40(ft) H=50(ft) H=60(ft) H=70(ft) H=80(ft) H=90(ft) H=100(ft) Babu 8.490 38.165 44.096 40.376 32.325 17.911 46.717 48.156 52.379 56.917 42.828 Lu and Tiab 9.101 43.Table 6.6 .425 16.958 Figure 6.880 52.156 29.161 23.799 25.448 35.421 48.499 55.Effect of Payzone Thickness on PI of Horizontal Well 122 .886 29.358 23.527 34.155 59.609 17.1 .115 38.811 52.

H = 100 ft x y h z v Table 6.7 and Figure 6. K = K = 50 mD.6 and Figure 6.2 show that the location of a horizontal well in vertical direction does not have significant effect on PI . For maximum PI .5 times.7 and Figure 6. For this reason. PI increases rapidly with the increasing H . the well should be located at the center of the pay zone.1 show that no significant differences among the PI values calculated by the three equations. PI increases about 4 times.2 present the effect of well location in vertical direction on PI .Table 6. (2) Effect of well location in vertical direction on PI . From H = 10 ft to 50 ft . 123 . PI increases slowly with the increasing H . Table 6. with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft . K = K = K = 200 mD. horizontal wells are believed to perform better than their vertical counterparts in thin reservoirs. but when H > 50 ft . from H = 50 ft to 100 ft . PI increases about 1. If the payzone thickness H is not very big ( H < 50 ft ).

573 59.958 52.7 .097 53.Table 6.556 52.538 59.583 51.097 Lu and Tiab 54.807 Figure 6.862 52.862 52.608 55.583 54.828 55.2 .156 54.156 58.556 51.807 51.573 57.962 52.910 55.453 57.Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well 124 .962 50.453 Helmy 50.308 58.308 59.608 54.910 53.Effect of Well Location in Vertical Direction on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) Zw=10(ft) Zw=20(ft) Zw=30(ft) Zw=40(ft) Zw=50(ft) Zw=60(ft) Zw=70(ft) Zw=80(ft) Zw=90(ft) Babu 51.

444 55.625 L=1500(ft). From 1000 ft to 2000 ft .994 88.875 L=2000(ft).8 and Figure 6.800 52.8 .750 L=1750(ft).637 Lu and Tiab 22.335 Helmy 17.8 and Figure 6. PI only increases about 1. η=0. η=0.608 94.Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) L=250(ft). η=0. with the following constant parameters: K x = K y = K h = 200 mD.3 show that no significant differences among the PI values calculated by the three equations.222 34.306 45.958 64.428 94.538 70.3 present the effect of well length on PI .710 85.000 Babu 21. η=0.125 L=500(ft). Table 6.375 L=1000(ft).259 Table 6.277 59.183 79.250 L=750(ft). Z w = 50 ft Table 6.994 30. PI increases slowly with the increasing L .342 36. 125 . H = 100 ft . From 250 ft to 1000 ft . η=0.(3) Effect of well length on PI .472 41.214 48. PI increases 4 times.870 75.337 94.6 times.828 65.500 L=1250(ft).278 85.189 75. PI only increases about 10 STB / D / psi . K z = K v = 50 mD. η=0. For every increase in L of 250 ft . η=0. η=1.

K = K = K = 100 mD. ( β decreases about 126 . vertical permeability increases 10 times.9 and Figure 6.Figure 6.4 show that PI is a weak function of vertical permeability. K = K H = 100 ft .Effect of Well Length on PI of Horizontal Well (4) Effect of vertical permeability on PI .3 .4 present the effect of vertical permeability on PI . with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft . Z = 50 ft. w x y h z v Table 6. Table 6.9 and Figure 6.

β=1.240 27.195 Kv=80(mD).007 37.085 34.291 Kv=70(mD). Table 6. β=3.622 33.528 25. K z = 25 mD .609 26.420 37. β=1.897 32.361 30.902 30.000 Babu 22.581 Kv=50(mD).020 33.489 32. β=1.276 33.890 28.599 34. β=1. Table 6.236 Kv=30(mD).028 33.905 34.3 times) PI values calculated by the three equations increase about 1.733 36. β=1.Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) Kv=10(mD).6 times. Z w = 50 ft.412 32.10 and Figure 6. 127 .516 Helmy 21.340 33.666 28. K y = 50 mD.385 31.5 present the effect of permeability parallel to horizontal well ( K x ) on PI .124 30.504 Lu and Tiab 23. β=1.394 31.913 35. β=3.162 Kv=20(mD). β=1.671 34.501 29.118 Kv=90(mD).248 (5) Effect of permeability parallel to horizontal well on PI . with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft . β=2.414 Kv=60(mD).9 .162 Kv=100(mD). H = 100 ft .826 Kv=40(mD).

937 18. β=0.606 12.256 16.674 18.463 18.Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI PI (STB/D/psi) Kx=5(mD).773 14.736 16.124 18. β=1.417 128 .10 .189 Kx=50(mD).Effect of Vertical Permeability on PI of Horizontal Well Table 6.056 17.136 18.939 14.950 17. β=1. β=2.009 13.057 16.320 18.755 Helmy 10.579 18.778 Kx=150(mD).200 15.282 18.414 Kx=75(mD).934 Kx=200(mD).322 16. β=1.861 Kx=175(mD). β=1.122 15.193 15.Figure 6. β=2.542 17.889 18.4 . β=1.426 17.055 14.795 Kx=15(mD).660 15.894 16.744 16.418 Lu and Tiab 11.171 16.531 17.565 Kx=100(mD).710 17. β=2. β=1.374 16. β=1.641 15.060 Kx=250(mD).115 Babu 9. β=1.000 Kx=225(mD).682 Kx=125(mD).047 Kx=25(mD).

11 and Figure 6.5 show that PI is a weak function of K . Table 6. ( β increases about 3 times) PI values calculated by the three equations increase about 1.Effect of Permeability Parallel to Horizontal Well on PI (6) Effect of permeability perpendicular to horizontal well on PI .10 and Figure 6. Figure 6.6 times.Table 6. K x x increases 50 times.5 . with the following constant parameters: 129 .6 present the effect of permeability perpendicular to well in horizontal plane ( K y ) on PI .

662 130 .420 15.687 45.193 20.744 20.905 42.560 42.322 51. β=2. β=2.950 22.950 44.6 show that PI is a strong function of K when K y y ≤ 25 mD . K = 50 mD.339 24.11 and Figure 6. β=1. β=1. H = 100 ft . but PI values calculated by the three equations only increase about 5 times.518 33.233 36.255 39.425 6.678 39.739 36. K = K = 25 mD . Z w = 50 ft. β=1.11 .949 45.459 29. β=1. K y increases 10 times.Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI PI (STB/D/psi) Ky=5(mD).000 Ky=225(mD).035 9. β=1. β=1. From 5 mD to 25 mD .795 Ky=15(mD).940 32.861 Ky=175(mD).734 Helmy 2.787 27.609 6. β=1. K y increases 5 times.527 6. x z v Table 6.966 32.614 36.414 Ky=75(mD).189 Ky=50(mD).626 9. but PI is a weak function of K y when K y > 25mD .868 28.838 Lu and Tiab 2.021 15. β=1.060 Ky=250(mD).115 Babu 2. β=0. From 25 mD to 250 mD .682 Ky=125(mD). and PI values calculated by the three equations also increase about 5 times.736 48. β=2. Table 6.778 Ky=150(mD).938 25.979 16.047 Ky=25(mD).316 9.565 Ky=100(mD).L = 1000 ft .934 Ky=200(mD).926 40.

6 . 131 .Figure 6.Effect of Permeability Perpendicular to Horizontal Well on PI Example 6. Solution: (1) Effect of reservoir width on PI .4. Fluid properties and reservoir parameters are the same as in Table 6.5: Investigate the effects of reservoir size on productivity index.

913 55. η=0. (the partially penetrating factor η drops from 1.125 Table 6.400 RESW=2800(ft).646 55.842 53.926 52. η=0.246 59.129 50.099 52.7 present the effect of reservoir width (RESW.490 58. η=0.12 and Figure 6.00 to 0.455 RESW=2500(ft). H = 100 ft .504 51.921 58.Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) RESW=1000(ft).190 54.294 RESW=3700(ft).553 53.576 59.205 54.526 RESW=2200(ft).234 57.876 52. K = K = K = 200 mD x y h K = K = 50 mD. η=1. the size of the top view area of the drainage volume parallel to the horizontal well) on PI . with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft . Table 6. η=0.12 . Z = 50 ft z v w And reservoir length (RESL) is a constant.486 56. 4000 ft .250 Babu 47.455.270 RESW=4000(ft).12 and Figure 6.625 RESW=1900(ft).000 RESW=1300(ft).357 RESW=3100(ft).301 50.7 show that PI is a weak function of reservoir width (RESW).682 55.073 57. η=0.853 59. η=0.953 51. RESW from 1000 ft to 2200 ft .769 RESW=1600(ft). η=0.168 54.707 Helmy 47.349 Lu and Tiab 47.397 52.323 RESW=3400(ft).857 59. η=0. η=0.792 52. η=0.Table 6.318 52.) PI values calculated by the three 132 .865 49.682 55.596 49.

Figure 6.equations increase slowly.Effect of Reservoir Width on PI of Horizontal Well (2) Effect of reservoir length on PI .7 .455 to 0. (the partially penetrating factor η drops from 0. RESW from 2200 ft to 4000 ft . 133 .250.) PI values calculated by the three equations decrease slowly.

654 63.777 76.810 59. 134 .625 Helmy 81.671 56. K = K = K = 200 mD x y h K = K = 50 mD.390 68.Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well PI (STB/D/psi) RESL=1000(ft) RESL=1500(ft) RESL=2000(ft) RESL=2500(ft) RESL=3000(ft) RESL=3500(ft) RESL=4000(ft) RESL=4500(ft) RESL=5000(ft) Babu 78.8 present the effect of reservoir length (RESL.336 66.720 Table 6.958 50. with the following constant parameters: L = 1000 ft .828 53. Z = 50 ft z v w And reservoir width (RESW) is a constant.885 81.608 Lu and Tiab 86.288 66.423 53.223 70.090 50.889 62.188 47.528 56.091 52. Table 6. the size of the top view area of the drainage volume perpendicular to the horizontal well) on PI .Table 6.143 74.045 62.13 and Figure 6. 2000 ft .863 55.13 .269 71.248 58.011 75.13 and Figure 6.8 show that PI is a weak function of reservoir length (RESL). H = 100 ft .994 59.

Figure 6.8 .Effect of Reservoir Length on PI of Horizontal Well 135 .

j j the wellbore radii. In any given time interval. The wells are parallel to the z direction with a producing length equal to thickness H . their locations ( R . the top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable. n. A number of fully penetrating vertical wells drain an anisotropic circular drainage reservoir with height H and radius Re . the number of wells. θ ). are considered constant. wj j 136 . Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well due to formation damage or stimulation are also given. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A CIRCULAR RESERVOIR This chapter presents steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. S .7. and the skin factors. R . anisotropic circular reservoir.

In the polar coordinate system. θ ) = P − ( ) × ln( 1 ) e 4πK HF λ r D 2 where Q (7. the pressure at the point ( R . R . the jth one). for the n-well system.7.θ . R . θ ) is n µB P ( R. which is located at ( R . θ ) = P − ( ) × ∑ [Q × G ( R. (say. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a circular reservoir during steady state.4) G ( R. with n production wells.5) 137 .θ )] e 4πK HF j j j j j =1 r D where (7.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State If only one well is on production.2) λ = R 2 [R 2 + R 2 − 2R R 2 eD jD D D jD cos(θ − θ )] j (7.3) By superposition principle. 2007): µBQ λ j P ( R. θ ) is below (Lu and Tiab.1) j is the flow rate of the production well. and j j λ = R 4 + R 2 R 2 − 2R 2 R R 1 eD D jD eD D jD cos(θ − θ ) j (7. the pressure at the point ( R .θ .θ ) = ln( 1 ) j j j λ 2 λ (7. θ ).

6) ⎡ Q1 ⎤ ⎢Q ⎥ Q = ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Q ⎢ ⎣ n⎥ ⎦ (7. 1 2 respectively. and taking into account the pressure drop due to the mechanical skin factor.5) for a point located at the circumference of wellbore.and λ .2) and (7.7) Applying Equations (7. the following equation can be obtained for the multiple wells – circular reservoir system. 138 . λ have the same meanings as in Equations (7.8) where the matrix [ A] is the influence matrix.3).4) and (7. n ⎦ and the surface production rate vector (7. d =( µB 2πK HF r D ) × ([A] + [DS ]) Q (7. The two basic vector quantities that we would like to relate are the pressure drawdown vector ⎡ d1 ⎤ ⎡ Pe − Pw.2 ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ d ⎥ ⎢P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ n ⎦ ⎣ e w.1 ⎤ ⎢d ⎥ ⎢ P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ d = ⎢ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ e w.

13) where λ = R2 − R2 5 iD eD (7. a (i.14) (7.10) λ = R 4 + R 2 R 2 − 2R 2 R R 3 eD iD jD eD iD jD cos(θ − θ ) j i (7. If i ≠ j .⎡ a11 a12 L a1n ⎤ ⎢a a L a ⎥ ⎢ 21 22 2n ⎥ [A] = ⎢ M M O M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ a a L a ⎥ ⎢ nn ⎦ ⎣ n1 n2 (7. i ) = ln( 5 ) λ 6 λ (7. a(i.9) with elements a representing the influence of well j on the pressure at ij the circumference of well i .12) If i = j .11) λ = R 2 [R 2 + R 2 − 2R 4 eD jD iD R cos(θ − θ )] iD jD j i (7. j ) = ( 1 ) ln( 3 ) 2 λ 4 where λ (7.15) λ =R 6 R wDi eD 139 .

8).16) Equation (7. this solution is given as F (2πK H ) r Q= D ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 d s µB (7. The diagonal matrix [ D ] is constructed from the vector of skin factors as s ⎡ S1 0 L 0 ⎤ ⎢0 S L 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 [DS ] = ⎢ ⎢M M O M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 L S ⎥ ⎢ n⎦ ⎣ (7.17) By rearranging Equation (7.19) 140 . In matrix notation.8) can be solved for the unknown production rates.18) [D ] q −1 ⎡Q − 1 0 ⎢ 1 ⎢ Q−1 =⎢ 0 2 M ⎢ M ⎢ 0 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ L ⎥ O M ⎥ ⎥ L Q − 1⎥ n ⎦ L (7. we can express the skin factor vector as ⎡ F (2πK r H ) ⎤ S = [ D ]− 1 ⎢ D d − [ A]Q ⎥ q µB ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where (7.All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.

17).6).17). calculate production rate vector. Case One: Skin factors of each well are known. reservoir and fluid properties data. s Step 3 – Calculate the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 .10) and (7.Step-by-Step Procedure Given the locations (polar coordinates) of each well in a circular reservoir. r D Step 2 – Using Equations (7. we may calculate the production rate or mechanical skin factor of each well.16) to obtain the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) . flowing bottomhole pressure. Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7. then using Equation (7. the outer boundary pressure. and the number F (2πK H ) /( µB) in Equation (7. s Step 4 – Using Equation (7. calculate the influence matrix [ A] . 141 .13). calculate the production rate vector Q .

Case Two: Production rates of each well are known, calculate the skin factor vector.

Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7.6), and the number F (2πK H ) /( µB) , then obtain [ F (2πK H ) /( µB)]d in Equation r r D D (7.18).

Step 2 – Using Equations (7.10) and (7.13), calculate the influence matrix

[ A] , then calculate the vector [ A]Q .

Step 3 –Using Equation (7.19), calculate the matrix [ Dq ] −1 .

Step 4 – Using Equation (7.18), calculate the skin factor vector.

Example 7.1: Consider an anisotropic circular reservoir containing eight wells. The polar coordinates of these wells ( R , θ ) are presented in Table 7.1. The outer j j boundary pressure, flowing bottomhole pressure, wellbore radii, reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are also given in Table 7.1.

142

The wellbore radii are identical. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are also identical, calculate surface production rates for the eight-well system when S = 0 and S = 5, 10, 20,−2,−4,−6.

Table 7.1 - Well Locations, Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 7.1

Outer Boundary Pressure, Pe Well 1, Pwf,1 Well 2, Pwf,2 Well 3, Pwf,3 Well 4, Pwf,4 Well 5, Pwf,5 Well 6, Pwf,6 Well 7, Pwf,7 Well 8, Pwf,8 Well 1 ( R1 , θ 1 ) Well 2 ( R 2 , θ 2 ) Well 3 ( R3 , θ 3 ) Well 4 ( R 4 , θ 4 ) Well 5 ( R5 , θ 5 ) Well 6 ( R6 , θ 6 ) Well 7 ( R7 , θ 7 ) Well 8 ( R8 , θ 8 ) Wellbore Radius, Rw Drainage Radius, Re Payzone Thickness, H Radial Permeability, Kr Vertical Permeability, Kv Oil Viscosity, µ Formation Volume Factor, B

18.0 MPa 5.6 MPa 7.2 MPa 9.4 MPa 10.5 MPa 6.8 MPa 8.7 MPa 9.8 MPa 7.3 MPa (20 m, 00) (400 m, 600) (800 m, 900) (1000 m, 1200) (200 m, 1800) (1500 m, 2250) (600 m, 2700) (2000 m, 3150) 0.1 m 2500 m 20 m 0.1 µm2 0.025 µm2 5.0 mPa.s 1.5 Rm3/Sm3

143

Solution: This problem matches Case One. When S = 5 , we have Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d is

d = [12.4 10.8 8.6 7.5 11.2 9.3 8.2 10.7]T

The unit for each element in d is MPa and the superscript T stands for “matrix transpose”.

In field metric units, F = 86.4 , then D

**F (2πK H ) /( µB) = 86.4 × (2π ) × 0.1 × 20 /(5 × 1.5) = 144.7646 r D
**

Step 2: When S = 5 for each well, using Equations (7.10) and (7.13), the matrix [ A] + [ D ] is obtained s

[ A] + [ D ] s ⎛ 14.837 ⎜ ⎜ 1.856 ⎜ 1.139 ⎜ ⎜ 0.908 =⎜ ⎜ 2.431 ⎜ 0.505 ⎜ ⎜ 1.427 ⎜ 0.226 ⎝

1.856 1.139 0.908 14.811 1.573 1.023 1.573 14.729 1.486 1.023 1.486 14.662 1.559 1.109 0.988 0.369 0.289 0.303 0.982 0.654 0.560 0.196 0.128 0.097

2.431 0.505 1.559 0.369 1.109 0.289 0.988 0.303 14.830 0.571 0.571 14.390 1.375 0.670 0.198 0.104

1.427 0.982 0.654 0.560 1.375 0.670 14.777 0.293

0.226 0.196 0.128 0.097 0.198 0.104 0.293 13.815

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

144

Step 3: Calculating the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 , we obtain s ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 s ⎛ 0.071 - 0.007 - 0.003 - 0.003 - 0.010 - 0.002 - 0.005 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.007 0.070 - 0.006 - 0.003 - 0.005 - 0.001 - 0.003 ⎜ - 0.003 - 0.006 0.070 - 0.006 - 0.003 - 0.001 - 0.002 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.003 - 0.003 - 0.006 0.070 - 0.003 - 0.001 - 0.002 =⎜ ⎜ - 0.010 - 0.005 - 0.003 - 0.003 0.071 - 0.002 - 0.005 ⎜ - 0.002 - 0.001 - 0.001 - 0.001 - 0.002 0.070 - 0.003 ⎜ ⎜ - 0.005 - 0.003 - 0.002 - 0.002 - 0.005 - 0.003 0.069 ⎜ - 0.001 - 0.001 0.000 0.000 - 0.001 0.000 - 0.001 ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

- 0.001 - 0.001 0.000 0.000 - 0.001 0.000 - 0.001 0.072

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

Step 4: Using Equation (7.17), when S = 5 , the surface production rate vector Q is obtained below:

**Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [83.847 71.485 55.307 49.149 71.431 80.674 50.769 106.178]T
**

The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D.

When S = 5 , the total flow rate of the multiple wells system is

8 Q = ∑ Q = 568.839 ( Sm 3 / D) t w, j j =1

145

The production rates with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.2.

**Table 7.2 - Surface Production Rates for Example 7.1
**

Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 110.010 83.847 67.887 49.223 126.236 149.848 200.263 Well 2 92.449 71.485 58.230 42.454 104.650 120.385 140.017 Well 3 70.380 55.307 45.396 33.340 78.633 88.320 97.534 Flow Rate (Sm /D) Well 4 63.294 49.149 40.129 29.329 71.458 81.988 96.830 Well 5 89.940 71.431 58.834 43.316 99.289 108.086 100.910 Well 6 117.909 80.674 61.639 42.059 145.677 192.712 294.318 Well 7 62.115 50.769 42.252 31.365 66.513 67.138 43.745 Well 8 163.660 106.180 78.775 52.068 209.650 293.105 494.206 Total 769.760 568.839 453.143 323.153 902.107 1101.582 1467.823

3

Example 7.2: Given the following production rate vector:

**Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [89.599 73.591 92.030 46.519 135.325 93.066 43.455 202.898]T
**

The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D. The well locations, outer boundary pressure, flowing bottomhole pressures, wellbore radii, reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.1. Calculate mechanical skin factors for the eight-wells system.

146

Solution: This problem matches Case Two.1.76 948.0107 0. we have q [D ] d = [0. Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d and the value of F (2πK H ) /( µB) are already obtained in Example 7.0136 0.41 1413.87 1114.77 1408.0112 0.08 1563.07 1548.0074 0. then the vector [ A]Q can be obtained [ A]Q = [1648.19) and assuming q the column vector [ D ] below consists of the diagonal elements of the d matrix [ D ]− 1 . then r D ( F (2πK H ) /( µB)) × d D r = [1795.98]T Step 2: The influence matrix [ A] is already obtained in Example 7.46 1244.0215 0.65 1963.98 1085.1.0023 0.31 1187.73 1621.39 1018.99 1888.36 1346.64]T Step 3: Calculating the matrix [ D ]− 1 in Equation (7.0109 0.0049]T 147 .

Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.49 3.67]T The flow rates in Example 7. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7. Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 7. the mechanical skin factor vector is S = [ S S S S S S S S ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [1.63 2.53 2.1.18).The non-diagonal elements in [ D ]− 1 are zero. Example 7. Solution: This problem matches Case One.11 − 1.95 − 2. 20.3.−4.2 show that the skin factors significantly affect the production performance. calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. we obtain 148 . Permeability K is 0. The wellbore radii.−2.1 and Example 7.1.−6. q Step 4: Using Equation (7. The well locations are given in Table 7. for S = 0 .87 − 1. 10.83 2.3: Eight wells are uniformly distributed along a diameter of an isotropic circular reservoir.1 µm2.

It can be shown that the values of productivity indexes are equivalent for the two wells symmetrically located along the line of the eight wells 149 .751 10.497]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.1800) (1500 m.Well Locations for Example 7.628 9. 00) (2000 m. When S = 0 . θ 8 ) (500 m.751 13. θ 5 ) 6 ( R6 . θ 7 ) 8 ( R8 . 00) (500 m. θ 3 ) 4 ( R4 .497 13.580 9.912 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 Table 7.628 10.1800) The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7. 00) (1500 m.3 Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well 1 ( R1 .1800) (2000 m.3 . θ 1 ) 2 ( R2 .PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [9. θ 6 ) 7 ( R7 . the total productivity index is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 86.1800) (1000 m. θ 4 ) 5 ( R5 .580 9.4. 00) (1000 m. θ 2 ) 3 ( R3 .

325 12. i.971 12.090 Total 86.678 14.239 5. the flow rates for all wells are identical.283 5.system.912 62.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.213 Well 2 9.497 9.4 .170 4.239 5. Assuming there is no pressure drop caused by formation damage or stimulation.113 6.903 4.283 5.806 22.e.325 12.661 16.843 6.608 102.213 Well 3 9.429 34.751 7.159 18. S = 0 for each well.363 Well 7 13.167 10.e.661 16.605 15. The smaller the distance from the constant pressure outer boundary.478 35. the bigger the productivity index of the well.1 shows.903 4.150 10.380 Well 5 10.090 Well 8 13.3 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 9. i.836 4.784 15.093 3 As Figure 7.167 10.605 15.197 166.20) is multiple wells system production function and is defined as: 150 .784 15.363 Well 6 10. Table 7.580 7.159 18.478 35. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon inside a homogeneous.497 9.994 12.628 7.170 4.806 22.805 4.956 49.380 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 9.113 6.994 12. and can be expressed as: Q =F w D where M 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r e w ln(M ) w w (7.580 7.150 10.678 14. anisotropic circular reservoir.843 6. the farther away from the reservoir center.752 126. The off-center distances ( R ) for all wells 0 are identical.628 7.971 12.751 7.836 4.805 4.

5 shows M w for multiple wells located at vertexes of several regular polygons in an isotropic circular reservoir. It must be pointed out that Equation (7.21) is also applicable for n = 1.21) and n is the number of wells. It is easy to prove that for an isotropic reservoir. when n = 1 .20) reduces to Equation (1.20) reduces to Equation (1.6) and when n = 2 . Equation (7.31). Table 7.5 .M w = [1 − ( R / R ) 2n ] /(nR R n − 1 / R n ) 0 D eD wD 0 D eD (7.Production Functions For Multiple Wells in an Isotropic Circular Reservoir Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Number of Wells n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Production Function Mw 2 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 4 ] /( 2 Rw R0 / Re ) 2 3 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 6 ] /(3Rw R0 / Re ) 3 4 [1 − ( R0 / Re )8 ] /( 4 Rw R0 / Re ) 4 5 [1 − ( R0 / Re )10 ] /(5Rw R0 / Re ) 5 6 [1 − ( R0 / Re )12 ] /(6 Rw R0 / Re ) 6 7 [1 − ( R0 / Re )14 ] /(7 Rw R0 / Re ) 7 8 [1 − ( R0 / Re )16 ] /(8Rw R0 / Re ) 8 9 [1 − ( R0 / Re )18 ] /(9 Rw R0 / Re ) 9 10 [1 − ( R0 / Re ) 20 ] /(10 Rw R0 / Re ) 151 . 2 . Equation (7. Table 7.

….867 KH /( µB) ln(M ) w 542.774 ( Sm3 / D / MPa) 152 .387 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) PI = The total productivity index for the two wells is PIT = 2 × 14. R = 1250 m . Permeability K is 0. Wellbore radii.1 × 20 /(5 × 1. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7. and the mechanical skin factor for each well is 0 zero. 9.867 × 0.5 Then the productivity index for each well is 542.5) = ln(23437.Example 7. 10.5) = 14. for n = 2 . we obtain: M w = [1 − (1250 / 2500) 4 ] /(2 × 0.1×1250 / 25002 ) = 23437. Calculate productivity index for the multiple wells system when n = 2. The off-center distances of all the wells are identical.4: A number of wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon in an isotropic circular reservoir. Solution: Using Equations (7.20) and (7. 4.1 µm2.1.21). 3.387 = 28.

1 . We also consider 153 . The calculation results are given in Table 7.Y Re O R0 R0 X Figure 7.6. productivity indexes for other cases are obtained.Multiple Wells Located at Vertexes of a Regular Polygon Using the same procedure.

732 11.Comparisons of Productivity Indexes for Example 7.4.774 41.607 82.40 1279998. PI is the productivity index for single well.744 10.50 49804.50 32812.945 154 . Table 7.88 133300.713 14. In Table 7.692 102.824 12. single well productivity index PI decreases.78 PI (Sm3/D/MPa) 14.00 23437.48 399993.387 13. we compare the results in Examples 7.119 73.6 . 7. S = 0 for each well. and consequently the interference effects become more significant.268 11. 7. to compare with multiple wells cases. it can be found that well pattern has significant effects on the single and total productivity index.922 13. PIT = n × PI .538 64.765 53.6. PIT is the total productivity index for the multiple wells system.4 n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mw 18750.1.90 711108.294 PIT (Sm3/D/MPa) 14.782 96.384 12.69 79921. only one well in the reservoir. i. It must be emphasized that when the number of wells n increases.713 28.e.the case where n = 1 .122 89.3 and 7.223 10. For the case n = 8 .2.78 228557.

reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7.Example 7.1 µm2.5: A number of wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon in an isotropic circular reservoir. Assume S = 0 for each well and permeability K is 0.2 .2. Wellbore radii. 10. Investigate the effect of the off-center distance R0 on productivity index when n = 1. Solution: The results are shown in Figure 7. 2. Figure 7.1.Effect of Off-Center Distance on Productivity Index 155 . 9.….

the wells should be kept at a sufficient distance to prevent water encroachment. it can be concluded that for a given off-center distance R . This is because at a fixed R . (say. For a given n. PI 0 also increases. the pressure at the point ( R . In order to obtain higher PI in a multiple wells e system. more wells mean 0 more serious interference effects.2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo-Steady State If only one well is on production.22) 156 . when R increases. single well productivity 0 index PI decreases. No significant differences in PI for different number of wells when off-center distance R is nearly equal to the constant pressure 0 outer boundary radius R .2. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a circular reservoir during pseudo- steady state. the jth one). In the polar coordinate system. 7. θ ) is j P ( R. But if the outer boundary is under water drive. θ ) = P − ( )W a j K HF r D µBQ (7.From Figure 7. when the number of wells n increases. the wells should be located near the constant pressure outer boundary.

But the pressure drawdown vector d is defined below: 157 . θ j ). for the n-well system. the pressure at the point ( R . θ ) is n µB P ( R.16). the influence matrix [ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector DS are defined in Equations (7. with n production wells.9) and (7. and R 3 1 1 R W = −( ) − ( ) ln( D ) + ( )( D ) 2 j R 8π 2π 4π R eD eD R R R R 1 D jD D jD 2 − ( ) ln{[1 − 2( ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ] j 4π R2 R2 eD eD R R jD jD 2 × [1 − 2( ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ]} j R R D D (7.where Q j is the flow rate of the production well.7).17) and (7. (7. respectively. (7. (7.θ )] a j j j j K HF j =1 r D where W j has the same meaning as in Equation (7. which is located at ( R j .18) are still applicable to a multiple wells – circular reservoir system in pseudo-steady state. the surface production vector Q .23).θ .23) By superposition principle.8). θ ) = P − ( ) × ∑ [Q × W ( R.24) Equations (7. R .

then R 1 R + RwDi 2 3 ) a = −( ) − ln( iD ) + ( )( iD ij 2 4 R R eD eD R R R R 1 iD jD iD jD 2 ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ] − ( ) ln{[1 − 2( j i 2 R2 R2 eD eD R R jD 2 jD ) cos(θ − θ ) + ( ) ]} × [1 − 2( j i R R iD iD (7. n ⎦ (7. and the pressure drop. reservoir and fluid properties data are also known.25) For the influence matrix [ A] .1 ⎤ ⎢d ⎥ ⎢ P − P ⎥ ⎢ w.27) Given the locations (polar coordinates) of each well in a closed circular reservoir. 3 1 R + RwDi 2 a = −( ) + ( )( iD ) ii R 4 2 eD R R ) (R2 − R2 − R wDi eD iD wDi iD ] − ln[ R3 eD (7. the production rate in pseudo-steady state and mechanical 158 .26) If i ≠ j .2 ⎥ d = ⎢ 2⎥ = ⎢ a ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ d ⎥ ⎢P − P ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ n⎦ ⎣ a w.⎡ d1 ⎤ ⎡ Pa − Pw. if i = j .

18). i. the elements a in matrix [ A] are defined in Equations (7.17) and Equation (7. (7. The step-by-step procedure in Section 7. S = 0 for each well. Assuming the off-center distances ( R ) for 0 all wells are identical and there is no pressure drop caused by formation damage or stimulation.1 is also applicable for pseudo-steady state.19).27). a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at vertexes of a regular polygon inside a closed homogeneous. the matrix [ Dq ] −1 ij has the same meaning as in Equation (7.skin factor of each well can be obtained by solving Equation (7. then the flow rates in pseudo-steady state for all wells are identical.e. anisotropic circular reservoir.1 shows.28) 159 .25).26). It must be pointed out that pressure drawdown vector d is defined in Equation (7. As Figure 7. respectively. and can be expressed as: Q =F w D where 2πK H ( P − P ) /( µB) r a w Π n (7.

Π n R R +R wD ) 2 − 3 + ln( eD )] = n[ 1 ( 0 D R 2 R 4 eD 0D R R2 (7. then Π = ln[ 2 R6 e 2 R R0 ( Re2 + R02 )( R 2 − R 2 − R R ) w e 0 0 w R +R w )2 − 3 +( o R 2 e ] (7. For isotropic circular reservoir.31) If n = 4 . if n = 2 .29) 0 D eD + ln[ ] R ) (R 2 − R 2 − R R wD eD 0D 0 D wD R R n 2(i − 1)π 2(i − 1)π − ∑ ln{ 1 − 2( 0 D ) 2 cos[ ]} ] + ( 0 D ) 4 × 2 − 2 cos[ R n R n i=2 eD eD and n is the number of wells. 160 .30) If n = 3 . R9 e Π = ln[ ] 3 2 2 2 3R R ( R − R − R R )( R 4 + R 2 R 2 + R 4 ) w 0 e e 0 0 0 w e 0 R +R w )2 − 9 + 3( o R 2 4 e (7.

pseudo-steady state productivity equation for the two symmetric wells is obtained. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each 161 .31).30). Example 7.R12 e Π = ln[ ] 4 3 2 2 2 4 R R ( R + R )( R − R 2 − R R )( R 4 + R 4 ) w 0 e 0 e 0 0 w e 0 R +R w )2 − 3 + 2( o R e (7. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7. The well locations.6: Eight wells are distributed in a closed anisotropic circular reservoir. wellbore radii.33) Combine Equations (7.1.28) and (7. as given in Equation (1.32) If n = 6 . R10 e Π = ln[ ] 6 5 2 2 6 R R ( R + R )( R 2 − R 2 − R R ) w 0 e e 0 0 0 w 8 R e + ln[ ] ( R 4 − R 2 R 2 + R 4 )( R 4 + R 2 R 2 + R 4 ) e e 0 e e 0 0 0 R +R w )2 − 9 + 3( o R 2 e (7.

048 8.424 34.986 8.084 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.674 7.−6.478 6.687 17.767 Well 3 14.539 4.232 4.605 19. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5.162 23.619 57.090 11.944 30.425 21.619 25.678 43.880]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.823 9.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.198 23.895 206.639 16.435 Well 5 11.687 9.659 3 162 .248 Well 7 14.849 4.554 149.397 Well 6 17.076 5. Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 7.763 14.500 34.7 .720 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 16.853 23.513 14.944 20.009 6.811 18.901 26.−2. 10.963 345.251 9.986 17.814 18.090 10.well are identical.474 13.251 14.084 77. for S = 0 .122 61.270 Well 2 13.701 7.7.967 38. Table 7.162 Well 8 17.557 4.217 55.236 4.355 17.604 13.878 34.880 11.331 44.317 6.144 8. we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [11.832 16. 20.604 8.727 16.246 7.−4.6 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 11.1.469 4.278 63.009 5. The total productivity index when S = 0 is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 118.661 Total 118.763 11.

615 15.8.982 14.−2.615 14. 10. The well locations are the same as given in Table 7.927 14.151 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 7.051]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.7: Eight wells are uniformly distributed along a diameter of an isotropic circular reservoir. 163 . Solution: When S = 0 . The total productivity index when S = 0 is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 121.1. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 7. we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [15.1 µm2.−6. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.927 14. Permeability K is 0. The wellbore radii.982 15.3. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S =0 and S = 5.Example 7.051 15. 20.−4.

553 59.986 20.530 46.257 38.927 9.188 208.374 3 Re Rw R ⎡ ⎛ Re2 − R 2 ⎞ R 2⎤ QR = Q ⎜ ⎟ = Q ⎢1 − ( R ) ⎥ ⎜ R2 ⎟ e e ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝ Figure 7.927 9.269 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 14.3 .433 36.883 19.894 7.031 25.718 7.892 Well 8 15.883 19.8 .982 10.776 25.7 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15.358 4.358 4.277 4.880 18.860 7.776 25.263 325.184 153.912 40.912 40.718 7.305 7.277 4.530 46.371 4.Productivity Indexes for Example 7.151 79.925 Well 3 14.051 9.296 24.601 Well 6 14.615 9.Table 7.860 7.305 7.843 18.031 25.491 28.982 10.880 18.296 24.371 4.615 9.051 9.603 4.491 28.894 7.Pseudo-Steady State Flow to a Well in a Circular Reservoir 164 .843 18.601 Well 7 15.433 36.892 Total 121.986 20.218 39.269 Well 5 14.925 Well 2 15.257 38.603 4.

the produced fluid is evenly distributed in the reservoir.If we compare the above productivity indexes in Example 7. It is because steady state is dominated by a constant pressure outer boundary flow regime. and hence more energy is dissipated.7 with the corresponding productivity indexes in Example 7.3. In pseudo-steady state. its productivity index in pseudo-steady state is bigger than that in steady state. Thus. there is zero flow rate at the closed outer boundary. and maximum flow rate at the wellbore.3 shows. in pseudosteady state the fluid moved through shorter distance than in steady state. and productivity index is higher (Ibragimov and Valko. more fluid is coming from the area farther from the wellbore. 2000). we may find that for a given well. which implies that (a) the same volume of fluid is being moved at the wellbore and (b) at the outer boundary. as Figure 7. 165 . under the same pressure drop.

The wells are parallel to the z direction with a producing length equal to thickness H . Equations for calculating mechanical skin factors of each well due to formation damage or stimulation are also given. are considered constant. K . anisotropic rectangular reservoir. n. If a well is located at ( X wj .7 shows a number of fully penetrating vertical wells in a rectangular drainage domain. The reservoir has constant K . wj j Figure 2.Y ) .8. we have 166 . In x y z any given time interval. S . and the skin factors. Ywj ) . the number of wells. the top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable. wj wj the wellbore radii. PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS FOR A MULTIPLE VERTICAL WELLS SYSTEM IN A RECTANGULAR RESERVOIR This chapter presents steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in a homogeneous. K permeability. and thickness H . their locations ( X . R .

and wj wj +Y D ) /(2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 1 D wDj −X + sinh 2 [π | X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y D wDj (8. i If only one well is on production.0< X wj <X . which is located at j µBQ (8. Y ) is below (Lu and Tiab.1 Productivity Equations In Steady State Recall Equation (2.3) −Y D ) /(2Y )] wDj eD wDj | /(2Y )]} eD + sinh 2 [π | X −X 167 . the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a rectangular reservoir during steady state. the outer boundary pressure P is always equal to e initial pressure P during production. e 0<Y <Y wj e (8. The pressure at the point ( X .1) 8. Y ) = P − ( ) × ln( 1 e σ ×σ 4π K K HF 3 4 x y D where Q is the flow rate of the production well. 2008): σ ×σ j 2) P( X . (say.2) (X .17). the jth one). Y ) .

6) + sinh 2 [πX eD D ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y + sinh 2 [πX eD Define σ ×σ 2) G ( X . 168 .σ = {sin 2[π (Y + Y 2 D + sinh 2[πX eD wDj ) /( 2Y )] eD (8.7) and σ . respectively. X .Y .5) and (8.4).5) + sinh 2 [π ( X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /(2Y )] D wDj eD D +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD + sinh 2 [π ( X σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 4 D +Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD /Y − π (X + X ) /( 2Y )]} eD D wDj eD −Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD /Y − π (X + X ) /( 2Y )]} eD D wDj eD (8.Y ) = ln( 1 j wDj wDj σ ×σ 3 4 (8. (8.6). σ .3). σ have the same meanings as in Equations (8.4) /Y −π | X − X | /(2Y )]} eD D wDj eD ÷ {sin 2[π (Y − Y ) /( 2Y )] D wDj eD + sinh 2[πX /Y −π | X − X | /(2Y )]} eD eD D wDj eD σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 3 D +Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD D +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD (8. σ . 1 2 3 4 (8.

for the n-well system. Y . If i ≠ j . The elements a of the matrix [ A] represent the influence of well j on the ij pressure at the circumference of well i . σ ×σ 6] a (i.16). d =( µB 2π K K HF x y D ) × ([A] + [DS ]) Q (8. Y ) is P( X .7).9) and (7. with n production wells. (7. Y ) µB ) = P −( e 4π K K HF x y D n . the following equation can be obtained for a multiple wells – rectangular reservoir system. the influence matrix [ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector DS are defined in Equations (7. the surface production vector Q . respectively.9) where the pressure drawdown vector d .Then by superposition principle. the pressure at the point ( X . j ) = ( 1 ) ln[ 5 2 σ ×σ 7 8 where (8.8) Using a similar method presented in Chapter 7.Y )] × ∑ [Q × G ( X .6). X j j D D wDj wDj j =1 (8. (7.10) 169 .

σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 5 wDi +Y wDj ) /( 2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD + sinh 2 [π | X ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y wDi −X wDj (8.11) wDi −Y wDj ) /( 2Y )] eD | /(2Y )]} eD + sinh 2 [π | X wDi −X wDj σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 6 wDi eD +Y wDj ) /(2Y )] eD + sinh 2 [πX −X /Y −π | X | /(2Y )]} eD wDi wDj eD ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /(2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [πX −X /Y −π | X | /(2Y )]} eD eD wDi wDj eD (8. 170 .13) + sinh 2 [π ( X wDi ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /(2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [π ( X +X ) /(2Y )]} wDi wDj eD σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 8 wDi eD +Y ) /( 2Y )] wDj eD +X /Y − π (X ) /(2Y )]} eD wDi wDj eD (8.14) + sinh 2 [πX ÷ {sin 2 [π (Y −Y ) /( 2Y )] wDi wDj eD + sinh 2 [πX +X /Y − π (X ) /(2Y )]} eD eD wDi wDj eD If i = j .12) σ = {sin 2 [π (Y 7 wDi +Y ) /(2Y )] wDj eD +X wDj ) /(2Y )]} eD (8.

we can express the skin factor vector as 171 . this solution is given as F (2π K K H ) D x y Q= ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 d s µB (8. In matrix notation.σ ×σ 10 ) a (i. j ) = ( 1 ) ln( 9 2 σ ×σ 11 12 where (8.19) All the definitions of dimensionless variables can be found in Chapter 2.9) can be solved for the unknown production rates.20) By rearranging Equation (8.16) σ 10 = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] wDi eD eD eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wDi eD eD eD = [sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 (πX / Y )] wDi eD wDi eD ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 (πX / Y )} wDi eD wDi eD = {sin 2 (πY / Y ) + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wDi eD eD eD wDi ÷ {sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] + sinh 2 [(π / Y )( X −X )]} wDi eD eD eD wDi (8.9). Equation (8.18) σ 12 (8.15) σ = sin 2 (πY 9 / Y ) / sin 2 [πR /(2Y )] wDi eD wDi eD (8.17) σ 11 (8.

the production rate or mechanical skin factor of each well can be calculated.⎡ F (2π K K H ) ⎤ D x y ⎢ − 1 S = [D ] d − [ A]Q ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ q µB ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (8.15). the outer boundary pressure.6). calculate production rate vector. and the number F (2π K K H ) /( µB) in Equation (8. calculate the influence matrix [ A] . flowing bottomhole pressure. s 172 .19).21) where [ D ]− 1 is defined in Equation (7. then using Equation (7.20).10) and (8. Case One: Skin factors of each well are known. reservoir and fluid properties data. Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7.16) to obtain the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) . D x y Step 2 – Using Equations (8. q Step-by-Step Procedure Given the locations of each well in a rectangular reservoir.

q Step 4 – Using Equation (8.10) and (8. s Step 4 – Using Equation (8. 173 . Step 3 –Using Equation (7. calculate the influence matrix [ A] .6). calculate the skin factor vector.15). calculate the production rate vector Q . Step 2 – Using Equations (8. then calculate the vector [ A]Q . then obtain [ F (2π K K H ) /( µB)]d in D x y D x y Equation (8.19). Step 1 – Calculate pressure drawdown vector d in Equation (7.21).21).Step 3 – Calculate the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 . Case Two: Production rates of each well are known. calculate the skin factor vector. calculate the matrix [ D ]− 1 . and the number F (2π K K H ) /( µB) .20).

10. wellbore radii.1: Consider an anisotropic rectangular reservoir containing eight wells.−4. calculate surface production rates for the eight-well system when S = 0 and S = 5. The outer boundary pressure.1.4 10. Solution: This problem matches Case One.4 × (2π ) × 0.2 × 20 /(5 × 1. The rectangular coordinates of these wells ( X . flowing bottomhole pressure. reservoir and fluid properties data in field metric units are also shown in Table 8. When S = 5 . 20. In field metric units.5) = 204. Y ) are presented in Table wj wj 8. F = 86.728 D x y 174 .1. then D F (2π K K H ) /( µB) = 86.−2. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are also identical.2 10.7]T The unit for each element in d is MPa and the superscript T stands for “matrix transpose”.8 8.1 × 0.5 11.Example 8. we have Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d is d = [12.3 8.4 .2 9.6 7. The wellbore radii are identical.−6.

Pwf.Table 8.4 10. Xe 3000 m Reservoir Width. 1200 m) Well 5 ( X w5 . using Equations (7.025 µm2 Vertical Permeability.2 7. Yw8 ) (2200 m.1 m Reservoir Length. Pwf. 1000 m) Well 3 ( X w3 .7 9.7 MPa Well 7.4 MPa Well 4. Pe 18. Yw5 ) (300 m. 900 m) Well 8 ( X w8 .1 µm2 0. Pwf.5 Rm3/Sm3 Step 2: Because S = 5 for each well. Yw3 ) (500 m. µ 5. Pwf. 800 m) Well 4 ( X w4 .3 9.2 MPa Well 3.6 MPa Well 2.2 µm2 Permeability in Y Direction.15). Pwf. Kz Oil Viscosity.6 8. 1300 m) Well 6 ( X w6 .Well Locations. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8.10) and (8.16).1 5. Yw2 ) (2500 m.3 MPa Well 1 ( X w1 . 1100 m) Wellbore Radius. Pwf. (8.1 . the matrix [ A] + [ D ] is obtained s 175 . H 20 m Permeability in X Direction.5 6.s Formation Volume Factor. Ye 1500 m Payzone Thickness.8 MPa Well 8. Yw7 ) (1000 m. Rw 0. Pwf. Yw6 ) (1800 m.0 MPa Well 1. Kx 0. B 1. 700 m) Well 7 ( X w7 .0 mPa.1 Outer Boundary Pressure.5 MPa Well 5. Ky 0. Pwf. Yw1 ) (1500 m.8 7. 500 m) Well 2 ( X w2 .8 MPa Well 6. Yw4 ) (2000 m.

084 0.0.001 0.004 .077 0.016 ⎜ 0.003 ⎟ 0.073 0.001 .832 ⎜ ⎜ 0.0.002 ⎜ .000 ⎟ ⎟ .441 115.176 0.123 149.831 ⎟ 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 .000 .000 0.261 0.262 172.0.004 0.000 .001 .189 =⎜ ⎜ 0.753 0.075 0.013 0.003 0.443 0.001 .002 0.072 0.20).040 0.260 141.004 .000 0.203 0.0.000 0.001 0.008 0.000 0.653 0.003 0.040 0.000 0.417 ⎟ ⎟ 0.000 ⎜ ⎜ .739 ⎜ ⎜ 0.0.072 .203 0.0.000 ⎟ ⎟ .461 118.016 0.148 95.001 0.002 0.[ A] + [ D ] s ⎛ 13.702 109.0.0.059 0.315 0.261 0.0.072 13.0.000 .004 ⎟ 0.0.0.0.0.004 13.498 0.087 0.147 ⎞ ⎟ 0.0.0.018 0.002 0.002 0.001 .541]T 176 .0.147 ⎝ 0.000 0.059 0.000 .176 13.074 ⎟ ⎠ Step 4: Using Equation (8.0.0.003 13.002 ⎜ .346 0.008 13.000 0.000 .739 0.009 ⎟ ⎟ 0.001 0.653 ⎟ 0.000 .073 0.013 13.002 0.002 0.000 ⎜ 0.000 0.000 ⎝ .0.072 ⎜ ⎜ . the surface production rate vector Q is obtained below: Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [170.002 ⎟ ⎟ 0.000 .009 0.002 .419 0.040 0. we obtain s ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 s ⎛ 0.0.0.417 0.000 ⎟ 0.002 ⎟ ⎟ 0.669 ⎟ ⎠ Step 3: Calculating the matrix ([ A] + [ D ]) − 1 .087 0.000 =⎜ ⎜ 0.921 0.000 .868 0.000 ⎜ ⎜ 0.0.346 ⎜ 0.001 0.0.072 ⎜ 0.001⎞ ⎟ .969 0.000 0.189 0.001 0.498 0.004 0.000 .000 0.001 0.001 0.831 0.040 ⎟ 13.0.419 0.0.315 0.084 ⎜ ⎜ 0.018 0.

100 2018.474 Well 6 164.976 366.262 72.Surface Production Rates for Example 8. the total flow rate of the eight-wells system is 8 Q = ∑ Q = 1071.718 339.969 71.882 536.253 209.248 495.614 Well 8 209.123 127.721 196.071 156.542 4204. When S = 5 .The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D.242 541.313 Total 1610.738 323.251 80.128 415.510 58.514 240.326 95.937 ( Sm 3 / D) t w.448 1071.899 170.934 388.888]T 177 .439 293.363 118.2.868 258.319 199.424 170.281 2711.148 88.844 700.541 106.996 Flow Rate (Sm /D) Well 4 137.799 202.472 55.2: Given the following production rate vector: Q = [Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q ]T w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 w7 w8 = [206.428 166.461 111.564 109.937 803.552 149.614 74.956 60.467 438.260 82.2 .630 109.441 125.490 144.576 Well 7 161.703 1056.133 285.714 260.917 221.544 Well 5 277.861 Well 3 177.052 270.203 279.841 Well 2 226.1 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 256. j j =1 The production rates with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.038 172.267 200.191 141.219 3 Example 8.913 617.451 367.803 49. Table 8.449 115.307 84.702 88.091 397.

outer boundary pressure.45]T 178 .1.66 1535. Calculate mechanical skin factors for the eight-wells system.The unit for each element in Q is Sm3/D.06 1760.77 2190.46 2292. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.75 2032.59]T Step 2: The influence matrix [ A] is already obtained in Example 8. then D x y ( F (2π K K H ) /( µB )) × d D x y = [2538.1. Solution: This problem matches Case Two.95 1903.37 3266.10 1222.97 1678. Step 1: The pressure drawdown vector d and the value of F (2π K K H ) /( µB) are already obtained in Example 8.89 1663.18 2016. wellbore radii.63 2211.30 1674. flowing bottomhole pressure.81 1647. then the vector [ A]Q can be obtained [ A]Q = [2078.1. The well locations.

0064]T d The non-diagonal elements in [ D ]− 1 are zero.19) and assuming q the column vector [ D ] below consists of the diagonal elements of the d matrix [ D ]− 1 . Example 8.Step 3: Calculating the matrix [ D ]− 1 in Equation (7.0048 0.45 1.69 3.1 µm2.23 3.78 − 1.0025 0.21). The wellbore radii. q Step 4: Using Equation (8.0049 0.3: Eight wells are distributed along a diagonal of an isotropic rectangular reservoir.0059 0.1 and Example 8.3.0092 0.0050 0. The well locations are given in Table 8. Permeability K is 0.0069 0.36]T The flow rates in Example 8. we have q [ D ] = [0.34 2. the mechanical skin factor vector is S = [ S S S S S S S S ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [2.87 − 2.2 show that the skin factors significantly affect the production performance.14 − 1. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as 179 .

238 14.1.given in Table 8.−2. Y w7 ) ( X w8 . When S = 0 .581 11.144 (Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 180 .956]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa.1. we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [17. 900 m) (2100 m. 1200 m) Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8. 450 m) (1200 m. 750 m) (1800 m.225 12.491 11. 10. Yw4 ) ( X w 5 . Y w3 ) ( X w4 . Yw2 ) ( X w3 .694 14. Y w5 ) ( X w6 . 20.3 Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ( X w1 .−6. Yw8 ) (300 m. the total productivity index is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 106. 1050 m) (2400 m. for S = 0 . calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. 150 m) (600 m. 600 m) (1500 m.Well Locations for Example 8. Table 8.647 12.−4.3 . 300 m) (900 m. Y w6 ) ( X w7 . Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical. Yw1 ) ( X w2 .312 11.

1350 m) .144 72.769 171.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.390 4.−6.308 6. the reservoir.The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.876 Well 6 11.517 7.610 15. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.474 13.3.4.178 6. Table 8. 10.647 8.827 6.4 . fluid properties.482 13.122 Well 7 12.838 5.1.956 9. 20.003 26.751 33.845 21.062 18.896 24.767 7.314 16.309 130.694 20.404 256.920 Well 5 11.707 16. its location is at ( X .244 43.588 34.737 6.581 8.439 25.439 13.775 3 Example 8.3.807 Total 106.587 15.785 17.694 8.238 10.−2.339 6.080 22. we obtain 181 .714 4.225 9. Y ) = (2700 m.627 66. Solution: For S = 0 .4: If ninth well is added in the eight-wells system in Example 8.798 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 11.748 23.808 7.072 19.764 4.491 8.312 8. other well locations are the same as given in Table 8.378 19.805 16.−4.466 4.121 37.407 Well 3 12.3 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 17.851 19.311 4. and w9 w9 wellbore data are the same as given in Table 8.484 4.480 55. calculate productivity indexes for the nine-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5.231 Well 2 14.156 4.614 Well 8 14.

794 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 11.586 15.280 8.461 4.3 and 182 .300 6.486 8.712 4.231 Well 2 14.710 42.155 4.5.673 20.586 34. From the numerical results in Example 8.890 24.486 11.406 Well 3 12.080 22.4.057 18.757 201.785 17.734 6.568 8. the total productivity index is 9 PIT = ∑ PI = 122.586 34.281 151. Table 8.516 7.475 3 In Example 8.562 312.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.486 14.4 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 17.461 4.838 5.223 12.901 Well 7 12.406 Well 9 17.690 16.PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = [17.434 13.011 19. the nine wells are uniformly distributed along the diagonal.223 9.230 Total 122.734 6. It can be shown that the values of productivity indexes are equivalent for the two wells symmetrically located along the diagonal of the rectangular reservoir.751 33.309 82.380 4.766 7.280 11.300 6.080 22.794 62.690 16.223 9.794 Well 8 14.237 10.751 33.472 13.901 Well 5 11.785 17.626 66.586 11.5 .155 4.712 4.838 5.269 16.472 13.237 14.746 23.223 17.586 15.516 7.057 18.890 24.766 7.586 12.568 8.673 20.809 Well 6 11.161 6.237 10.626 66.309 (Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.486 8.237]T When S = 0 .746 23.

Wellbore radii.1.4.1 µm2.5: An isotropic rectangular reservoir has the same size as in Example 8.6. 20.1 shows. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical.1. The reservoir is split into n equal-area small rectangles.1. the bigger the productivity index of the well. Example 8.−4. it can found that the ninth well does not have significant effects on productivity indexes of other eight wells. anisotropic rectangular reservoir. a number of fully penetrating vertical wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles inside a homogeneous. the smaller the distance from the constant pressure outer boundary. calculate productivity indexes for the eight-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. The well locations are given in Table 8.−6. if S = 0 . eight wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles. As Figure 8. 10.Example 8. Permeability K is 0. Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8. one well is located at each area center. we obtain 183 . As Figure 8. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.−2.1 shows.

6 .Table 8. 375m) (375 m. 375 m) (2625 m. Y w6 ) ( X w7 . Yw1 ) ( X w2 .1 . 1125 m) (1875 m. Yw2 ) ( X w3 . 1125 m) (2625 m. Y w5 ) ( X w6 .5 Well Well Well Well Well Well Well Well 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ( X w1 . Y w3 ) ( X w4 .Well Locations for Example 8. Yw8 ) (375 m. 375 m) (1875 m. 375 m) (1125 m. Yw4 ) ( X w 5 . 1125 m) (1125 m. Y w7 ) ( X w8 . 1125 m) Ye Xe Figure 8.Multiple Wells Located at Centers of Equal-Area Small Rectangles 184 .

585 330.378 79.871 10.976 35. because their locations are near rectangular reservoir.063 23.659 7.420 47.7 .473 9.296 Well 3 14.063 23.830 18.473 15. 5.405 Total 121.245 4.235 39.296 Well 7 14.063 23.606 59.830 18.PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [15.245 4.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.357 28.405 Well 5 15.871 10. with the corners of the small distances from two of the constant pressure reservoir boundaries.420 47.245 4.564 4.871 10.7.830 18.357 28.420 47.967 20.357 28.473 14.871 14.830 18.967 20.871 10.186 153.659 7. it can be concluded that. Well 1.976 35. 5. 6.871 14. 8 are equal and bigger than those of Well 2.967 20. 185 .659 7.804 3 From the above numerical results.976 35.564 4.245 4.871]T When S = 0 . 4. 7.564 4.296 Well 8 15. 3.473 9.357 28.5 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15.063 23.967 20.473 9.680 209.242 7. 8 are symmetrically located. the total productivity index is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 121.871 15.242 7.296 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 15.420 47.976 35.405 Well 6 14.473 9.242 7. the productivity indexes of Well 1. 4.378 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8. Table 8.564 4.473 15.473 14.659 7.405 Well 2 14.242 7.

3.1 µm2. 6.5. Yw2 ) ( X w3 . if we compare the results in Examples 8. 20. Y w3 ) ( X w4 . 8. Yw1 ) ( X w2 . it can be concluded that well pattern has significant effects on the single and total productivity index. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are identical. Wellbore radii.3 and 8.1. S = 0 for each well. Yw4 ) (750 m.Well Locations for Example 8. 1125 m) (2250 m. The well locations are given in Table 8. Table 8.−6. The reservoir size is the same as in Example 8. 375 m) (2250 m.8 . reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.6 Well Well Well Well 1 2 3 4 ( X w1 . 1125m) 186 . calculate productivity indexes for the four-wells system when S = 0 and S = 5. 10.−4.6: Four wells are located at the centers of equal-area small sized rectangles.5.so their productivity indexes are equal. obtained for Well 2. Example 8. The same conclusions are For the eight-wells system.−2. Permeability K is 0.1.8. 375 m) (750 m. 7.

81 15.238 40.073 45.557 4.860 80.228 28.073 45.557 4.226 7.859 Well 4 15.226 7.9.810 10.434 3 From Example 8.859 Total 63.6 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 15.810 10.Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as shown in Example 8.965 20.291 183.Productivity Indexes for Example 8. their productivity indexes are also identical.81 15.228 28.810 10.073 45.226 7. we may come to the conclusion that if skin factors are indentical.557 4.6.911 112.557 4. if S = 0 we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI ]T = [15.965 20.073 45.81 15. Table 8. and wells are symmetrically located.965 20.859 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 2 15. the total productivity index is 4 PIT = ∑ PI = 63.227 19. 187 .228 28.228 28.1.859 Well 3 15.903 30.226 7.24 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.810 10.9 .965 20.81]T 1 2 3 4 When S = 0 .

Y ) is 188 . The pressure at the point ( X . (say. Y ) = P − ( ) × ( ρ1 + ρ 2 + ρ 3 ) a K K HF x y D µBQ (8. the pressure at the point ( X .2 Productivity Equations In Pseudo-Steady State If only one well is on production. the following equation gives the pressure distribution in a rectangular reservoir during pseudosteady state. for the n-well system. X wDj ) X D + X wDj )[ − ρ1 = ( ] + 2 2 X eD YeD 3 X eD (8.24) ρ 3 = −( πX | X − X wDj | π (YD − YwDj ) 1 ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− eD D ) cos[ ] 4π YeD YeD + exp(− 2πX eD | X D − X wDj | YeD )} (8. which is located at ( X .23) ρ 2 = −( πX | X − X wDj | π (YD + YwDj ) 1 ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− eD D ) cos[ ] 4π YeD YeD + exp(− 2πX eD | X D − X wDj | YeD )} (8.8. Y ) . j wj wj By superposition principle. with n production wells.22) where 2 2 X eD 1 max( X D .25) Q is the flow rate of the production well. the jth one). Y ) is j P( X .

the pressure drawdown vector d .26) where ρ1 . and (7.25). 189 . ρ 2 . (8. respectively.20) and (8.23).16). the surface production vector Q . (7. Y ) n µB = P −( ) × ∑ [Q × ( ρ1 + ρ 2 + ρ 3 )] a j K K HF j =1 x y D (8.P( X .27) ]} If i ≠ j . For the influence matrix [ A] .9). Equations (8.7).24) and (8. if i = j .9). ρ 3 have the same meanings as in Equations (8.25). (7. respectively. (8. aii = (2π )( 2 2 X eD 1 X wDi X wDi )( − ) + 2 YeD 6 2 X eD 2 X eD − ln{4 sin( πRwDi 2YeD ) sin[ π (2YwDi + RwDi ) 2YeD (8. the influence matrix [ A] and the mechanical skin factors vector D s are defined in Equations (7.21) are still applicable to a multiple wells – rectangular reservoir system in pseudo-steady state.

X wDj ) X wDi + X wDj )[ − ] = (2π )( + 2 YeD 3 X eD 2 X eD πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | π (YwDi + YwDj ) 1 ) cos[ ] − ( ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− YeD YeD 2 + exp(− 2πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | YeD )} (8.1 is also applicable for pseudo-steady state. and the pressure drop.21). respectively. But the elements a in matrix [ A] are defined ij in Equations (8.aij 2 2 X eD 1 max( X wDi .7: Eight wells are distributed in a closed rectangular reservoir.28) πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | π (YwDi − YwDj ) 1 ) cos[ ] − ( ) ln{1 − 2 exp(− YeD YeD 2 + exp(− 2πX eD | X wDi − X wDj | YeD )} Given the locations of each well in a closed rectangular reservoir. The well locations.1. reservoir and fluid properties data are the same as given in Table 8.28). the production rate in pseudo-steady state and mechanical skin factor of each well can be obtained by solving Equation (8.27) and (8.20) and Equation (8. The step-by-step procedure in Section 8. reservoir and fluid properties data are also known. wellbore radii. Assuming mechanical skin factors of each well are 190 . Example 8.

667 7.045 21.066 30.410 77.082 106.071 103.547 255.636 42.−4.1.850 88.075 11.977 10.623 22.997 11.514 Well 3 26.084 59.855 14.300 16.207 Well 8 23.469 121.898 Total 194.331 23.025 7.738 7.391 34.531 7.180 30.428 36.766 57.784 3 191 .106 11.397 75.660 Productivity Index (Sm /D/MPa) Well 4 21.616 373.10 . 20. calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the eightwells system when S = 0 and S = 5.Productivity Indexes for Example 8.043 27.160 31.identical.331 13. we obtain PI = [ PI PI PI PI PI PI PI PI ]T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = [24.739 52.042 11.321 11.057 37.211 53.530 118. 10.−2.855 26.469 ( Sm 3 / D / MPa) j j =1 The productivity indexes with respect to different values of mechanical skin factor are given in Table 8.033 29.890 27.023 7.609 Well 2 27.589 43.7 Skin Factor S=0 S=5 S = 10 S = 20 S=-2 S=-4 S=-6 Well 1 24.043 15.613 Well 5 23.554 46.595 10.754 703. Solution: Using the step-by-step procedure as in Example 8.124 76.623 15.093 26. When S = 0 .056 86. the total productivity index is 8 PIT = ∑ PI = 194.045 15.119 43.022 Well 7 26.10.−6.261 Well 6 22.300 23.178 14.093 16. for S = 0 .399 35.815 7.711 56.563 7.404 6.737 10.178]T The unit for each element in PI is Sm3/D/MPa. Table 8.

Skin Factor 10 Well 2. K 100 mD Oil Viscosity. Skin Factors.Example 8.25 ft Reservoir Length. Reservoir and Fluid Properties Data for Example 8. 5133. Skin Factor 0 Well 3. wellbore radii. we compare the proposed productivity equation in this study and the equation presented by Valko. Xe 14000 ft Reservoir Width. mechanical skin factors.67 ft. H 100 ft Permeability. Table 8. Yw1 ) (3266.67 ft.558 RB/STB 192 . reservoir and fluid properties data were provided by Valko. Rw 0. Doublet and Blasingame (2000) and are given in Table 8. Calculate pseudo-steady state productivity indexes for the three-wells system.67 ft. 2333. 5133.33 ft) (10266.33 ft) Well 3 ( X w3 . Doublet and Blasingame in 2000.5. Three fully penetrating vertical wells are distributed in a closed isotropic rectangular reservoir.8: In this example. B 1. Skin Factor -3 Wellbore Radius.8 Well 1 ( X w1 .5364 cp Formation Volume Factor. Yw2 ) (7466. Yw3 ) Well 1.33 ft) Well 2 ( X w2 .11 . µ 0. Ye 7000 ft Payzone Thickness. The well locations.Well Locations.

33) and (1. the unit for each element in PI is STB/D/psi. the productivity index vector for the three-wells system is below: PI = [ PI PI PI ]T = [4. No significant differences exist between the above results calculated by the two methods.27) and ij (8.28) are reliable.34) which were provided by Valko.887 8. which indicates that the proposed Equations (8.562 12. Doublet and Blasingame (2000).27) and (8.779 13.28).33) and ij (1.28) are applicable to anisotropic reservoirs. 193 .Solution: If the elements a in matrix [ A] are obtained by Equations (8.34) are only applicable to isotropic reservoirs. but Equations (8. Equations (1.27) and (8. then the productivity index vector is PI = [ PI PI PI ]T = [4.948 8.275]T 1 2 3 In the above calculations.928]T 1 2 3 If the elements a in matrix [ A] are obtained by Equations (1.

Productivity equations are given for an off-center partially penetrating vertical well in steady state and pseudo-steady state arbitrarily located in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir and circular cylinder reservoir. 194 . Equations are given for a vertical well in a circular cylinder drainage volume and a box-shaped drainage volume. for arbitrary position of the well within the circle.9. 2. to calculate pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. 3. SUMMARY The primary goal of this chapter is to summarize the contributions and the proposed steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations in this study. 9. A new expression is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic circular reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state.1 Contributions 1.

6. Productivity equations are given for a fully penetrating vertical well in steady state in an anisotropic sector fault reservoir and channel reservoir. A new expression is presented for calculating the shape factor of an isotropic rectangle reservoir with a fully penetrating vertical well in pseudosteady state. 195 . 5.2 Productivity Equations Productivity equations of a vertical well in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir are summarized in Table 9. Productivity equations are given for a horizontal well in an anisotropic circular cylinder reservoir and box-shaped reservoir. 9. for arbitrary aspect ratio of the rectangle and for arbitrary position of the well within the rectangle. Steady state and pseudo-steady state productivity equations for a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system within a circular drainage area and a rectangular drainage area are presented.4.1. 7.

22) Eq. Constant pressure or impermeable.1) Pseudo Skin Factor Eq. 196 . Channel Eq. (4.2 . (4.Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Box-Shaped Reservoir.14) Eq.5) and (3. Impermeable. Box Eq.1) and (3.13) Eq. Table 9. (5. (3. (3. Two parallel boundaries are impermeable. Both are impermeable.11) Eqs.1 . (3.2.3) Remark Constant pressure.1) N/A Steady State. Gas cap and bottom water. Bottom water only. Outer boundary is at constant pressure. (4.9) and (3.2) Eqs.11) Eq.11) Eqs. Constant pressure or impermeable. (5. (3. (3. only applicable for fully penetrating wells. (4.15) Pseudo Skin Factor Eq. (3. Gas cap only.3) Eq. Productivity Equation Eq. Steady State. Sector Reservoir and Channel Reservoir Reservoir Shape Box Lateral Boundary Impermeable. (3. Constant pressure.Table 9. Constant pressure or impermeable. Steady State Steady State Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Productivity equations of a vertical well in an anisotropic box-shaped reservoir.4) N/A Steady State. only applicable for fully penetrating wells.3) Remark Pseudo-Steady State. sector fault reservoir and channel reservoir are summarized in Table 9. Productivity Equation Eqs.Productivity Equations of a Vertical Well in an Anisotropic Circular Cylinder Reservoir Lateral Boundary Top and Bottom Boundaries Both are impermeable.7) and (3. (3.27) Sector Fault Eq. Two sides of the sector angle are impermeable.12) Eq. (3. (3.

For the two reservoir shapes in Table 9. (6.For the three reservoir shapes in Table 9.8) Eq.3.Productivity Equations of a Horizontal Well in an Anisotropic Reservoir Reservoir Shape Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Circular Cylinder Box Lateral Boundary Constant pressure. Constant pressure or impermeable. Impermeable. Both are impermeable.11) Eq. both the top and bottom boundaryies are impermeable. (6. (6. (6. (6.1) Eq.6) Eq.2. (6. Gas cap and bottom water. Constant pressure or impermeable.14) Remark Steady State Steady State Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Productivity equations of a multiple fully penetrating vertical wells system in an anisotropic reservoir are summarized in Table 9. Productivity Equation Eq.7) Eq. Bottom water only. Table 9. Top and Bottom Boundaries Both are impermeable. Constant pressure or impermeable. Gas cap only. Impermeable. Productivity equations of a horizontal well in an anisotropic reservoir are summarized in Table 9.3 .4. both the top and bottom boundaryies are impermeable. 197 .4. Both are impermeable.

(8. (8. (7.Table 9.20) Element of Influence Matrix Eqs.Productivity Equations of a Multiple Vertical Wells System in an Anisotropic Reservoir Reservoir Shape Circular Circular Lateral Boundary Constant pressure. Productivity Equation Eq. (7.4 .28) Remark Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Steady State Pseudo-Steady State Rectangular Constant pressure. (7.27) and (8. (8. (7. Impermeable.10) and (7.17) Eq.10) and (8.26) and (7.20) Eq.15) Eqs. (8.27) Eqs. 198 .13) Eqs. Rectangular Impermeable.17) Eq.

CONCLUSIONS 1. If a circular cylinder reservoir is with gas cap or bottom water. Different productivity equations should be used under different reservoir boundary conditions. vertical permeability. 199 . and the effect of the off-center distance on productivity is also negligible. and a weak function of payzone thickness. location of producing portion. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. the effect of the radius on productivity can be ignored. horizontal permeability. and if the circular cylinder radius is very large compared to the pay zone thickness. the off-center well and centered well have the same productivity. 2. off-center distance and reservoir size. 3. If top and bottom reservoir boundaries are impermeable.10. For a partially penetrating vertical well. This is true whether the lateral boundary is impermeable or at constant pressure. the radius of the circular cylindrical system and the off-center distance appear in the partially penetrating vertical well productivity equation. 4.

8. For a vertical well in a sector fault reservoir. the permeability perpendicular to the well in horizontal plane. horizontal permeability.5. its productivity index is an increasing function with respect to the angle of the sector. reservoir size. is a decreasing function with respect to the sector radius. reservoir boundary conditions. 7. 6. For a multiple fully penetrating vertical of wells system. productivity index reaches maximum value when the well is located at the bisector of the angle. well pattern and mechanical skin factor have significant effects on single well productivity and total productivity of the multiple wells system. and for a given off-vertex distance. For a vertical well in a channel reservoir. its productivity index is a strong function of its producing length. the permeability parallel to the well in the horizontal plane. radial permeability. and a weak function of payzone thickness. and productivity index reaches maximum value when the well is located at the middle of the reservoir width. location of the well in vertical direction in payzone. its productivity index is a decreasing function of the channel reservoir width. vertical permeability. 200 . For a horizontal well.

Non-Darcy flow effect in productivity equations. 7. 201 .11. 3. A multiple wells system containing injections wells. Multiple wells in a reservoir with gas cap or bottom water. 6. A multiple wells system in a sector fault reservoir. A multiple wells system in a channel reservoir. 2. 4. 5. RECOMMENDATIONS This study can be improved by considering: 1. Productivity index equation of a well produced with constant wellbore pressure. A reservoir containing both vertical and horizontal wells.

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. degree Fahrenheit.I. Oil field units such as the foot. SI measurement symbols are identical in all languages. psi ( pound per square inch ). although use of metric systems ( especially the S.1. units systems ) is increasing. The worldwide conversion to SI units is being supported by many engineering. Oil field units ( English units ) are used almost exclusively for reservoir engineering work in United States. The SI base quantities and units are set forth in Table A.APPENDIX A : SYSTEMS OF UNITS A petroleum engineer should have some familiarity with all of the commonly employed units systems. second. SI is derived from seven “base quantities” that are regarded as dimensionally independent . 206 . are sufficiently familiar to petroleum engineers as to require no discussion. The Society of Petroleum Engineers ( SPE ) Board of Directors has adopted voluntary standards for use of SI units by the petroleum industry. scientific. and should be able to convert readily from one system to another. and industry organizations. The International System of Units is customarily termed as the SI Units System. etc.

Table A.s m3s-1 ft ft2 psi mD cp bbl/D m m2 MPa µm2 mPa.s m3/D 207 .Table A. Units conversion factors are presented in Table A.Field Units System and Field Metric Units System Dimension SI Field Field Metric Distance Area Pressure Permeability Oil Viscosity Flow Rate L L2 mL-1t-2 L2 mL-1t-1 L3t-1 m m2 Pa m2 Pa.3.1 .SI Base Quantities Base Quantity SI Unit SI Unit Symbol SPE Letter Symbol for Math Equations Length Mass Time Electric Current Thermodynamic Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela m kg s A K mol cd L m t I T n Field units system and field metric units system in petroleum engineering are introduced in Table A.2 .2.

894757 mD × 9.3 .0 * ft × 3.Table A.048* psi × 6.Units Conversion Factors bbl × 1.s E − 01 = m E + 03 = Pa E − 16 = m 2 * Conversion factor is exact. 208 .86923 E − 01 = m3 E − 03 = Pa.589873 cp × 1.

Every equation is in dimensionless form. and D. e and 2 ∂2P + ∂2P ∆P = ∂ P + ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂y 2 (B-2) (B-3) 209 . and drainage domain should be also taken as dimensionless domain. we use dimensionless variables defined in Chapter Two.APPENDIX B : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER RESERVOIR For convenience in the following Appendix B. H ) . Equation (2. C. but we drop the subscript D . In steady state. the main derivation steps of productivity equations for vertical wells in a circular cylinder drainage domain are presented.49) reduces to the equation below: ∆ P = − δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 ) in a circular cylinder drainage domain (B-1) Ω = {x 2 + y 2 < R 2} × (0. In this appendix.

(B-7) The pressure caused by the point sink at point ( x0 . y 0 . if n > 0. x0 . H ) e (B-5) Recall Equation (2. z 0 ) is below: P ( x. y ) satisfies the equation below nπ 2 ∂ 2ϕ n ∂ 2ϕ n −( ) ϕn + 2 2 ∂y ∂x H = − cos( n π z 0 / H ) δ ( x − x 0 ) δ ( y − y 0 ) /( d n H ) in circular drainage area {( x. and e (B-9) 210 .3).And recall Equation (2. we have P=0 (B-4) on cylindrical lateral surface Γ = {x 2 + y 2 = R 2} × (0. z. z0 ) = ∞ ∑ n=0 ϕ n ( x . there holds δ (z − z0) = where ∞ ∑ n=0 cos( n π z / H ) cos( n π z 0 / H ) /( d n H ) (B-6) ⎧ 1. d =⎨ n ⎩0.9). y ) cos( n π z / H ) (B-8) where ϕ n ( x. y ) | x 2 + y 2 < R 2 } .5. if the upper and lower boundaries are impermeable. if n = 0. y . y0 .

z 0 ) 1 ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re ρ )] 2πH ∞ 1 −( ){ ∑ [ K 0 (λ n Re ) I 0 (λ n ρ ) / I 0 (λ n Re ) − K 0 (λ n ρ )] πH n =1 × cos(nπz / H ) cos(nπz 0 / H )} =( where (B-12) λ n = nπ / H . on circumference {( x. integrating z 0 at both sides of Equation (B-12) 211 . y 0 . y ) = ( 1 ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re ρ )]. y ) | x 2 + y 2 = R 2} . 2πH (B-11) 2 2 where ρ = ( x − x0 ) 2 + ( y − y 0 ) 2 . we obtain ϕ 0 ( x. R0 = x0 + y0 And P ( x. using superposition principle. e (B-10) Using Green’s function of Laplace equation in the circular domain. x 0 . y ) = 0. z . let ρ = Rw .ϕ n ( x. (B-13) In order to calculate the pressure at the wellbore. y .

then divided by L pr .48). then Pa . 212 . w =( ≈( 1 L2 ) ∫ P( Rw .29) and (2.1) is obtained. z )dz L pr L1 Lp ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re Rw )] ∞ ∑ n =1 (B-15) 2πH 4H +( 3 π L pr ( 1 ) K 0 (λ n Rw ) sin 2 [nπL pr /( 2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /( 2 H )] 2 n Recall Equations (2. rearrange Equation (B-15). z 0 )dz 0 Lp ) ln[( Re2 − R02 ) /( Re Rw )] 1 (B-14) ≈( + 2πH {( ∞ ∑ n =1 ) K 0 (λ n Rw ) cos(nπz / H ) nπ 2 × [sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin(nπL1 / H )]} The average wellbore pressure along the well length can be obtained by integrating both sides of Equation (B-14) with respect to z from L1 to L2 .from L1 to L2 . Rw . thus the pressure at wellbore point ( Rw . z 0 ) caused by the uniform line sink is Pw ( Rw . z ) = L2 ∫ L1 P( Rw . z. Equation (3.

5). g n ( z 0 ) = 2 / H cos( ω n z 0 ) (B-20) and ω n has the same meaning as in Equation (B-18).4). recall Equation (2. y. we have 213 . and there holds g n (z) = 2 / H sin( λ n z ). y ) cos( ω n z ) (B-21) If the reservoir is with both bottom water and gas cap.6). we may let P ( x.If the reservoir is with gas cap. g n ( z 0 ) = 2 / H sin( ω n z 0 ) (B-17) ω n = (2n − 1)π /(2 H ) in this case. and there holds gn (z) = 2 / H cos( ω n z ). y ) sin( ω n z ) (B-19) If the reservoir is with bottom water. recall Equation (2. z) = ∞ ∑ n =1 ϕ n ( x . recall Equation (2. g n ( z 0 ) = 2 / H sin( λ n z 0 ) (B-22) in this case. y. there holds (B-18) P ( x. there holds δ (z − z0) = where ∞ ∑ n=0 g n ( z )g n ( z 0 ) (B-16) g n (z) = and 2 / H sin( ω n z ). z ) = ∞ ∑ n =1 ϕ n ( x .

z ) = ∞ ∑ n =1 ϕ n ( x .5). (B-25) The initial condition is P| =0 t =0 (B-26) When the producing time is sufficiently long. (B-12). y 0 . y ) sin( λ n z ) (B-23) Substituting Equations (B-19).9) are obtained. and by a similar procedure shown in Equations (B-9). pseudo-steady state is reached. z 0 ) below: 214 . If all boundaries are impermeable. y. (B-14) and (B15). there holds ∂P − ∆ P = δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 ) ∂t (B-24) the exterior normal derivative of pressure on the surface of the circular cylinder is ∂P | = 0 ∂N Γ where Γ has the same meaning as in Equation (B-5). Equations (3. y.(B-21) and (B-23) into Equation (B-1).P ( x. (3.7) and (3. z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . then we may express pressure at point ( x.

θ ) =( =( 1 2π H Re ) ∫ ∫ ∫ F (r . y. z . z . y. define F ( x. y . t . In order to obtain uniform line sink solution. z . z ) = Fa (r .θ )rdrdzdθ πHRe2 0 0 0 L pr H )(C + 3 ) 8π (B-31) 215 .P ( x . z0 )dz0 )[C + ( 1 ρ2 ) + ( ) ln( Re / ρ )] 2 4πRe 2π (B-30) =( +( L pr H 1 π ∞ ∑ 2 n =1 ) 1 ( )[sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin(nπL1 / H )] cos(nπz / H )K 0 (λn ρ )] n The average of F ( x. y . z . z 0 ) ≈ f ( x. y.z . z 0 ) =( +( 1 1 ρ2 )[C + ( ) + ( ) ln( Re / ρ )] 2 2π H 4πRe (B-28) (B-29) 1 ∞ ) ∑ cos(nπz / H ) cos(nπz 0 / H )K 0 (λ n ρ )] πH n =1 where C is an arbitrary constant. z ) in the circular cylinder drainage volume is Fa ( x. z. z 0 ) − ηt . y . where (B-27) η = 1 /(πRe2 H ) and f ( x. z ) = L2 ∫ L1 f ( x. y .

216 . z ) along the wellbore length is Fa ( Rw . z ) 2 Rw 1 =( )[C + ( ) + ( ) ln( Re / Rw )] 2 2π H 4πRe L pr 1 (B-32) +( ∞ 1 ) ∑ ( )[sin(nπL2 / H ) − sin( nπL1 / H )] cos(nπz / H )K 0 (λ n Rw )] n π =1 n 2 Average value of F ( Rw . z ) ≈ −( +( 1 R 3 ){ln( Re / Rw ) + ( w ) 2 − 2πH 2 Re 4 L pr (B-34) 8H 2 ∞ 1 ) ∑ ( 2 ) sin 2 [nπL pr /(2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /(2 H )K 0 (λ n Rw )]} 2 2 π L pr n =1 n Recall Equations (2.19) is obtained.29) and (2. F ( x. y. we obtain Pa − Pw = Fa ( x. z ) is F ( Rw .48). Equation (3. z )dz L pr L1 L pr H )[C + ( 2 Rw 1 ) + ( ) ln( Re / Rw )] 2 2π 4πRe (B-33) 4H ∞ 1 ) ∑ ( ) sin 2 [nπL pr /(2 H )] cos 2 [nπ ( L1 + L2 ) /( 2 H )K 0 (λ n Rw )] π 3 L pr n =1 n 2 From Equations (B-27). (B-31) and (B-33). y. z ) =( =( +( 1 L2 ) ∫ F ( Rw .At wellbore. z ) − Fa ( Rw . and rearrange Equation (B-34).

z) lmn = 1 /( d d d X Y H ) l m n e e × cos( l π x / X ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) e e and d .APPENDIX C : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A BOX-SHAPED RESERVOIR In this appendix. d have the same meanings as in Equation (B-7). l m n g (C-3) 217 . H ) e e (C-1) If all boundaries are impermeable. z 0 ) (C-2) where ( x. y . y. y 0 . z ) g lmn ( x 0 . the main derivation steps of productivity equations for vertical wells in a box-shaped drainage domain are presented. d . The box-shaped drainage domain is Ω = (0. Dirac function has the following expansion δ ( x − x 0 )δ ( y − y 0 )δ ( z − z 0 ) = ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0 g lmn ( x . X ) × (0. Y ) × (0.

y . y . y0 . then e000 (t ) = t . y 0 . x0 . y 0 . (C-4) and if l = m = n = 0 . z0 ) = ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0 g lmn ( x . y . we have elmn (t ) = [1 − exp(−λlmn t )]g lmn ( x 0 . y . x . z 0 ) λlmn (C-6) where λlmn = (lπ / Ye ) 2 + (mπ / X e ) 2 + (nπ / H ) 2 (C-7) Thus P (t . z. y . z0 ) X eYe H (C-8) where Ψ ( x. y 0 . z 0 ) (C-9) λ lmn 218 . y 0 . X eYe H (C-5) and if l + m + n > 0. y. z 0 ) = t + Ψ ( x. the pressure at point ( x. y0 .In pseudo-steady state. z ) . z ) g lmn ( x 0 . x0 . z . x . z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . y . z 0 ) = ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0 e lmn ( t ) g lmn ( x . x 0 . x 0 . z . y 0 . z 0 ) can be expressed as P (t . z.

y .In order to obtain uniform line sink solution to pressure equation. y = Y at wellbore. we have 0 w 0 w Ψw = J z + J yz + J xyz where (C-11) Jz = ∞ ∑ n =1 [1 /( d λ 00 n X Y H )] n e e L pr ∫ 0 × cos( n π z / H ) cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0 (C-12) ∞ 2H 2 1 = ( 3 ) ∑ ( 3 ) sin( n π L / H ) cos( n π z / H ) π X eY e n =1 n 219 . z. we obtain Ψ ( x. x0 . z0 ) [1 /( d d d λ lmn X Y H )] l m n e e × cos( l π x / X ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) e e = × cos( l π x 0 / X ) cos( m π y 0 / Y ) e e L pr ∫ 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l=0 m =0 n=0 (C-10) cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0 Note that x = X . integrate Ψ with respect to z 0 from 0 to L pr . y0 .

xyz where (C-15) 220 . w = J a . z + J a . yz + J a .J yz = ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ m =1 n = 0 [1 /( d w d λ X Y H )] m n 0 mn e e / X e ) cos( n π z / H ) L pr ∫ 0 × cos 2 ( m π X = ( +( × 2 X e L pr Ye H cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0 (C-13) 2 Xw Xw 1 + )( − ) 6 2Xe 2 X e2 2H 2 ) π 3 X eY e { 2 sin( n π L / H ) cos( n π z / H ) cos 2 ( m π X n [ n 2 + ( mH / X e ) 2 ] w ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ m =1 n =1 / X e) } J xyz [1 /( d d d λ lmn X Y H )] l m n e e × cos 2 ( l π Y w / Y ) cos 2 ( m π X w / X ) cos( n π z / H ) e e = × L pr ∫ 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ ∑ l =1 m = 0 n = 0 cos( n π z 0 / H ) dz 0 ∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ l =1 m = 0 (C-14) = [1 /( X Y H )] cos 2 ( l π Y w / Y ) cos 2 ( m π X w / X ) e e e e ∞ H × { ∑ 4( ) sin( n π L pr / H ) cos( n π z / H ) /( d λ lmn ) m n =1 nπ + 2 L pr /( d λ lm 0 )} m The average of Ψw along the wellbore length is Ψa .

(4. 221 .2).6) are obtained.J a.3). (4. and rearrange Equation (C-15).5) and (4.29) and (2.z 1 = L pr L pr ∫ 0 L 2pr 1 L pr )( − + ) J z dz = ( 3 X eY e 2 2H 2 H 2 HL pr (C-16) J a .1). xyz = 1 L pr L pr ∫ 0 (C-17) w / X e)/ m ] 3 × {cosh[( m π H / X e )( 1 − 2 L pr / H )] / sinh( m π H / X e ) J xyz dz ∞ H3 ){ ∑ cos 2 (lπY / Y ) w e π 3X Y L e e pr l = 1 mπX ∞ w) × ∑ ( 1 ) cos 2 ( X 3 m = 0 d m µlm e =( cosh[( µ π )(1 − 2 L / H )] lm pr ×{ − coth( µ π )}} lm sinh( µ π ) lm πR π (2Yw + Rw ) 1 ]} − ( ) ln{4 sin( w ) sin[ 2Ye 2π 2Ye (C-18) Recall Equations (2. (4. yz = 1 L pr L pr ∫ 0 J yz dz 2 Xe 1 Xw Xw = ( )( − + ) 2Ye 6 2 X e 2 X e2 X e2 ∞ +( 3 ) ∑ [cos 2 ( m π X π Y e L pr m = 1 − coth( m π H / X e )} J a . Equations (4. (4.48).4).

24). (4. x + x0 = 2 X w (C-20) And there holds ∞ ∑ n =1 π cosh[ β (π − x)] cos(nx) 1 =( ) − . z.In steady state. for fully penetrating well. y .26) can be obtained. there holds y = y 0 = Yw . y0 .25) and (4. Equations (4. 222 . (C-21) and (C-22) to simplify Equation (C-19). x0 . (4. z0 ) = × = ∞ ∑ n =1 ∞ ∑ m =1 ∞ ∑ n =1 ( 4 nπy0 nπy ) sin( ) sin ( ) X eYe Ye Ye {1 /[( n π / Y e ) 2 + ( m π / X e ) 2 ]} sin( ( m πx0 m πx ) sin( ) Xe Xe (C-19) nπy0 nπ | x − x0 | nπy 1 ) sin( ) sin( ){exp[ − ] nπ Ye Ye Ye + exp{ − ( − exp{ − ( π | x − x0 | nπ ( x + x0 ) 2n )[ π X e − ]} − exp[ − ] Ye Ye 2 π ( x + x0 ) 2n )[ π X e − ]}} Ye 2 At wellbore. | x − x0 |= Rw .23). 2 2 sinh( βπ ) 2β n +β 2β 2 [ (0 ≤ x ≤ 2π ) (C-21) ∞ ∑ n =1 sin(nx) sin(ny ) 1 sin 2 [( x + y ) / 2] + sinh 2 (t ) ] exp(−2n | t |) = ( ) ln{ 2 } 4 n sin [( x − y ) / 2] + sinh 2 (t ) (C-22) We use Equations (C-20). there holds P ( x.

(D-1) We use the following conformal transformation.θ ) in the sector fault 0 w reservoir Ω = {( R .APPENDIX D : DERIVATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY EQUATIONS IN A SECTOR FAULT RESERVOIR AND A CHANNEL RESERVOIR If a fully penetrating vertical well is located at ( R . Φ ) : Φ = π / τ } . (D-2) then the sector domain Ω is changed to the half circle domain below: Ω * = {( R . in the complex plane. Z * = Z τ = R τ exp(iτθ ). Φ * ) : Φ * = π } e (D-3) And the image well with respect to the conformal transformation is located at τ * Zw = R0 exp(iτθ w ) (D-4) 223 . the well is e represented below: Z w = R0 exp(iθ w ) where i = − 1 .

z. y 0 . y0 .2) are obtained . z 0 ) 2 λ mn (D-8) 224 . y . z ) caused by the point sink at ( x 0 . (D-6) and (D-7) into Equation (D-5). x0 . We have * * (Z * − Z w )( Z * − Z w ) 1 P = −( ) ln | | * * * * 2π (1 − Z Z w )(1 − Z Z w ) (D-5) where τ * Zw = R0 exp(−iτθ w ) (D-6) At wellbore. z ) g mn ( y 0 .1) and (5. (D-4).It must be pointed out that the flow rate of the image well in the half circle domain is equal to the flow rate of the original well in the sector domain. z0 ) = |x| + 2Ye H ∞ ∑ m +n>0 [ exp( − λ mn | x |) ] g mn ( y . z 0 ) in a channel reservoir can be expressed as P ( x. there holds R = R0 + R w (D-7) Substitute Equations (D-2). The pressure at point ( x. Equations (5. y.

y .where 2 2 λ2 mn = ( mπ / Ye ) + ( nπ / H ) (D-9) ( y. z) mn = 1 /( d d Y H ) cos( m π y / Y ) cos( n π z / H ) m n e e g (D-10) In order to obtain uniform line sink solution to pressure equation. there holds y = y 0 = Yw . y0 ) = |x| + 2Ye ∞ ∑ m +n>0 [ exp( − λ mn | x |) m πy nπz ] cos( ) cos( ) 2 Y e Hd m d n λ mn Ye H (D-11) × cos( = m πy0 H nπz0 ) ∫ cos( ) dz 0 0 Ye H exp[ − ( m π / Y e ) | x |] |x| 1 ∞ ) ∑ { } +( 2Ye 2 π m =1 m m π ( y + y0 ) m π | y − y0 | ] + cos[ ]} Ye Ye × {cos[ At wellbore. | x |= Rw (D-12) And there holds ∞ ∑ n =1 t n cos(nx) −1 = ( ) ln[1 − 2t cos( x) + t 2 ]. we obtain P ( x. integrate P in Equation (D-8) with respect to z 0 from 0 to H . z. n 2 (t 2 ≤ 1) (D-13) 225 . x0 .

226 . Equations (5.5) are obtained.48).29) and (2. Equation (D-11) can be simplified to be the equation below: 1 Pw = R /(2Y ) − ( ) ln[(2πR / Y ) sin(πY / Y )] w e w e w e 2π (D-14) Recall Equations (2.4) and (5.Using Equations (D-12) and (D-13). and rearrange Equation (D-14).

) = hyperbolic cotangent function. L3 / t w 227 . coth(. L4 t / m PIT = multiple wells total productivity index . L K = permeability. dimensionless. L M w = a function defined by Equation (7. F = unit conversion factor. w H = formation thickness. L2 L = well length. L2 B = formation volume factor. dimensionless. Lt 2 / m t cosh(. L4 t / m Q = single well production rate. m /( Lt 2 ) PI = single well productivity index .APPENDIX E : NOMENCLATURE A = drainage area.2). L3 / L3 C A = shape factor.) = hyperbolic cosine function. C = total formation compressibility. P = pressure.21). D F = a function defined by Equation (5.

L3 / t t R = off-center distance or off-vertex distance. L w Z w = vertical coordinate of center of horizontal well . L Vectors and Matrices d = pressure drawdown vector. = pseudo skin factor due to partial penetration. L e X = well location in x direction in the box-shaped reservoir. L w Y = width of box-shaped reservoir. L e R = off-center distance of j th well. X = length of box-shaped reservoir. L w S S m ps = mechanical skin factor. L R = drainage radius. L e Y = well location in y direction in the box-shaped reservoir. L 0 r = radial distance.) = hyperbolic sine function. dimensionless. dimensionless. sinh(. L j R = wellbore radius.Q = multiple wells system total production rate. m /( Lt 2 ) 228 .

22). ζ = off-center ratio defined by Equation (3. dimensionless [ A] = influence matrix. dimensionless. radians. L3 / t q GREEK SYMBOLS β = permeability anisotropic factor. 4 λ = a function defined by Equation (7.Q = production rate vector. 1 λ = a function defined by Equation (7. 3 λ = a function defined by Equation (7. dimensionless [ D ] = diagonal matrix of skin factors. dimensionless s [ D ] = diagonal matrix of surface production rates. dimensionless.12). 5 λ = a function defined by Equation (7. 2 λ = a function defined by Equation (7. L3 / t S = skin factor vector. η = partially penetrating factor.14). 6 229 . λ = a function defined by Equation (7.11).2). θ w = wellbore location angle.15).3).

1 ρ = a function defined by Equation (8.13).17). σ 4 5 = a function defined by Equation (8.16). σ = a function defined by Equation (8.19). 8 σ = a function defined by Equation (8. = a function defined by Equation (8. 9 σ σ σ 10 11 12 = a function defined by Equation (8.14). 1 σ 2 3 = a function defined by Equation (8.6).5).24). 3 σ = a function defined by Equation (8.12).4). m /( Lt ) ρ = a function defined by Equation (8.23). σ = a function defined by Equation (8. 2 ρ = a function defined by Equation (8.µ = fluid viscosity. σ = a function defined by Equation (8.25).18).3). σ 6 7 = a function defined by Equation (8. 230 .11). = a function defined by Equation (8. σ = a function defined by Equation (8.

6 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6. 3 231 .8). 3 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6. ω = well location ratio defined by Equation (4.16). 1 Λ = a function defined by Equation (4.10). drop. ∆ = change.17). 2 Λ = a function defined by Equation (5. Γ = boundary of drainage domain. 7 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6.5). Λ = a function defined by Equation (3.5). 4 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6. Θ = a function defined by Equation (3.φ = porosity.2). = a function defined by Equation (3.15). dimensionless. 8 Π 2 = a function defined by Equation (7.30).31).2).6).10).12). 5 Λ = a function defined by Equation (6. Π = a function defined by Equation (7. 1 Θ Θ 2 3 = a function defined by Equation (3.

4 Π = a function defined by Equation (7.6).25).24).23).33).26).Π = a function defined by Equation (7. 6 Π = a function defined by Equation (7. 2 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4. n T = a function defined by Equation (4.22). Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4. 1 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (4.23).4). 3 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6. 6 Ω = drainage domain.21).5). 4 Φ = angle of sector reservoir. 232 . 3 T = a function defined by Equation (4. radians. 2 T = a function defined by Equation (4. 1 T = a function defined by Equation (4.32). 4 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6.29). 5 Ψ = a function defined by Equation (6.

z = coordinate indicators 233 .SUPERSCRIPTS T = transposed SUBSCRIPTS a = average D = dimensionless e = external h = horizontal i = initial pr = producing ps = pseudo skin r = radial ref = reference variable t = total v = vertical w = wellbore x. y.