Telemática 1

Link Layer Wrap-up

1

Link layer: Wrap-up 6.2 a day in the life of a web request Link Layer 6-2 .1 data center networking 6.

accounting servers 2. Bob browses Netflix video 2 1 1. Bob manages Netflix account 3. Manifest file returned for requested video 3 Limelight CDN 4. Streaming Level-3 CDN Multmedia Networking 6-3 .Case study: Netflix Amazon cloud upload copies of multiple versions of video to CDNs Akamai CDN Netflix registration.

Apple. Akamai. often closely coupled.g. Chicago data center Link Layer 6-4 .g. networking..Data center networks   10’s to 100’s of thousands of hosts. YouTube. each serving massive numbers of clients   managing/balancing load. avoiding over-processing. Google)   Properties & challenges:   multiple applications.g. Amazon)   content-servers (e.. data bottlenecks Inside a 40-ft Microsoft container. Microsoft)   search engines (e. in close proximity:   e-business (e.

Data center networks load balancer: application-layer routing   receives external client requests   directs workload within data center   returns results to external client (hiding data center internals from client) Internet
 Load

 balancer
 Border
router
 Access
router
 Load

 balancer
 Tier‐1
switches
 Tier‐2
switches
 TOR
switches
 Server
racks
 B
 A
 C
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 Link Layer 6-5 .

racks:   increased throughput between racks (multiple routing paths possible)   increased reliability via redundancy Tier‐1
switches
 Tier‐2
switches
 TOR
switches
 Server
racks
 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 .Data center networks   rich interconnection among switches.

1 data center networking 6.2 a day in the life of a web request Link Layer 6-7 .Link layer: Wrap-up 6.

connectionless Link Layer 6-8 .google. requests/receives www. link putting-it-all-together: synthesis!   goal: identify. review. understand protocols (at all layers) involved in seemingly simple scenario: requesting www page   scenario: student attaches laptop to campus network. transport. network.com   Recall: Transport layer fundamentals: TCP. UDP / connection.Synthesis: a day in the life of a web request     journey down protocol stack complete!   application.

233.80.A day in the life: scenario browser DNS server Comcast network 68.0/24 web page web server 64.105 Google s network 64.169.80.2.0.0/13 school network 68.233.0/19 Link Layer 6-9 .160.

received at router running DHCP server Ethernet demuxed to IP demuxed. encapsulated in IP. encapsulated in 802.3 Ethernet Ethernet frame broadcast (dest: FFFFFFFFFFFF) on LAN. addr of DNS server: use DHCP DHCP request encapsulated in UDP.A day in the life… connecting to the Internet DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP UDP IP Eth Phy DHCP   connecting laptop needs to get its own IP address. addr of first-hop router. UDP demuxed to DHCP Link Layer 6-10   DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP UDP IP Eth Phy router (runs DHCP)     .

IP address of first-hop router for client. name & IP address of DNS server encapsulation at DHCP server. frame forwarded (switch learning) through LAN. IP address of its first-hop router Link Layer 6-11 .A day in the life… connecting to the Internet DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP UDP IP Eth Phy     DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP DHCP UDP IP Eth Phy router (runs DHCP)   DHCP server formulates DHCP ACK containing client s IP address. demultiplexing at client DHCP client receives DHCP ACK reply Client now has IP address. knows name & addr of DNS server.

encapsulated in IP. so can now send frame containing DNS query Link Layer 6-12   ARP ARP reply Eth Phy router (runs DHCP)     . need MAC address of router interface: ARP ARP query broadcast.com: DNS DNS query created. which replies with ARP reply giving MAC address of router interface client now knows MAC address of first hop router.google. To send frame to router. before HTTP) DNS DNS DNS ARP query DNS UDP IP ARP Eth Phy   before sending HTTP request. need IP address of www. received by router. encapsulated in Eth. encapsulated in UDP.A day in the life… ARP (before DNS.

com Link Layer     6-13 .80. IS-IS and/or BGP routing protocols) to DNS server demux ed to DNS server DNS server replies to client with IP address of www.0/13 router (runs DHCP)     IP datagram containing DNS query forwarded via LAN switch from client to 1st hop router IP datagram forwarded from campus network into comcast network.google.A day in the life… using DNS DNS DNS DNS DNS DNS DNS UDP IP Eth Phy DNS DNS DNS DNS DNS UDP IP Eth Phy DNS server Comcast network 68. routed (tables created by RIP.0. OSPF.

A day in the life…TCP connection carrying HTTP HTTP SYNACK SYN SYNACK SYN SYNACK SYN HTTP TCP IP Eth Phy   SYNACK SYN SYNACK SYN SYNACK SYN TCP IP Eth Phy router (runs DHCP)   to send HTTP request.169.233.105   . client first opens TCP socket to web server TCP SYN segment (step 1 in 2way handshake) inter-domain routed to web server web server responds with TCP SYNACK (step 2 in 2-way handshake) TCP connection established! Link Layer 6-14   web server 64.

169.105   .233.A day in the life… HTTP request/reply HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP TCP IP Eth Phy   web page finally (!!!) displayed   HTTP request sent into TCP socket IP datagram containing HTTP request routed to www.google.com web server responds with HTTP reply (containing web page) IP datagram containing HTTP reply routed back to client Link Layer 6-15 HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP TCP IP Eth Phy router (runs DHCP)     web server 64.

Link Layer: Summary   principles behind data link layer services:   error detection. VLANs virtualized networks as a link layer: MPLS wireless networks   synthesis: a day in the life of a web request Link Layer 6-16 . correction   sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access   link layer addressing   instantiation and implementation of various link layer technologies         Ethernet switched LANS.

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