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## EC 2201 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

UNIT I : D.C. MACHINES Constructional details emf equation Methods of excitation Self and separately excited generators Characteristics of series, shunt and compound generators Principle of operation of D.C. motor Back emf and torque equation Characteristics of series, shunt and compound motors Starting of D.C. motors Types of starters - Testing, brake test and Swinburnes test Speed control of D.C. shunt motors. 1. What is meant by self excited DC generated?

A d.c. machine whose field magnet winding is supplied current from the output of the machine itself is called a self-excited generator.
2. What is need for stator?

The armature current of motor is given by, I a = Back EMF and Ra Armature resistance.

## V Eb where, V-Supply voltage, Eb Ra

When the motor is at rest, there is no back emf. (i.e, Eb=0). Hence, due to lower value of Ra, huge amount of current will pass through the armature and may damage the brush, commutator and windings. To avoid this issue, a set of series resistors are introduced in armature circuit and is gradually cut off as the motor gains speed and develops the back e.m.f which then regulates the speed.
3. Write the emf equation of DC generator. Generated EMF, E g = where, Flux per pole P No. of poles N Speed in RPM 4. State the advantages of Swinburnes test. Z No. of armature conductors a - No. of parallel paths

PN Z
60 a

a. The power required to carry out the test is small because it is a no-load test. Therefore, this method is quite economical. b. The efficiency can be determined at any load because constant losses are known. c. This test is very convenient.
5. What are the essential parts of a DC machines? Stationary Part:

Yoke, Field Core, Field Winding, Interpoles, Brushes. Rotating Part: Armature Core, Armature Winding, Commutator. 6. What is the purpose of yoke in DC machine? The main purpose of the yoke in a DC machine is to provide mechanical support to the parts and to establish the magnetic circuit in the machine. 7. What is the purpose of commutator in a DC generator? A commutator converts alternating voltage to a direct voltage. It is a cylindrical structure built up of segments made of hard drawn copper. These segments are separated from each other by mica strips. 8. What are the different types of DC generator?

Generators are generally classified according to their methods of field excitation. On this basis, d.c. generators are divided into the following two classes:
i. ii. Separately excited generators Self excited generators: a. Shunt Generator b. Series Generator c. Compound Generator : Long shunt and Short shunt. 9. Draw the open circuit characteristics, internal and external characteristics of DC series generator.

## 10. Draw the Speed Torque characteristics of DC motors.

11. Define pole pitch. The distance between the centers of two adjacent poles is known as pole pitch. 12. What is the main use of brush in a DC generator? The brush gear is used to collect current from a rotating commutator or to feed current to it. The brushes are made up of Metal graphite of Carbon graphite. 13. Define back EMF. The induced e.m.f acts in opposition to the current in the machine and, therefore, to the applied voltage, so that it is customary to refer to this voltage as the back e.m.f. As per Lenzs law, the direction of an induced e.m.f is such as to oppose the change causing it, which is, of course, the applied voltage. 14. Define the term Speed regulation of a DC motor. The speed regulation of a D.C motor is defined as the change in speed when the load on the motor is reduced from rated value to zero, expressed as percent of the rated load speed.
Percent Speed Regulation = No load speed - Full load speed Full load speed

15. Write down the speed equation of a DC motor. The speed equation of a DC motor is, N= Eb 60 A E N b PZ

16. When is a four point DC starter required in DC motors? The field current may be reduced to lower value during speed control and it may not enough to magnetize the no-volt coil to maintain the operation. Hence the 4 point starter is required in this case. 17. How does a series motor develop high starting torque? The torque developed by DC motor is given by, T I a.

In series motor, Ia and hence Tst Ia2. Since the change in current during starting is enormously high, the starting torque of the d.c series motor is high. 18. Name the different starters used in DC motors. i. ii. iii. Two point starter Series Motor Three point starter Shunt motor Four Point starter Compound motor / Shunt motor

## 19. Mention speed control methods of DC shunt motors.

There are three basic speed control methods applied on D.C motors. Namely, i. Variation of resistance in the armature circuit ii. Variation of the field flux, and iii. Variation of the armature terminal voltage.
20. What are the losses in the DC motor? i. Copper losses: a. Armature Cu loss b. Shunt field Cu loss c. Series field Cu loss ii. Iron losses: a. Hysteresis loss b. Eddy current loss iii. Mechanical losses: a. Friction loss b. Windage loss 21. Write the Torque equation of DC motor. The torque developed by the armature of a DC motor is,
Ta = ZI a P 2A P Nm = 0.159ZI a A Nm

## 22. List the applications of DC Motors.

i. ii.

DC Shunt Motors: Lathes, drills, boring mills, shapers, spinning and weaving machines etc., DC Series Motors: Electric traction, cranes, elevators, air compressors, vacuum cleaners, sewing machines etc.,

iii.

## DC Compound motors: Presses, shears, reciprocating machines etc.,

23. What are the operating characteristics of DC motor? The following are the three important operating characteristics of D.C motors: i. ii. iii. Speed Armature current characteristics (N - Ia.) Torque Armature current characteristics (T Ia) Speed Torque characteristics(N-T).

24. Define commutation. The process of current reversal when the coil is passing through the interpole region is known as commutation and during this period, the coil is shorted via the commutator segments by the brush located in the inerpole region. 25. What are the conditions to be fulfilled for the self-excitation of a dc shunt generator? The conditions to be fulfilled to build up the voltage in DC shunt generator: i. ii. iii. iv. There should be residual magnetism There should not be reversal of field connections The field resistance should be reasonably low Speed should be greater than critical speed.

26. What are the functions of interpoles and how are the interpoles windings connected? As their polarity is the same as the main pole ahead (for a generator), they induce an e.m.f. in the coil (undergoing commutation) which opposes reactance voltage. This leads to sparkless commutation. The e.m.f. induced by compoles is known as commutating or reversing e.m.f.

PART B

1. Explain the characteristics of shunt and series motors. Characteristics of DC Shunt Motor:

Fig. (5.5) shows the connections of a d.c. shunt motor. The field current Ish is constant since the field winding is directly connected to the supply voltage V which is assumed to be constant. Hence, the flux in a shunt motor is approximately constant.

## Fig 5.5 a. Ta/Ia Characteristic:

Fig 5.6

In a DC motor, Ta Ia . Since the motor is operating from a constant supply voltage, flux f is constant (neglecting armature reaction). Therefore, Ta Ia Hence Ta/Ia characteristic is a straight line passing through the origin as shown in Fig. (5.6). The shaft torque (Tsh) is less than Ta and is shown by a dotted line. It is clear from the curve that a very large current is required to start a heavy load. Therefore, a shunt motor should not be started on heavy load. b. N/Ia Characteristic: The speed N of a. d.c. motor is given by, N
Eb

Eb and are almost constant under normal conditions. Therefore the speed will remain constant as Ia varies. In practical case, Eb and decreases due to armature drop and armature reaction.

Fig. 5.7

Fig 5.8

c. N/Ta Characteristic. The curve is obtained by plotting the values of N and T a for various armature currents (Fig. 5.8). It may be seen that speed falls somewhat as the load torque increases. DC Series Motor:

Fig 5.9

Fig 5.10

Fig (5.9) shows the connections of a series motor. Note that current passing through the field winding is the same as that in the armature. If the mechanical load on the motor increases, the armature current also increases. Hence, the flux in a series motor increases with the increase in armature current and vice-versa. a. Ta/Ia Characteristic: It is known that Ta Ia Upto magnetic saturation, Ia. So, Ta Ia2. Therefore, when the armature current is doubled, the developed torque is quadrupled and the T a/Ia curve is a parabola as shown in the fig. 5.10.

After magnetic saturation, the flux, will be constant. And Ta Ia. i.e, the torque is directly proportional to the armature current and the Ta/Ia curve is a straight line. Since the torque is proportional to the square of the armature current at the initial, the starting torque of the motor will be very high compared to a shunt motor. b. N/Ia Characteristics: The speed N of a. d.c. series motor is given by, N
Eb

where E b = V I a ( R a + R se )

When Ia increases, Eb decreases due to I a ( Ra + Rse ) drop while the flux increases. However,
I a ( Ra + Rse ) drop is quite small under normal conditions and may be neglected.
N 1

i.e., N

## 1 upto magnetic saturation Ia

Therefore the characteristic will be parabolic nature up to saturation and after the saturation, the flux becomes constant and so does the speed.

## Fig. 5.11 c. N/Ta Characteristic:

Fig. 5.12

The N/Ta characteristic of a series motor is shown in Fig. (5.12). It is clear that series motor develops high torque at low speed and vice-versa. It is because an increase in torque requires an increase in armature current, which is also the field current. The result is that flux is strengthened and hence the speed drops N . Reverse happens should the torque be low.
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## 2. Explain the Ward Leonard method of speed control of dc shunt motor.

In this method, the adjustable voltage for the armature is obtained from an adjustable-voltage generator while the field circuit is supplied from a separate source. The armature of the shunt motor M (whose speed is to be controlled) is connected directly to a d.c. generator G driven by a constant-speed a.c. motor A. The field of the shunt motor is supplied from a constant-voltage exciter E. The field of the generator G is also supplied from the exciter E. The voltage of the generator G can be varied by means of its field regulator. By reversing the field current of generator G by controller FC, the voltage applied to the motor may be reversed. Sometimes, a field regulator is included in the field circuit of shunt motor M for additional speed adjustment. With this method, the motor may be operated at any speed upto its maximum speed. 3. Draw and explain the characteristics of DC series generator with a neat sketch. 4. Briefly explain the load characteristics of different types of compound generators. (8) In a compound generator, both series and shunt excitation are combined as shown in Fig. 5.13. The shunt winding can be connected either across the armature only (short-shunt connection S) or across armature plus series field (long-shunt connection G).

Fig. 5.13. Compound Generator. (long-shunt connection G and short-shunt connection S) The compound generator can be cumulatively compounded or differentially compounded generator. The latter is rarely used in practice. Characteristics of Cumulative Compound Generator:

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Fig. 5.14. Load Characteristics of Cumulative and Differential Compound generators. Based on the relative additional aiding MMF produced by the series field, there are three types of load characteristics possible in the cumulative compound generator. They are, i. ii. iii. Over compound Flat compound Under compound

Over Compound Generator: An over compound generator is one whose terminal voltage rises with the application of load so that its full load voltage exceeds its no load voltage (negative regulation). Flat Compound Generator: A flat compound generator has a load voltage characteristic in which the no-load and full load voltages are equal (zero voltage regulation). Under Compound Generator: An under compound generator has a load characteristic in which the full load voltage is somewhat less than no-load voltage, but whose aiding series field MMF cause its characteristic to have better regulation than as an equivalent shunt generator. Differential Compound Generator: When a load is applied, the generated voltage Eg is now reduced by the reduction in the main field flux created by the opposing m.m.f of the series field. This reduction in Eg occurs in addition to the armature and series circuit voltage drop, the armature reaction, and the reduction in field current produced by reduction of the armature voltage. The result is a sharp drop in the terminal voltage with load as shown in fig.5.14 and the field is below saturation and rapidly unbuilds.

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The differential compound generator is used as a constant current generator for the same constant current applications as the series generator. 5. Explain the speed control methods used in DC shunt motor. Flux Control Method: It is based on the fact that by varying the flux f, the motor speed (N 1/ ) can be changed and hence the name flux control method. In this method, a variable resistance (known as shunt field rheostat) is placed in series with shunt field winding as shown in Figure below.

The shunt field rheostat reduces the shunt field current Ish and hence the flux f. Therefore, we can only raise the speed of the motor above the normal speed. Generally, this method permits to increase the speed in the ratio 3:1. Wider speed ranges tend to produce instability and poor commutation.

Advantages i. ii. iii. This is an easy and convenient method. It is an inexpensive method since very little power is wasted in the shunt field rheostat due to relatively small value of Ish. The speed control exercised by this method is independent of load on the machine.

Disadvantages i. ii. Only speeds higher than the normal speed can be obtained since the total field circuit resistance cannot be reduced below Rshthe shunt field winding resistance. There is a limit to the maximum speed obtainable by this method. It is because if the flux is too much weakened, commutation becomes poorer.

Armature control method This method is based on the fact that by varying the voltage available across the armature, the back e.m.f and hence the speed of the motor can be changed. This is done by inserting a variable resistance RC (known as controller resistance) in series with the armature

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Due to voltage drop in the controller resistance, the back e.m.f. (Eb) is decreased. Since N Eb, the speed of the motor is reduced. The highest speed obtainable is that corresponding to RC = 0 i.e., normal speed. Hence, this method can only provide speeds below the normal speed. Disadvantages i. ii. iii. iv. A large amount of power is wasted in the controller resistance since it carries full armature current Ia. The speed varies widely with load since the speed depends upon the voltage drop in the controller resistance and hence on the armature current demanded by the load. The output and efficiency of the motor are reduced. This method results in poor speed regulation.

6. With a neat sketch explain the operation of a three point starter for a D.C. motor.

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Construction: Construction wise a starter is a variable resistance, integrated into number of sections as shown in the figure beside. The contact points of these sections are called studs and are shown separately as OFF, 1, 2,3,4,5, RUN. Other than that there are 3 main points, referred to as 1. L Line terminal. (Connected to positive of supply.) 2. A Armature terminal. (Connected to the armature winding.) 3. F Field terminal. (Connected to the field winding.) And from there it gets the name 3 point starter The Point L is connected to an electromagnet called overload release (OLR) as shown in the figure. The other end of OLR is connected to the lower end of conducting lever of starter handle where a spring is also attached with it and the starter handle contains also a soft iron piece housed on it. This handle is free to move to the other side RUN against the force of the spring. This spring brings back the handle to its original OFF position under the influence of its own force. Another parallel path is derived from the stud 1, given to the another electromagnet called No Volt Coil (NVC)which is further connected to terminal F. The starting resistance at starting is entirely in series with the armature. The OLR and NVC acts as the two protecting devices of the starter. Working Principle:

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To start with the handle is in the OFF position when the supply to the d.c. motor is switched on. Then handle is slowly moved against the spring force to make a contact with stud No. 1. At this point, field winding of the shunt or the compound motor gets supply through the parallel path provided to starting resistance, through No Voltage Coil. While entire starting resistance comes in series with the armature. The high starting armature current thus gets limited as the current equation at this stage becomes Ia = E/(Ra+Rst). As the handle is moved further, it goes on making contact with studs 2, 3, 4 etc., thus gradually cutting off the series resistance from the armature circuit as the motor gathers speed. Finally when the starter handle is in RUN position, the entire starting resistance is eliminated and the motor runs with normal speed. 7. Derive the emf equation of DC generator. (Refer Class Notes) 8. Derive the Torque equation of a DC motor. Definition: Torque is the turning moment of a force about an axis and is measured by the product of force (F) and radius (r) at right angles to which the force acts. i.e, T=Fr. Let, r = average radius of armature in m l = effective length of each conductor in m Z = total number of armature conductors A = number of parallel paths i = current in each conductor = Ia/A B = average flux density in Wb/m2 f = flux per pole in Wb P = number of poles Force on each conductor, F = B i newtons Torque due to one conductor = F r newton- metre Total armature torque, Ta = Z F r newton-metre =ZBilr Now, i=Ia/A and B=/a (where, a cross sectional area of flux path per pole at radius r. i.e,
a= 2rl . P
I lr = Z a 2 rl A P lr

I Ta = Z a a A

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Ta =

ZI a P 2A

P Nm = 0.159 ZI a A

Nm

## Ia Since Z, P and A are fixed for a given machine, Ta

Ia For a shunt motor, flux is practically constant : Ta
2 Ia For a series motor, flux is proportional to armature current Ia: Ta

## 9. With a neat sketch explain the constructional details of a DC machine.

The DC machine consists of the following essential parts: Stationary Parts: Yoke, Field Core, Field Winding, Interpoles, Brushes. Rotating Parts: Armature Core, Armature Winding, Commutator. Yoke: The outer frame or yoke is a cylindrical enclosure made of cast iron. It is used for two main purposes: i. ii. Field System: The field system consists of pole core, pole shoe and pole coils. Provides mechanical support for the poles and acts as a protecting cover for the whole machine. It carries the magnetic flux produced by the poles.

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Pole core spread out the magnetic flux lines through the airgap and supports the exciting coil (field coil). Pole coils are made of copper wire or strip. Wound coil with or without bobbin is placed over the core. When current is passed through these coils, they electro magnetize the poles which produce the necessary flux that is cut by revolving armature conductors.

Armature: It houses the armature conductors and causes them to rotate and hence cut the magnetic flux of the field magnets. The armature core is made up of silicon steel laminations of 0.5mm thick and keyed to the shaft. The purpose of using laminations is to reduce the loss due to eddy currents. Thinner the lamination, lesser the loss. Armature winding made of copper are wound on the armature core. There are two types of armature winding usually used. They are (i) Lap winding and (ii) Wave winding.

Commutator: A commutator converts alternating voltage to a direct voltage. A commutator is a cylindrical structure built up of segments made of hard drawn copper. These segments are separated from each other by mica stripe. The segments are connected to the winding through risers.

Brush gears: Brushes and brush holders and springs are called as brush gears. The main purpose of brushes is to collect the output from the commutator or to feed supply to the armature. The brush is pressed on to the commutator by a clock spring. The brush is connected to a flexible conductor called pig tail. The brushes are made up of Metal graphite or Carbon graphite.

10. Write the principle on which a DC generator works? List out the main parts of it. Consider a single turn loop ABCD rotating clockwise in a uniform magnetic field with a constant speed as shown in Fig.(1.1). As the loop rotates, the flux linking the coil sides AB and CD changes continuously. Hence the e.m.f. induced in these coil sides also changes but the e.m.f. induced in one coil side adds to that induced in the other. (i) When the loop is in position no. 1 [See Fig. 5.1], the generated e.m.f. is zero because the coil sides (AB and CD) are cutting no flux but are moving parallel to it.

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(ii) (iii)

When the loop is in position no. 2, the coil sides are moving at an angle to the flux and, therefore, a low e.m.f. is generated as indicated by point 2 in Fig. (5.2). When the loop is in position no. 3, the coil sides (AB and CD) are at right angle to the flux and are, therefore, cutting the flux at a maximum rate. Hence at this instant, the generated e.m.f. is maximum as indicated by point 3 in Fig. (5.2). At position 4, the generated e.m.f. is less because the coil sides are cutting the flux at an angle. At position 5, no magnetic lines are cut and hence induced e.m.f. is zero as indicated by point 5 in Fig. (5.2). At position 6, the coil sides move under a pole of opposite polarity and hence the direction of generated e.m.f. is reversed. The maximum e.m.f. in this direction (i.e., reverse direction, See Fig. 5.2) will be when the loop is at position 7 and zero when at position 1. This cycle repeats with each revolution of the coil.

## (iv) (v) (vi)

Fig. 5.1

Fig. 5.2

Note that e.m.f. generated in the loop is alternating one. In order to get unidirectional supply or to getn unidirectional torque from the coil, each coil side is being connected to one of the sections of a ring (Fig. 5.3). The brushes slide on these halves, known as commutator segments. By this arrangement, the positive polarity of the induced emf will always be collected by one half and the negative on the other half as shown in Fig.5.4 and 5.5.

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Fig. 5.3

Fig. 5.4

Fig. 5.5