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Electrical Protection
Electrical Protection
Electrical Faults ï Phase to phase ï Phase to ground ï Phase to phase to phase

Electrical Faults

ï Phase to phase

ï Phase to ground

ï Phase to phase to phase

ï Phase to phase to phase to ground

Electrical Faults ï Phase to phase ï Phase to ground ï Phase to phase to phase
Electrical Faults ï Phase to phase ï Phase to ground ï Phase to phase to phase
Electrical Faults ï Phase to phase ï Phase to ground ï Phase to phase to phase
Purpose of Protection System ï Minimize damage ï Leave unaffected equipment in-service ï Maintain equipment operating

Purpose of Protection System

ï Minimize damage

ï Leave unaffected equipment in-service

ï Maintain equipment operating limits

ï Maintain electrical system stability

Purpose of Protection System ï Minimize damage ï Leave unaffected equipment in-service ï Maintain equipment operating
Purpose of Protection System ï Minimize damage ï Leave unaffected equipment in-service ï Maintain equipment operating
Purpose of Protection System ï Minimize damage ï Leave unaffected equipment in-service ï Maintain equipment operating
Requirements of a Protection System ï Speed ï Reliability ï Security ï Sensitivity

Requirements of a Protection System

ï Speed

ï Reliability

ï Security

ï Sensitivity

Requirements of a Protection System ï Speed ï Reliability ï Security ï Sensitivity
Requirements of a Protection System ï Speed ï Reliability ï Security ï Sensitivity
Some terms ï Over-current ï Overload ï Inverse time

Some terms

ï Over-current

ï Overload

ï Inverse time

Some terms ï Over-current ï Overload ï Inverse time
Some terms ï Over-current ï Overload ï Inverse time
Some terms ï Over-current ï Overload ï Inverse time
Protection Zones
Protection Zones
Simple Zone

Simple Zone

Simple Zone
Simple Zone
Simple Zone
Simple Zone
Double Protection CT Breaker Breaker Circuit Circuit 1 4 CT CT CT CT X Y CT

Double Protection

CT Breaker Breaker Circuit Circuit 1 4 CT CT CT CT X Y CT CT CT
CT
Breaker
Breaker
Circuit
Circuit
1
4
CT
CT
CT
CT
X Y
CT
CT
CT
Bus
2 1
4 3
2 3
Bus Zone
"B" Bus Protection
"A" Bus Protection
Double Protection CT Breaker Breaker Circuit Circuit 1 4 CT CT CT CT X Y CT
Double Protection CT Breaker Breaker Circuit Circuit 1 4 CT CT CT CT X Y CT
Bus Zone H2 Bus Zone H3 Bus Zone H1 Bus x Y Bus H2 Bus H1
Bus Zone H2 Bus Zone H3 Bus Zone H1 Bus x Y Bus H2 Bus H1
Bus Zone H2
Bus Zone H3
Bus Zone H1
Bus
x
Y
Bus
H2
Bus H1
H3
Zone
T1
Transformer
T1
Zone
SST1
Protection
SST1
Bus L1
Bus Zone L1
LV Bus
Transformer
Zones
SST1
Zone
G1
G1
Breaker Failure ï Minimizes the amount of equipment removed from service in event of a failure

Breaker Failure

ï Minimizes the amount of equipment

removed from service in event of a failure

ï Failure Determination

ñ Not started opening in a certain time

ñ Not open in a certain time

ñ Current not broken in a certain time

Breaker Failure ï Minimizes the amount of equipment removed from service in event of a failure
Breaker Failure ï Minimizes the amount of equipment removed from service in event of a failure
Breaker Failure ï Minimizes the amount of equipment removed from service in event of a failure
Duplicate Protection Schemes 2 CT CT Protection Input System System Action Q Devices Electrical Device Z

Duplicate Protection Schemes

2 CT CT Protection Input System System Action Q Devices Electrical Device Z Breaker X Breaker
2
CT
CT
Protection
Input
System
System
Action Q
Devices
Electrical
Device Z
Breaker X
Breaker Y
Trip
Close
1
A Protection
Initiate
Logic
Output
Trip
Electrical
Protection
Electrical bus
PT
Close
B Protection
Initiate
Duplicate Protection Schemes 2 CT CT Protection Input System System Action Q Devices Electrical Device Z
Duplicate Protection Schemes 2 CT CT Protection Input System System Action Q Devices Electrical Device Z
Bus Protection
Bus Protection
Bus Protection ï Over-current ï Differential ï Back-up ï Under voltage

Bus Protection

ï Over-current

ï Differential

ï Back-up

ï Under voltage

Bus Protection ï Over-current ï Differential ï Back-up ï Under voltage
Bus Protection ï Over-current ï Differential ï Back-up ï Under voltage
Bus Protection ï Over-current ï Differential ï Back-up ï Under voltage
Over-current Relay 1P CT 2000/5 A I 1S

Over-current Relay

I 1P

CT 2000/5 A

I 1S
I 1S
Over-current Relay 1P CT 2000/5 A I 1S
Over-current Relay 1P CT 2000/5 A I 1S
Over-current Relay 1P CT 2000/5 A I 1S
Differential Protection X Bus CT1 2000/5 A I 1S I 1S H1 Y I = 1S

Differential Protection

X Bus CT1 2000/5 A I 1S I 1S H1 Y
X Bus
CT1 2000/5 A
I 1S
I 1S
H1
Y
I = 1S I = I I 2S I 2S 2S
I = 1S I = I
I 2S
I 2S
2S

CT2 2000/5 A

I = 1P I = I

I = 1S I = I

I 1P

I 2P

2P

2S

Differential Protection X Bus CT1 2000/5 A I 1S I 1S H1 Y I = 1S
Differential Protection X Bus CT1 2000/5 A I 1S I 1S H1 Y I = 1S
Fault Conditions Fault X Bus H1 Y CT1 2000/5 A CT2 2000/5 A I 1S I

Fault Conditions

Fault

X Bus H1 Y
X Bus
H1
Y

CT1 2000/5 A

CT2 2000/5 A

I 1S I 2S I 2S
I 1S
I 2S
I 2S
I 1S
I 1S

I 1P

I 2P

Fault Conditions Fault X Bus H1 Y CT1 2000/5 A CT2 2000/5 A I 1S I
Fault Conditions Fault X Bus H1 Y CT1 2000/5 A CT2 2000/5 A I 1S I
Bus Y X H1 T1 CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A I 2S
Bus Y X H1 T1 CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A I 2S
Bus
Y
X
H1
T1
CT 2000/5 A
CT 2000/5 A
CT 2000/5 A
I 2S
I 1S
I 2S
I 3P
I 3S
I 1P
I 3S
I 1S

I 2P

Bus Y X H1 T1 CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A I 2S
Bus Y X H1 T1 CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A CT 2000/5 A I 2S
Bus Protection Scheme Bus Differential Backup X Zone L1 Load L1 Y Zone L2 Load L2

Bus Protection Scheme

Bus Differential

Backup

X Zone L1 Load L1 Y Zone L2 Load L2 Bus T1 S
X
Zone L1
Load
L1
Y
Zone L2
Load
L2
Bus
T1
S
Bus Protection Scheme Bus Differential Backup X Zone L1 Load L1 Y Zone L2 Load L2
Bus Protection Scheme Bus Differential Backup X Zone L1 Load L1 Y Zone L2 Load L2
Back-up relay Over Current Backup Relay Differential Bus Relay T1 Y X S Load L1 Load

Back-up relay

Over Current

Backup Relay Differential Bus Relay T1 Y X S
Backup Relay
Differential
Bus
Relay
T1
Y
X
S

Load

L1

Load

L2

Back-up relay Over Current Backup Relay Differential Bus Relay T1 Y X S Load L1 Load
Back-up relay Over Current Backup Relay Differential Bus Relay T1 Y X S Load L1 Load
Bus Under Voltage Protection Armature shown in the non-energized (trip) position Contacts Normally Open To Potential

Bus Under Voltage Protection

Armature shown in the non-energized (trip) position Contacts Normally Open To Potential Transformer
Armature shown in the non-energized (trip) position
Contacts
Normally
Open
To Potential
Transformer
Bus Under Voltage Protection Armature shown in the non-energized (trip) position Contacts Normally Open To Potential
Bus Under Voltage Protection Armature shown in the non-energized (trip) position Contacts Normally Open To Potential
Bus Protection ï Over-current ï Differential ï Back-up ï Under voltage

Bus Protection

ï Over-current

ï Differential

ï Back-up

ï Under voltage

Bus Protection ï Over-current ï Differential ï Back-up ï Under voltage
Bus Protection ï Over-current ï Differential ï Back-up ï Under voltage
Transformer Protection
Transformer Protection
Transformer Protection ï Instantaneous ï Differential ï Gas ï Thermal Overload ï Ground

Transformer Protection

ï Instantaneous

ï Differential

ï Gas

ï Thermal Overload

ï Ground

Transformer Protection ï Instantaneous ï Differential ï Gas ï Thermal Overload ï Ground
Transformer Protection ï Instantaneous ï Differential ï Gas ï Thermal Overload ï Ground
Transformer Protection ï Instantaneous ï Differential ï Gas ï Thermal Overload ï Ground
Transformer Characteristics ï High magnetizing inrush currents ï Ratio mismatch with CTs aggravated by tap-changers ï

Transformer Characteristics

ï High magnetizing inrush currents

ï Ratio mismatch with CTs aggravated by

tap-changers

ï Phase shifts

ï Transformers are affected by over-fluxing

ï Affected by over-temperature

Transformer Characteristics ï High magnetizing inrush currents ï Ratio mismatch with CTs aggravated by tap-changers ï
Transformer Characteristics ï High magnetizing inrush currents ï Ratio mismatch with CTs aggravated by tap-changers ï
Transformer Zone T1 Zone T1 CT CT CT CT "B" Transformer Protection "A" Transformer Protection 2

Transformer Zone

T1 Zone

T1 CT CT CT CT "B" Transformer Protection "A" Transformer Protection 2 3 4 3 2
T1
CT
CT
CT
CT
"B" Transformer Protection
"A" Transformer Protection
2 3
4 3
2 1
CT
CT
CT
CT
4
1
Transformer Zone T1 Zone T1 CT CT CT CT "B" Transformer Protection "A" Transformer Protection 2
Transformer Zone T1 Zone T1 CT CT CT CT "B" Transformer Protection "A" Transformer Protection 2
Differential T1 Restraint Coil Coil CT2 CT1 I 1S I 2S I 1S I 2S I

Differential

T1

Restraint Coil Coil CT2 CT1 I 1S I 2S I 1S I 2S I 1P Restraint
Restraint
Coil
Coil
CT2
CT1
I 1S
I 2S
I 1S
I 2S
I 1P
Restraint
Coil
Operate

I 2P

I = 1S I = I 2S
I = 1S I = I
2S
Differential T1 Restraint Coil Coil CT2 CT1 I 1S I 2S I 1S I 2S I
Differential T1 Restraint Coil Coil CT2 CT1 I 1S I 2S I 1S I 2S I
Gas Relay

Gas Relay

Gas Relay
Gas Relay
Gas Relay
Winding Temperature

Winding Temperature

Winding Temperature
Winding Temperature
Winding Temperature
Ground Fault Protection CT Transformer Ground Star Point Differential T1 CT3 CT1 CT2 I N I

Ground Fault Protection

CT Transformer Ground Star Point Differential T1 CT3 CT1 CT2 I N I F I N
CT
Transformer
Ground
Star Point
Differential
T1
CT3
CT1
CT2
I N
I F
I N
Relay
Ground
Backup
Ground Fault Protection CT Transformer Ground Star Point Differential T1 CT3 CT1 CT2 I N I
Ground Fault Protection CT Transformer Ground Star Point Differential T1 CT3 CT1 CT2 I N I
Transformer Protection ï Instantaneous ï Differential ï Gas ï Thermal Overload ï Ground

Transformer Protection

ï Instantaneous

ï Differential

ï Gas

ï Thermal Overload

ï Ground

Transformer Protection ï Instantaneous ï Differential ï Gas ï Thermal Overload ï Ground
Transformer Protection ï Instantaneous ï Differential ï Gas ï Thermal Overload ï Ground
Motor Protection
Motor Protection
Service Factor ï Continuous allowable overload ñ Many motors some with a power rating and a

Service Factor

ï Continuous allowable overload

ñ Many motors some with a power rating and a

service factor

ñ A 10 HP motor with a service factor of 1.15

has a maximum continuous output of 11.5 HP

Service Factor ï Continuous allowable overload ñ Many motors some with a power rating and a
Service Factor ï Continuous allowable overload ñ Many motors some with a power rating and a
Motor Protection Summary ï Instantaneous Over-current ï Stall ï Thermal Overload ï Phase Unbalance ï Ground

Motor Protection Summary

ï Instantaneous Over-current

ï Stall

ï Thermal Overload

ï Phase Unbalance

ï Ground

Motor Protection Summary ï Instantaneous Over-current ï Stall ï Thermal Overload ï Phase Unbalance ï Ground
Motor Protection Summary ï Instantaneous Over-current ï Stall ï Thermal Overload ï Phase Unbalance ï Ground
Relay Inverse Time
Relay
Inverse
Time
Relay Inverse Time
Relay Inverse Time
Overload

Overload

Overload
Overload
Overload
Overload
Overload
Overload
Ground Fault Protection

Ground Fault Protection

Ground Fault Protection
Ground Fault Protection
Ground Fault Protection
Single Phase to Ground Protection

Single Phase to Ground

Protection

Single Phase to Ground Protection
Single Phase to Ground Protection
Single Phase to Ground Protection
Single Phase to Ground Protection
Single Phase to Ground Protection
Stalls

Stalls

Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Stalls
Thermal Overload & Phase Unbalance

Thermal Overload & Phase

Unbalance

Thermal Overload & Phase Unbalance
Thermal Overload & Phase Unbalance
Thermal Overload & Phase Unbalance
Diagram of the Unit Heat Shield Heater connections not Phase Unbalance Contacts s hown) (electrical Adjus

Diagram of the Unit

Heat Shield Heater connections not Phase Unbalance Contacts s hown) (electrical Adjus table Overload Contact Load
Heat Shield
Heater
connections not
Phase Unbalance Contacts
s hown)
(electrical
Adjus table Overload Contact
Load Indicating Pointer
Rotation as Elements Heat/Cool
Actuating Bimetal
Ambient Compensating Bimetal
Overload
Setting
Pointer
Shaft
Diagram of the Unit Heat Shield Heater connections not Phase Unbalance Contacts s hown) (electrical Adjus
Diagram of the Unit Heat Shield Heater connections not Phase Unbalance Contacts s hown) (electrical Adjus
Motor Protection Summary ï Instantaneous Over-current ï Stall ï Thermal Overload ï Phase Unbalance ï Ground

Motor Protection Summary

ï Instantaneous Over-current

ï Stall

ï Thermal Overload

ï Phase Unbalance

ï Ground

Motor Protection Summary ï Instantaneous Over-current ï Stall ï Thermal Overload ï Phase Unbalance ï Ground
Motor Protection Summary ï Instantaneous Over-current ï Stall ï Thermal Overload ï Phase Unbalance ï Ground
Generator Protection
Generator Protection
Classes of TG trips ï Class A ñ Trip generator breaker, field breaker and turbine ñ

Classes of TG trips

ï

Class A

ñ Trip generator breaker, field breaker and

turbine

ñ Electrical trips before the output breakers

ï

Class B

ñ Trip generator output but leave it supplying

station service

ñ Electrical faults in the switchyard

Classes of TG trips ï Class A ñ Trip generator breaker, field breaker and turbine ñ
Classes of TG trips ï Class A ñ Trip generator breaker, field breaker and turbine ñ
Classes of TG trips ï Class C ñ Over excitation high V/Hz ñ Only used when

Classes of TG trips

ï

Class C

ñ Over excitation high V/Hz

ñ Only used when generator is isolated from grid

ï

Class D

ñ Trip turbine

ñ Trip Generator after motoring is detected

ñ Mechanical type turbine trips high condenser pressure

Classes of TG trips ï Class C ñ Over excitation high V/Hz ñ Only used when
Classes of TG trips ï Class C ñ Over excitation high V/Hz ñ Only used when
Generator Protection ï Over-current ï Overload ï Differential ï Split phase differential ï Ground ï Rotor

Generator Protection

ï Over-current

ï Overload

ï Differential

ï

Split phase differential

ï

Ground

ï

Rotor ground

ï

Phase Unbalance

ï

Low field

ï

Under frequency

ï

Out of Step

ï

Reverse power

Generator Protection ï Over-current ï Overload ï Differential ï Split phase differential ï Ground ï Rotor
Generator Protection ï Over-current ï Overload ï Differential ï Split phase differential ï Ground ï Rotor
Ge ne rator Terminals B R Zo ne s W Prote ction Diffe re ntial Relay

Ge ne rator Terminals

B R Zo ne s W Prote ction Diffe re ntial Relay Co nne c tion
B
R
Zo ne s
W
Prote ction
Diffe re ntial
Relay
Co nne c tion
Ne utral

to Gro und

  • a) He althy Phas e

b) Faulted Phas e

c ) Ope n Circ uit in the Phas e

Ge ne rator Terminals B R Zo ne s W Prote ction Diffe re ntial Relay
Ge ne rator Terminals B R Zo ne s W Prote ction Diffe re ntial Relay
Differential Generator Star Point I 2P Coil Coil Coil G1 I 2S I 1S I 1S
Differential
Generator
Star Point
I 2P
Coil
Coil
Coil
G1
I 2S
I 1S
I 1S
I 2S
To Main
Transformer
CT1
CT2
Restraint
Restraint
Operate
I P = I 1P = I 2P
I 1P
Differential Generator Star Point I 2P Coil Coil Coil G1 I 2S I 1S I 1S

I s = I 1S = I 2S

Differential Generator Star Point I 2P Coil Coil Coil G1 I 2S I 1S I 1S
Differential Generator Star Point I 2P Coil Coil Coil G1 I 2S I 1S I 1S
Ground Fault Protection T1 Stator Ground Relay GT1 G1 F

Ground Fault Protection

T1 Stator Ground Relay GT1 G1
T1
Stator Ground
Relay
GT1
G1

I F

Ground Fault Protection T1 Stator Ground Relay GT1 G1 F
Ground Fault Protection T1 Stator Ground Relay GT1 G1 F
Rotor Ground Fault

Rotor Ground Fault

Rotor Ground Fault
Rotor Ground Fault
Rotor Ground Fault
Other Protections ï Phase Unbalance ï Loss of field ï Under frequency ï Out of Step

Other Protections

ï Phase Unbalance

ï Loss of field

ï Under frequency

ï

Out of Step

Other Protections ï Phase Unbalance ï Loss of field ï Under frequency ï Out of Step
Other Protections ï Phase Unbalance ï Loss of field ï Under frequency ï Out of Step
Reverse Power Re ve rse Power Re aly V.T. G

Reverse Power

Re ve rse Power Re aly V.T. G
Re ve rse
Power
Re aly
V.T.
G
Reverse Power Re ve rse Power Re aly V.T. G
Reverse Power Re ve rse Power Re aly V.T. G
Generator Protection ï Over-current ï Overload ï Differential ï Split phase differential ï Ground ï Rotor

Generator Protection

ï Over-current

ï Overload

ï Differential

ï

Split phase differential

ï

Ground

ï

Rotor ground

ï

Phase Unbalance

ï

Low field

ï

Under frequency

ï

Out of Step

ï

Reverse power

Generator Protection ï Over-current ï Overload ï Differential ï Split phase differential ï Ground ï Rotor
Generator Protection ï Over-current ï Overload ï Differential ï Split phase differential ï Ground ï Rotor
For You To Do

For You To Do

For You To Do
For You To Do
For You To Do
For You To Do